You are on page 1of 38

# CE ELEC2 EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines (ASEP) Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers (PICE) American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) American Concrete Institute (ACI)

## MARK ELSON C. LUCIO, MSCE (Structures)

EARTHQUAKE

Dynamic Lateral Force Procedure Structural damage during an earthquake is caused by the response of the structure to the ground motion input at its base. The dynamic forces produced in the structure are due to the inertia of its vibrating elements. The magnitude of the effective peak acceleration reached by the ground vibration directly affects the magnitude of the dynamic forces observed in the structure.

EARTHQUAKE

## Dynamic Lateral Force Procedure

Accelerograph -An instrument that records the acceleration of the ground during an earthquake, also commonly called an accelerometer

EARTHQUAKE

## Dynamic Lateral Force Procedure

Accelerogram - graphical output of an accelerograph

EARTHQUAKE

## Dynamic Lateral Force Procedure

The response of the structure exceeds the ground motion and the dynamic magnification depends on the following: a. b. c. d. Ground vibration Soil properties at the site Distance from the epicenter Dynamic characteristics of the structure

EARTHQUAKE

## Dynamic Lateral Force Procedure

A response spectrum is simply a plot of the peak or steady-state response (displacement, velocity or acceleration) of a series of oscillators of varying natural frequency, that are forced into motion by the same base vibration. The resulting plot can then be used to pick off the response of any linear system, given its natural frequency of oscillation.

Response Spectra

EARTHQUAKE

## Response Spectra NSCP 2010

To = 0.2TS

EARTHQUAKE
Dynamic Model

Structural Dynamics

A dynamic model of the structure consists of a single column with stiffness k supporting a mass of magnitude m to give the inverted pendulum, or lollipop structure shown. If the mass is subjected to an initial displacement and released, with no external forces acting, free vibration occur about the static position.

EARTHQUAKE

Structural Dynamics

Oscillations continue forever and the idealized structure will never come to rest The same maximum displacement occurs oscillations after oscillations Intuition suggests that this is unrealistic.

## Undamped Free Vibration

EARTHQUAKE

The process by which vibration steadily diminishes in amplitude is called damping. In damping, the energy of the vibrating system is dissipated by various mechanisms. In a vibrating building these includes friction at steel connections, opening and closing of microcracks in concrete, friction between the structure itself and nonstructural elements such as partition walls.

EARTHQUAKE

EARTHQUAKE

EARTHQUAKE

## Structural Dynamics Dampers

EARTHQUAKE

The external force applied on the structure is resisted by the inertia force, elastic force, and damping force.

## Structural Dynamics Equation of Motion : External Force

Where:

- the velocity or the first derivative of dispalcement u - the acceleration or the second derivative of dispalcement u

EARTHQUAKE

## Structural Dynamics Equation of Motion : Earthquake Excitation

The relative displacement or deformation of the structure due to ground acceleration will be identical to the displacement of the structure if its base was stationary and was subjected to an external force.

Where:

- ground acceleration

EARTHQUAKE

## Structural Dynamics Equation of Motion : Undamped Free Vibration

The equation of motion for systems without damping

in radians/sec

EARTHQUAKE

## Structural Dynamics Equation of Motion : Undamped Free Vibration

The time required for the undamped system to complete one cycle of free vibration is the natural period of vibration of the system, which we denote as Tn , in units of seconds. It is related to n whose unit is in radians per second.

## The natural cyclic frequency of vibration is 1/Tn

The units of fn are hertz (Hz) [cycles per second (cps)]; fn is related to n

EARTHQUAKE

Structural Dynamics

Example: Determine the natural period of vibration and the natural cyclic frequency for the industrial building shown. Total Weight, W = 187.5 kips North-South (Moment Frames) Stiffness: k = 231.6 kips/in. East-West (Braced Frames) Stiffness: k = 358.7 kips/in.

EARTHQUAKE
Solution:

Structural Dynamics

## 187.5kips W m= = g 386.4in / sec2 = 0.485kips sec2 / in

North-South Direction:

## k 236.1 = = 21.8 rad/sec n = m 0.485

2 = = 0.287 sec . Tn = n 21.8 1 f = = 3.48 Hz Tn 2

EARTHQUAKE
Solution:

Structural Dynamics

East-West Direction:

## k 358.7 = = 27.2 rad/sec n = m 0.485

2 = = 0.23 sec . Tn = n 27.2 1 f = = 4.3Hz Tn 2

EARTHQUAKE
Modal Analysis

Structural Dynamics

A technique used to determine a structures vibration characteristics: Natural frequencies Mode shapes Mode participation factors (how much a given mode participates in a given direction) Gives engineers an idea of how the design will respond to different types of dynamic loads.

EARTHQUAKE
Mode Shape

Structural Dynamics

A mode shape is a specific pattern of vibration executed by a structural system at a specific frequency. Different mode shapes will be associated with different frequencies. The experimental technique of modal analysis discovers these mode shapes and the frequencies.

EARTHQUAKE

Structural Dynamics

2

## ([K ] [M]){u} = {0}

The roots of this equation are i2, the eigenvalues, where i ranges from 1 to number of DOF. Corresponding vectors are {}i, the eigenvectors. The eigenvectors {}i represent the mode shapes - the shape assumed by the structure when vibrating at frequency fi.

EARTHQUAKE
Mode Shape 3D Mode 1: T = 1.82s Translational

Structural Dynamics

EARTHQUAKE
Mode Shape -3D Mode 2: T = 1.59s Translational

Structural Dynamics

EARTHQUAKE
Mode Shape - 3D Mode 3: T = 1.08s Torsional

Structural Dynamics

EARTHQUAKE
Mode Shape - 3D Mode 1: T = 1.82s

Structural Dynamics
Mode 4: T = 0.48s

EARTHQUAKE
Mode Shape - 3D Mode 2: T = 1.59s

Structural Dynamics
Mode 5: T = 0.34s

EARTHQUAKE
Mode Shape - 3D Mode 3: T = 1.08s

Structural Dynamics
Mode 6: T = 0.25s

EARTHQUAKE
Modal Analysis

Structural Dynamics

## Usually the lower modes are significant.

EARTHQUAKE
Modal Analysis

Structural Dynamics

EARTHQUAKE
Modal Analysis

Structural Dynamics

Results from each mode are combined statistically using methods such as SRSS Square Root of the Sum of Squares CQC - Complete Quadratic Combination

EARTHQUAKE
Scaling of Results

Structural Dynamics

## Vdynamic 0.90Vstatic Vdynamic 0.80Vstatic

Vdynamic 1.00Vstatic

EARTHQUAKE
Scaling of Results

Structural Dynamics

EARTHQUAKE

Structural Dynamics

Example: Determine the base shear from modal analysis of the seven storey building.

## Spectral Acceleration from Response Spectrum:

EARTHQUAKE
Solution:

Structural Dynamics

EARTHQUAKE
Static vs. Dynamic

Structural Dynamics

Static analysis are used for regular and irregular structures with height less than 20m. The base shear may be equal but the distribution of storey forces will vary. The structural response from dynamic analysis is from the combination of response from several modes. In static analysis, only the fundamental mode is used. Dynamic analysis, being the more general approach, can be used for all types of structures.

Thank You!