FEATURES

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LT3958 High Input Voltage, Boost, Flyback, SEPIC and Inverting Converter DESCRIPTION
The LT®3958 is a wide input range, current mode, DC/DC converter which is capable of generating either positive or negative output voltages. It can be configured as either a boost, flyback, SEPIC or inverting converter. It features an internal low side N-channel power MOSFET rated for 84V at 3.3A and driven from an internal regulated 7.2V supply. The fixed frequency, current-mode architecture results in stable operation over a wide range of supply and output voltages. The operating frequency of LT3958 can be set with an external resistor over a 100kHz to 1MHz range, and can be synchronized to an external clock using the SYNC pin. A minimum operating supply voltage of 5V, and a low shutdown quiescent current of less than 1μA, make the LT3958 ideally suited for battery-powered systems. The LT3958 features soft-start and frequency foldback functions to limit inductor current during start-up.
L, LT, LTC, LTM, Linear Technology and the Linear logo are registered trademarks and No RSENSE and ThinSOT are trademarks of Linear Technology Corporation. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Patents pending.

Wide Input Voltage Range: 5V to 80V Single Feedback Pin for Positive or Negative Output Voltage Internal 3.3A/84V Power Switch Current Mode Control Provides Excellent Transient Response Programmable Operating Frequency (100kHz to 1MHz) with One External Resistor Synchronizeable to an External Clock Low Shutdown Current < 1μA Internal 7.2V Low Dropout Voltage Regulator Programmable Input Undervoltage Lockout with Hysteresis Programmable Soft-Start Thermally Enhanced QFN (5mm × 6mm) Package

APPLICATIONS
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Automotive Telecom Industrial

TYPICAL APPLICATION
High Efficiency Boost Converter
VIN 12V TO 40V 4.7μF 392k VIN EN/UVLO 53.6k SGND SYNC RT 41.2k 300kHz SS 0.33μF VC 10k 10nF
3958 TA01a

Efficiency vs Output Current
VOUT 48V 0.5A 100 95 EFFICIENCY (%) 90 85 80 75 70 0 400 100 200 300 OUTPUT CURRENT (mA) 500
3958 TA01b

33μH
4.7μF 2 GND

VIN = 24V

SW

LT3958
SENSE1 SENSE2 FBX INTVCC 4.7μF 15.8k 464k

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LT3958 ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
(Note 1)

PIN CONFIGURATION
TOP VIEW SYNC FBX NC NC SS VC 28 INTVCC 27 VIN 37 SGND 25 EN/UVLO 24 SGND SENSE1 6 SW 8 SW 9 NC 10 12 13 14 15 16 17 GND GND GND GND GND GND 38 SW 23 SGND 21 SW 20 SW RT

VIN, EN/UVLO (Note 5) ..............................................80V SW ............................................................................84V INTVCC .................................................... VIN + 0.3V, 15V SYNC ..........................................................................8V VC, SS.........................................................................3V RT ............................................................................................... 1.5V SENSE1, SGND .................. Internally Connected to GND SENSE2..................................................................±0.3V FBX ................................................................. –6V to 6V Operating Temperature Range (Note 2) ............................................. –40°C to 125°C Maximum Junction Temperature........................... 125°C Storage Temperature Range................... –65°C to 125°C

36 35 34 33 32 31 30 NC 1 NC 2 SENSE2 3 SGND 4

UHE PACKAGE 36-LEAD (5mm 6mm) PLASTIC QFN TJMAX = 125°C, θJA = 43°C/W, θJC = 5°C/W EXPOSED PAD (PIN 37) IS SGND, MUST BE SOLDERED TO SGND PLANE EXPOSED PAD (PIN 38) IS SW, MUST BE SOLDERED TO SW PLANE

ORDER INFORMATION
LEAD FREE FINISH LT3958EUHE#PBF LT3958IUHE#PBF TAPE AND REEL LT3958EUHE#TRPBF LT3958IUHE#TRPBF PART MARKING* 3958 3958 PACKAGE DESCRIPTION 36-Lead (5mm × 6mm) Plastic QFN 36-Lead (5mm × 6mm) Plastic QFN TEMPERATURE RANGE –40°C to 125°C –40°C to 125°C

Consult LTC Marketing for parts specified with wider operating temperature ranges. *The temperature grade is identified by a label on the shipping container. For more information on lead free part marking, go to: http://www.linear.com/leadfree/ For more information on tape and reel specifications, go to: http://www.linear.com/tapeandreel/

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5 SS = 0V.2k. 6) FBX < 0V.0 180 –65 1.3V.631 –0.2 200 250 1.6 UNITS V μA μA mA μA A mV μA 3. INTVCC = 7.4 4.15V VC = 0.6V.03 0.55 11.2 3.5V SENSE2 = SENSE1 ISW = 2A Current Out of Pin FBX > 0V (Note 3) FBX < 0V (Note 3) FBX > 0V (Note 4) FBX < 0V (Note 4) FBX = 1. RT = 41. unless otherwise noted.1 1.816 6 7 –10 1.LT3958 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS PARAMETER VIN Operating Range VIN Shutdown IQ VIN Operating IQ VIN Operating IQ with Internal LDO Disabled SW Pin Current Limit SW Pin On Voltage SENSE2 Input Bias Current Error Amplifier FBX Regulation Voltage (VFBX(REG)) FBX Overvoltage Lockout FBX Pin Input Current Transconductance gm (ΔIVC /ΔFBX) VC Output Impedance VFBX Line Regulation (ΔVFBX /[ΔVIN • VFBX(REG)]) VC Current Mode Gain (ΔVVC /ΔVSENSE) VC Source Current VC Sink Current Oscillator Switching Frequency RT = 140k to SGND. 6) VC = 1.5V RT = 41.5V FBX = 1. VC = 1.75 0. VC = 1.8 7.7V FBX = –0.6V 80 270 850 100 300 1000 1.2 400 4. 5V < VIN < 80V (Notes 3. FBX = 1.8V (Note 3) (Note 3) (Note 3) FBX > 0V. FBX = 0V.2k to SGND.5V RT = 10.569 –0.6V.2k VC = 0.800 8 11 70 230 5 0. CONDITIONS EN/UVLO = 0V EN/UVLO = 1.6V.5V.6 350 MAX 80 1 6 2. FBX = 1. FBX = 1. 5V < VIN < 80V (Notes 3. SENSE2 = 0V.038 %/V %/V V/V μA μA μA 120 330 1200 275 300 0. otherwise specifications are at TA = 25°C.784 10 14 100 10 V V % % nA nA μS MΩ 0.3 4. EN/UVLO = 24V. VC = 1.6 –0. VIN = 24V. Current Out of Pin l The l denotes the specifications which apply over the full operating temperature range. Current Out of Pin FBX = 1.005 10 –15 12 11 1.3V.4 kHz kHz kHz V ns ns RT Voltage SW Minimum Off-Time SW Minimum On-Time SYNC Input Low SYNC Input High SS Pull-Up Current Low Dropout Regulator INTVCC Regulation Voltage INTVCC Undervoltage Lockout Threshold INTVCC Overvoltage Lockout Threshold –10 7 3.85V l l l MIN 5 TYP 0.15 12.6V (Note 3) FBX = –0.00 μA V V V V Falling INTVCC UVLO Hysteresis 3958f 3 .006 0.5 7.5k to SGND. RT = 41.

characterization and correlation with statistical process controls. VIN 1.4 –50 –25 50 25 0 75 TEMPERATURE (°C) 100 125 3958 G01 3958 G02 3958 G03 3958f 4 .27 0.025 MAX 29 UNITS mA mA % %/V mV μA V V mV V μA nA INTVCC Line Regulation (ΔVINTVCC / [ΔVIN • VINTVCC]) 8V < VIN < 80V Note 1: Stresses beyond those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings may cause permanent damage to the device.4 2.LT3958 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS PARAMETER INTVCC Current Limit INTVCC Load Regulation (ΔVINTVCC / VINTVCC) Dropout Voltage (VIN – VINTVCC) INTVCC Current in Shutdown INTVCC Voltage to Bypass Internal LDO Logic Inputs EN/UVLO Threshold Voltage Falling EN/UVLO Voltage Hysteresis EN/UVLO Input Low Voltage EN/UVLO Pin Bias Current Low EN/UVLO Pin Bias Current High IVIN Drops Below 1μA EN/UVLO = 1.594 VIN = INTVCC = 5V 1.5 1. TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS Positive Feedback Voltage vs Temperature.600 1.590 –50 REGULATED FEEDBACK VOLTAGE (mV) REGULATED FEEDBACK VOLTAGE (V) VIN = 80V –792 –794 TA = 25°C. VIN = 24V.8V) with the VC pin forced to 1. unless otherwise noted. Note 3: The LT3958 is tested in a feedback loop which servos VFBX to the reference voltages (1. EN/UVLO = 24V.596 1.4 0.33V when VIN = 5V. the EN/UVLO pin must not exceed VIN. otherwise specifications are at TA = 25°C.6V and –0. unless otherwise noted. VIN 1. Note 2: The LT3958E is guaranteed to meet performance specifications from the 0°C to 125°C junction temperature. VC = 0V EN/UVLO = 0V. Quiescent Current vs Temperature.22 20 0.5 VIN = 24V –796 –798 –800 –802 –804 –50 VIN = INTVCC = 5V VIN = 8V VIN = 24V VIN = 80V –25 50 25 0 75 TEMPERATURE (°C) 100 125 –25 50 25 0 75 TEMPERATURE (°C) 100 125 1. Exposure to any Absolute Maximum Rating condition for extended periods may affect device reliability and lifetime. INTVCC = 8V MIN 19 –1 TYP 24 50 –0.592 1. The LT3958I is guaranteed over the full –40°C to 125°C operating junction temperature range.15V EN/UVLO = 1. Specifications over the –40°C to 125°C operating junction temperature range are assured by design.33V 1. Note 4: FBX overvoltage lockout is measured at VFBX(OVERVOLTAGE) relative to regulated VFBX(REG).7 2 10 VIN = INTVCC = 8V l The l denotes the specifications which apply over the full operating temperature range.602 1.598 VIN = 8V 1.5 100 1. Note 6: EN/UVLO = 1.005 500 16 7.7 VIN = 24V 1. SENSE2 = 0V.8 Negative Feedback Voltage vs Temperature.3V. VIN = 8V VIN = 6V. IINTVCC = 10mA. Note 5: For 5V < VIN < 6V.17 1. VIN QUIESCENT CURRENT (mA) VIN = 80V 1.6 VIN = INTVCC = 5V 1. CONDITIONS VIN = 80V VIN = 20V 0 < IINTVCC < 10mA.604 1.

1 4.7 SW Pin Current Limit vs Temperature 4.18 –50 0 –25 50 25 0 75 TEMPERATURE (°C) 100 125 1.6 3958 G06 Switching Frequency vs Temperature 325 320 SWITCHING FREQUENCY (kHz) 315 310 305 300 295 290 285 280 275 –50 –25 0 25 50 75 TEMPERATURE (°C) 100 125 RT = 41.6 –50 0 20 40 60 DUTY CYCLE (%) 80 100 3958 G09 3958 G07 3958 G08 EN/UVLO Threshold vs Temperature 1.2 30 IEN/UVLO (μA) 0 20 40 60 EN/UVLO VOLTAGE (V) 80 3958 G11 2. Normalized Switching Frequency vs FBX 120 NORMALIZED FREQUENCY (%) 100 80 60 40 20 0 –0.0 1.1 4.3 SW PIN CURRENT LIMIT (A) –25 50 25 0 75 TEMPERATURE (°C) 100 125 4.8 RT vs Switching Frequency 1000 RT (kΩ) IQ(mA) 100 10 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 SWITCHING FREQUENCY (kHz) 3958 G05 –0.8 1.24 EN/UVLO FALLING EN/UVLO CURRENT (μA) EN/UVLO VOLTAGE (V) 40 2.4 0 0.0 3.9 3.2k SW PIN CURRENT LIMIT (A) 4.28 50 EN/UVLO Current vs Voltage 2.8 3.20 10 1.6 –50 –25 50 25 0 75 TEMPERATURE (°C) 100 125 3958 G10 3958 G12 3958f 5 .4 4.6 SW Pin Current Limit vs Duty Cycle 3. unless otherwise noted.8 3.4 EN/UVLO Hysteresis Current vs Temperature 1.4 4.4 0.26 EN/UVLO RISING 1.0 3.3 4.8 FBX VOLTAGE (V) 1.LT3958 TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS Dynamic Quiescent Current vs Switching Frequency 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 SWITCHING FREQUENCY (kHz) 3958 G04 TA = 25°C.7 3.2 1.2 4.2 4.22 20 1.9 3.

2 7.20 7 7. Temperature 900 800 DROPOUT VOLTAGE (mV) ON-RESISTANCE (mΩ) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 3958 G16 Internal Switch On-Resistance vs Temperature 125°C 180 160 140 ON-RESISTANCE (mΩ) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 –50 –25 0 25 50 75 100 125 90 88 98 96 94 92 75°C 25°C 102 100 Internal Switch On-Resistance vs INTVCC 0°C –40°C 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 INTVCC LOAD (mA) TEMPERATURE (°C) 3958 G17 INTVCC (V) 3958 G18 SEPIC Typical Start-Up Waveforms VIN = 24V VOUT 10V/DIV VOUT 5V/DIV SEPIC FBX Frequency Foldback Waveforms During Overcurrent VIN = 24V VSW 20V/DIV IL1A + IL1B 2A/DIV 5ms/DIV 3958 G19 IL1A + IL1B 2A/DIV 50μs/DIV 3958 G20 SEE TYPICAL APPLICATION: 10V TO 60V INPUT.30 INTVCC Line Regulation INTVCC VOLTAGE (V) 7.3 TA = 25°C.15 6.LT3958 TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS INTVCC vs Temperature 7.8 –25 50 25 0 75 TEMPERATURE (°C) 100 125 0 5 15 10 INTVCC LOAD (mA) 7.9 7. INTVCC Load Regulation VIN = 8V 7.4 7. 12V OUTPUT SEPIC CONVERTER 3958f 6 .2 7. unless otherwise noted.1 INTVCC VOLTAGE (V) 7.25 7.0 –50 6.3 INTVCC (V) 7.10 20 25 3958 G14 0 10 20 30 40 50 VIN (V) 60 70 80 3958 G15 3958 G13 INTVCC Dropout Voltage vs Current. 12V OUTPUT SEPIC CONVERTER SEE TYPICAL APPLICATION: 10V TO 60V INPUT.1 7.

VIN pin can be locally bypassed with a capacitor to GND (not SGND).20. SENSE1 (Pin 6): The Current Sense Output of the Internal N-channel MOSFET.9. An accurate 1. Do not connect SGND and GND externally.15. 24. SS (Pin 32): Soft-Start Pin.4V. then connect SENSE2 to SGND through a capacitor). The pin has a 10μA (typical) pull-up current source to an internal 2. All small-signal components should connect to this ground. Tie to 0. SGND (Pins 4. Place compensation components between the VC pin and SGND. GND is connected to SGND inside the IC to ensure Kelvin connection for the internal switch current sensing. INTVCC must be bypassed to SGND with a minimum of 4. Supplied from VIN and regulated to 7. 10. 36): No Internal Connection. Also modulates the switching frequency during start-up and fault conditions when FBX is close to SGND. The soft-start interval is set with an external capacitor between SS pin and SGND. Do not leave this pin open. Rising hysteresis is generated by the external resistor divider and an accurate internal 2μA pull-down current. Leave these pins open or connect them to the adjacent pins. Used to synchronize the switching frequency to an outside clock. to disable the device and reduce VIN quiescent current below 1μA. If this feature is used. 2. An undervoltage condition resets sort-start. an INTVCC undervoltage or overvoltage condition or an internal thermal lockout. Connect this pin to SENSE1 pin directly or through a low pass filter (connect this pin to SENSE1 pin through a resistor. Exposed Pad Pin 38): Drain of Internal Power N-channel MOSFET.5V. 35. Do not connect GND and SGND externally.14. Set the frequency using a resistor to SGND. SGND is connected to GND inside the IC to ensure Kelvin connection for the internal switch current sensing. provided that supply does not exceed 11. INTVCC can also be connected to a power supply whose voltage is higher than 7. Connect this pin to SENSE2 pin directly or through a low pass filter (connect this pin to SENSE1 pin through a resistor.22V (nominal) falling threshold with externally programmable hysteresis detects when power is okay to enable switching. These pins connect to the source terminal of internal power N-channel MOSFET through an internal sense resistor.21.5V. VIN (Pin 27): Input Supply Pin. or less. FBX (Pin 31): Positive and Negative Feedback Pin. SW (Pins 8.LT3958 PIN FUNCTIONS NC (Pins 1.13. Tie the SYNC pin to SGND if this feature is not used.7μF capacitor placed close to pin. This pin modulates compensation pin voltage (VC) clamp. if VIN is less than 11.17): Ground. an RT resistor should be chosen to program a switching frequency 20% slower than the SYNC pulse frequency. 23.5V. SENSE2 (Pin 3): The Current Sense Input for the Control Loop. The soft-start pin is reset to SGND by an undervoltage condition at EN/UVLO. INTVCC can be connected directly to VIN. SYNC (Pin 34): Frequency Synchronization Pin. RT (Pin 33): Switching Frequency Adjustment Pin. and lower than VIN. 3958f 7 . EN/UVLO (Pin 25): Shutdown and Undervoltage Detect Pin. GND (Pins 12. Receives the feedback voltage from the external resistor divider between the output and SGND.5V rail. VC (Pin 30): Error Amplifier Compensation Pin. and to SGND through a capacitor). Used to stabilize the voltage loop with an external RC network. INTVCC (Pin 28): Regulated Supply for Internal Loads and Gate Driver.2V (typical). Exposed Pad Pin 37): Signal Ground.16. SYNC is ignored when FBX is close to SGND.

8V FREQUENCY FOLDBACK FREQUENCY 1.LT3958 BLOCK DIAGRAM L1 VIN R4 R3 CIN VIN SW 8.28V A3 34 SYNC + – A12 A7 G5 R S O G2 M1 6 RSENSE SENSE1 SLOPE RAMP VISENSE – A6 + A5 48mV 12. 9.5V IS3 TLO 165˚C G6 VC G4 G3 INTERNAL REGULATOR AND UVLO UVLO A9 A8 27 – + + – 12. 23.2V LDO INTVCC 28 INTVCC CVCC 1.72V – + – + A11 + – 3. 14.8V CURRENT LIMIT 7.88V Q2 PWM COMPARATOR 1. 37 RT SGND 3958 F01 3958f .5V IS2 10μA Q3 2. 38 1. 15. 13.75V DRIVER SR1 –0.22V CDC D1 VOUT L2 COUT • • EN/UVLO 25 A10 IS1 2μA 2. LT3958 Block Diagram Working as a SEPIC Converter 8 + – 1.6V + A1 – + A2 – –0. 16.2V FOLDBACK 31 R2 VOUT FBX 30 CC2 VC 32 SS RC CC1 CSS R1 Figure 1. 17 3 GND SENSE RAMP GENERATOR 100kHz-1MHz OSCILLATOR + – SENSE2 G1 + + – A4 FREQ PROG Q1 33 RT 4. 20. 21. 24.

In this manner.FALLING VVIN. The purpose of this current is to allow the user to program the rising hysteresis. or as an inverting converter to generate negative output voltage. It can be configured as a boost. When EN/UVLO is above 0.22V reference. If the SENSE2 pin voltage is higher than the sense current limit threshold VSENSE(MAX) (48mV. The LT3958 is capable of generating either positive or negative output voltage with a single FBX pin.22V threshold. An overvoltage comparator A11 (with 20mV hysteresis) senses when the FBX pin voltage exceeds the positive regulated voltage (1.22 • For applications where the EN/UVLO pin is only used as a logic input.6V by a voltage divider (R1 and R2) connected from VOUT to SGND. The LT3958 has a switch current limit function. The start of each oscillator cycle sets the SR latch (SR1) and turns on the internal power MOSFET switch M1 through driver G2. The falling value can be accurately set by the resistor dividers R3 and R4. turning off the power switch.FALLING = 1. the FBX pin is pulled down to –0. A micropower 1. depending on the configuration). current mode control scheme to provide excellent line and load regulation.RISING = 2µA • R3 + VIN.8V. and below the 1. Comparator A1 becomes inactive and comparator A2 performs the noninverting amplification from FBX to VC.6V) by 8% and provides a reset pulse. A6 will reset SR1 and turn off M1 immediately. Similarly. When configured as a SEPIC converter. Both reset pulses are sent to the main RS latch (SR1) through G6 and G5. typical).8V) by 11% and provides a reset pulse. as shown in Figure 1. Programming Turn-On and Turn-Off Thresholds with the EN/UVLO Pin The EN/UVLO pin controls whether the LT3958 is enabled or is in shutdown state. Comparator A2 becomes inactive and comparator A1 performs the inverting amplification from FBX to VC. When SLOPE exceeds the level at the negative input of A7 (VC pin).4V.8V by a voltage divider connected from VOUT to SGND. When the LT3958 is in an inverting configuration. The Block Diagram of the comparator and the external resistors is shown in Figure 1. an overvoltage comparator A12 (with 10mV hysteresis) senses when the FBX pin voltage exceeds the negative regulated voltage (–0. The LT3958 has overvoltage protection functions to protect the converter from excessive output voltage overshoot during start-up or recovery from a short-circuit condition. a comparator A10 and a controllable current source IS1 allow the user to accurately program the supply voltage at which the IC turns on and off. The level at the negative input of A7 is set by the error amplifier A1 (or A2) and is an amplified version of the difference between the feedback voltage (FBX pin) and the reference voltage (1. This current sense voltage VISENSE (amplified by A5) is added to a stabilizing slope compensation ramp and the resulting sum (SLOPE) is fed into the positive terminal of the PWM comparator A7. The typical falling threshold voltage and rising threshold voltage can be calculated by the following equations: (R3 + R4) R4 VVIN. the EN/UVLO pin can be connected directly to the input voltage VIN through a 1k resistor for alwayson operation.6V or –0. the FBX pin is pulled up to the internal bias voltage of 1. the error amplifier sets the correct peak switch current level to keep the output in regulation. The current sense voltage is input to the current limit comparator A6. Operation can be best understood by referring to the Block Diagram in Figure 1. 3958f 9 . flyback or SEPIC converter to generate positive output voltage. the small pull-down current source IS1 (typical 2μA) is active. The switch current flows through the internal current sensing resistor RSENSE and generates a voltage proportional to the switch current.LT3958 APPLICATIONS INFORMATION Main Control Loop The LT3958 uses a fixed frequency. The power MOSFET switch M1 is actively held off for the duration of an output overvoltage condition. SR1 is reset.

as shown in Figure 2. With the INTVCC pin shorted to VIN. When INTVCC is below the UV threshold. to ensure that the internal MOSFET has sufficient gate drive voltage before turning on.7μF low ESR ceramic capacitor to ground immediately adjacent to the INTVCC and SGND pins.8V (typical) to protect the gate of the power MOSFET. the INTVCC pin can be shorted directly to the VIN pin. to limit the inrush current from VOUT.8V). it is always necessary to have the driver circuitry bypassed with a 4. most of the IC supply current is used to drive the gate capacitance of the internal power MOSFET.15V hysteresis. as shown in Figure 1. The on-chip power dissipation can be significant when the internal power MOSFET is being driven at a high frequency and the VIN voltage is high. In this condition. The INTVCC undervoltage (UV) threshold is 3. For applications that require the lowest shutdown mode input supply current. VOUT < VIN (pin voltage) 2. Regardless of whether or not the INTVCC pin is connected to an external voltage source. if VOUT meets the following conditions: 1.75V (typical). Good bypassing is necessary to supply the high transient currents required by the MOSFET gate driver. In SEPIC or flyback applications. The LT3958 contains an undervoltage lockout comparator A8 and an overvoltage lockout comparator A9 for the INTVCC supply. or above the overvoltage threshold.LT3958 APPLICATIONS INFORMATION INTVCC Regulator Bypassing and Operation An internal.7μF ceramic capacitor.2V INTVCC supply which powers the gate driver. do not connect the INTVCC pin to VIN. An effective approach to reduce the power consumption of the internal LDO for gate drive and to improve the efficiency is to tie the INTVCC pin to an external voltage source high enough to turn off the internal LDO regulator. The INTVCC regulator must be bypassed to SGND immediately adjacent to the IC pins with a minimum of 4. a small current (around 16μA) will load the INTVCC in shutdown mode. the INTVCC pin can be connected to the output voltage VOUT through a blocking diode.8V (typical) A resistor RVCC can be connected. The logic circuitry within the LT3958 is also powered from the internal INTVCC supply. the internal LDO will be turned off and the gate driver will be powered directly from the input voltage VIN. If the input voltage VIN does not exceed the INTVCC overvoltage lockout threshold voltage (12. as shown in Figure 2. with 0. In an actual application. DVCC INTVCC LT3958 CVCC 4. low dropout (LDO) voltage regulator produces the 7. however. The INTVCC overvoltage threshold is set to be 12. Connecting INTVCC to VOUT 3958f 10 . VOUT < 12. the internal power switch will be turned off and the soft-start operation will be triggered.7μF RVCC VOUT SGND 3958 F02 Figure 2.

the LT3958 keeps the power switch off for at least 200ns (typical) (see Minimum Off-Time in the Electrical Characteristics table). The positive and negative VOUT are set by the following equations: ⎛ R2 ⎞ VOUT. However. an RT resistor should be chosen to program a switching frequency 20% slower than SYNC pulse frequency. This time is generally about 250ns (typical) (see Minimum On-Time in the Electrical Characteristics table). 3958f 11 . minimum off-time and the switching frequency define the minimum and maximum switching duty cycles a converter is able to generate: Minimum duty cycle = minimum on-time • frequency Maximum duty cycle = 1 – (minimum off-time • frequency) Programming the Output Voltage The output voltage VOUT is set by a resistor divider. Table 1. A table for selecting the value of RT for a given operating frequency is shown in Table 1.4 41. By providing a digital clock signal into the SYNC pin. In each switching cycle.1 10. lower frequency operation requires a physically larger inductor. its limits must be considered. Timing Resistor (RT ) Value SWITCHING FREQUENCY (kHz) 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 RT (kΩ) 140 63. The RT pin must have an external resistor to SGND for proper operation of the LT3958.5 Duty Cycle Consideration Switching duty cycle is a key variable defining converter operation. as shown in Figure 1.5 14 12.POSITIVE = 1.6 16. It is recommended that the Sync input clock has a minimum pulse width of 200ns.LT3958 APPLICATIONS INFORMATION Operating Frequency and Synchronization The choice of operating frequency may be determined by on-chip power dissipation (a low switching frequency may be required to ensure IC junction temperature does not exceed 125°C). Switching frequency also has implications for loop compensation. Tie the SYNC pin to SGND if this feature is not used.2 30. otherwise it is a trade-off between efficiency and component size. The minimum on-time.NEGATIVE = –0. The LT3958 detects the rising edge of each Sync clock cycle. as shown in Figure 1.3 19. If this feature is used. As such.6V • ⎜ 1+ ⎟ ⎝ R1⎠ ⎛ R2 ⎞ VOUT. Minimum on-time is the smallest time duration that the LT3958 is capable of turning on the power MOSFET. The operating frequency of the LT3958 can be synchronized to an external clock source.9 24.8V • ⎜ 1+ ⎟ ⎝ R1⎠ The resistors R1 and R2 are typically chosen so that the error caused by the current flowing into the FBX pin during normal operation is less than 1% (this translates to a maximum value of R1 at about 158k). The LT3958 uses a constant-frequency architecture that can be programmed over a 100kHz to 1000kHz range with a single external resistor from the RT pin to ground. Low frequency operation improves efficiency by reducing gate drive current and MOSFET and diode switching losses. the LT3958 will operate at the SYNC clock frequency.

LT3958 APPLICATIONS INFORMATION Soft-Start The LT3958 contains several features to limit peak switch currents and output voltage (VOUT) overshoot during start-up or recovery from a fault condition. the SS pin reduces the power MOSFET current by pulling down the VC pin through Q2. To compensate the feedback loop of the LT3958. High peak switch currents during start-up may occur in switching regulators.2V. Since VOUT is far from its final value. to 50k. or a flyback converter. including load current. INTVCC < 3. exceeding the programmed current limit. 3958f 12 . Stability should then be checked across all operating conditions. a 10μA current source IS2 starts charging the SS pin. Besides start-up (with EN/UVLO). The LT3958 uses current mode control to regulate the output which simplifies loop compensation. the switch current may keep increasing through each switch cycle. When all faults are cleared and the SS pin has been discharged below 0.55V 3. a series resistor-capacitor network is usually connected from the VC pin to SGND. To prevent the switch peak currents from exceeding the programmed value. Application Note 76 is a good reference. external clock synchronization is disabled to prevent interference with frequency reducing operation. The typical start-up waveforms are shown in the Typical Performance Characteristics section. So. resulting in large peak currents. The SS pin will be discharged by Q3. A small capacitor is often connected in parallel with the RC compensation network to attenuate the VC voltage ripple induced from the output voltage ripple through the internal error amplifier.25V 10µA FBX Frequency Foldback When VOUT is very low during start-up. and tune the compensation network to optimize the performance. The primary purpose of these features is to prevent damage to external components or the load. In this way the SS allows the output capacitor to charge gradually toward its final value while limiting the start-up peak currents. For most applications. since the inductor current decay rate is very low during switch off time. As shown in Figure 1. the capacitor should be in the range of 470pF to 22nF and the resistor should be in the range of 5k . Thermal lockout Any of these three faults will cause the LT3958 to stop switching immediately. During frequency foldback. The inductor current IL slewing rate is limited by the soft-start function. the switching regulator must operate at low duty cycles to maintain the power switch current within the current limit range. etc. Loop Compensation Loop compensation determines the stability and transient performance. initiating a soft-start operation. The soft-start interval is set by the soft-start capacitor selection according to the equation: TSS = CSS • 1. or an output shortcircuit on a SEPIC. the component values and the operating conditions (including the input voltage. load current. A large surge current may cause inductor saturation or power switch failure.8V (typical) 2.). the LT3958 contains a frequency foldback function to reduce the switching frequency when the FBX voltage is low (see the Normalized Switching Frequency vs FBX graph in the Typical Performance Characteristics section). soft-start can also be triggered by the following faults: 1. an inverting. input voltage and temperature. the compensation network is to start with one of the circuits in this data sheet that is similar to your application. The optimum values depend on the converter topology. the feedback loop is saturated and the regulator tries to charge the output capacitor as quickly as possible. INTVCC > 12. The minimum on-time limitation may prevent the switcher from attaining a sufficiently low duty cycle at the programmed switching frequency. Figure 1 shows the typical VC compensation network. The LT3958 addresses this mechanism with the SS pin. The parallel capacitor usually ranges in value from 10pF to 100pF A practical approach to design .

Figure 3 shows a typical waveform of the internal switch current (ISW). Keep RFLT’s resistance low. A soft-start operation will be triggered. It is usually sufficient to choose 22Ω for RFLT and 2. VSW(PEAK) is the peak switch off-state voltage. The IC will be enabled again when the junction temperature has dropped by 5°C (nominal). The highest junction temperature can be estimated using the following equation: TJ(MAX) ≈ TA + PIC(MAX) • 42°C/W It is recommended to measure the IC temperature in steady state to verify that the junction temperature limit is not exceeded. The Switch Current During a Switching Cycle Due to the current limit (minimum 3.2nF to 10nF for CFLT. LT3958 SENSE1 RFLT SENSE2 CFLT SGND 3958 F04 DTS Figure 3.6mA + ƒ • 10nC) where RDS(ON) is the internal switch on-resistance which can be obtained from the Typical Performance Characteristics section. This ringing is caused by the parasitic inductance and capacitance of the PCB trace. The 100ns timing interval is adequate for most of the LT3958 applications. a small RC filter can be added to filter out the excess ringing.LT3958 APPLICATIONS INFORMATION The Internal Power Switch Current For control and protection. The maximum power dissipation PIC(MAX) can be obtained by comparing PIC across all the VIN range at the maximum output current . the LT3958 measures the internal power MOSFET current by using a sense resistor (RSENSE) between GND and the MOSFET source. The RC Filter on SENSE1 Pin and SENSE2 Pin 3958f 13 . If LT3958 die temperature reaches thermal lockout threshold at 165°C (typical). ISW ISW ISW(PEAK) t TS 3958 F03 On-Chip Power Dissipation and Thermal Lockout (TLO) The on-chip power dissipation of LT3958 can be estimated using the following equation: PIC ≈ I2SW • D • RDS(ON) + V2SW(PEAK) • ISW • ƒ • 200pF/A + VIN • (1.3A by a sufficient margin (10% or higher is recommended). The LT3958 switching controller incorporates 100ns timing interval to blank the ringing on the current sense signal across RSENSE immediately after M1 is turned on. Remember that there is 65μA (typical) flowing out of the SENSE2 pin. the LT3958 should be used in the applications that the switch peak current ISW(PEAK) during steady state normal operation is lower than 3.3A ⎝ 48mV ⎠ Figure 4. Figure 4 shows the RC filter on the SENSE1 and SENSE2 pins. the diode. the IC will initiate several protective actions. and the MOSFET. The power switch will be turned off. Adding RFLT will affect the internal power switch current limit threshold: ⎛ 65µA • RFLT ⎞ ISW _ILIM = ⎜ 1− ⎟ • 3. A low switching frequency may be required to ensure TJ(MAX) does not exceed 125°C. the sense resistor.3A) of the internal power switch. In the applications that have very large and long ringing on the current sense signal.

but requires large inductances and reduces the current loop gain (the converter will approach voltage mode). but results in higher input current ripple and greater core losses. Discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) provides higher conversion ratios at a given frequency at the cost of reduced efficiencies and higher switching currents. It is recommended to choose a ΔISW lower than 0. For applications requiring a step-up converter that is short-circuit protected. the duty cycle of the main switch can be calculated based on the output voltage (VOUT) and the input voltage (VIN). SEPIC and inverting converters. The average forward current in normal operation is equal to the output current. The peak reverse voltage that the diode must withstand is equal to the regulator output voltage plus any additional ringing across its anode-to-cathode during the on-time. Boost Converter: Switch Duty Cycle and Frequency The LT3958 can be configured as a boost converter for the applications where the converter output voltage is higher than the input voltage. The conversion ratio as a function of duty cycle is VOUT 1 = VIN 1− D in continuous conduction mode (CCM). and the RMS inductor current is approximately equal to IL(MAX). the inductor current is limited only by the input supply capability.LT3958 APPLICATIONS INFORMATION APPLICATION CIRCUITS The LT3958 can be configured as different topologies. a fast switching diode with low forward drop and low reverse leakage is desirable. the maximum average inductor current is: I L(MAX) = IO(MAX) • 1 1− DMAX Due to the current limit of its internal power switch. please refer to the Applications Information section covering SEPIC converters.3A − 0. Given an operating input voltage range.5 • ΔISW ) The inductor ripple current ΔISW has a direct effect on the choice of the inductor value and the converter’s maximum output current capability. Remember that boost converters are not short-circuit protected. Accepting larger values of ΔISW provides fast transient response and allows the use of low inductances. the LT3958 should be used in a boost converter whose maxi- 3958f 14 . Under a shorted output condition. It is recommended that the peak repetitive reverse voltage rating VRRM is higher than VOUT by a safety margin (a 10V safety margin is usually sufficient). For a boost converter operating in CCM. The first topology to be analyzed will be the boost converter. The maximum duty cycle (DMAX) occurs when the converter has the minimum input voltage: DMAX = VOUT − VIN(MIN) VOUT mum output current (IO(MAX)) is less than the maximum output current capability by a sufficient margin (10% or higher is recommended): I O(MAX) ≤ VIN(MIN) VOUT • ( 3. followed by the flyback. Choosing smaller values of ΔISW increases output current capability. and having chosen the operating frequency and ripple current in the inductor. and reduces output current capability. Boost Converter: Output Diode Selection To maximize efficiency. the inductor value of the boost converter can be determined using the following equation: L= VIN(MIN) ΔISW • ƒ • DMAX The peak inductor current is the switch current limit (typical 4A). Boost Converter: Maximum Output Current Capability and Inductor Selection For the boost topology. The user should choose the inductors having sufficient saturation and RMS current ratings.6A.

3 • ΔIL For the bulk C component. and how this ripple should be divided between the ESR step ΔVESR and the charging/discharging ΔVCOUT. to be divided equally between ΔVESR and ΔVCOUT. The Output Ripple Waveform of a Boost Converter The output capacitor in a boost regulator experiences high RMS ripple currents. Boost Converter: Output Capacitor Selection Contributions of ESR (equivalent series resistance). the ESR of the output capacitor can be determined using the following equation: ESRCOUT ≤ 0. Typically.01• VOUT ID(PEAK) VOUT (AC) RINGING DUE TO TOTAL INDUCTANCE (BOARD + CAP) 3958 F05 tON tOFF VCOUT VESR Figure 5. The input voltage source impedance determines the size of the input capacitor. For the purpose of simplicity. The RMS ripple current rating of the output capacitor can be determined using the following equation: IRMS(COUT) ≥IO(MAX) • DMAX 1− DMAX Multiple capacitors are often paralleled to meet ESR requirements. which reduces high frequency switching noise on the converter output. and the diode junction temperature is: TJ = TA + PD • RθJA The RθJA to be used in this equation normally includes the RθJC for the device plus the thermal resistance from the board to the ambient temperature in the enclosure. and the following equations can easily be modified. TJ must not exceed the diode maximum junction temperature rating. depending on the requirements of the application. ESL (equivalent series inductance) and the bulk capacitance must be considered when choosing the correct output capacitors for a given output ripple voltage. although it is not as critical as for the output capacitor. ESL and bulk C) on the output voltage ripple waveform for a typical boost converter is illustrated in Figure 5. The effect of these three parameters (ESR. The RMS input capacitor ripple current for a boost converter is: IRMS(CIN) = 0. the capacitance is adequate for filtering and has the required RMS current rating. For a 1% contribution to the total ripple voltage. once the ESR requirement is satisfied. and the input current waveform is continuous.LT3958 APPLICATIONS INFORMATION The power dissipated by the diode is: PD = IO(MAX) • VD where VD is diode’s forward voltage drop.01• VOUT • ƒ 3958f 15 . which is typically in the range of 1μF to 100μF A low ESR capacitor . we will choose 2% for the maximum output ripple. due to the fact that the inductor is in series with the input. is recommended. Additional ceramic capacitors in parallel are commonly used to reduce the effect of parasitic inductance in the output capacitor. This percentage ripple will change. which also contributes 1% to the total ripple: COUT ≥ IO(MAX) 0. The choice of component(s) begins with the maximum acceptable ripple voltage (expressed as a percentage of the output voltage). Boost Converter: Input Capacitor Selection The input capacitor of a boost converter is less critical than the output capacitor. as shown in Figure 5.

D is duty cycle.5 ~ 2 + VOUT + CIN VSN – + CSN RSN LP LS ID COUT + – DSN ISW SW LT3958 GND According to the Absolute Maximum Ratings table. the maximum primary to secondary turns ratio (for both the continuous and the discontinuous operation) should be. Both LP and LS currents are zero during D3TS. The flyback converter can be designed to operate either in continuous or discontinuous mode. it has low efficiency due to the high peak currents. A smaller VSN results in a larger snubber loss. and LS is conducting current. D3TS. A Simplified Flyback Converter ISW Flyback Converter: Switch Duty Cycle and Turns Ratio The flyback converter conversion ratio in the continuous mode operation is: VOUT NS D = • VIN NP 1− D where NS/NP is the second to primary turns ratio. high output voltages or isolated outputs. D2TS. the peak SW voltage is: VSW(PEAK) = VIN(MAX) + VSN where VSN is the snubber capacitor voltage. three subintervals occur: DTS. Figure 6 shows a simplified flyback converter. NP 84V − VIN(MAX) ≤ NS k • VOUT VSW 3958 F06 Figure 6. However. The flyback converter has a very low parts count for multiple outputs. The flyback converter is commonly used for an output power of less than 50W. Waveforms of the Flyback Converter in Discontinuous Mode Operation 3958f 16 . Figure 7 shows the waveforms of the flyback converter in discontinuous mode operation. Therefore. M is on. The flyback converter conversion ratio in the discontinuous mode operation is: VOUT NS D = • VIN NP D2 According to Figure 6.LT3958 APPLICATIONS INFORMATION FLYBACK CONVERTER APPLICATIONS The LT3958 can be configured as a flyback converter for the applications where the converters have multiple outputs. M is off. and D is reverse-biased. and with prudent selection of turns ratio.5 to 2 times of the reflected output voltage: VSN = k • VOUT • NP NS k = 1. SUGGESTED RCD SNUBBER VIN NP:NS D period TS. discontinuous mode has the advantage of smaller transformer inductances and easy loop compensation. Compared to continuous mode. During D2TS. and the disadvantage of higher peak-to-average current and lower efficiency. the SW voltage Absolute Maximum value is 84V. high peak voltages and consequent power loss. A reasonable VSN is 1. During each switching ID ID(MAX) DTS D2TS TS D3TS t 3958 F07 Figure 7. can have high output/input voltage conversion ratios with a desirable duty cycle. During DTS.

Accepting larger values of ΔISW allows the use of low primary and secondary inductances. but results in higher input current ripple. It is recommended to choose a ΔISW higher than 0. Flyback Converter: Snubber Design Transformer leakage inductance (on either the primary or secondary) causes a voltage spike to occur after the MOSFET turn-off. The primary and secondary maximum RMS currents are: ILP(RMS) ≈ ILS(RMS) ≈ POUT(MAX) DMAX • VIN(MIN) • η I OUT(MAX) 1− DMAX where η is the converter efficiency. The maximum duty cycle (DMAX) occurs when the converter has the minimum VIN: ⎛N ⎞ VOUT • ⎜ P ⎟ ⎝ NS ⎠ DMAX = ⎛N ⎞ VOUT • ⎜ P ⎟ + VIN(MIN) ⎝ NS ⎠ Due to the current limit of its internal power switch. 3958f The transformer ripple current ΔISW has a direct effect on the design/choice of the transformer and the converter’s 17 . the user has relative freedom in selecting the switch duty cycle or turns ratio to suit a given application. RCD snubber. A higher duty cycle affects the flyback converter in the following aspects: • Lower MOSFET RMS current ISW(RMS).6A. the user should design/choose the transformer having sufficient saturation and RMS current ratings.) and Application Note 19 is a good reference on snubber design. the LT3958 should be used in a flyback converter whose maximum output current (IO(MAX)) is less than the maximum output current capability by a sufficient margin (10% or higher is recommended): IO(MAX) ≤ VIN(MIN) VOUT • DMAX • ( 3. due to the number of variables involved. to optimize the converter performance. greater core losses.LT3958 APPLICATIONS INFORMATION According to the preceding equations. The selections of the duty cycle and the turns ratio are somewhat iterative processes.5 • ΔISW ) output current capability. but requires large primary and secondary inductances and reduce the current loop gain (the converter will approach voltage mode). and having chosen the operating frequency and ripple current in the primary winding. the primary winding inductance can be calculated using the following equation: L= VIN(MIN) ΔISW • ƒ • DMAX The primary winding peak current is the switch current limit (typical 4A). Choosing smaller values of ΔISW increases the output current capability. An RCD snubber is shown in Figure 6. but higher MOSFET VSW peak voltage • Lower diode peak reverse voltage. Given an operating input voltage range. Based on the preceding equations. and reduces the output current capability. In some cases a snubber circuit will be required to avoid overvoltage breakdown at the MOSFET’s drain node. where more stored energy must be dissipated. There are different snubber circuits (such as RC snubber. The user can choose either a duty cycle or a turns ratio as the start point. Flyback Converter: Maximum Output Current Capability and Transformer Design The maximum output current capability and transformer design for continuous conduction mode (CCM) is chosen as presented here.3A − 0. but higher diode RMS current ID(RMS) • Higher transformer turns ratio (NP/NS) It is recommended to choose a duty cycle between 20% and 80%. This is increasingly prominent at higher load currents. The following trade-offs should be considered when selecting the switch duty cycle or turns ratio. etc.

The RMS ripple current rating of the output capacitors in continuous operation can be determined using the following equation: IRMS(COUT). use a low ESR input capacitor sized for the maximum RMS current. which is usually specified in the transformer characteristics. In a SEPIC converter. Approximate the required peak repetitive reverse voltage rating VRRM using: VRRM > NS •V +V NP IN(MAX) OUT Flyback Converter: Input Capacitor Selection The input capacitor in a flyback converter is subject to a large RMS current due to the discontinuous primary current.CONTINUOUS ≈ IO(MAX) • DMAX 1− DMAX RSN = 2 • LLK is the leakage inductance of the primary winding. TJ must not exceed the diode maximum junction temperature rating. Schottky diodes are recommended if the output voltage is below 100V. A fast switching diode with a low forward drop and a low reverse leakage is desired. This topology allows for the input to be higher. no DC path exists between the input and output. LLK can be obtained by measuring the primary inductance with the secondary windings shorted.CONTINUOUS ≈ POUT(MAX) VIN(MIN) • η • 1− DMAX DMAX SEPIC CONVERTER APPLICATIONS The LT3958 can be configured as a SEPIC (single-ended primary inductance converter). equal. or lower than the desired output voltage. The snubber capacitor value (CSN) can be determined using the following equation: VSN CSN = ΔVSN • RSN • ƒ where ΔVSN is the voltage ripple across CSN. A reasonable ΔVSN is 5% to 10% of VSN. The conversion ratio as a function of duty cycle is: VOUT + VD D = VIN 1− D in continuous conduction mode (CCM). The reverse voltage rating of DSN should be higher than the sum of VSN and VIN(MAX). Flyback Converter: Output Diode Selection The output diode in a flyback converter is subject to large RMS current and peak reverse voltage stresses. as shown in Figure 1. The RMS ripple current rating of the input capacitors in continuous operation can be determined using the following equation: IRMS(CIN). 3958f 18 . This is an advantage over the boost converter for applications requiring the output to be disconnected from the input source when the circuit is in shutdown. Refer to the Boost Converter: Output Capacitor Selection section for the calculation of COUT and ESRCOUT.LT3958 APPLICATIONS INFORMATION The snubber resistor value (RSN) can be calculated by the following equation: N V 2 SN − VSN • VOUT • P NS I2 SW(PEAK) • L LK • ƒ Flyback Converter: Output Capacitor Selection The output capacitor of the flyback converter has a similar operation condition as that of the boost converter. plus the thermal resistance from the board to the ambient temperature in the enclosure. To prevent large voltage transients. The power dissipated by the diode is: PD = IO(MAX) • VD and the diode junction temperature is: TJ = TA + PD • RθJA The RθJA to be used in this equation normally includes the RθJC for the device.

in the SEPIC converter. For the SEPIC topology. CDC and COUT). therefore. Based on the fact that.5 • ΔISW The inductor ripple current ΔISW has a direct effect on the choice of the inductor value and the converter’s maximum output current capability. since identical voltages are applied to L1 and L2 throughout the switching cycle. the output power is equal to the input power.6A. the switch current is equal to IL1 + IL2 when the power switch is on. the SEPIC converter has the advantage that both the power MOSFET and the output diode voltages are clamped by the capacitors (CIN. but results in higher input current ripple and greater core losses and reduces output current capability. This is due to the fact that. and having chosen the operating frequency and ripple current in the inductor. but can also be wound on the same core. Given an operating input voltage range. the current through inductor L1 (which is series with the input) is continuous. Accepting larger values of ΔISW allows the use of low inductances. there is less voltage ringing across the power MOSFET and the output diodes.5A • ΔISW • ƒ • DMAX SEPIC Converter: The Maximum Output Current Capability and Inductor Selection As shown in Figure 1. ideally.LT3958 APPLICATIONS INFORMATION Compared to the flyback converter. the inductor value (L1 and L2 are independent) of the SEPIC converter can be determined using the following equation: L1= L2 = VIN(MIN) 1. the SEPIC converter contains two inductors: L1 and L2. The maximum duty cycle (DMAX) occurs when the converter has the minimum input voltage: DMAX = VOUT + VD VIN(MIN) + VOUT + VD In a SEPIC converter. the equal inductor values will fall in the range of 1μH to 100μH. SEPIC Converter: Switch Duty Cycle and Frequency For a SEPIC converter operating in CCM. the maximum average switch current is defined as: ISW(MAX) =IL1(MAX) +IL2(MAX) =IO(MAX) • 1 1− DMAX Due to the current limit of its internal power switch. 3958f 19 . the LT3958 should be used in a SEPIC converter whose maximum output current (IO(MAX)) is less than the output current capability by a sufficient margin (10% or higher is recommended): IO(MAX) < (1 – DMAX) • (3. the input voltage (VIN) and the diode forward voltage (VD). Choosing smaller values of ΔISW requires large inductances and reduces the current loop gain (the converter will approach voltage mode). It is recommended to choose a ΔISW higher than 0. the maximum average inductor currents of L1 and L2 are: IL1(MAX) =IIN(MAX) =IO(MAX) • IL2(MAX) =IO(MAX) DMAX 1− DMAX For most SEPIC applications. therefore.5 • ΔISW) The inductor ripple currents ΔIL1 and ΔIL2 are identical: ΔIL1 = ΔIL2 = 0. The SEPIC converter requires much smaller input capacitors than those of the flyback converter.3A – 0. the current through L1 is the converter input current. the duty cycle of the main switch can be calculated based on the output voltage (VOUT). L1 and L2 can be independent.

to the ambient temperature in the enclosure. SEPIC Converter: Selecting the DC Coupling Capacitor The DC voltage rating of the DC coupling capacitor (CDC. A Simplified Inverting Converter 3958f 20 . The average forward current in normal operation is equal to the output current. plus the thermal resistance from the board. Please refer to the Boost Converter: Output Capacitor Selection and Boost Converter: Input Capacitor Selection sections. the value of inductance in the preceding equation is replaced by 2L. TJ must not exceed the diode maximum junction temperature rating.5 • ΔIL1 IL2(PEAK) = IL2(MAX) + 0. The VOUT to VIN ratio is: VOUT − VD D =− VIN 1− D in continuous conduction mode (CCM). X5R or X7R ceramic capacitor works well for CDC. During the switch off-time. The power dissipated by the diode is: PD = IO(MAX) • VD where VD is diode’s forward voltage drop. the current through CDC is IIN. and winding them on the same core. a fast switching diode with a low forward drop and low reverse leakage is desirable. and the diode junction temperature is: TJ = TA + PD • RθJA The RθJA used in this equation normally includes the RθJC for the device. The RMS rating of the coupling capacitor is determined by the following equation: IRMS(CDC) >IO(MAX) • VOUT + VD VIN(MIN) This maintains the same ripple current and energy storage in the inductors. as shown in Figure 8. due to mutual inductance: L= VIN(MIN) ΔISW • ƒ • DMAX SEPIC Converter: Output and Input Capacitor Selection The selections of the output and input capacitors of the SEPIC converter are similar to those of the boost converter. while approximately –IO flows during the on-time. the user should choose the inductors having sufficient saturation and RMS current ratings. SEPIC Converter: Output Diode Selection To maximize efficiency.5 • ΔIL2 The maximum RMS inductor currents are approximately equal to the maximum average inductor currents. It is recommended that the peak repetitive reverse voltage rating VRRM is higher than VOUT + VIN(MAX) by a safety margin (a 10V safety margin is usually sufficient).LT3958 APPLICATIONS INFORMATION By making L1 = L2. Based on the preceding equations. INVERTING CONVERTER APPLICATIONS The LT3958 can be configured as a dual-inductor inverting topology. as shown in Figure 1) should be larger than the maximum input voltage: VCDC > VIN(MAX) CDC has nearly a rectangular current waveform. A low ESR and ESL. The peak inductor currents are: IL1(PEAK) = IL1(MAX) + 0. L1 VIN + CDC – L2 + CIN SW LT3958 GND D1 COUT – + + 3758 F10 VOUT Figure 8.

The maximum duty cycle (DMAX) occurs when the converter has the minimum input voltage: DMAX = VOUT − VD VOUT − VD − VIN(MIN) Inverting Converter: Selecting the DC Coupling Capacitor The DC voltage rating of the DC coupling capacitor (CDC. The RMS ripple current rating of the output capacitor needs to be greater than: IRMS(COUT) > 0. Exposed pads on the bottom of the package are SGND and SW terminals of the IC. The output ripple voltage is produced by the ripple current of L2 flowing through the ESR and bulk capacitance of the output capacitor: ⎛ ⎞ 1 ΔVOUT(P – P) = ΔIL2 • ⎜ ESRCOUT + 8 • ƒ • COUT ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ After specifying the maximum output ripple. especially the power paths with higher di/dt. while approximately –IO flows during the on-time. It is recommended that multiple vias in the printed circuit board be used to conduct heat away from the IC and into the copper planes with as much as area as possible. Careful attention must be paid to the internal power dissipation of the LT3958 at high input voltages. proper layout of the components connected to the IC is essential. the current through CDC is IIN. in the inverting converter. This is especially important when operating at high ambient temperatures. flyback and SEPIC converters for similar output ripples. Inverting Converter: Output Capacitor Selection The inverting converter requires much smaller output capacitors than those of the boost. Board Layout The high power and high speed operation of the LT3958 demands careful attention to board layout and component placement. ceramic capacitors are sufficient to limit the output voltage ripple. This is due to the fact that. To prevent radiation and high frequency resonance problems. the duty cycle of the main switch can be calculated based on the negative output voltage (VOUT) and the input voltage (VIN). X5R or X7R ceramic capacitor works well for CDC. The following high di/dt loops of different topologies should be kept as tight as possible to reduce inductive ringing: • In boost configuration. as shown in Figure 10) should be larger than the maximum input voltage minus the output voltage (negative voltage): VCDC > VIN(MAX) – VOUT CDC has nearly a rectangular current waveform. 3958f 21 .LT3958 APPLICATIONS INFORMATION Inverting Converter: Switch Duty Cycle and Frequency For an inverting converter operating in CCM.3 • ΔIL2 A low ESR and ESL. and high internal power switch currents to ensure that a junction temperature of 125°C is not exceeded. the inductor L2 is in series with the output. and the ripple current flowing through the output capacitors are continuous. the high di/dt loop contains the output capacitor. In many applications. During the switch off-time. and must be soldered to a SGND ground plane and a SW plane respectively. The RMS rating of the coupling capacitor is determined by the following equation: IRMS(CDC) >IO(MAX) • DMAX 1− DMAX Inverting Converter: Output Diode and Input Capacitor Selections The selections of the inductor. Please refer to the corresponding SEPIC converter sections. output diode and input capacitor of an inverting converter are similar to those of the SEPIC converter. the user can select the output capacitors according to the preceding equation. The ESR can be minimized by using high quality X5R or X7R dielectric ceramic capacitors. high switching frequencies. the internal power MOSFET and the Schottky diode.

the internal power MOSFET. output capacitor. staying away from any high dV/dt traces. the secondary winding and the output diode. Place the divider resistors near the LT3958 in order to keep the high impedance FBX node short. The high di/dt secondary loop contains the output capacitor. the high di/dt primary loop contains the input capacitor. For optimum load regulation and true remote sensing. 48V Output Boost Converter 3958f 22 . • In SEPIC configuration. the primary winding. the top of the output voltage sensing resistor divider should connect independently to the top of the output capacitor (Kelvin connection). The small-signal components should be placed away from high frequency switching nodes. Schottky diode and the coupling capacitor. • In inverting configuration. Schottky diode and the coupling capacitor. the high di/dt loop contains internal power MOSFET. Make sure the inductive ringing does not exceed the maximum rating of the internal power MOSFET (84V).LT3958 APPLICATIONS INFORMATION • In flyback configuration. Suggested Layout of the 10V to 40V Input. Check the stress on the internal power MOSFET by measuring the SW-to-GND voltage directly across the IC terminals. the high di/dt loop contains the internal power MOSFET. Figure 9 shows the suggested layout of the 48V VOUT boost converter (see the Typical Applications section). R1 CSS RT VIA TO VOUT R2 RC CC 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 1 2 3 4 LT3958 37 25 24 6 23 R4 28 27 R3 CVCC 8 9 10 12 13 14 15 16 17 38 21 20 L1 COUT CIN COUT D1 GND VIN VOUT VIA TO VOUT 3958 F09 VIAS TO SGND GROUND PLANE VIAS TO SW PLANE Figure 9.

com aavidthermalloy.co. Recommended Component Manufacturers VENDOR AVX BH Electronics Coilcraft Cooper Bussmann Diodes.tdk.com generalsemiconductor.com vishay.com we-online.com sanyo.com pulseeng.com bussmann. Table 2. com irf.com diodes.com component.com murata.com microsemi.com tokoam.co.jp sumida. Inc General Semiconductor International Rectifier Kemet Magnetics Inc Microsemi Murata-Erie Nichicon On Semiconductor Panasonic Pulse Sanyo Sumida Taiyo Yuden TDK Thermalloy Tokin Toko United Chemi-Con Vishay Würth Elektronik Vishay/Sprague Zetex COMPONENTS Capacitors Inductors.com vishay.LT3958 APPLICATIONS INFORMATION Recommended Component Manufacturers Some of the recommended component manufacturers are listed in Table 2. Capacitors Capacitors Diodes Capacitors Inductors Capacitors Inductors Capacitors Capacitors.com 3958f 23 .com onsemi.jp nichicon.com zetex.com bhelectronics.com nec-tokinamerica.com kemet. Inductors Heat Sinks Capacitors Inductors Capacitors Inductors Inductors Capacitors Small-Signal Discretes WEB ADDRESS avx. Transformers Inductors Inductors Diodes Diodes Diodes Tantalum Capacitors Toroid Cores Diodes Inductors.com t-yuden.com coilcraft.com panasonic.com mag-inc.com chemi-com.

6k VIN SW EN/UVLO GND 1.7μF 50V X5R R3 392k D1 COUT 4.2k 300kHz SS LT3958 SENSE1 SENSE2 FBX VC CSS 0.5A Efficiency vs Output Current 100 95 EFFICIENCY (%) 90 85 80 75 70 0 400 100 200 300 OUTPUT CURRENT (mA) 500 3958 TA02b VIN = 24V VIN EN/UVLO SW GND R4 53.2k 10k 10nF 3958 TA03 CIN : MURATA GRM32ER61C476M COUT : TDK C3225X7R2J683K D1: VISHAY SILICONIX GSD2004S DUAL DIODE CONNECTED IN SERIES T1: TDK DCT15EFD-U44S003 3958f 24 .1μF 100pF VC INTVCC 4.7μF 10V X5R 3958 TA02a R2 464k R1 15.LT3958 TYPICAL APPLICATIONS 10V to 40V Input.7μF 50V X5R 2 VOUT 48V 0.33μF RC 10k CC 10nF INTVCC CVCC 4.8k CIN.6k SGND SYNC RT RT 41. COUT : MURATA GRM32ER71H475KA88L D1: VISHAY SILICONIX 10BQ060 L2: VISHAY SILICONIX IHLP-4040DZ-11 High Voltage Flyback Power Supply DANGER! HIGH VOLTAGE OPERATION BY HIGH VOLTAGE TRAINED PERSONNEL ONLY VIN 5.5M 10k SGND SYNC LT3958 FBX SENSE1 22Ω SENSE2 RT 140k 100kHz SS 0. 48V Output Boost Converter VIN 12V TO 40V L1 33μH CIN 4.7μF 10V X5R 10nF 16.5V TO 12V T1 1:10 47μF 16V 2 D1 • • 22Ω 220pF VOUT 300V COUT 10mA 68nF 2 31.5M 1.

CDC: MURATA GRM32ER72A225KA35L COUT: MURATA GRM32ER61C226KE20 D1: VISHAY SILICONIX 10MQ100N L1A.8A 0.2μF.7μF 10V X5R 3958 TA04a 105k 15.2k 300kHz SS • LT3958 SENSE1 SENSE2 FBX VC 0.47μF 10k 10nF INTVCC CVCC 4. 12V Output SEPIC Converter L1A VIN 10V TO 60V CIN 2.LT3958 TYPICAL APPLICATIONS 10V to 60V Input.2μF 100V X5R CDC 2.5V/DIV (AC) IOUT 0.5A/DIV 0.2A 3958 TA04c 500μs/DIV Start-Up Waveforms VIN = 24V VOUT 10V/DIV VOUT 5V/DIV VSW 20V/DIV IL1A + IL1B 2A/DIV 5ms/DIV 3958 TA04d Frequency Foldback Waveforms When Output Short-Circuit VIN = 24V IL1A + IL1B 2A/DIV 50μs/DIV 3958 TA04e 3958f 25 .8k CIN.5k SGND SYNC RT 41. 100V X7R. 2 D1 392k VIN EN/UVLO SW GND L1B • VOUT 12V COUT 1A 22μF 16V X5R 2 66. L1B: COILTRONICS DRQ125-220 Efficiency vs Output Current 90 85 80 EFFICIENCY (%) 75 70 65 60 55 50 0 800 200 400 600 OUTPUT CURRENT (mA) 1000 3958 TA04b Load Step Waveforms VIN = 24V VIN = 24V VOUT 0.

2 L1B CIN 2.2A CIN.7μF 10V X5R 3958 TA05a • 105k 7. L1B: COILTRONICS DRQ125-220 Efficiency vs Output Current 90 85 80 EFFICIENCY (%) 75 70 65 60 55 50 0 800 200 400 600 OUTPUT CURRENT (mA) 1000 3958 TA05b Load Step Waveforms VIN = 24V 500μs/DIV 3958 TA05c Start-Up Waveforms VOUT 5V/DIV VIN = 24V VOUT 10V/DIV Frequency Foldback Waveforms When Output Short-Circuit VIN = 24V VSW 20V/DIV IL1A + IL1B 2A/DIV 5ms/DIV 3958 TA05d IL1A + IL1B 2A/DIV 50μs/DIV 3958 TA05e 3958f 26 .LT3958 TYPICAL APPLICATIONS 10V to 60V Input.2μF 100V X5R 392k VIN EN/UVLO SW GND D1 VOUT –12V COUT 1A 22μF 16V X5R 2 • 66. CDC: MURATA GRM32ER72A225KA35L COUT: MURATA GRM32ER61C226KE20 D1: VISHAY SILICONIX 10MQ100N L1A. –12V Output Inverting Converter L1A VIN 10V TO 60V CDC 2.2k 300kHz SS LT3958 SENSE1 SENSE2 FBX VC 0. 100V X7R.5k VIN = 24V VOUT 1V/DIV (AC) IOUT 0.47μF 10k 10nF INTVCC CVCC 4.5A/DIV 0.5k SGND SYNC RT 41.2μF.8A 0.

05 PIN 1 NOTCH R = 0.75 0.20mm ON ANY SIDE 5.10 17 16 15 0. ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETERS 4.00 0.10 3 4 5.50 0.05 17 16 15 14 PACKAGE OUTLINE 13 12 1.05 1 2 3 4 6 0.10 3.53 0.50 REF 33 34 35 36 PIN 1 TOP MARK (NOTE 6) 6.50 0.00 REF 10 RECOMMENDED SOLDER PAD PITCH AND DIMENSIONS APPLY SOLDER MASK TO AREAS THAT ARE NOT SOLDERED 0.05 2.12 0. EXPOSED PAD SHALL BE SOLDER PLATED 6.00 – 0.00 0.35 45 CHAMFER 1 1.05 31 32 33 34 35 36 3.125 TYP 9 10 0. Linear Technology Corporation makes no representation that the interconnection of its circuits as described herein will not infringe on existing patent rights.10 0.05 0.25 0.05 4.10 6.05 BOTTOM VIEW—EXPOSED PAD NOTE: 1.25 0.88 0.05 0.05 30 5.10 2 0.05 0.00 0.50 REF 0.53 0.10 R = 0.50 BSC 5. SHALL NOT EXCEED 0.30 OR 0. DRAWING IS NOT A JEDEC PACKAGE OUTLINE 2.05 0.10 TYP 28 27 2. no responsibility is assumed for its use. DIMENSIONS OF EXPOSED PAD ON BOTTOM OF PACKAGE DO NOT INCLUDE MOLD FLASH.00 1.00 REF 25 24 30 31 32 1.10 3.LT3958 PACKAGE DESCRIPTION UHE Package Variation: UHE28MA 36-Lead Plastic QFN (5mm × 6mm) (Reference LTC DWG # 05-08-1836 Rev B) 28 27 25 24 23 21 20 0.05 8 9 0.05 0. MOLD FLASH.12 0. DRAWING NOT TO SCALE 3.00 1.48 0.10 23 1.00 0. SHADED AREA IS ONLY A REFERENCE FOR PIN 1 LOCATION ON THE TOP AND BOTTOM OF PACKAGE Information furnished by Linear Technology Corporation is believed to be accurate and reliable. IF PRESENT.05 3.48 0.70 0.88 0. 3958f 27 .10 6 8 R = 0.50 BSC 14 13 12 (UHE28MA) QFN 0409 REV B 21 20 0. However.200 REF 0.10 0.40 0.

3mm × 3mm DFN-10 and MSOP-10E Package Adjustable Switching Frequency. MSOP-16 Package LTC1871/LTC1871-1/ Wide Input Range.3V EFFICIENCY (%) Efficiency vs Output Current 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 VIN = 24V SW GND LT3958 SENSE1 SENSE2 FBX INTVCC 10k 4. Current Mode Control.5V ≤ VIN ≤ 32V. Current Mode Control. Up to 3W. Current Mode Control. No RSENSE™ Low Quiescent LTC1871-7 Current Flyback. Milpitas. No Opto-Isolator or Third Winding Required.9V ≤ VIN ≤ 40V.5V to 36V Limited by External Components. 300kHz Fixed Operating Frequency 3V ≤ VIN ≤ 40V. 200kHz to 2.8k 1W DSN 200k VIN EN/UVLO 32.7μF 50V X5R 0. Burst Mode Operation at Light Load VIN 16V to 75V Limited by External Components. Current Mode Control VIN and VOUT Limited Only by External Components.5MHz.1μF 50V 1. MSOP-16E 3V ≤ VIN ≤ 40V. ThinSOT™ Package VIN and VOUT Limited Only by External Components. Current Mode Control VIN 4. Up to 7W.47μF 100pF 10nF 3958 TA06a T1 3:1 D1 • • VOUT 5V 2A COUT 100μF 6. Current Mode Control VIN 16V to 75V Limited by External Components. Current Mode Control VIN 4.linear. 3mm × 3mm DFN-10. 3mm × 3mm DFN-10 and MSOP-10E Package 5. Flyback. No Opto-Isolator or Third Winding Required. MSOP-16E 2.4k 200kHz VC 0. 100kHz to 1MHz Programmable Operation Frequency. Flyback.5V ≤ VIN ≤ 36V. Boost and SEPIC Controller LT3825 LT3837 LT1725 LT1737 Isolated No-Opto Synchronous Flyback Controller Isolated No-Opto Synchronous Flyback Controller Isolated No-Opto Flyback Controller Isolated No-Opto Flyback Controller LTC3803/LTC3803-5 200kHz Flyback DC/DC Controller LTC3805/LTC3805-5 Adjustable Fixed 70kHz to 700kHz Operating Frequency Flyback Controller LT1619 LT3574 Boost.4k SGND SYNC RT SS 63. SEPIC and Inverting Controller Boost.5 OUTPUT CURRENT (A) 2 3958 TA05b T1: COILTRONICS VP2-0066 RELATED PARTS PART NUMBER LT3580 LT3573 LT3574 LT3757 LT3758 DESCRIPTION Boost/Inverting DC/DC Converter with 2A Switch. MSOP-10E 1.5 1 1.5V to 36V Limited by External Components.5V ≤ VIN ≤ 100V.8k 1% 34k 1% 55 50 0 0. No Opto-Isolator or Third Winding Required. Up to 60W. 2. MSOP-8E 3V ≤ VIN ≤ 40V.9V ≤ VIN ≤ 18V. SEPIC and Flyback Current Mode PWM Controller Isolated Flyback Switching Regulator with 60V Integrated Switch 3958f 28 Linear Technology Corporation (408) 432-1900 ● FAX: (408) 434-0507 ● LT 0510 • PRINTED IN USA 1630 McCarthy Blvd. Up to 3W. SEPIC and Inverting Controller COMMENTS 2.. 3mm × 3mm DFN-8. 100kHz to 1MHz Programmable Operation Frequency. Up to 60W.7μF 10V X5R 15. CA 95035-7417 www.LT3958 TYPICAL APPLICATIONS 5V Output Nonisolated Flyback Power Supply VIN 10V TO 40V CIN 4.com © LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 2010 . Soft-Start and Synchronization Isolated Flyback Switching Regulator with 60V Integrated Switch Isolated Flyback Switching Regulator with 60V Integrated Switch Boost.

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