Open Space in High-density Living Environment – The Case Study of Hong Kong

By Siu Kwan CHOY

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science (Honours) in Architectural Studies

Department of Building and Construction City University of Hong Kong November 2007

DECLARATION

I declare that this thesis represents my own work, except where due acknowledgement is made, and that it has not been previously included in a thesis, dissertation or report submitted to this University or any other institution for a degree, diploma or other qualification.

Signed _____________________________ Siu Kwan CHOY

ii

Abstract

Open Space, an essential component of urban, should be highly considered in urban planning. It is important for each city or region to formulate its own standards to reflect local needs. However, in Hong Kong, the existing condition revealed that some open spaces fail to fulfill the local desire. To understand the public interests in depth, this thesis examines the usability and attractiveness of open space in high density living environment. After studying the case study in Belcher Bay Park, public attitude towards open space can be revealed. Recommendations for open space design would be suggested. Moreover, the integration between open space and urban is less in Hong Kong. This thesis intends to fill this void and proposes orientation of open space development in future.

iii

Also. iv . I sincerely apologize and hope that any oversight will be excused. a special gratitude must be given to my parents who actively support my study. Finally.Acknowledgements I would like to acknowledge the help and encouragement I have received from a number of people. who gave me valuable suggestions on my study. gave unstintingly time and expertise to encourage me conducting this study and writing this thesis in my final year of Bachelor Degree of Science in Architectural Studies. Xue Qui Li Charlie. I overcame the difficulties of study and completed my first thesis. If I have inadvertently used material without permission or acknowledgement. My supervisor Dr. I would also like to thank my classmate Chu Po Hei and Lau On On. I would like to sincerely thank people who have extended their helping hands and given me supports throughout the preparation of this thesis. Thanks to his encouragement. Special thanks to my friend Lui Kar Yee for helping me proof-reading work and I believe she has spent extra patience and effort on it.

Benefit of Open Space 2.1.2.3. Profile of Case Study Area 37 37 38 41 v .2.4.1. Background 4.2.2. Definition of Good Open Space 8 8 11 15 19 CHAPTER THREE: PLANNING AND DESIGN OF OPEN SPACE 3.3. Problems of Open Space Planning in Hong Kong 22 22 22 25 29 31 CHAPTER FOUR: CASE STUDY 4. Aims and Objectives Definition of terms Methodology Study Procedure 2 2 3 4 5 6 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2. Sensory Factors 3.1. Background 1. 1.1. The Role of Open Space in Urban 2.1. 1.1. Social Factors 3.1.5. Factors of Open Space Planning and Design 3. Environmental Factors 3.Table of Contents Abstract Acknowledgements Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures List of Abbreviation iii iv v vii viii x CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.3. Introduction 4.1.2. Design Theory of Open Space 2. 1.4.3.

4.4.1. Suggestions for Open Space Development 46 48 57 65 66 68 CHAPTER FIVE: RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION 5.4. Further Study 75 75 80 81 REFERENCES APPENDIX A1 Map of Kennedy Town APPENDIX A2 Map of Wah Fu APPENDIX A3 Tertiary Planning Unit Boundary APPENDIX A4 Projected Hong Kong Population by Tertiary Planning Unit. Conclusion 5.2. 4.7. Existing Problems of Open Space 4.7. Recommendation 5.1. 4.6.3.7. Methodology Research Finding and Analysis Comparison of Case Study Open Space of Kennedy Town in Future 4.5. 2005-2011 APPENDIX A5 Basic Tables for Tertiary Planning Units APPENDIX A6 Major Recreation and Amenity Facilities of Hong Kong 87 88 89 90 92 96 vi .2.

List of Tables Table 1: Table 2: Table 3: Table 4: Table: Major public open spaces in Kennedy Town Major Activities in Different Study Area Household Characteristics of the Case Study Areas Comparison between the Performance of Belcher Bay Park and Waterfall Bay Park 45 49 58 64 vii .

of Person in Different Study Areas at Different Time on Sunday (7th October 2007) Figure 7: People practicing Tai Chi on pathway Figure 8: People dancing on the north entrance. the open space is left over between buildings Figure 2: Figure-ground plan show a Positive open space in Ap Lei Chau Figure 3: Layout Plan of Belcher Bay Park Figure 4: The Seven Study Areas for Participant Observation Figure 5: No. Figure 15: Although the running path is so long. of Person in Different Study Areas at Different Time on Monday (8th October 2007) Figure 6: No.List of Figure Figure 1: Figure-ground plan show a negative Open space in Sheung Wan. Figure 9: The lawn is enclosed by railing for whole day Figure 10: A narrow running path and railing separate the lawn from main path Figure 11: People practicing Tai Chi on lawn in morning Figure 12: Age of People in the Park at Different Time on Monday (8th October 2007) Figure 13: Age of People in the Park at Different Time on Sunday (7th October 2007) Figure 14: Many elderly walk on the running path in morning. elderly with wheel chair still want to rest in there Figure 16: Gender of People in the Park at Different Time on Monday (8th October 2007) Figure 17: Gender of People in the Park at Different Time on Sunday (7th October 2007) Figure 18: Female users practicing Tai Chi in the stage and lawn Figure 19: Two groups of male users enjoying inChinese Chess in sunset looking pavilion Figure 20: Figure-ground Plan of Kennedy Town 56 59 54 55 54 53 52 53 52 48 49 50 51 51 51 48 16 16 40 46 viii .

Figure 25: The waterfront is the unique feature of Waterfall Bay. Western District Public Cargo Working Area become lively at night Figure 32: As Kennedy Town is lack of open space. 2000) Figure 35: Bird’s Eye View of Western District Development Strategy (Planning Department. the design of park has not take advantage of it. However. the visual linkage between waterfront and the park is weak. Figure 29: Path without facilities Figure 30: Void without facilities which discourage social interaction Figure 31: Due to the dogs’ masters and other residents.Figure 21: Figure-ground Plan of Wah Fu Figure 22: Total Number of User at Different Time in the Study Parks Figure 23: Exit of the park without welcoming gateway or notice Figure 24: User exercising in front of the waterfront. some people would go to Western District Public Cargo Working Area Figure 33: Accessibility of waterfall in Kennedy Town Figure 34: Proposed Plan of Western District Development Strategy (Planning Department. Figure 26: Benches are separated too far from each other which discourage social interaction. 2000) Figure 36: Make Use of Unused Land for Open Space Development in Kennedy Town 59 60 61 62 62 62 63 63 64 64 67 67 68 70 70 72 ix . Figure 27: Path is too long and narrow without lighting device Figure 28: Buildings and car park are location at the centre of the park which obstructs the access. People should pass from the south to the north thougha narrow pathway.

List of Abbreviation ArchSD CPLD CUPEM Architectural Services Department Committee on Planning and Land Development Hong Kong University's Centre of Urban Planning and Environmental Management Development Permission Area Hong Kong Institute of Architects Hong Kong Outline Plan Hong Kong Planning Standard and Guideline Outline Zoning Plan Planning Standards Sub-Committee Town Planning Ordinance DPA HKIA HKOP HKPSG OZP PSSC TPO x .

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION .

Hong Kong 2 3 Helen Wooley (2003).1.CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1. Open Space. Planning for High-Density Development in Hong Kong. Up to 2006. Public open space is not just a place for people gathering. As open space provides a lot of obvious benefits and opportunities to the public 2 . Spon Press Clare Cooper Marcus & Carolyn A. open space is a platform for goods exchange or religious activities in some countries. 1 Fung. C. should be highly considered in the urban planning. there are about 6. For example.K. Open space and greenery become a rarely property in the city. Due to the high population density. (2001). Each culture has its own explanation on open space. it has a symbolic meaning to society 3 . the availability of more open space is significant in the urban development. People Places. Van Nostrand Reinhold 2 . Urban Open Spaces. Background The population and building density of Hong Kong keep on increasing.100 persons per km2 1 . The population density is about 6. the government has put more effort on the urban planning and renewal. as an essential land use. In Hong Kong. Planning Department.7 million people living in Hong Kong. Francis (1990). open space is a crucial feature to against the overcrowding situation. most of the developable lands in urban area are used for high-rise development.

Open space is important in people’s daily life. improvements are suggested for open space design. this thesis would undergo a series of study on theories and existing open space. Objectives To develop a theoretical understanding of quality open space by reviewing the local and overseas literatures To investigate planning and design factors of open space in Hong Kong 3 . user quality and management. The orientation of open space development in future is proposed. it do not meaning that open space equals to better life quality. even some of them aggravate commission of crime. accessibility. To our environment. To public. However. it is a place for social interaction and resting both physically and mentally. Some open spaces in Hong Kong are not user friendly. By analyzing the existing urban open space.2. Aims and Objectives Aims The aim of this thesis is to examine the usability of open space in high density living environment. To examine urban open space in deep. The efficiency of open space depends on many factors such as provision. 1. it improves the overall environment by greenery. facilities provided.

McGraw-Hill 4 .M. Some definitions touching on the different aspects of open spaces are as the followings: Land and water in an urban area that is not covered by cars or buildings. provide recommendations for open space design in Hong Kong 1. (1980). parks) or land left 4 5 Helen Wooley (2003). Spon Press Gold S.To define good open space based on the theoretical understanding To find out the existing problems of open space in Hong Kong To evaluate the effectiveness of open space by studying the existing urban open space and compare the performances of different open spaces To analyze overall open space development in urban. agricultural uses. A variety of different authors and thinkers have used a range of definitions relating to open space 4 . or as any undeveloped land in an urban area 5 . Definition of terms Open space has many definitions.3. suggest ways to improve the urban in term of open space To apply the researched knowledge of planning and design of open space. Land with non-development or minimum development types of uses (for examples: golf courses. Recreation Planning and Development. Urban Open Spaces.

welfare.php 5 . Methodology Theoretical exposition This study was carried out literature review on the topic of open space to review the planning and design of open space and recognize the roles and functions of open space in urban. 6 Montgomery County Department of Planning & Inspections (2001). or wetlands) 6 .undeveloped for aesthetic or environmental. there are certain types of public open space in Hong Kong. the Hong Kong Planning Standard and Guideline (HKPSG) define open space as follow: A statutory land use zone for the provision of open space and recreation facilities for the enjoyment of the general public. health. steep unstable slopes. In Hong Kong.montva. Case Study Case study of urban open space would be carried out in order to analyse the effectiveness of open space and find out the relationship between open space and high-density living area. or safety reasons (for examples.4. Open Space Planning. The detail of study methodology would be described in the Chapter Four.com/departments/plan/cpfiles/EXISTING_PLANS/OPENSPACEPLA N/preface. Under HKPSG. 1. http://www.

1. Study Procedure Stage 1 Literature Review Setting Theoretical Framework Analyze the Planning and Design Factors Define a Good Open Space Found out the Existing Problems of Open Space Planning and Design Stage 2 Open Space Case Study (Belcher Bay Park) Comparison Case Study (Belcher Bay Park and Waterfall Bay Park) Analysis of the Results Suggest Ways to Improve Open Space 6 .5.

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 7 .

A good city should perform well in these five dimensions. The Role of Open Space in Urban Open space is an essential element in urban. capacity of spaces match with the existing environment. locations. “Vitality” regards all aspects that related to health such as supply of food. access and control 8 . It has significance in improving urban environment and providing the needs of citizen. ventilation and air quality. with different privacy and hierarchy 7 . their sense of orientation inside city and their sense of belonging. So. “Access” is the ability to reach with other persons. It is about the coordination between different urban elements.CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2. Random House Lnc. “Vitality” refers to the environmental health of a city. sense. “Sense” refers to how well the citizens know their city. unobstructed space that enhance air movement. MIT Press 8 . Open Space Enhance the Goodness of City Lynch (1981) indicated five dimensions and two meta-criteria to measure the goodness of city. Urban Space. maintain the green area of city as well as to improve the city. optimization of open space and social facilities is a common urban policy to support family. The five dimensions namely vitality. it is the fit between environment and human.1. Kevin Lynch (1981). “Fit” refers to how the form. Good City Form. open space is external. fit. 7 8 Rob Krier (1979). In an urban view.

which helped them to build up the sense of belonging. Open space is a place that people can easily recall. Lynch (1960) collected mental maps of different people in a city. “Edges” are liner elements that separate different environment and district. “Paths” are routes along the movement of people. Legibility is the ease which people recognize the features of city. such as street and walkway. districts. MIT Press 9 . bus terminus and public square. “Landmarks” 9 Kevin Lynch (1960). information. or diversity of the elements which can be reached. The result revealed that people mainly have five key dimensions to construct their mental map: paths. “Control” refers to the efficiency of management and maintenance of a city. it is no doubt that open space would at least ameliorate the “vitality”. As open space has above contribution to a city. services. a good city should not lack of open space. such as river and highway. while the “fit” is depended on the design and planning of open space and landscaping. “Districts” are a medium to large section of a city that has its feature and identity. edges. “sense” and “access”. The Image of the City. To study the legibility. “Nodes” are strategic points inside city that people used to have gathering. Open Space Enhance the Legibility of City As an urban element. nodes and landmarks 9 . such as junction of road. open space plays an important part on the legibility of city. or check points for traveling from place to place. When considering the contribution of open space in urban. also it is a place for people to reach each other.activities.

Open Space forms the basic elements of people’s mental map 10 . Manuel (1997). 10 Xue Q. where is a shape edge that separate the Victoria Harbour to Kowloon.K. It would facilitate people to recall the image of city. It appeared in urban with different forms such as path and landmark. To consider the open space by the legibility. Therefore. the Status Square in Central is a prominent plaza that likely to be recognized by people. it is a part of district and shows the districts’ characteristics. some open space with high occupancy would be developed into a node. The Second International Symposium on Asia Pacific Architecture 10 . Open space sometime is a landmark. & Kevin K.L. it is unique. Although open space would seldom be a district. The Public Space of Urban Hong Kong – A Quest for Cultural Heritage and Developmental Strategies. For example. such as Tsim Sha Tsui East Promenade.are physical object that have primary characteristics in city. which may help to maintain the sense of belonging of people. prominent and easily recalled by people. An example is Cornwall Street Park in Kowloon Tong. As open space is a place for people gathering. such as the Kowloon Walled City Park. An example is Victoria Park in Causeway Bay. which provides a path for resident to come and leave. open space can be one of the five dimensions: Circulation of some open space would act as a path for people to pass through. Some open space is an edge of a district. it is an urban element that people would easily recognize.

The benefits of open space can be classified into four main categories: personal. The provision of safe and clean open space would enhance people intention to exercise. pioneer of landscape architect. To recover their mind. and Rocheleau P. improve general health of people and increase the length of life 11 . Brooks/Cole Publishing Company 11 . revealed that large open space would reduce the level of plague. Law Olmsted. social. Hence. Rizzoli 12 Francis T.E. McAndraw (1993). Environmental Psychology. open space is especially important to them. which cause their sensory system overloaded 12 .2.2. (1995). economic and environmental benefit. Childhood obesity is likely to continue into adult life. Obesity is a problem that persecutes many people in Hong Kong and other high density cities. Frederick Law Olmsted: Designing the American Landscape. while exercise is an effective way to get rid of it when children grow. crowding and high temperature. they disturbed by many stimulants such as noise. In high density city. people’s daily life is stressful. C. It is because open space is a place for exercises and activities. Benefit of Open Space It is generally agreed that open space being a lot of benefits and opportunities to citizens. These advantages may be obvious or imperceptible. Personal Open space have been proved to have benefit for both physical and mental health of people. open space is a 11 Beveridge.

Visual Landscape and Psychological Well Being. Sense of community is then fostered. It is proved that natural landscape in open space has restorative effect to human 13 . Open space is effective in connecting people. Especially for open space that provided a range of activities and events. Such as the activities in mid-autumn festival. 4. the architecture of building would create a great functional distance between people 15 . Psychologically. Relationship between people is built up by different social activities.S. Conservation Foundation Francis T. a range of activities in different times would become a part of urban life 14 . families and friends would gather in park for playing games or eating moon-cake. (1980). open space has the importance on community focus. People’s stress and uneasy emotion can be diminished after having a break in green open space.stress-free area that they should go. neighbours still keep a great social distance. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company 12 . Environmental Psychology.H. Functional distance between people refers to the possibility that people contact with each other. Taylor & Francis Group 14 15 Whyte W. McAndraw (1993). Vol. Whyte (1980) shows that if recreational facilities are provided in an urban park. (1979). Landscape Research. Social Open space is a place for different generations and social groups to meet and interact. which is 13 Ulrich R. There are many studies proving that open space would enhance social interaction. The Social Life of Small Urban Space. Although residential units are very close in high density living environment. Beside the social interaction. it is a place for people to meet informally. which would increase the sense of community.

since it is open for residents but not visitors. F. Some open space has positive effect on tourism. provide open space in residential area is a way to deal with the insufficient of residential housing design. people would like to live in residential area that near leisure and recreational park. Economic Mostly. neighbours have no space to communicate inside a residential building.affected by architectural design. Such as the architectural decisions of placement of door and elevators in a building. Mostly in Hong Kong. Sport has been considered to contribute the reduction of antisocial behaviour such as destruction and drug taking.N. Spon 13 . park and recreational facilities near residential development is always a selling point of property. City as Landscape: A Post-modern View of Design and Planning. In Hong Kong. but a Chinese garden that attracts many foreign tourists. However. Such as the Nan Lian Garden in Diamond Hill. 16 Turner T. most domestic open space has less attraction for tourists. Turner (1996) pointed out that sport would diminish youth crime and improve physical health 16 . It is the reason that property near open space would have higher economic value and potential. (1996). It has been considered that active open space would reduce incivilities. People would care about the park nearby if they decide to own a flat. it is not only a park for local resident.

Trees Modify Metropolitan Climate and Noise. The cooling effect of open space is especially 17 Morcos A. Morcos (1978) point out that landscape and open space would provide a successful building solution to building group 17 . The Built Environment. It plays a vital role in air quality improvement in urban environment. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 19 Gordon M. (1978). Design and Building for a Tropical Environment. 3. Heisler (1977). Vol. but a large group of trees would really maintain air temperature and humidity 19 . Green open space is a buffer zone to filter noise. Environment and Man.F. Some studies pointed out that tree has high capacity to reduce noise significantly. Heisler (1977) pointed out that small green area would not reduce temperature significantly. Although there is a reservation on noise insulation.Environmental Open space with adequate greenery and landscape would affect the micro climate. The barrier effect is depended on the type of noise and type of tree. which would help to remove hot and polluted air. Vol. But Heisler (1977) has realized tree cannot reduce a high level of noise unless a wide barrier of tree is used 18 . Heisler (1977). Tree and green plant in open space would improve the air quality in a neighbourhood. A well planned and managed open space would benefit the environment nearby. 8. Journal of Arboriculture. Vol. A large open space would enhance air circulation. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 14 . tree can still act as a psychological barrier in open space. Trees Modify Metropolitan Climate and Noise. 3. Journal of Arboriculture. Blackie 18 Gordon M. Large tract of green open space has a significant impact on temperature reduction.

urban green space would be effective in resisting the urban heat island effect. In a figure-ground diagram. Collage City. Design Theory of Open Space Positive Open Space Indoor space is opposed to open space.3. it compensates the deficiency and impact due to the excessive solid in an urban area. Colin Rowe and Fred Koetter (1978) had described the differences between the figure and ground. They represent two extremes and fundamental elements in figure-ground plan as well as two profound meanings in people mind 20 . we can only recognize which is solid and which is void. 20 Colin Rown and Fred Koetter (1978). open space has an essential meaning which is more then a place for relax and play. the height and complexity of buildings are ignored. The MIT Press 15 . figure is matter that resists the liberation of spirit but ground enhances it. Hence. Instead. while ground is an open void that appeared as a white field. 2. For a deep meaning.important in high density city. the solid described as “figure” while the void described as “ground”. Figure is a solid mass that appeared as a black object. When analyzing the relationship between indoor space and outdoor open space. figure-ground analysis is a common method to distinguish the two extremes.

positive open space has a distinct and clear shape. Such open space may be formed by residue space left behind buildings. the visual boundary should be clear enough for people to observe. In opposition to negative open space. People would feel uncomfortable in negative open space. Although ground or open space can neutralize the impact of massive buildings. Therefore.In a figure-ground plan. This kind of open space is vague and amorphous. Although it is not necessary to define a substantial boundary for positive open space. negative open space that merely left over between buildings is not effective or useful 21 . positive space should be maximized by providing some degree of enclosure. Buildings. Oxford University Press 16 . and prevent the space spill out around corners. It is partly enclosed and convex. the open space is left over between buildings Positive open space in Ap Lei Chau 21 Christopher Alexander (1977). People cannot realize the boundary of open space. Open space is negative when it is sharpness or its sharp is not well defined. we can recognize which open space is positive and which is negative. Negative open space tends to have less occupancy. when designing open space. Facing a developing open space and sea view Figure 1: Figure-ground plan show a Figure 2: Figure-ground plan show a negative Open space in Sheung Wan. A Pattern Language: Towns. People can feel the existence of open space when they use it. Construction.

The square of the open space can act as a back. attractiveness of open space is not only depends on its size.Hierarchy of Open Space In an open space. Otherwise people would feel uncomfortable. which separate the open space from street. at least one pocket space should be provided to form a natural back. public square and greens to a grand vista could be opened up. people sit on square can look on a larger view. Actually. the corner can act as a back. A front stoop is effective in defining a clear enclosure and a back. For an open space with small scale. People would feel safe if they know nobody in their back and they would feel ease when they can see a great view 22 . A 22 Christopher Alexander (1977). when designing an open space. So people can sit in front of the corner and look out to small landscape. In sum. Then place the opening of the pocket space to an appropriate position. It is because people can only observe the objects in front of them but not behind them. Construction. people tend to sit facing a large view and with their back protected. boundary of open space should be clearly defined. For an open space with larger scale that facing street or large space. A back and a view into a larger space are always welcomed by people. Buildings. A Pattern Language: Towns. Oxford University Press 17 . Enhance Activities by well designed Open Space Interesting open space would attract people to visit and stay for a period of time. For the largest open space. so people can look into a larger space or large distant view from the pocket space.

and then move towards the square.path inside a small open space can be very interesting. Nowadays. Christopher Alexander (1977) suggested a bulge space in the middle of the path with facilities such as benches provided. it would just become a space to pass through but not stay in. But for local people. benches area and landscapes should be provided at the edge of square. Finally the square would become full of activities. Buildings. So people would gather in such pocket space. A Pattern Language: Towns. path is just a place for people to pass through but not stay in. It depends on the planning of the path. So the path forms an enclosure at the centre where activities are enhanced 23 . If the edge of square is insipid. except Filipino using open space on Sunday. Those areas could be pocket shape which is partly enclosed. people move towards the edge of square but not the centre. Well designed square would benefit the whole open space. 23 Christopher Alexander (1977). Construction. space for activities such as displays area. Mostly. Naturally. they would just go to their destination without take rest in path. To increase the attractiveness of a path. the two ends of the path become narrowed. In other words. the square would not lively. the most important part of an open space is square or plaza. Oxford University Press 18 .

People willing to stay in open space means that they feel comfortable and safe. Enhance Social Interaction Social interaction can be enhanced by good open space. Though various activities in open space. In addition. Due to a number of users. they would build up a sense of belonging. open space would become fill of vitality. good open space should have following characteristics: Attract people to stay in A good open space should attract people to stay for a period of time. The followings are the design approaches that can achieve a better social environment: provide pocket space and generate hierarchy in open space.2. which reflected that they are satisfied with the open space. The overall planning of open space is critical in enhancing social interaction. Definition of Good Open Space Based on the open space design theories in the previous section. 19 . It allows people to make strong connection.4. relationship of people is built up. once people used to play and rest in the open space near their home.

the communication between different age groups can be enhanced. for a good open space. For an integrated open space. 20 . Generally. but less facilities can serve both of them at the same time. such as lawn and barbecues court. it is important to provide facilities that can serve people of different age group and cultural at the same time. popular open space facilities such as children’s playground and fitness path can serve either children or adult only. People with different background can be consolidated. facilities provided should fulfill everyone needs.Serve People with Different Backgrounds Public open space is a place for all. Therefore. cultural and background are welcomed. people with different age. Thus.

CHAPTER THREE: PLANNING AND DESIGN OF OPEN SPACE 21 .

22 . and provide appropriate and adequate public facilities to meet the public needs. The Chapter Four clearly stated the definition. principle and provision of open space. major factors would be classicized into three categories: social factors. Social Factors Hong Kong Planning Standards and Guidelines Hong Kong Planning Standards and Guidelines (HKPSG) is published by Planning Standards Sub-Committee (PSSC) in 1982 and renamed from the Part II of Hong Kong Outline Plan (HKOP). The standards of open space in Hong Kong is controlled by the Chapter Four “Recreation. sensory factors and environmental factors 3.1.CHAPTER THREE: OF OPEN SPACE PLANNING AND DESIGN 3. In this section. typology.1. Factors of Open Space Planning and Design There are many factors that control the open space planning and design in Hong Kong.1. The purpose of this guideline is to regulate different developments. It is a non-statutory guideline document that control the requirement and planning of various land uses and facilities in Hong Kong. allocate of land resources equitably. Open Space and Greening” of HKPSG.

environmental impact. open space can be located in podium of public housing and residential developments. population served. Especially for the District Open Space and Local Open Space. Under the Chapter Four of HKPSG. short walking distance between open space and residential buildings is recommended. location and function. Preferably the distance is not more than 0. namely Regional Open Space. three scales of open space are defined. compatibility of open space. Special feature and prominent view should be considered so as to attract visitors and enhance tourism. Area for Core activities and passive recreation should be provided in proportion of 3:2 The purpose of Local Open Space is to serve the local residents. District Open Space and Local Open Space. There is no guideline for the active to passive open space ratio. safety. It focus on the accessibility. but passive recreation is the main activities in Local Open Space. Regional Open Space should be located in urban area and close to public transport route. which purpose is to serve the local population and support the residential development. In some cases. Therefore. adequate flat land is preferred for open space to support the core activities. These three open spaces are mostly related to public daily life. The classification of open space is based on the size.The guidelines ensure a high quality as well as sufficient quantity of open space. District Open Space should be located in urban area or rural area.4 km. So the provision is 23 .

industrial. The 24 . government use. convenience and general welfare of the community. Chapter 131. Active game and recreation is essential in citizen’s daily life. As a result. In the Chapter Four of HKPSG. safety. The integrated planning system ensures the health.000 persons. each person can share 2m2 of open space. However. Similar as open space provision.based on the population. open space and other special purpose are shown in OZP. Generally. each district should have at least one leisure swimming pool. In other words. The OZP control the urban planning in Hong Kong. In the 20ha. for urban area including new town and metro area. These statutory plans control the urban planning and the use of land. the standards of indoor and outdoor core activities are stated in detail. half area should be provided in District Open Space and the other half should be provided in Local Open Space. commercial.000 persons. at least 20 ha of open space should be provided for 100. Town Planning Ordinance The Town Planning Ordinance (TPO. For example. sections 3(1)(a) and 4(1)) indicated that the Town Planning Board has the right to prepare and publish the Outline Zoning Plan (OZP) and Development Permission Area (DPA) Plan for the area of Hong Kong. a badminton court should be provided for every 8. Areas zoned for residential. the provision of active recreation facilities is based on either population or district. there is no standard for the Regional Open Space provision. It provided as a bonus in the urban area. it controls the quantity and location of open space in different districts.

Section Four of TPO emphasizes the significance of parks. beach. it is a 25 . Nevertheless. the symbol “O” represent the area reserved for park or open space while the symbol “G/IC” represent government.1. such as flat. but not the open space area. OZP only show the proposed land use of open space. It undoubtedly deprives the public right of enjoying open space. Usually. Inside an open space. recreation and sport centre. Area zoned for open space is shown on OZP. The Column II uses have a high variety. office. land marked with “O” sometime includes non-confirmed land use or vacant land. The detail of land use is referred to the note attachment of OZP. The amount of open space is thus inaccurate. open space and recreation space. Under OZP. some of the uses are not in cooperate with open space. the Column I uses of open space including park.2. if the land use reserved for open space is being changed under the column II. OZP cannot reflect the actual amount of open space. we can observe that different users have different face to face distances. playground. zoo and structure that support the open space. shown in either Column I “always permitted” or Column II “Permitted with or without conditions” in the Schedule of Uses. In the OZP. Sensory Factors Distance between Users Open space is a platform for users’ interaction. the original proposed area for open space would be diminished or left out. 3. institution or community such as government complex. retail and restaurant. garden. In addition.

physical distance which reflecting the social dimension and the familiarity between users. Jeffery D. it is difficult to have normal conversation. Intimate distance (0. As the distance is too far.75m) is the distance between friends or couple. personal and social distance in park. which have little sense of friendship. Public open space serves various social groups. the distance between different facilities such 24 25 26 Sommer Robert (1969). People interact at this distance are either intimate or emotionally active. Thomas C.15m) is the communicational distance for people who have close relationship. which means an area with invisible boundaries surrounding a person’s body that intruders may not come 24 . Environment Psychology. personal distance. Personal Space: The Behavioral Basis of Design. Hall (1959). Fisher. Greene. social distance and public distance 25 . Harcourt College Publishers 26 . The study of such distance is referred to the “personal space”. Public distance (7m) is the distance between speaker and their audiences. people communicated to each other with intimate. Knopf Publishing Group Paul A. The Silent Language. Prentice-Hall Edward T. Edward Hall (1959) suggested four distances for different interpersonal relationship and social groups: they are Intimate distance. such as lovemaking and fighting respectively. In general. Bell. Social distance (2m) is the distance between businessman when they transacting business. Andrew Baum (1978). so the distance for different social groups and people should be considered in designing open space. Personal distance (0. To analyze the personal space. Groups with different gender and age require different personal space 26 . To facilitate their communication and interaction. Distance between female is closer than male. Usually they would keep in this distance when they talking. Children would play closer in playground than young adult.

The inappropriate placement of facilities such as too far between each bench or concentrated placement of benches would affect their communication even block the social interaction. However. Allyn and Bacon 27 . Inside an open space. “sociopetal setting” is to encourage social interaction while “sociofugal setting” is to discourage social interaction 27 . a sociopetal setting can be a round dining table with seat surrounded. sensory system of citizen is overloaded due to intensive work. Some users would prefer a quiet open space with higher privacy. users of open space would require space with sociofugal setting. most people would likely prefer sociopetal setting in open space. tables and planters should be carefully planned and keep in an appropriate distance. which form a good communication environment. The term socio-architecture is regarded to the planning that related to social impact. Setting of Facilities The distance between facilities would affect the personal space. For example. in some cases. Especially in high density living environment. while the arrangement of facilities would affect the sociability of people. Environment Psychology. which block the chance for communication. users should face in different directions. Undoubtedly. They would like to have rest in 27 Robert Gifford (1997).as benches. the sociability of people can be enhanced or inhibited by appropriate architectural planning. A sociofugal setting can be a set of benches facing outward from one another.

so people would enjoy walking or watching when they using the sidewalks. Sideny Brower (1988) point out a list of guidelines for communities space design 29 . It is about the person-environment relationship in different places. planters and vendors should put along the walkway. both sociopetal and sociofugal settings are important in open space planning. Therefore. Facilities (especially seat and table) arrangement with both approaches should be provided for different users 28 . the attractiveness of a space can be explained by the community environmental psychology. those factors are related to the attractiveness of the open space. identity and vitality. In sum. facilities such as benches. Although attractiveness is an ambiguous term. sociofugal setting of open space become a tool to recover their sense. Design in Familiar Places: What Makes Home Environments Look Good.open space instead of talking with others. Allyn and Bacon Brower S. Once users enjoy their activities inside an open space. then they go hand in hand. In designing sidewalks. (1988). He suggested every part of public space should have a legitimate use. Attractiveness In Hong Kong. the occupancy of some parks or sitting-out areas is low even in public holiday. Environment Psychology. To enlivening the city. Praeger 28 . People can visit all areas routinely and there is no dead place along the route. The occupancy of open space is affected by many factors such as the accessibility. In some citizen’s mind. while some parks is full of people all the week. In this situation. usability. park is a 28 29 Robert Gifford (1997). people outside would feel safe doing so.

The efficiency of environmental improvement depends on the overall open space planning and greenery provision. incorporate all age groups in all activities. Francis (1990). plaza of an open space should be located in an area that can receive much sunlight 30 .1. especially for high density city. Beside. Environmental Factors It is no doubt that open space can improve the microclimate of a city. but in high density city such as Hong Kong. shading should be preserved in at least a part of the plaza so as to prevent excessive sunlight in summer. building and massing are effective to control the sunlight in an open space. there are no guidelines for the sunlight control. But most facilities of open space serve either children (such as playground) or adult (such as fitness path). high-rise buildings usually prevents sunlight to reach any parts of open space. the following factors should be considered. Actually.place for children to frolic only. If possible. Sunlight Sunlight would bring vitality into an open space. while tall buildings are frequently placed on a site before the development of open space. but not serve both of them (such as barbecues court). When designing an open space for a high density living environment. Zoning 30 Clare Cooper Marcus & Carolyn A. Ideally. Unlike Hong Kong. Van Nostrand Reinhold 29 . park is open for all. On the other hand. if possible. 3. So it can maintain a higher temperature in winter. People Places.3. Those insufficiencies result in lack of sunlight.

passive cooling system such as vegetation for evapotranspiration. By the Zoning Ordinance.m. depends on the area of greenery 32 . Owen Lewis. It is proved that the vegetation can reduce 2 oC to 3oC of temperature. People Places. to 2 p. 31 Although Hong Kong has no such ordinance. Van Nostrand Reinhold John R. the temperature may be too high and unpleased for users in summer. thus increase the cooling load. Francis (1990). Steemers (1993).Ordinance is legislated in San Francisco. or induce indirect sunlight to open space in case of less direct sun exposure. 30 . Goulding. to improve the sunlight condition. Commission of the European Communities. Temperature Open space would improve the surrounding environment by its cooling effect. To deal with this problem. heat reflected from surrounding building or ground as well as air heated by road and pavement surface. B T Batsford Ltd. using fountains. J. But for open space itself. pools and ponds for evaporation can be applied in open space design. Those factors would cause the significant increase in temperature of open space. which prohibits development that would shade an open space at any time. planner should consider the orientation of open space.m. The high temperature can be contributed by several factors such as direct and indirect sunlight. 31 32 Clare Cooper Marcus & Carolyn A. Energy in Architecture. Theo C. buildings should at least allow sunlight to enter public open space between 11 a.

it has different meaning to different people. Therefore. As green plant is effective in absorbing solar radiation and release heat by evaporation.S. Building Hong Kong – Environment Consideration. Comfort is a vague term that is difficult to measure. It ensures each resident having a minimum of 2m2 open space. Theo C. J. (2000). humidity. It is proved that green open space can mitigate the heat island effect by its cooling effect 34 . Commission of the European Communities. the provision requirement of district open space is the same as local open space. it has not considered the needs of different age groups and people with different backgrounds.Overall comfort The overall comfort of an open space depends on the integration of sunlight. it would improve the microclimate of a district. Energy in Architecture. But it is sure that greening would help to enhance the overall comfort of people. HKU Press John R. Goulding. Although this provision system can fulfil the demand of population of each district. Steemers (1993). their provision of open space is the same 33 34 Wong W. B T Batsford Ltd. airflow and etc. Problems of Open Space Planning in Hong Kong Population-based Open Space Provision Refer to the Chapter Four of HKPSG. 31 . vegetation is especially important for open space in high density city. 3.000 persons. In some districts that have similar population but different age group distribution.2. as well as the overall environment 33 . Owen Lewis. temperature. both are at least 10 ha for 100.

Planning Department. The provision of core activities is based on population as well. a list of core activities is stated with population standards.100 persons 35 . As children need more active open space and larger activities area than elderly 36 . a sub-committee of the Committee on Planning and Land Development (CPLD). the HKPSG solely considered the population. Under HKPSG. according to Planning Department (2006).400. the provision of open space is similar for these two districts. Spon Press 32 . Hong Kong 36 Helen Wooley (2003).000 persons and that of Sai Kung is 407.under HKPSG. the population of Wong Tai Sin is 434. Urban Open Spaces. Nevertheless. The formulation and review of standards and 35 Data up to the mid of 2005. Each district has its unique demographic structures. In the provision of activities space. Formulation of the Standard The formulation and review is processed by PSSC (Planning Standards Sub-Committee). but not gives consideration to the public needs. Projections of Population Distribution. the provision of open space should not be the same for different districts. For example. Under the table 6 of Chapter Four of HKPSG. which is a double of Sai Kung. It ignored the different requirements of various age groups. a 400m2 of children’s playground should be provided for every 5000 persons. so it is inappropriate to apply the same measurement in all districts. refer to Planning Department (2006). population aged over 65 in Wong Tai Sin is 71. These two districts have similar population. character and needs. This provision is based on how many people in a district but not the number of children. For example.

guidelines is a continuing process, this process based on Government’s policies and development requirements. Once the policy authorities or committees (such as Executive Council and CPLD) have revised a Government policy which is implicated the land use, the review of the standards and guidelines would be started. In the process, either the policy authorities requests the PSSC to formulate the standards and guidelines or the PSSC actively start the formulation on its own. Public consultation would be conducted only if the review implicated major policy.

In each review, an inter-departmental working group would be set up under the PSSC. The working group would conduct research and produce discussion papers if necessary. Newly proposed planning standards and guidelines would be submitted to the PSSC. The PSSC also monitors the implementation of the HKPSG through feedback from the relevant departments and policy bodies.

Throughout the formulation process, public only take part on it if the review involved major planning policy. For some particular amendments such as sport facilities provision, public have no way to express their interests through the review process. Also the intention of review is only based on Government’s policies or individual policy departments. This formulation has a lack of public participation. In Hong Kong such a high density city, government usually put the priority on residential development rather than open space development. The conflict between high-rise buildings and open spaces is a problem for many years. So people should have high aspiration on open space and better living environment. It is better to increase the openness

33

of the formulation and review system, provide more channels for public to express their interests on open space.

Open Spaces that are difficult to use In Hong Kong, many open spaces are difficult to use even unwelcome to public, but those negative open space are fully counted as local open space or district open space. Unlike slope problem, slope correction factor is used to discount the open space provision for slope site under HKPSG 37 . However, similar measurement is not applicable in negative open space. Negative open space including space under highway intersection, roadside strips, small area that facing main road, area that left behind buildings. Those areas are difficult to access and have a higher risk. It is dangerous for children to play in such area. It seems that the purpose of those negative open spaces is to fill the remnant land that remained by building development and infrastructure. Those spaces are not ideal to be a part of local open space.

Lack of Hierarchy Open space is composed by different layers, such as plants, sitting area, paths, activities space, etc. These layers overlap and interrelate to form an open space. The hierarchy of open space is depended on how landscape architect deal with those layers appropriately. Open space with hierarchy is always preferred and welcome to public.

37

According to the Chapter Four of HKPSG, only 60% of land would be counted as standard

if the slope gradient is lower than 1:5. Only 30% of land would be counted as standard if the slope gradient is between 1:5 and 1:3. Land would not be counted as standard if the slope gradient is greater than 1:3

34

In Hong Kong, some open spaces are unpleasant. It can be imputed to the lack of hierarchy. Once people cannot find a view inside the open space or cannot find a seat with back protected, they would feel uncomfortable even unsafe. Those open space become unwelcome.

Actually, in some cases, lack of hierarchy is due to negative open space. As negative space is left behind buildings, it is not suitable for rest or play. This space usually has no view and potential to develop into an open space with hierarchy. So it is difficult for planners to generate hierarchy in such space.

35

CHAPTER FOUR: CASE STUDY 36 .

number of user of Belcher Bay Park is much higher than that of Waterfall Bay Park. successful factors of open space could be revealed. Introduction To examine the quality of open space in high density living environment. Based on the comparison. The second part is a comparison between the Belcher Bay Park and Waterfall Bay Park. For the two selected parks.1. two case studies would be hold based on the theoretical framework in Chapter Two. For the selected parks. one is the Belcher Bay Park in Kennedy Town. a series of studies would be conducted in this two open spaces. In the third part. To find out the reason that why Belcher Bay Park is more user-friendly than Waterfall Bay Park. open space would be examined in term of urban. The existing problems of open spaces in Kennedy Town and the solutions would be discussed. Users’ behavior. The first part is a detail study of Belcher Bay Park in Kennedy Town. The case study is divided into three parts. Southern District. Another one is the Waterfall Bay Park in Wah Fu. users’ attitude and the social interaction would be examined. 37 . Central and Western District. Both parks are in front of the coast and facing high-rise residential buildings. However. the site context is similar.CHAPTER FOUR: CASE STUDY 4.

After several years. In 1998. The area of the park is about 16. Hong Kong 39 The request of renaming is proposed at the 7th Meeting of the Food. Belcher Bay Park is the largest open space in Kennedy Town. The event showed the residents yearning of public open space in their district. the Belcher Bay Temporary Park was renamed to Belcher Bay Park in 2002. Environment Hygiene & Works Committee in 21 December 2000 38 . Most residents were opposed to the government proposal. it reflected that the government gives way to economic factors rather than public interests in urban development.600 m2. the government planed to propose residential development after the settlement of this reclaimed site. To uphold residents’ right of permanently enjoying the park. Finally. 38 Territory Development Department (1998). was established in 1998 38 . the former of Belcher Bay Temporary Park. Also. Before the establishment of Belcher Bay Park. Belcher Bay Temporary Park is a temporary district open space. resident in Kennedy Town had no chance to enjoy variety of park facilities in their district.2. with some fitness facilities and children’s playgrounds. The park was developed on part of the Belcher Bay reclaimed area.4. Territory Development Department. Central & Western District Works Programme 1998 Edition. Background History of Belcher Bay Park Belcher Bay Park. Central & Western District Council had requested for formally renaming of Belcher Bay Temporary Park as Belcher Bay Park 39 .

Along the running path. Users can see a lot of classic navigation apparatus in different areas of the park.fso-tela. http://www. while the north side is facing the Western District Public Cargo Working Area and Belcher Bay. Sai Cheung Street North) and highway (Shing Sai Road). 40 Film Services Office (2007). 4 decorative lighthouses are installed which are converted from genuine acetylene gas operated lanterns in service in Tathong Channel area for more than 25 years 40 .cfm. The south and west of the park is facing a row of high rise residential buildings.hk/accessibility/ eng/locations. Site Context The site is a prominent site with high accessibility. The whole area is surrounded by roads (Kennedy Town Praya. Location Library.gov. Television and Entertainment Licensing Authority.Theme To attract visitors and enrich the park. it is an island site that tend to rectangular shape. Belcher Bay Park was built on the concept of "sea navigation". Hong Kong 39 .

stage and fitness centre are located at the centre of the park. Main facilities such as lawn. Visually. but the sunset view is blocked by buildings and trees for whole year. The lawn is the most largest and spacious landscape in the park. four of them including the main entrance are located at the south since there is facing the main road.Overall Site Layout Figure 3: Layout Plan of Belcher Bay Park The park has totally five entrances. They can get a full picture of the park only if they step into the entrance. people outside cannot notice the activities inside the park since a row of trees act as a boundary to separate the road from the park. 40 . surrounded by pathway and the circular running path. At the western end there is a sunset looking pavilion. bus stops and buildings.

sunset looking pavilion. Profile of Case Study Area Background of Kennedy Town Belcher Bay Park is the largest district open space in Kennedy Town. Ting. mortuary. City of Victoria. As some undesirable buildings such as incinerator. The living condition of Kennedy Town is poor. which is one of the first urban settlements in Hong Kong after it became a British colony in 1842. (1994). With narrow road system.3. Kennedy Town is a dirty place that most people would not like 41 Joseph S.Facilities of Belcher Bay Park: The major facilities of the park are as follows: entrance plaza. fitness station. toilet. foot massage path. Wong. At that time. running path and snack kiosk (not in service) 4. slaughterhouse. It is a part of the Victoria City. management office. concrete plant are built in Kennedy Town. children’s playground. K. Kennedy Town is a place for Chinese to live and work. The impression of Kennedy Town in people mind is negative. The Urban Council of Hong Kong 41 . limited open space and crowded living environment. central lawn. The history of Kennedy Town can date back to the four “Wans” and nine “Yeuks”(neighbourhood) in 1857 41 . Kennedy Town is the first “Yeuk” where located at Sai Wan. seating area. Kennedy Town is located at the western end of Central and Western District. N.P. plaza with seating area. poor network.

the living environment of Kennedy Town was much improved. Under this system.600 till 2011 46 . In detail. the land demand is largely increased.1 of Central and Western district 45 .1.1. Belcher Bay Park is located at the Tertiary Planning Unit (TPU) 1.000 Over 90% of the people are living in private housing. Planning Department. Central & Western District Works Programme 1998 Edition. Planning Department. Hong Kong 45 Tertiary Planning Unit (TPU) is a common geographical demarcation system used by the Government for town planning and census purpose. Hong Kong 44 Data up to mid-2005. Territory Development Department. (2003). total current population in the TPU 1. W.to live 42 . Central & Western District Council 43 Territory Development Department (1998). With these contributions. it will rise to 77. Projections of Population Distribution. 10. P.3 hectares of Belcher Bay was reclaimed 43 .6.1. slaughterhouse and concrete plant were relocated to other district.903. Projections of Population Distribution.200 plus a transient population of about 300. Refer to Planning Department (2006). Hong Kong is divided into 282 TPUs.1. 42 Leung.1 and 1. Hong Kong 42 . 44 . Until 1990’s. Population Central and Western district has an area of 1. Legends of the Central & Western District Hong Kong. 46 Planning Department (2006).6 is 71. The east side of the park is touching the boundary of TPU 1. undesirable industries including incinerator.240 ha. According to Planning Department (2006). with a residential population of about 248.

less than one quarter are living alone (5. while the others are tenant.6) is 2. People Places. while more than three quarters are nuclear families (18.1 and 1. As open space is being used as free “living rooms” by people who live alone. Averagely. which percentage is lower than the whole territory (73.1. There are 25.672 families).7 person per household which is lower than the average of Hong Kong (3. 2006 Population By-census – Basic Tables for Tertiary Planning Units. Hong Kong 43 . For the tenure of accommodation.1.89% of families have a monthly domestic income less than 30. They would be more active in improving the district and fighting for more urban facilities.Household Characteristics The average domestic household size for the study area (Kennedy Town. TPU 1. Only 62. As two third of families in the study area have 47 Census and Statistics Department (2007).000. Generally.The number of person in households would affect the users pattern of public open space. 2006 Population By-census – Basic Tables for Tertiary Planning Units. owner-occupier would have higher social interaction and sense of belonging as they treat themselves as permanent resident in their district. about two third of the families are owner-occupier.0 person per household) 47 .338 families live in this area. the monthly household domestic income in the study area is higher than the whole territory of Hong Kong. The domestic household income in the study area is a bit above the medium. Census and Statistics Department. Francis (1990).028 families). Van Nostrand Reinhold Census and Statistics Department (2007).07%) 49 . Hong Kong 48 49 Clare Cooper Marcus & Carolyn A. Census and Statistics Department. those people would stay in open space for a longer time 48 .

Francis (1990). 2006 Population By-census – Basic Tables for Tertiary Planning Units. some of they should have substantial economic ability.903 persons in the study area. active open space such as courts and playing fields may not be provided. Take the study area as an example: The open spaces are located in densely populated urban areas. Van Nostrand Reinhold 44 . as they are the least mobile age group and they may have difficulty to reach open space far from their home 52 . Francis (1990). This age group distribution is similar as the whole territory of Hong Kong.their own flats. 12. more attention should be paid on the very young and the very old.94% of them aged over 64 51 . some of the old buildings were demolished. but there usually are play areas for children and benches and paths for talking and walking. 73. For open space design. In practice. Although the study area is an old residential town.37% of them aged under 15. the proportion of people aged above 65 is medium. Van Nostrand Reinhold Census and Statistics Department (2007). People Places. People Places. 50 51 Clare Cooper Marcus & Carolyn A. open space design would reflect the household income of families.72% of them aged between 15 and 64 and 13. As open space is limited. It is because there are redevelopments in the past few years. Age Group Distribution Amount the 71. Hong Kong 52 Clare Cooper Marcus & Carolyn A. Census and Statistics Department. the income of families is medium and not many of them have cars and willing to enjoy open space far away from their home. So the open spaces in the study area tend to be limited size and heavily used 50 .

area of open space less than 0. while the other open spaces are in form of gardens. stage children’s playground. seating area Cadogan Street Temporary Garden Catchick Street Garden Forbes Street Temporary Playground Ka Wai Man Road Garden Kennedy Town Temporary Recreation Ground Table 1: 5. basketball count.700 Children’s playground. Open Space Approx. Legends of the Central & Western District Hong Kong. there are some small gardens and sitting out areas in this area 53 . P.800 Seating area Football field. Nearly half of these open spaces are temporary.Open Space Provision The followings are the major public open spaces located at Kennedy Town. area of open space less than 1 ha with passive facilities mainly defined as “garden”. W. Since the urban planning in the early period is not integrated 55 . Also. Beside these major open spaces. seating area 1. fitness station. seating area Major public open spaces in Kennedy Town In Kennedy Town. seating area 2.400 6. seating area Football field.5 ha with passive facilities mainly defined as “sitting-out area” 54 55 By measuring existing open space using digital survey map Leung. (2003). Central & Western District Council 45 . running path. basketball count.000 Lawn. playground and recreation ground. 53 According to Leisure and Culture Service Department.600 54 Major Facilities Lawn. Lack of open space is a serious problem in Kennedy Town for many years.600 6. children’s playground. area of open space larger than 1 ha defined as “park”. area of open space less than 1 ha with active facilities mainly defined as “playground” or “recreation ground”. there is not enough land reserved for open space. only one park can be found. Area(m2) Belcher Bay Park 16.

Hong Kong 57 By measuring existing open space using digital survey map 46 . each person should share 1 m2 of local open space and 1 m2 of district open space as a minimum. These study areas are: 1. 3.94 ha 57 . Figure 4: The Seven Study Areas for Participant Observation 56 Census and Statistics Department (2007). The provision is much lesser than the standard of HKPSG. Census and Statistics Department. 4. 6.55 m2 of open space. 2. Pathway. Main Entrance. It means that each person can enjoy 0. 5. Methodology The park would be divided into 7 study areas for participant observation and behavior mapping. while the open space provision for this area is 3. In the HKPSG.4. Sunset Looking Pavilion. Study areas are divided based on their functions and locations. 4. Lawn. Stage and 7. 2006 Population By-census – Basic Tables for Tertiary Planning Units.The population of Kennedy Town is 71. Fitness Station. Children’s Playground.903 56 .

By studying the time. frequency and habit of using park facilities. Also. the habit and preference of different users can be realized. 20:00). afternoon section (12:00. 47 . gender. Users with different backgrounds should have different responses and feelings to the parks. 16:00) and evening section (18:00. Therefore. In the study period. the distribution of user background can be examined. we can find out which kind of people would use the park facilities most frequently. By collecting the background of user. Behavior Mapping Behavior mapping is a study method to find out who is doing what at which location. 10:00). There are seven time slots for the study: morning section (08:00. Those data are based on observations at different time. People of different ages. the user pattern in different time slots would be recorded. 14:00. each user should have a unique habit in using the park facilities.Participant Observation Belcher Bay Park is open for public. The behavior mapping study is started on a weekday and a holiday. nation and culture are welcomed to enjoy the facilities of the park.

Research Finding and Analysis Analysis on Different Study Areas Figure 5: No.4.5. of Person in Different Study Areas at Different Time on Sunday (7th October 2007) 48 . of Person in Different Study Areas at Different Time on Monday (8th October 2007) Figure 6: No.

walking. Exercise. dancing. Stage 7. talking Tai Chi. reading newspaper Playing Chinese Chess. Fitness Station Major activities Sitting. shuttlecock. dancing. Lawn 5. talking. Beside the major activities stated below. lot of people used to enjoy the park around 8:00 which cause the park crowing. Especially in morning. talking.The following table shows the activities in different study areas that users frequently undergo. walking. Tai Chi. Tai Chi. talking Tai Chi Sitting. Since everywhere of the park are too busy at that time. exercise. sitting. Children’s Playground 4. Figure 7: People practicing Tai Chi on pathway 49 . sitting. dancing. Study Area 1. other activities such as lunch. some users would occupy the pathway even the entrance to do exercise. sitting. result in many inconveniences to other users. Sunset Looking Pavilion 3. listening radio and sleeping can be found in the park. Pathway 6. running. exercise. reading newspaper Playing. talking Table 2: Major Activities in Different Study Areas Generally. morning and nightfall are the peak hours that most users would enjoy the park. Main Entrance 2.

So people would have gathering in such small area. The lawn is enclosed by railing even it is not under maintenance. Firstly. the area would not lively 58 . The occupancy is only acceptable in morning. the square would become full of activities. no matter in weekday and holiday. rather than shift their activities to the lawn. There are several reasons for the low occupancy of the lawn. a large landscape without other facilities such as bench and table at its edge. Only a small opening is 58 Christopher Alexander (1977). A Pattern Language: Towns. the lawn itself is a void.Figure 8: People dancing on the north entrance. the connection between the lawn and pathway is broke up by the running path and railing. Construction. Secondly. some people would practice Tai Chi in there. Unexpectedly. number of users in lawn keep the lowest in the whole day. and then move forward into the lawn. it would become a place for people to pass though but not stay in. As a result. The lawn is the largest and the most spacious area that located at the centre of the park. space for activities such as benches should be provided in some areas of the edge. Buildings. Oxford University Press 50 . To improve this situation. People would play and exercise in a crowded area such as fitness centre. If the edge of lawn is insipid.

provided for entrance. Normally people should pass though the railing in order to enjoy the lawn which is inconvenient. Figure 9: The lawn is enclosed by railing for whole day Figure 10: A narrow running path and railing separate the lawn from main path Figure 11: People practicing Tai Chi on lawn in morning 51 .

while most adult around 30 to 65 would use 52 .Analysis Based on the Age Group Distribution Figure 12: Age of People in the Park at Different Time on Monday (8th October 2007) Figure 13: Age of People in the Park at Different Time on Sunday (7th October 2007) The result of research indicated that number of elderly user is the highest in the whole day except evening.

Figure 14: Many elderly walk on the running path in morning. One of the reasons is that the north section is located at the highest position of the park. In the overall view. elderly with wheel chair still want to rest in there 53 . it is better to provide at least one break point at the centre of the running path in order to facilitate elderly users who don’t want to walk though the whole section. Another reason is that the park is too crowded in the morning which forces some elderly users to the running path. Some of them would not like to stay at their small flat and want to enjoy a large open space. The running path at the north section is too narrow and too long without a break point. So the open space design should highly consider for these people. elderly would use the running path more than young and adult. by observation. Figure 15: Although the running path is so long. Although running path is not designed for elderly users. But some of the facilities are not elderly friendly. which attracts people to reach there and look over the park. The north section of running path is longer than 100 meters without a connection to the main path. This is an expected result since most elderly are retired.the park in evening. such as the running path. landscape and seating along the pathway. the park is fit for elderly as it provides adequate notice. More passive recreation facilities should be provided.

Analysis Based on Gender of People in the Park Figure 16: Gender of People in the Park at Different Time on Monday (8th October 2007) Figure 17: Gender of People in the Park at Different Time on Sunday (7th October 2007) Although the number of users on Sunday is higher than Monday. more female users would use the park. the two days show the same trend. In the morning. 54 .

A. So that male and female need different space for activities 59 . Andrew Baum (1978). which exploit their time to go outside. Greene. traditionally. number of female users is decreasing. male users would like to gather in sunset looking pavilion since chess table is provided in there. groups with different gender require different personal space. Environment Psychology. Fisher. It is good that the park facilities can serve both groups of user. Jeffery D. So that most female elderly would use the park in morning only. female would look after their grandson or prepare lunch and dinner. number of male users is higher than female users. the user pattern of male is quite different from female. By observation. Female users would like to gather in stage for dancing or practicing Tai Chi.Along the time line. Bell. Male and female have different gathering points in the park. According to Bell P. Harcourt College Publishers 55 . For this age group.(1988). After morning section. while the trend of male users is opposite. One of the reasons is that most users of the park are retired elderly. Thomas C. Usually. Figure 18: Female users practicing Tai Chi in the stage and lawn 59 Paul A.

different social groups are thus generated. 56 . Most users would enjoy their activities everywhere in the park. Belcher Bay Park is a good open space. Based on the theoretical framework in Chapter Two. the performance of the park is satisfied in general. Also. The park successfully attracts people to stay for a long time. various facilities are provided to serve people with different backgrounds.Figure 19: Two groups of male users enjoying in Chinese Chess in sunset looking pavilion Overall Performance of the Park Although several problems are stated in the above analysis.

Waterfall Bay Park was established to serve the resident in the estate.6. children’s playground. Facilities of Waterfall Bay Park: The facilities of the parks are as follows: barbeque area. Background of Waterfall Bay Park Following the development of Wah Fu Estate in 1970. seating area and children’s playground are located alone the main pathway. the space become difficult to connect. Waterfall is located at the most northern side of the park. Designing the Waterfall Bay Park is a great challenge as the site is too hilly. seating area. several facilities including barbeque area. Starting from the waterfall. successful factors of the parks would be demonstrated. resident should go far away in order to enjoy such open space. Waterfall Bay Park is the largest open space in Wah Fu.4. level difference inside the park is high. The park is located at a strip site facing the Waterfall Bay Road. Most area of the park is inaccessible. Other than Waterfall Bay Park. Same as Belcher Bay Park. toilet and management office 57 . Comparison of Case Study This section is a comparison studies between Belcher Bay Park and Waterfall Bay Park. Due to the continuous slope. By comparison of the performance of the two parks.

346 3.6).250 Kennedy Town Wah Fu 6. Census and Statistics Department.100 Household Characteristics of the Case Study Areas The table above showed that the domestic household size of Wah Fu is larger than Kennedy Town.0 1.6 71. and it will drop to 59. As most resident of Wah Fu are living in public rental flats.2 is 62. the proportion of population aged above 65 in Wah Fu 60 Census and Statistics Department (2007).7% 13. Planning Department.956 3.956.7.1. 2006 Population By-census . which is lower than Kennedy Town (TPU 1. According to Planning Department (2006). some of them may not satisfied with the crowded living environment.7% 71.Basic Tables for Tertiary Planning Units.746 11.8% 16. total current population in the TPU 1. Projections of Population Distribution.500 till 2011 61 .1 & 1. Hong Kong 58 . thus spend more time on open space.9% $21.1.5% $16.864.1 12. Hong Kong 61 Planning Department (2006).1 and 1.7 1.9% 12.1. which means more family members would share a flat.1.4% $17.4% 73.7% 73.903 2.Comparison of Case Studies Profile Waterfall Bay Park is located at the Tertiary Planning Unit (TPU) 1.7.2 of Southern District 60 . Current Population (person) Average domestic household size (person) Proportion of Populationaged under 15 aged 15-64 aged above 65 Median monthly domestic household income (HK$) Table 3: 13.7. Beside.2 62. Hong Kong TPU no.

The park is separated into two parts by buildings. People Places. Figure-Ground Analysis Figure 20: Figure-ground Plan of Kennedy Town Figure 21: Figure-ground Plan of Wah Fu From the figure ground of Wah Fu. It 62 Clare Cooper Marcus & Carolyn A.is higher than Kennedy Town. Elderly would use the open space more frequently than other age group 62 . Francis (1990). Van Nostrand Reinhold 59 . some buildings are located at the centre of the Waterfall Bay Park.

Compared with Waterfall Bay Park. Buildings. the shape of Belcher Bay Park is more regular. this result is unexpected as the aging population of Wah Fu is larger. Research Finding and Analysis The result showed that the number of user in Waterfall Bay Park is much lesser than Belcher Park Bay in the whole day. Figure 22: Total Number of User at Different Time in the Study Parks 63 Christopher Alexander (1977). A Pattern Language: Towns. the park is tended to be a negative open space. The boundary is clear. Oxford University Press 60 . It is an open site alone the city grid. which is not useful and ineffective 63 . Although population of Kennedy Town is higher than Wah Fu. It seems that the park is left over between buildings and slope. According to Alexander Christopher (1977). Construction.resulted in loose shape of the park without a clear boundary.

it is not open for public due to security concern. the starting point and the ending point of open space are not emphasized. In fact. However. increase the accessibility to the edge of waterfall. waterfall at the northern end is the unique feature of the park. Thus. Especially for the ending point. the park ended without welcoming gateway or notice. Belcher Bay Park has emphasized the lawn as the most important space at the centre of the park. elderly may feel unsafe as they have to spend more time to look for the exit. If the entrance or exit of park is not well defined. Figure 23: Exit of the park without welcoming gateway or notice The park is not centralized. user can close to the waterfall visually. the most important space of the park is not defined.The entrance and boundary of park is ambiguous. So the park is difficult to form clear mental map in people mind. the design of the park can be focus on the north part. To take advantage of the waterfall. This makes the park have no distinguishing feature. Unlike Waterfall Bay Park. 61 .

62 . the design of park has not take advantage of it. Beside. However. Benches in the south area of the park are separated too far from each others. The arranged is said to be sociofugal setting. Figure 26: Benches are separated too far from each other which discourage social interaction. Those seats seem independent. the visual linkage between waterfront and the park is weak. Figure 25: The waterfront is the unique feature of Waterfall Bay. no shading device is provided for benches in the south area. which block the chance for communication and social interaction.Figure 24: User exercising in front of the waterfront. which is not user-friendly in raining or bright day. people on one seat cannot participate the activities beside them.

Figure 27: Path is too long and narrow without lighting device Figure 28: Buildings and car park are location at the centre of the park which obstructs the access. Beside. most facilities are too far from each others.Most accessible areas of the park are in form of circulation rather than node or plaza. The park provided insufficient facilities for user. The path is too long and narrow. 64 Christopher Alexander (1977). which result in lacking attractiveness and vitality. To encourage people to stay in the path. People would not like to stay in those voids result in no vitality. Buildings. A Pattern Language: Towns. People should pass from the south to the north though a narrow pathway. Especially in the middle section of the path. which would discourage social interaction. a lot of large voids are created with no use. Oxford University Press 63 . bulge spaces with facilities can be placed in some points of the path. As less facilities are found in the park. so nodes are form alone the path where activities are enhanced 64 . no lighting is provided at night which is dangerous. The two ends of the park are linked together by a narrow path. Construction.

Figure 29: Path without facilities Figure 30: Void without facilities which discourage social interaction Successful Factors of Open Space The findings of above case study showed that the usability of Waterfall Bay Park is much lower than Belcher Bay Park. Result in the great difference in the number of user. the performance of the two parks is compared as below. In sum. Belcher Bay Park Accessibility Linkage to Waterfront Definition of boundary Theme of the park Emphasized space of the park Variety of paving pattern Variety of facility Seating arrangement Table 4: Park Higher Weaker Clearly defined Sea navigation Lawn Higher Higher Tend to sociopetal setting Waterfall Bay Park Lower Stronger Vague None None Lower Lower Tend to sociofugal setting Comparison between the Performance of Belcher Bay Park and Waterfall Bay 64 .

Instead. otherwise. this section would analyze the open space of Kennedy Town in a macroscopic viewpoint. tortuous path or corridor should be avoided. If possible. user can feel the existence of it.7. so the hierarchy of the open space can be generated. the entrance should be easily detected by people. Every part of open space should not be planned with the same tone. Open Space of Kennedy Town in Future After studying of individual cases of open space. provide a feature space as the most important part in the design. Once the open space has a centre. 65 . Safety is important in open space.By combining the results of the two case studies. Open space should be positive with a clear boundary. 4. people would likely to remember the open space. the open space would become void which is not attractive for people to use. successful factors can be concluded as follows: Open space should be highly accessible. link the open space to the natural scene or resource nearby. Sufficient park facilities should be provided for public. The study would cover the urban planning and future open space development of Kennedy Town.

Planning Department. Although the area is not for public recreation. some masters would bring their dogs to the working area. Due to the high amount of people shift to the working area. provides no facilities and security.4. dog is not allowed to enter the Belcher Bay Park. social groups are 65 Planning Department (2006).7. Weak linkage between Open Space and Waterfront The Belcher Bay Park is located at the prominent site. If the government don’t propose new open space. People in Belcher Bay Park cannot reach the waterfront. Projections of Population Distribution. it is a rare place that people can reach the sea and enjoy slight wind. However. the quantity of open space still cannot fulfil the HKPSG and residents’ need.1. As the MTR extension to Kennedy Town will be completed in 2013. Existing Problems of Open Space Lack of Open Space Lack of open space is a serious problem that concerned by residents for many years. more people would visit Kennedy Town which causes the increase in transient population. Also it is estimated that the population of Kennedy Town would increase 9% until the mid of 2011 65 . Hong Kong 66 . After the largest park in Kennedy Town – Belcher Bay Park had established. some people would go to the Western District Public Cargo Working Area after the working hours. Beside. In order to enjoy larger open space. the Western District Public Cargo Working Area separated the park from the seacoast. existing open space would become overloaded. A lot of residents still go to there for walking or running at night.

but an unauthorized open space for residents. Figure 31: Due to the dogs’ masters and other residents. the working area is no longer a dangerous place at night. people should enjoy the waterfront in an abnormal way. It showed the people pursuit of open space. some people would go to Western District Public Cargo Working Area 67 .generated. As a result. also reflected that the linkage between open space and waterfront is weak. Western District Public Cargo Working Area become lively at night Figure 32: As Kennedy Town is lack of open space.

P. the lack of continuous open space can be imputed to the early planning of Sai Wan. Suggestions for Open Space Development To solve the existing problems of open space. (2003).Figure 33: Accessibility of waterfall in Kennedy Town Lack of Consolidation In the whole area of Kennedy Town. Central & Westerm District Council 68 . Unlike Sha Tin and Tai Po.2.7. all open spaces including Belcher Bay Park are lack of consolidation. both government department and non-government organization have different proposals. Legends of the Central & Westerm District Hong Kong. The pros and 66 Leung. It allows people to pass from one estate to another though green corridor instead of road. 4. which have less consideration on open space 66 . For Kennedy Town. Most parks and gardens are linked with each others to form continuous open space and promenade. W. open space design is more integrated.

also it put more afford on improving the life quality of resident instead of proposing high quantity of residential and mage-structure development. Analysis of Current Proposals To restructure the urban. Planning Department (2000) had proposed a Western District Development Strategy 67 . In addition. 67 Planning Department (2000). Hong Kong 69 . Nevertheless. Problem of open space is being respected in the proposal. In the draft proposal. It totally changed the image of Kennedy Town. CUPEM’s proposal would cause much lesser disturbance to the environment. A long waterfront promenade was proposed surrounding the whole seacoast of Kennedy Town. the overall planning ignored the original city grid and the history of Kennedy Town.cons of their suggestions would be discussed in this section. Western District Development Strategy – Consultation Digest. other suggestions. promenade without large area of reclaim is suggested. 2006). the consultation digest mentioned that the new planning should optimize the waterfront location to provide more opportunities for recreational use. Planning Department. remedial measures of open space development would also be discussed. It may be a good news for resident. Compared the draft proposal of Planning Department with the proposal done by Hong Kong University's Centre of Urban Planning and Environmental Management (CUPEM.

2000) Figure 35: Bird’s Eye View of Western District Development Strategy (Planning Department. 2000) By analyzing the Belcher Bay Park and other open spaces in Kennedy Town. suggestions for open space planning would be discussed as follows: 70 .Figure 34: Proposed Plan of Western District Development Strategy (Planning Department.

buildings would block the sea view and exploit the public right to enjoy the waterfront. undesirable industries including incinerator. 68 香港大學城市規劃及環境管理研究中心(2006). To facilities people to enjoy waterfront. most parts of waterfront are not open for public in Kennedy Town. more access to seacoast should be provided. From 2001 to 2004. As the west part of the working area has higher accessibility and it is facing the Belcher Bay Park. The Western District Public Cargo Working Area has been operating for many years. In order to provide quality open space that can reach the waterfront. The west part is the most suitable site for developing promenade.Increase the Accessibility to Waterfront Waterfront is a valuable resource. 可持續的中西區:以「生活質素」為 本的發展規劃. If the government allows high-rise residential development on the site. However. factory buildings still remaining on the site. 中西區區議會 71 . Thus. Make Use of Unused Land for Open Space Development Until 1990. where are located at the sea front of the western end of Kennedy Town. So it is possible to redevelop part of the working area into public open space. as required by public. the original site for those factories can be redeveloped into promenade. The promenade can directly link to the Cadogan Street Temporary Garden nearby to form a larger park. slaughterhouse and concrete plant were closed or relocated to other districts. the freight handling capacity was decreased 13% 68 . resident lived in the western end of Kennedy Town can enjoy a large open space nearby without spend too much time to walk to Belcher Bay Park. Although the industries are removed.

visual corridor in waterfront can be developed to link the two open spaces. 72 . As the Belcher Bay Park and Cadogan Street Temporary Garden is the largest open space of Kennedy Town.Figure 36: Make Use of Unused Land for Open Space Development in Kennedy Town Connect Different Open Spaces by Visual Corridor Open spaces in Kennedy Town have a lack of consolidation. To link the main open spaces together. the visual corridor can act as a welcoming gateway of Victoria Harbour. it is worth to develop visual corridor in the sea front. which welcomes visitors on the sea. Also. So people can walk around Kennedy Town by visual corridor.

000 household families owned dogs in Hong Kong 69 . park for pet is practicable in Kennedy Town. As Kennedy Town has no such facility for dog. 69 Planning Department (2006). 138. Up to 2005. To facilitate those masters. Projections of Population Distribution. the working area is not for such purpose. Planning Department. most masters would bring their dogs to Western District Public Cargo Working Area at night. but there are only 6 parks available for dog. However. Hong Kong 73 .Provide Park for Dog Having pet is more and more common in Hong Kong.

CHAPTER FIVE: RECOMMENDATION AND COLUSION 74 .

Although this approach can fulfill the demand of open space. the provision should consider the age group distribution of the district. The recommendations would be focus on the overall open space planning in Hong Kong. Elderly would spend more time on passive recreation area than young. It is a population-based approach of open space provision which ignore the background of population. the standards of HKPSG are focused on the quantity much more than the quality. Provide Open Space Based on User Background The Chapter Four of HKPSG is a framework for open space planning and provision. So the active to passive open space ratio should not simply based on the population. As the result showed in the case study. Instead. It principle is to provide sufficient quantity and high quality open space. 75 . The demographic structure of population would not be considered. people of different age group request different types of open space. Open space provision is totally based on the population of a district. However. Recommendation After a series of analysis.1.CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION RECOMMENDATION AND 5. recommendations would be suggested in order to improve the open space quality for future. the quality of open space is not guaranteed.

PSSC can analyze and integrate their view points for the guideline formulation.To response the demographic structure in open space planning. For example. interview or meeting can be provided for public to talk about their opinions. By encouraging public participation on the planning process. thus open space would be more ideal for society. Every district has its unique demographic structure. For most cases. It is important to fulfill the needs of different groups as they are the end user of open space. Although public may not feminized with the planning system. public is the end user of open space. provide more passive open space and greenery to deal with aging population. HKPSG should focus on the needs of different social groups. provide park for dog according to the district needs. Increase the Openness of HKPSG by Public Participation In the formulation or amendment of HKPSG. It is a top down formulation process that ignores the public interest. the openness of the formulation and review system can be increased. For example. they would know much more about their communities and what they want. So it is important for planner of HKPSG – the Planning Standards Sub-Committee (PSSC) to listen the public. public can only take part on it if the review involved major planning policy. 76 . However. HKPSG is better to take account of the demand of different communities and resident background. PSSC can provide communication channel for them. public have no channel to express their view to the government. the government is the only planner.

Department of Environmental Conservation. planners can take reference to the Planning Charettes. For the open space design process in Hong Kong. In the meanwhile. Although it would spend more time in the design process. Architectural Services Department (ArchSD) takes up major open space and park projects and works with client 70 . It is necessary for public to participate on the design process. HKU Press Department of Environmental Conservation (2004). They respect much for the public interests. The open space design is planner and designer-centred.Encourage Public Input in Open Space Design In Hong Kong. Compared with New York. New York 77 . In the local open space design. Local Open Space Planning Guide. They would create rough planning proposals with the planners. Building Hong Kong – Environment Consideration. As those professionals many not know the resident needs in depth. public members would present their ideas by graphic and drawing. which is an interactive meeting between public and planner.S. the outcome would reflect the public needs which is precious and substantial. (2000). Planning Charettes is a valuable lesson for both planner and 70 71 Wong W. under the formal design process. However. Members of the public and key people would be discussed with planners in form of small groups for a few hours. the openness of open space design process in New York is much higher. public have no chance to express their ideas. Then the planners would reorganize the rough proposal and turn it into more polished representations for later review and refinement. public would contribute to the design by “Planning Charettes” 71 .

planner would know more about the public interests during discussion.public. For example. Due to the long highway. it is the government’s responsibility to maintain the usability of waterfront. the Island Eastern Corridor was built over the waterfront of Eastern District. Open space should not be exploited due to other development such as commercial development and highway. it is necessary to consider open space planning first. Waterfront is a valuable resource in urban. For the urban planning in future. It is not only blocking the sea view of residential buildings. Give Higher Priority for Open Space in Urban Planning Open space provide many benefits and opportunities in urban area. public would build up a social responsibility to improve their communities. spiritless and dark. other developments should give way to open space. Especially for Hong Kong Island. As every one is the potential users of open space. locations for high-rise development and highway always have a higher priority than open space in urban planning. open space is not highly considered in the urban planning of Hong Kong. but also hindering people to use the waterfront open space. The open space under Island Eastern Corridor is a bad example. it is significant for planner to think of the possible location of open space. If possible. However. the whole waterfront becomes disconnected. at the same time. 78 .

space discarded by buildings and highways is common and unavoidable. Election of Favoured and Undesired Small Public Urban Scene. HKIA Journal. Pace Publishing Ltd. Those areas are not very accessible and have a higher risk 72 . 72 Hong Kong Institute of Architects (2007). many open spaces are not user friendly.Corrective Factor for Unwelcome Open Space In Hong Kong. only 60% of land would be counted as standard if the slope gradient is lower than 1:5. Actually. while some of them are built under highway and roadside strips. For open space that defined as not useful. 73 According to the Chapter Four of HKPSG. No. 49. It is not ideal for those open spaces to be fully counted as local open space. a corrective factor can be applied for those unwelcome open spaces. The result reflected that space under footbridge. Land would not be counted as standard if the slope gradient is greater than 1:3 79 . Similar as the slope correction factors that mentioned in HKPSG 73 . or located along road with fast traffic are undesired. only a percentage of the area should be count as local or district open space. An election of favoured and undesired small public urban scene is done by the Hong Kong Institute of Architects (HKIA). not all the slope open space would be counted as standard. Instead. Only 30% of land would be counted as standard if the slope gradient is between 1:5 and 1:3. Many small gardens and sitting-out areas are built on site where left behind tall buildings.

recommendations are suggested for the improvement of open space. everyone have the responsibility to create a good living environment. After a series of case studies and comparison between the performance of different parks. It is necessary for government to think of open space related polity in a sustainable way. thereby improving the whole environment of urban. problems of open spaces are pointed out. it is important for them to provide good design of every open space. open space design should not only depend on planner. A case study on Belcher Bay Park is used to demonstrate those insufficiencies of open space. The significance of open space is stated in the beginning of this thesis. So. the decision made by open space planner and landscape architect is not only affecting the open space design. open space is an essential element in urban. The government should encourage open space development. The goodness of city can be enhanced by providing quality open space. In sum. After analyzing the planning and performance of existing open spaces. If all of us keeping good habit in using open space 80 . Open space is not an independent unit in urban. but also the livability of a city. In fact.2. Thus. Conclusion Undoubtedly. it is interrelated to urban and people’s life. Everyone can help a little bit by reflecting his/her opinion to district council or related organization.5. Maintain the economic growth by real estate without depriving public right to use open space.

And our next generation can enjoy this valuable resource continuously. The case study of this thesis is focused on particular open spaces.3. 5. there are many open space design factors and theories which have not mentioned in the thesis. further study can be carried out in future. which is the ultimate achievement of open space planning. which analyzing open spaces in a micro view point. the living environment would be much better.and put more afford on improving open space. Further Study Open space planning is not an easy topic. 81 . examine open space from a far view point. To deepen this thesis. Although the thesis is completed. this thesis only covered a part of it. So the further case study can be emphasized on the overall open space planning in Hong Kong.

REFERENCES 82 .

Boundary Map Complementary to Tables for Tertiary Planning Units. Hong Kong Census and Statistics Department (2007). Landscape Planning in Singpore. Local Open Space Planning Guide. People Places. Hong Kong Christopher Alexander (1977). Architecture and Planning. Ervin Zube (1978). Williams.cfm. Department of Environmental Conservation (2004). Department of Environmental Conservation. Spon Press 83 . Francis (1990). Census and Statistics Department. Planning Department. Plenum Press Census and Statistics Department (2003). A graphic Guide on Hong Kong’s Development 1967 . Sustainable Design – Ecology. (2001). 2006 Population By-census – Basic Tables for Tertiary Planning Units. FAIA (2007). Hong Kong Helen Wooley (2003). Buildings. John Wiley & Sons Inc. Environmental Design Evaluation. Census and Statistics Department.fso-tela . C. Planning for High-Density Development in Hong Kong. Scientific Graphics Pte Ltd.REFERENCES Arnold Friedmann.2002. Location Library. Oxford University Press Clare Cooper Marcus & Carolyn A.K. Urban Open Spaces. New York Edmund Waller (2001). Construction.gov. Census and Statistics Department. McAndraw (1993). Brooks/Cole Publishing Company Fung. Environmental Psychology. Van Nostrand Reinhold Colin Rown and Fred Koetter (1978). A Pattern Language: Towns.hk/ accessibility/eng/locations. Craig Zimring. Hong Kong Francis T. Hong Kong Census and Statistics Department (2007). Television and Entertainment Licensing Authority. http://www. The MIT Press Daniel E. Film Services Office (2007). Collage City.

Hong Kong Institute of Architects (2007), Election of Favoured and Undesired Small Public Urban Scene, HKIA Journal, No. 49, Pace Publishing Ltd. John R. Goulding, J. Owen Lewis, Theo C. Steemers (1993), Energy in Architecture, Commission of the European Communities, B T Batsford Ltd. Joseph S.P. Ting, Wong. N. K. (1994), City of Victoria, The Urban Council of Hong Kong Kevin Lynch (1960), The Image of the City, MIT Press Kevin Lynch (1981), Good City Form, MIT Press Leung. P. W. (2003), Legends of the Central & Westerm District Hong Kong, Central & Westerm District Council Montgomery County Department of Planning & Inspections (2001), Open Space Planning, http://www.montva.com/departments/plan/ cpfiles/EXISTING_PLANS/OPENSPACEPLAN/preface.php Paul A. Bell, Thomas C. Greene, Jeffery D. Fisher, Andrew Baum (1978), Environment Psychology, Harcourt College Publishers Planning Department (2000), Western District Development Strategy – Consultation Digest, Planning Department, Hong Kong Planning Department (2002) Urban Design Guidelines for Hong Kong, Planning Department, Hong Kong Planning Department (2006), Projections of Population Distribution, Planning Department, Hong Kong Planning Department (2007), Hong Kong Planning Standards and Guidelines, Planning Department, Hong Kong Rob Krier (1979), Urban Space, Random House Lnc. Robert B. Bechtel (1997), Environment & Behavior - An Introduction, SAGA Publications Robert Gifford (1997), Environment Psychology, Allyn and Bacon Sommer Robert (1969), Personal Space: The Behavioral Basis of Design, Prentice-Hall Territory Development Department (1998), Central & Western District Works Programme 1998 Edition, Territory Development Department, Hong Kong

84

Ulrich R.S. (1979), Visual Landscape and Psychological Well Being, Landscape Research, Vol. 4, Taylor & Francis Group Wong W.S. (2000), Building Hong Kong – Environment Consideration, HKU Press Wong. K.K (2006), Park Visiting Patterns and the Likeability Appraisal Rating of Kowloon Park Scenes by Park Visitors, HKBU Press Wong. K.K. and Mantred Domries (2002), The emerging urban open space system in northern Kowloon, Hong Kong : preliminary analysis, HKBU Press Xue Q.L. & Kevin K.K. Manuel (1997), The Public Space of Urban Hong Kong – A Quest for Cultural Heritage and Developmental Strategies, The Second International Symposium on Asia Pacific Architecture 香港大學城市規劃及環境管理研究中心(2006), 可持續的中西區: 以「生活質素」為本的發展規劃, 中西區區議會

85

APPENDIX

86

APPENDIX 1A 87 Scale 1:7500 Map of Kennedy Town .

APPENDIX 2A 88 Scale 1:7500 Map of Wah Fu .

89 .

APPENDIX 4A 90 .

91 .

APPENDIX 5A 92 .

93 .

94 .

95 .

APPENDIX 6A 96 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.