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Joneva C. Doromal AT-113 COMARTS 20FEB(M)
Sources 1 : Periodicals
Immigration by ADAM COHEN
23 Dec 2001
By Adam Cohen Sunday, Dec. 23, 2001 If you're using a forged passport while committing a terrorist act, be sure to carry supporting documentation with the same name, and have a good cover story for why you have the passport. That diabolical tourist tip was among the terrorist how-tos contained in a trove of handwritten notes found earlier this month in a house in Jalalabad, Afghanistan, abandoned by Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda network. It's hardly news that the immigration system is a mess. Foreign nationals have long been slipping across the border with bogus papers, and visitors who arrive in the U.S. legitimately often overstay their legal welcomes with impunity. But since Sept. 11, it's become clear that terrorists have been shrewdly factoring the weaknesses of our system into their plans. In addition to their mastery of forging passports, at least three of the 19 Sept. 11 hijackers were here on expired visas. That's been a safe bet until now. The Immigration and Naturalization Service lacks the resources, and apparently the inclination, to keep tabs on the estimated 2 million foreigners who have intentionally overstayed their welcome. But this laxness toward immigration fraud may be about to change. Congress has already taken some modest steps. The U.S.A. Patriot Act, passed in the wake of the Sept. 11 tragedy, requires the FBI, the Justice Department, the State Department and the INS to share more data, which will make it easier to stop watchlisted terrorists at the border. And since the September attacks, the INS has started feeding into the FBI's crime database information about aliens who have received final deportation orders but failed to show up for their exit trips; so if they show up in the legal system--even for a minor traffic offense--they can be nabbed and booted. The Justice Department has announced its own plans for a legal assault on illegal immigration. Just last week, it indicted Tyson Foods on charges of conspiring to smuggle aliens, in the largest such case in
history. Though no one is accusing the Arkansas chicken-processing giant of terror links, the case sends a message that in the post-Sept. 11 world, curbing immigration violations of all kinds will be a top government priority. But what's really needed, critics of the status quo say, is even tougher laws and more resources aimed at tightening up border security. Reformers are calling for a rollback of rules that hamstring law enforcement, like a visitor-friendly 45-min. cap on how long arriving passengers can be inspected when they arrive in the U.S., mandated by Congress in more carefree times. They also want the INS to hire hundreds more border patrol agents and investigators to keep illegal immigrants out and to track them down once they're here. Reformers also want to see the INS set up a database to monitor, for the first time, whether visa holders actually leave the country when they are required to. "You can't secure the front door and then leave the back door completely open," says Susan Martin, director of the Georgetown University's Institute for the Study of International Migration. All of these proposed changes were part of a sweeping new border-security bill that passed the House of Representatives but died in the Senate last week. Before Sept. 11, legislation of this kind had been stymied by two powerful lobbies: universities, which rely on tuition from foreign students who could be kept out by the new law, and business, which relies on foreigners for cheap labor. Since the attacks, they've backed off. The bill would have passed this time but for congressional machinations and is expected to be reintroduced and to pass next year.
Effects of mass migration by Floro Mercene (6 Feb. 2011)
MANILA, Philippines Immigration is quickly changing the ethnic composition of the US population. In 2000, Latinos made up 12.6 percent of the US population, but by 2050, they will account for 24.5 percent. Asians in the United States, currently 3.8 percent of the population, will comprise an estimated 8 percent of the population by 2050, according to the latest US Census Bureau figures. Higher fertility rates among the immigrant Latino population will accelerate this trend. As of 2002, women in the United states produced about two children during their lives, just enough to maintain the population.
Among Hispanics, the average was more than 2.7 births per women. Among Mexican immigrants, it was nearly 2.0. Immigration to Western Europe from Eastern Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent continues. More than 400,000 legal immigrants from Central Europe now live and work in Western Europe. Between 3 million and 4 million more migrants are expected to join them in the next 25 years. In China, 98 million people have moved from rural areas to cities in recent years without ever leaving the country. There are about 80 million international migrant workers in the world, according to the United Nations. About half settle in Europe, the rest are divided evenly between North America and Asia.
Sources 3 Human Migration Guide by Polo Marco
What is Human Migration? Migration (human) is the movement of people from one place in the world to another for the purpose of taking up permanent or semipermanent residence, usually across a political boundary. An example of "semipermanent residence" would be the seasonal movements of migrant farm laborers. People can either choose to move ("voluntary migration") or be forced to move ("involuntary migration"). Migrations have occurred throughout human history, beginning with the movements of the first human groups from their origins in East Africa to their current location in the world. Migration occurs at a variety of scales: intercontinental (between continents), intracontinental (between countries on a given continent), and interregional (within countries). One of the most significant migration patterns has been rural to urban migration the movement of people from the countryside to cities in search of opportunities. Types of Migration Internal Migration: Moving to a new home within a state, country, or continent. External Migration: Moving to a new home in a different state, country, or continent. Emigration: Leaving one country to move to another (e.g., the Pilgrims emigrated from England).
basis for modern migration theory. In simple language, these principles state: Most migrants travel only a short distance. Migrants traveling long distances usually settle in urban areas. Most migration occurs in steps. Most migration is rural to urban. Each migration flow produces a movement in the opposite direction ("counterflow"). Most migrants are adults. Most international migrants are young males, while more internal migrants are female. Impacts of Migration Human migration affects population patterns and characteristics, social and cultural patterns and processes, economies, and physical environments. As people move, their cultural traits and ideas diffuse along with them, creating and modifying cultural landscapes. Diffusion: The process through which certain characteristics (e.g., cultural traits, ideas, disease) spread over space and through time. Relocation Diffusion: Ideas, cultural traits, etc. that move with people from one place to another and do not remain in the point of origin. Expansion Diffusion: Ideas, cultural traits, etc., that move with people from one place to another but are not lost at the point of origin, such as language. Cultural markers: Structures or artifacts (e.g., buildings, spiritual places, architectural styles, signs, etc.) that reflect the cultures and histories of those who constructed or occupy them. Human Migration Guide (6-8) Page 4 of 5 Measuring Migration In-migration: people moving into one place from another place within a nation (internal migration). Out-migration: people moving out of one place to another place within a nation (internal migration). Gross migration: total number of in-migrants and out-migrants (internal migration). Net internal migration: the difference between in-migration and out-migration. Movers from abroad: people coming into a nation from another country or part of the world. Net migration: the difference between net internal migration and movers from abroad.
Sources 1 : INTERNET WHY DO PEOPLE MIGRATE? By Araceliluc
(2007, October 27) People migrate for many different reasons. These reasons can be classified as either economic, social, political or environmental: Economic migration may involve moving to find work or follow a particular career path. Social migration may involve moving somewhere for a better quality of life or to be closer to family or friends. If someone is a political migrant they may be moving to escape political persecution or war. Environmental causes of migration include natural disasters such as flooding. Some people choose to migrate, eg someone who moves to another country to enhance their career opportunities. Some people are forced to migrate, eg someone who moves away from their home region due to war or famine. Often those who are forced to migrate become refugees. A refugee is someone who has left their home and does not have a new home to go to. Often refugees do not carry many possessions with them and do not have a clear idea of where they may finally settle. Push and pull factors are often used to explain why people migrate: Push factors are the reasons why people leave an area, ie what pushes them away from their home. Push factors include: lack of services, lack of safety, high crime,crop failure,drought, flooding, poverty and war. Pull factors are the reasons why people move to a particular area, ie what pulls them to a new place. Pull factors include: higher employment, more wealth, better services, good climate, safer, less crime, political stability, more fertile land,lower risk from natural hazards.
Immigration by Anup Shah (26 may 2008) Immigration seems to be making more headlines in recent years. As the world globalizes in terms of nations economies, trade and investment, borders are opened up more easily for freer flow of goods and products. People are supposedly freer to move around the world, too. Effects Of Immigration Immigration can have positive and negative impacts on both the host (recipient) country, and the original country. The recipient country is usually an industrialized country in Western Europe, or the United States. For these countries, immigrants offer various benefits such as the following:
Immigrants will often do jobs that people in the host country will not, or cannot do; Migrant workers often work longer hours and for lower salaries, and while that is controversial, sometimes exploitive, it benefits the host country;
Immigrants, when made to feel welcome in the host society, can contribute to the diversity of that society, which can help with tolerance and understanding;
For the host country s economy, immigrants offer an increased talent pool, if they have been well educated in their original country.
But there are also numerous drawbacks:
Immigrants can be exploited for their cheap labor; Developing countries may suffer brain drain as the limited resources they spend in educating their students amount to very little if that talent is enticed to another country. (The UK for example is often accused of actively hiring medical staff from developing countries. The previous link details this issue further.)
Immigration can also attract criminal elements, from trafficking in drugs and people to other forms of crime and corruption;
Immigration can become a social/political issue, where racism can be used to exploit feelings or as an excuse for current woes of local population;
Where there is a perception that immigrants and refugees appear to get more benefits than local poor people, tensions and hostilities can also rise;
Concerns about illegal immigration can spill over to ill-feelings towards the majority of immigrants who are law-abiding and contributing to the economy;
Many die trying to flee their predicament, and this can often make sensational headlines giving the appearance that immigration is largely illegal and out of control.
Despite what appears to be large population movements, Gary Younge, from theGuardian noted some time ago that people still are not able to move as freely as commodities. In some places around the world, there are additional restrictions being put up on people s movements. Honest consideration of asylum and immigration issues should involve a far more diverse range of topics, reflecting the complexity of contemporary national and global relations. These include issues of nationalism, sovereignty, racism, demography, human rights, arms sales, war, refugee health, economic policy and moral responsibility. What do the media have to say about the fact that the UK has recently sold arms to all five countries of origin topping the UK list of asylum applicants in 2001? This, despite the fact that, in each case, violent military conflict remains the dominant root cause of refugee flight. More generally, what emphasis is placed on adverse conditions in countries of origin disparity, conflict and torture poverty, human rights abuses, global income
in articles concerned with asylum and immigration?
Comparative analyses of immigration and asylum worldwide are barely referenced at all.
When this does briefly emerge, the issue in all cases involves a positive commentary on the strict exclusion policies of other European countries, and not, as might be expected, any analysis of the UK s comparatively low intake.
Discussion of the number of refugees and migrants entering and living in non-western countries is completely absent from all ninety articles studied. Important root causes of immigration and refugee flight, such as war, torture, poverty and
oppression, are referred to fleetingly, if at all.
The effects of poverty and inequality in sending countries are deemed unworthy of mention in any newspaper despite extensive coverage detailing politicians' condemnations of bogus and illegal economic immigration .
War and violent conflict are mentioned in just eight of ninety articles in all three newspapers, a very low figure when compared with the thirty-seven articles discussing the relatively minor issue of asylum seeker accommodation.
6% of the articles studied from these papers covered the situtation in sending countries, reflecting a general failure to discuss such aspects.
The fundamental macro issue of demography
indicating both the insignificant effects of
immigration on population growth and its potentially positive effects on the UK s aging population
is not mentioned throughout the case study.
Macro issues that might embarrass powerful state-corporate interests are also ignored or neglected. Two major examples include the impacts of the arms trade and economic trade liberalisation. The former receives no mention at all, while the latter is hinted at (indirectly) in one piece in the Guardian.
The majority of articles that discussed human rights as a theme covered the same issue, about UK consiering withdrawing from the European Convention on Human Rights in order to justify the exclusion of certain asylum seekers. Yet, while a human rights issue, it is placed in the context of exclusion policies and bogus asylum applicants. This limits to just three articles any mention of human rights abuses in the country of origin abuses that might
have caused the original application to be made, and which cast a far less negative light on the subject of asylum and immigration.
Why do people immigrate to the other countries? By Tonita Herminne (31 May 2010)
The desire for a better life is sometimes so big that it makes people leave their countries and their families and work in other countries. They know that they will have to face difficult moments, that they won't be able to communicate with the persons around them, that maybe they will have to work in illegal conditions to get the money they need for their families, but all take these chances and they hope they will succeed.
On the other hand, there are persons who immigrate just for the sake of the persons they love. They leave their families to make other families with the persons they love. Women go to meet the men they love who have chosen other countries to start a new life, even if they miss their families and their friends. Maybe they don't have a place where to work but they are capable of waiting to see what destiny has for them.
There are also the cases of the persons who are obliged to leave their countries because of the war which threatens their lives. They'd rather start everything from the very beginning than risking putting their lives in danger.
When well developed countries see that their territories are "invaded" by lots of immigrants they set new laws that make the immigration harder. As a result of this, many illegal immigrants cross the borders and are eager to work, even if they are paid only at half of the sum of money native workers receive for the same kind of job.
The opinions of the local inhabitants are shared and they vary from total rejection to acceptance and full integration to the new community. In countries where large communities of immigrants live they are fighting for the recognition of their social rights and for equal treatment.
Many immigrants have managed to be fully accepted by the community where they live and they
have managed to change the opinions of the strangers regarding our nations, as it is well known that Romanians are seen as thieves and gypsies.
Sources 4 Why Do People Immigrate? By Jane Runyon (2011)
You can probably imagine that it would take a very strong reason for a family to pack what they
could and move to another country. They might have to leave all of their favorite things behind. They might have to learn a new language. They might have to learn a whole new way of living. An Eskimo would have to learn to adapt to warm weather if he moved to Hawaii. Someone from China might have a hard time understanding what people were saying if he or she moved to Brazil. It could be very hard to adjust. A sociologist is a person who studies the way people live. Some sociologists have come up with theories about why people immigrate to a new country. They describe the reasons as "push and pull" factors. Look at it this way. What happens if you and your friend try to open a door at the same time from opposite sides? You might be on the side that must be pushed to get the door open. Your friend might be on the side that needs to be pulled. A very good example of push and pull factors and their effect on migration can be found in the job market. Let's say that you live in a very poor country. There are very few jobs available to you that can give you the money you need to support your family. The lack of jobs pushes you to leave your home country. Let's imagine that the country next to yours has a lot of jobs to offer. The chance to get one of those much needed jobs pulls you to move to that country.
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