POLLUTION

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms.[1] Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants.

Forms of pollution
The major forms of pollution are listed below along with the particular pollutants relevant to each of them:

Air pollution:- the release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. Common gaseous pollutants include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and nitrogen oxides produced by industry and motor vehicles. Photochemical ozone and smog are created as nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons react to sunlight. Particulate matter, or fine dust is characterized by their micrometre size PM10 to PM2.5. Light pollution:- includes light trespass, over-illumination and astronomical interference. Littering:- the criminal throwing of inappropriate man-made objects, unremoved, onto public and private properties. Noise pollution:- which encompasses roadway noise, aircraft noise, industrial noise as well as high-intensity sonar. Soil contamination occurs when chemicals are released by spill or underground leakage. Among the most significant soil contaminants are hydrocarbons, heavy metals, MTBE,[9] herbicides, pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Radioactive contamination, resulting from 20th century activities in atomic physics, such as nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons research, manufacture and deployment. (See alpha emitters and actinides in the environment.) Thermal pollution, is a temperature change in natural water bodies caused by human influence, such as use of water as coolant in a power plant.

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open storage of trash or municipal solid waste. which may contain chemical fertilizers and pesticides).[25][26][27] . scarred landforms (as from strip mining). motorway billboards. Visual pollution. from treated sewage. discharges of untreated domestic sewage. and chemical contaminants. which can refer to the presence of overhead power lines.  Effects of pollution in various ways: Overview of main health effects on humans from some common types of pollution. such as chlorine. waste disposal and leaching into groundwater. release of waste and contaminants into surface runoff flowing to surface waters (including urban runoff and agricultural runoff. eutrophication and littering. Water pollution. by the discharge of wastewater from commercial and industrial waste (intentionally or through spills) intosurface waters.

[29] 656. and 1.  Carbon dioxide emissions cause ocean acidification. the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans as CO2 becomes dissolved. Chemical and radioactive substances can cause cancer and as well as birth defects. Ozone pollution can causerespiratory disease. There are a number of effects of this:  Biomagnification describes situations where toxins (such as heavy metals) may pass through trophic levels. .Adverse air quality can kill many organisms including humans. and sleep disturbance.000 Indian children die of diarrhoeal sickness every day. often reducing native species competitiveness. Children and infants are also at serious risk. Noise pollution induces hearing loss.000. and congestion. mostly due to contamination ofdrinking water by untreated sewage in developing countries. Older people are majorly exposed to diseases induced by air pollution. Mercury has been linked to developmental deficits in children and neurologic symptoms. In India.[31] Oil spills can cause skin irritations and rashes.000 deaths per day. chest pain. Invasive plants can contribute debris and biomolecules (allelopathy) that can alter soil and chemical compositions of an environment.000 people die prematurely each year in China because of air pollution. cardiovascular disease. throat inflammation.[30] Studies have estimated that the number of people killed annually in the US could be over 50.   The emission of greenhouse gases leads to global warming which affects ecosystems in many ways.700 fatalities a year. Invasive species can out compete native species and reduce biodiversity. An estimated 700 million Indians have no access to a proper toilet.  Nitrogen oxides are removed from the air by rain and fertilise land which can change the species composition of ecosystems. high blood pressure. Those with heart or lung disorders are under additional risk.[28]Nearly 500 million Chinese lack access to safe drinking water. Lead and other heavy metals have been shown to cause neurological problems. stress. air pollution is believed to cause 527. Water pollution causes approximately 14. becoming exponentially more concentrated in the process. Environment Pollution has been found to be present widely in the environment.

into theatmosphere. particulate matter. pneumonia and other lower respiratory infections as well as a low initial birth rate. Protective measures to ensure the youths' health are being taken in cities such as New Delhi. . or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment. nitrogen dioxide.[29] Those pollutants are known as the criteria pollutants. however in 2002 at least 146 million Americans were living innon-attainment areas—regions in which the concentration of certain air pollutants exceeded federal standards. In the United States. the Clean Air Act was passed in 1970. and lead. Smog and haze can reduce the amount of sunlight received by plants to carry out photosynthesis and leads to the production of tropospheric ozone which damages plants. The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. and Indonesia.Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems.   Soil can become infertile and unsuitable for plants. Examples of these countries includeEgypt. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can cause acid rain which lowers the pH value of soil. carbon monoxide. India where buses now use compressed natural gas to help eliminate the “pea-soup” smog. AIR POLLUTION Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals. Mongolia.[28] Research by the World Health Organization shows there is the greatest concentration of particulate matter particles in countries with low economic world power and high poverty and population rates. Sudan. sulfur dioxide. and include ozone. Effects on children: Cities around the world with high exposure to air pollutants have the possibility of children living within them to develop asthma. or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms. Because children are outdoors more and have higher minute ventilation they are more susceptible to the dangers of air pollution. This will affect other organisms in the food web. particulate matter.

nose and throat. nausea. and upper respiratory infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia. heart disease. In most areas of Europe. elevated levels and/or long term exposure to air pollution can . Young children and elderly people often suffer more from the effects of air pollution. and even damage to the brain. lung cancer. moderate air pollution levels are unlikely to have any serious short term effects. Long-term health effects can include chronic respiratory disease. these pollutants are principally the products of combustion from space heating. A variety of air pollutants have known or suspected harmful effects on human health and the environment. Medical conditions arising from air pollution can be very expensive. nerves. In the great "Smog Disaster" in London in 1952.. the duration of exposure and the concentration of the chemicals must be taken into account. lost productivity in the workplace. Examples of short-term effects include irritation to the eyes. heart and lung disease may also suffer more when the air is polluted. Continual exposure to air pollution affects the lungs of growing children and may aggravate or complicate medical conditions in the elderly.e. Short-term air pollution can aggravate the medical conditions of individuals with asthma and emphysema. Other symptoms can include headaches.Air pollution can affect our health in many ways with both short-term and long-term effects. Health Effects Generally if you are young and in a good state of health. It is estimated that half a million people die prematurely every year in the United States as a result of smoking cigarettes. and allergic reactions. or kidneys. Different groups of individuals are affected by air pollution in different ways. The extent to which an individual is harmed by air pollution usually depends on the total exposure to the damaging chemicals. four thousand people died in a few days due to the high concentrations of pollution. Research into the health effects of air pollution is ongoing. power generation or from motor vehicle traffic. Pollutants from these sources may not only prove a problem in the immediate vicinity of these sources but can travel long distances. liver. i. Some individuals are much more sensitive to pollutants than are others. People with health problems such as asthma. Healthcare costs. and human welfare impacts cost billions of dollars each year. However.

particularly in people suffering from heart disease Carbon Monoxide Reduction efforts: There are various air pollution control technologies and land use planning strategies available to reduce air pollution. At its most basic level land use planning is likely to involve zoning and transport infrastructure planning. Sulphur Dioxide. increasing the symptoms of those suffering from lung diseases Fine particles can be carried deep into the lungs where they can cause inflammation and a worsening of heart and lung diseases This gas prevents the uptake of oxygen by the blood. Ozone Particles Health effects at very high levels These gases irritate the airways of the lungs. Efforts to reduce pollution from mobile sources includes primary regulation (many developing countries have permissive regulations). but can also lead to more serious conditions such as heart disease and cancer. This can lead to a significant reduction in the supply of oxygen to the heart. The table below shows the types of health effects experienced by the most common pollutants at elevated levels: Pollutant Nitrogen Dioxide. ensuring that land is used efficiently for the benefit of the wider economy and population as well as to protect the environment.lead to more serious symptoms and conditions affecting human health. This mainly affects the respiratory and inflammatory systems. land use planning is an important part of social policy. People with lung or heart conditions may be more susceptible to the effects of air pollution. and . In most developed countries. farm equipment.[citation needed] expanding regulation to new sources (such as cruise and transport ships.

It occurs when waste is not disposed properly. increased fuel efficiency (such as through the use of hybrid vehicles). • • Increase in agricultural land. and improper use of soil by inadequate agricultural practices are a few factors. This leads to the exploitation and destruction of forests. Causes of land pollution: • Increase in urbanization. Urbanization and industrializationare major causes of land pollution. causing diseases in both humans and other species of animals. LAND POLLUTION Land pollution is the degradation of Earth's land surfaces often caused by human activities and their misuse of land resources. Construction uses up forestland. Forests were cut down for this purpose. tons and tons of domestic waste is dumped ranging from huge pieces of rubbish such as unused refrigerator to fish bones. If all these wastes are not disposed of properly. Domestic waste. The Industrial Revolution set a series of events into motion which destroyed natural habitats and polluted the environment. There is more demand for water. While waste collected from . As the human population grew there was a greater demand for food. conversion to cleaner fuels (such as bioethanol. or conversion to electric vehicles). This caused more land allocated to agriculture. More constructions means increase in demand for raw materials like timber. biodiesel. Every single day. chainsaws. exploitation of minerals. the damage they can do to the environment and humankind can be devastating. Reservoirs are built leading to the loss of land.small gas-powered equipment such as lawn trimmers. andsnowmobiles). Health hazard disposal of urban and industrial wastes.

large animal farms. pesticides and herbicides used by farmers to increase crop yields also pollute the land when they are washed into the soil. Industrial activities also are a contributing factor to land pollution. nuclear waste disposal activity. metals production factories and other heavy industry. We throw away more things today and there is an increase in the quantity of solid waste. For example. Heaps of mining waste are left behind and these waste often contain several poisonous substances that will contaminate the soil. chemical plants. Pollution sources include plastics factories. Besides domestic waste. Industrial activities. oil refineries. huge holes are dug in the ground and these form dangerously deep mining pools. in open cast mining.homes. coal-fired power plants. Reducing land Pollution We can take the following steps:• • • • • • encourage organic farming proper garbage disposal recycle garbage reduce use of herbicides and pesticides Avoid overpackaged items efficient utilization of resources and reducing wastage Effects of land pollution: • exterminates wildlife . This has given rise to problems as new dumping grounds have to be found. • • Agricultural activities. a large amount of rubbish is neither burnt nor recycled but is left in certain areas marked as dumping grounds. offices and industries may be recycled or burnt in incinerators.

kill vegetation. Construction uses up forest land. Most pesticides kill or damage life forms other than those intended. Causes of land pollution may include one of the following: • Increase in urbanization is among the major causes of land pollution. This results in the exploitation and devastation of forests. in which humans along with other creatures live. Reservoirs are made causing the loss of land. • Burning of solid fuels ends up in the formation of ashes. can cause human fatalities. People today throughout the world experience several health conditions triggered by effects of land pollution. vegetation that provides food and shelter is destroyed. Land pollution is characterized through the contamination of earth's surface. such as containers. • The disposal of non-biodegradable waste materials. it can seriously disrupt the balance of nature. Speaking about land pollution. animals. results in the pollution of land. For example. in extreme cases. and. it is one of the most harmful factor on both nature and living beings. and poison birds. used cars and trucks and electronic goods.• • • • acid rain kills trees and other plants. Some life forms develop immunity to pesticides used to destroy them. bottles and cans made of plastic. One of many major reasons behind land pollution is human activities. pesticides can damage crops. that is certainly another root of land pollution. and fish. . Given below is full information regarding the main causes and hazardous effects of land pollution. pesticides used in an effort to control or destroy undesirable vegetation and insects often destroy birds and small animals.

paper. they are built up and contaminate the land. glass. The waste matter commonly consists of leftover food. Effects Of land pollution on living things are: . a large number of spams are left untreated. These solid wastes overflow through the sewage. • Industrial wastes are main causes of water pollution. government funding is needed to improve sewage systems. appear very unclean. unfit and dirty to live in. wood etc. animal manure and residues of the farm land are on the list of major causes of land pollution. To solve this cause of water pollution. • Garbage dumped by individuals tends to make the roadway unhealthy. resulting to land pollution. • Although household and industrial wastes are collected and recycled or burnt in incinerators. If these wastes aren't disposed through proper channel. The pesticides as well as fertilizers used by farmers to raise the crop yield. • Agricultural wastes such as the waste matters produced by crop. fruit and vegetable peels along with other non decomposable solid materials just like plastic.• Improper treatment of sewage results in the buildup of solids. cloth. • The process of mining causes the formation of piles of coal and slag. Throwing of toxic materials like chemicals and paints would make the areas surrounding the establishments. like biomass sludge. These are then trashed into grounds. making the whole place look dirty. leaches into the nearby land areas and pollutes them.

are damaged. it simply leaves the areas look dirty and would make them unhealthy. Because individuals tend not to follow proper methods for the disposal of such wastes. LAND POLLUTION . which supplies food and shelter to wildlife. Inhaling polluted dust or particle can lead to a variety of health problems in connection with the respiratory system. • Land pollution ultimately has effects on the respiratory system of human beings. It is stated that the improper disposal of household wastes causes allergic reactions on the skin. • Land pollution has been observed as one of the major causes for birth defects.• Skin problems are sometimes diagnosed caused by land pollution. which can affect the health of the baby at the same time. Flora. • Land pollution has critical impact on wildlife. Also providing public awareness plan to inform people concerning the health hazards of pollution is a must to manage and to avoid the effects of land pollutionwhich looks devastating to the health. • Tons domestic wastes are trashed in land every single day. Formulation of rigorous pollution control legislation and its efficient realization is additionally important. leading to human fatalities. Effective treatment of household wastes and modern methods of sewage systems can be applied in order to minimize the effects of land pollution. Pregnant women residing in unhealthy and dirty environment can incur difficulty in breathing as well as a number of diseases. • Land pollution usually disturbs the balance of Nature.

Fires can cause a great fluctuation in temperature. sewage. Furthermore. mineral exploitation. urbanization. It can also be defined like this: the addition of undesirable matter to the land that damage the terrestrial organisms. large wastes. war. recreational or other purposes or increase the risk of health hazards to man. agricultural wastes . industrial wastes. it is the action of environmental contamination with man-made waste on land.Hill Fires .Soil Erosion . mining and other such activities are often significant in accelerating the erosion of the soil. Without any plant cover the soil rapidly gains heat and loses heat. .Solid Waste .Construction. residential. the burnt soil gives a black surface which is a good absorber of solar energy. ashes. rubbish.Fire destroys all vegetation as well as the soil animals. It includes visible waste and litter as well as pollution of the soil itself. reduce the uses of the land by man for agricultural. What types of land pollution are there? . mining wastes.Land pollution is the degradation of the Earth's land surface through misuse of the soil by poor agricultural practices.garbage. but the prime cases are agriculture and deforestation . industrial waste dumping. and disposal of urban wastes.

What human activities and industries contribute to land pollution? .pesticides and herbicides used by farmers to increase crop yields also pollute the land when they are washed into the soil . Heaps of mining waste are left behind and these waste often contain many poisonous substances that will contaminate the soil. we throw away more things and there is an increase in the quantity of solid waste. displeasing human. including motor vehiclenoise. The word noise comes from the Latin word nauseas. since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential area.Agricultural Waste .ranging from fish bones to huge pieces of rubbish such as unused refrigerator. This has given rise to problems as new dumping grounds have to be found . mining and quarrying. aircraft noise and rail noise. .[1][2] Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution.in open cast mining. household waste. Hydrocarbons from leaking oil tanks is also affecting the soil. The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly construction and transportation systems. enormous holes are dug in the ground and these form dangerously deep mining pools. A lot of this waste ends up in dumping grounds. animal or machine-created environmental noise that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life. demolition and putting up buildings.Domestic Waste . factory waste .Essentially these include: farming. NOISE POLLUTION Noise pollution is excessive. With the rising standards of living.Industrial Waste . meaning seasickness.

traffic problems created by these vehicles is an important source of noise pollution. In the past few years the number of automobile vehicles has increased manifold. Aircraft: The national parks and wastelands were earlier considered to be the pollution free zones and people traveled to these places for relaxation. and other equipment. joyful music might be another person's pure torment. etc. Let us have a look at the various noise pollution causes in detail. Industrial Noise: The various machines used in industries are also a major cause of noise pollution. the shunting and switching operations in rail yards too cause noise pollution to a great extent. sirens. Noise pollution is not easy to measure.Noise pollution refers to sounds in the environment that are caused by humans and that threaten the health or welfare of human or animal inhabitants. Traffic: It is the biggest source of noise pollution in today's times. buses. motorcycles. Additional noise pollution is contributed by office machines. however. cause a lot of noise. because the very definition of noise depends on the context of the sound and the subjective effect it has on the people hearing it. The most common source of noise pollution by far. autos. Aircraft and industrial machinery are also major sources. One person's idea of exultant. especially in urban areas. the one that affects the most people on the planet. Besides. Thus. The whistles and horns being used by the railway employees add to the effect and increase noise pollution. It is therefore recommended to grow trees in the premises of industries. The trees grown in the premises of 'Tata Motors' an automobile company based in India is a perfect example of how to reduce . Railway Stations: Locomotive engines of trains are an important source of noise pollution. Causes of Noise Pollution: The sources/causes of noise pollution increased or probably originated with the invention of machines. which act as absorbents of noise. The sound produced by the exhaust systems of trucks. motors and other machinery. Nowadays. The different machines which are responsible for creating noise include the compressors. power tools. is motor vehicles. the sound created by low flying military aircraft causes noise pollution in these areas too.

bulldozers. increasing the stress levels among people. Read more on effects of industrial noise pollution. people need to devote more time to complete their task. dump trucks. The first and foremost effect of noise is a decrease in the efficiency in working. loaders. air compressors. The machinery used for the purpose of construction includes pneumatic hammers. thus causing harm in the working standard. Fatigue caused is another effect of noise. is one of the most prevalent effects of noise pollution. This is because one has to work in close contact with the equipment and the magnitude of sound that one needs to bear is high. air conditioners. . Noise created by people in public places too is a major contributor amongst different sources. Noise of traffic or the loud speakers or different types of horns divert the attention. Due to lack of concentration. sidewalk breakers. Construction Equipment: The different types of machines and equipment used in construction of roads and buildings is also an important cause behind noise pollution. vacuum cleaners and other noise creating equipment. Loudspeakers used in public places are responsible for creating noise of a high degree/amplitude. telephone operators etc all have their hearing impairment. locomotive drivers. thereby affecting the concentration required for doing a work. temporary or permanent. generators and fans contribute to noise pollution to some extent. etc. plumbing equipment. The effects of noise pollution caused by these machines shouldn't be neglected. Noise pollution acts as a stress invigorator. Mechanics.noise pollution in the industrial belts. is also responsible for noise pollution to a great extent. Too much of noise disturbs the rhythms of working. Household Equipment: The household equipment are amongst the minor contributors to noise pollution. These machines include mixers. Other Causes: The boilers. which leads to tiredness and fatigue. Effects Of Noise Pollution: • • • • • Deafness. Research has proved the fact that human efficiency increases with noise reduction.

being surrounded by too much of noise. Noise pollution causes poor quality of crops. bridges and monuments.000 Indian children die of diarrheal sickness every day. . algae blooms. WATER POLLUTION Water pollution is a major global problem which requires ongoing evaluation and revision of water resource policy at all levels (international down to individual aquifers and wells). Animals are susceptible to noise pollution as well. Plants require cool & peaceful environment to grow. It has been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases. It creates waves.[3] Some 90% of China's cities suffer from some degree of water pollution.• • • • Sometimes.[2] An estimated 700 million Indians have no access to a proper toilet. 47 percent of assessed lake acres. which can be very dangerous and harmful and put the building in danger condition. and 1. people can be victims of certain diseases like blood pressure.[4] and nearly 500 million people lack access to safe drinking water. mental illness. such as drinking water.[1][2] and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14. It damages the nervous system of the animals. etc. developed countriescontinue to struggle with pollution problems as well. such as fish. In the most recent national report on water quality in the United States.000 people daily. and earthquakes also cause major changes in water quality and the ecological status of water. 45 percent of assessed stream miles. and/or undergoes a marked shift in its ability to support its constituent biotic communities. Natural phenomena such as volcanoes.[5] In addition to the acute problems of water pollution in developing countries. and 32 percent of assessed bay andestuarine square miles were classified as polluted. Noise pollution indirectly affects the vegetation. Noise indirectly weakens the edifice of buildings.[6] Water is typically referred to as polluted when it is impaired by anthropogenic contaminants and either does not support a human use. storms.

Mn.The causes of water pollution vary and may be both natural and anthropogenic. ponds). • • • • Mining activities – mining activities involve crushing the rock that usually contains many trace metals and sulfides. The usual effect of this type of pollution consists in algae growing in affected water bodies. The left material may easily generate sulfuric acid in the presence of precipitation water. Burning will also add a series of oxides including carbon dioxide to air and respectively water bodies. the most common causes of water pollution are the anthropogenic ones including: • Agriculture runoff . Leaking sewer lines – may add trihalomethanes (such as chloroform) as well as other contaminants into groundwater ending up contaminating surface water. Fe. Foundries – have direct emissions of metals (including Hg.carrying fertilizers. Please. Please. Burning of fossil fuels – the emitted ash particles usually contain toxic metals (such as As or Pb). although they are usually contained soon after they occur. they may still happen due to the high cost of proper waste disposal. pesticides/insecticides/herbicides and other pollutants into water bodies such as lakes. . Discharges of chlorinated solvents from Dry Cleaners to sewer lines are also a recognized source of water pollution with these persistent and harmful solvents. However. petroleum products and other contaminants from urban and rural areas (ditches). Pb. Cr and other metals) and other particulate matter into the air. the risk of polluting surface and groundwater exist. read more at Foundry. read more at Mining Sites. Accidental leaks and spills – associated with handling and storage of chemicals may happen anytime and. but are usually regulated today. illegal waste discharges into water bodies were recorded all over the world. An example are ship accidents such as Exxon Valdez disaster which spilled large amounts of petroleum products into the ocean. • • Storm water runoff – carrying various oils. Please. • • Intended/illegal discharges of waste – while such occurrences are less common today. too. These usually forms sheens on the water surface. This is a sign of increased nitrates and phosphates in water that could be harmful for human health. rivers. Industrial discharges – may add significant pollution to water bodies. read more at Industrial Sites.

• Transportation – even though Pb has been banned in gasoline in the U. a)What are the sources of water pollution? There are many causes for water pollution but two general categories exist: direct and indirect contaminant sources. It is up to each of us to minimize this contribution to water pollution by controlling our consumption and disposal of such products as well as trying to recycle as much as we can! • • • Improper disposal of car batteries and other batteries – may add metals Leaking landfills – may pollute the groundwater below the landfill with a large variety of contaminants (whatever is stored by the landfill). as well as carbon oxides) that may end up in water bodies via deposition with precipitation water. Atmospheric contaminants are also derived from human practices (such as gaseous emissions from automobiles. these practices are regulated. In the United States and other countries. Please. that emit fluids of varying quality directly into urban water supplies. factories and even bakeries).. although this doesn't mean that pollutants can't be found in these waters. Plastic materials/wastes in contact with water – may degrade slowly releasing harmful compounds for both human health and ecosystem.. pesticides. Indirect sources include contaminants that enter the water supply from soils/groundwater systems and from the atmosphere via rain water. Animal wastes – contribute to the biological pollution of water streams. Direct sources include effluent outfalls from factories. • • • Construction activities – introduce a series of contaminants into the ground that may eventually end up in groundwater. etc. .S.) and improperly disposed of industrial wastes. read more at Construction Sites. refineries. Soils and groundwaters contain the residue of human agricultural practices (fertilizers. Disposal of personal care products and household chemicals (including detergents and various cleaning solutions) – this is a serious problem since the releases to water are unpredictable and hard if not impossible to control. vehicle emissions pollute the air with various tailpipe compounds (including sulfur and nitrogen compounds. and many other countries. waste treatment plants etc.

specific to the various contaminants. of course.. inorganic. the answer seems to lie in a combination of many small changes in our daily practices and paying more for goods and services. many of which are released from groundwater at municipal land fills. All of these solutions come with some cost (both societal and monetary). so that manufacturers of various materials and drivers of automobiles (for instance) will have cleaner devices with which to conduct their activities. bottles etc. Our standard of living and very way of life is based upon practices which are inherently "dirtier" than those of our distant ancestors. Examples from each class and their potential sources are too numerous to discuss here. poisionous food animals (due to these organisms having bioaccumulated toxins from the environment over their life spans). contain boxes. Additionally. c)What are the ways we can take to decrease those problem? Science provides many practical solutions to minimizing the present level at which pollutants are introduced into the environment and for remediating (cleaning up) past problems. Heavily packaged foods. They include poisonous drinking water. Whether we choose to drive to the corner store rather than walk or ride a bicycle will determine how much we personally contribute to acid and hydrocarbon emissions to the atmosphere (and ultimately to global fresh water supplies). . there are many choices on the personal and societal level that we must make (consciously or not) that affect the amount of pollution our town or country will be forced to live with. In our everyday lives. there are choices we make each day that also can affect the quantity of pollutants our actions will introduce into the environment. These effects are. cartons. although they too polluted their environment to some extent. radioactive and acid/base. In the end. unbalanced river and lake ecosystems that can no longer support full biological diversity. Without taking a step backward in terms of our standards of living.Contaminants can be broadly classified into organic. a great deal can be done to minimize pollution if we take care to recycle materials whose production creates pollution and if we act responsibly with household chemicals and their disposal. made with polluting dyes. and many other effects. for instance. b)What are the effects of water pollution? The effects of water pollution are varied. deforestation from acid rain.

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