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Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines (ASEP) Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers (PICE) American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) American Concrete Institute (ACI)

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Dynamic Lateral Force Procedure Structural damage during an earthquake is caused by the response of the structure to the ground motion input at its base. The dynamic forces produced in the structure are due to the inertia of its vibrating elements. The magnitude of the effective peak acceleration reached by the ground vibration directly affects the magnitude of the dynamic forces observed in the structure.

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Accelerograph -An instrument that records the acceleration of the ground during an earthquake, also commonly called an accelerometer

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Accelerogram - graphical output of an accelerograph

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The response of the structure exceeds the ground motion and the dynamic magnification depends on the following: a. b. c. d. Ground vibration Soil properties at the site Distance from the epicenter Dynamic characteristics of the structure

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A response spectrum is simply a plot of the peak or steady-state response (displacement, velocity or acceleration) of a series of oscillators of varying natural frequency, that are forced into motion by the same base vibration. The resulting plot can then be used to pick off the response of any linear system, given its natural frequency of oscillation.

Response Spectra

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To = 0.2TS

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Dynamic Model

Structural Dynamics

A dynamic model of the structure consists of a single column with stiffness k supporting a mass of magnitude m to give the inverted pendulum, or lollipop structure shown. If the mass is subjected to an initial displacement and released, with no external forces acting, free vibration occur about the static position.

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Structural Dynamics

Oscillations continue forever and the idealized structure will never come to rest The same maximum displacement occurs oscillations after oscillations Intuition suggests that this is unrealistic.

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The process by which vibration steadily diminishes in amplitude is called damping. In damping, the energy of the vibrating system is dissipated by various mechanisms. In a vibrating building these includes friction at steel connections, opening and closing of microcracks in concrete, friction between the structure itself and nonstructural elements such as partition walls.

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The external force applied on the structure is resisted by the inertia force, elastic force, and damping force.

Where:

- the velocity or the first derivative of dispalcement u - the acceleration or the second derivative of dispalcement u

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The relative displacement or deformation of the structure due to ground acceleration will be identical to the displacement of the structure if its base was stationary and was subjected to an external force.

Where:

- ground acceleration

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The equation of motion for systems without damping

in radians/sec

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The time required for the undamped system to complete one cycle of free vibration is the natural period of vibration of the system, which we denote as Tn , in units of seconds. It is related to n whose unit is in radians per second.

The units of fn are hertz (Hz) [cycles per second (cps)]; fn is related to n

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Structural Dynamics

Example: Determine the natural period of vibration and the natural cyclic frequency for the industrial building shown. Total Weight, W = 187.5 kips North-South (Moment Frames) Stiffness: k = 231.6 kips/in. East-West (Braced Frames) Stiffness: k = 358.7 kips/in.

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Solution:

Structural Dynamics

North-South Direction:

2 = = 0.287 sec . Tn = n 21.8 1 f = = 3.48 Hz Tn 2

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Solution:

Structural Dynamics

East-West Direction:

2 = = 0.23 sec . Tn = n 27.2 1 f = = 4.3Hz Tn 2

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Modal Analysis

Structural Dynamics

A technique used to determine a structures vibration characteristics: Natural frequencies Mode shapes Mode participation factors (how much a given mode participates in a given direction) Gives engineers an idea of how the design will respond to different types of dynamic loads.

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Mode Shape

Structural Dynamics

A mode shape is a specific pattern of vibration executed by a structural system at a specific frequency. Different mode shapes will be associated with different frequencies. The experimental technique of modal analysis discovers these mode shapes and the frequencies.

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Structural Dynamics

2

The roots of this equation are i2, the eigenvalues, where i ranges from 1 to number of DOF. Corresponding vectors are {}i, the eigenvectors. The eigenvectors {}i represent the mode shapes - the shape assumed by the structure when vibrating at frequency fi.

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Mode Shape 3D Mode 1: T = 1.82s Translational

Structural Dynamics

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Mode Shape -3D Mode 2: T = 1.59s Translational

Structural Dynamics

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Mode Shape - 3D Mode 3: T = 1.08s Torsional

Structural Dynamics

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Mode Shape - 3D Mode 1: T = 1.82s

Structural Dynamics

Mode 4: T = 0.48s

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Mode Shape - 3D Mode 2: T = 1.59s

Structural Dynamics

Mode 5: T = 0.34s

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Mode Shape - 3D Mode 3: T = 1.08s

Structural Dynamics

Mode 6: T = 0.25s

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Modal Analysis

Structural Dynamics

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Modal Analysis

Structural Dynamics

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Modal Analysis

Structural Dynamics

Results from each mode are combined statistically using methods such as SRSS Square Root of the Sum of Squares CQC - Complete Quadratic Combination

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Scaling of Results

Structural Dynamics

Vdynamic 1.00Vstatic

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Scaling of Results

Structural Dynamics

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Structural Dynamics

Example: Determine the base shear from modal analysis of the seven storey building.

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Solution:

Structural Dynamics

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Static vs. Dynamic

Structural Dynamics

Static analysis are used for regular and irregular structures with height less than 20m. The base shear may be equal but the distribution of storey forces will vary. The structural response from dynamic analysis is from the combination of response from several modes. In static analysis, only the fundamental mode is used. Dynamic analysis, being the more general approach, can be used for all types of structures.

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