The Kaufman Short Neurological Procedure, often abbreviated as K-SNAP, is a brief test of mental functioning appropriate for adolescents and adults between the ages of 11 and 85 years. It is administered on an individual basis, and measures mental functioning at varying levels of cognitive complexity as well as addressing possible neurological damage.

The K-SNAP is intended as a short measure of mental functioning and is sometimes preferable to other longer mental status and intelligence exams. Compared to the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT), which is given to people in the same age range and takes over an hour to complete, the K-SNAP takes only 20±30 minutes. The K-SNAP provides a measure of general mental status, as well as addressing specific mental abilities. It also allows for assessment of damage to the nervous system. The K-SNAP was developed by Alan S. Kaufman and Nadeen L. Kaufman. Other Kaufman tests include the KAIT and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC). The Kaufmans based their tests on Horn and Cattell's formulation of the distinction between fluid and crystallized intelligence, sometimes referred to as the Gf-Gc Theory. Gf refers to such general fluid abilities as problem solving and reasoning. Fluid intelligence is thought not to be influenced by a person's cultural experience and education. Gc refers to such general crystallized abilities as acquired knowledge. Crystallized intelligence, unlike fluid intelligence, is thought to be shaped by a person's cultural experience and education. Because the K-SNAP provides a measure of possible neurological impairment, it is often preferable to other measures of mental status and intelligence. If the doctor suspects that a patient may have a disorder of the nervous system, the doctor can use the K-SNAP as a short initial assessment. Depending on the results of the K-SNAP, the doctor can give more specific tests.

One should be careful when using the results of the K-SNAP to assess neurological impairment. It should be used as a supplement to other more extensive and more specific measures of neuropsychological functioning. The K-SNAP is primarily a test of mental and neuropsychological functioning. Although it measures cognitive skills, it should not be used to measure someone's overall intelligence.


especially with regard to fluid intelligence. Raw scores and scaled scores are calculated for each of the four subtests. the examiner recites series of numbers and the examinee repeats the numbers. the test items are presented on an easel. The Number Recall subtest assesses sequential processing and short-term auditory memory.The K-SNAP consists of four subtests administered in the following order of complexity: Mental Status. attentiveness. The K-SNAP is a relatively easy test to administer. In this subtest. . the test takers often find the test engaging and interesting. One composite score is obtained on the K-SNAP. The Gestalt Closure subtest provides an assessment of visual closure and simultaneous processing. The composite score has a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15 and is based on the scores of the four subtests. containing only 10 items. and orientation to the environment. The K-SNAP is considered to be useful in evaluating elderly people. In this subtest. Gestalt Closure. the examiner asks the examinee to answer verbal questions. Except for the Mental Status subtest. The Mental Status subtest can also detect possible age-related impairment in mental functioning. The Four-Letter Words subtest measures the test taker's ability to solve problems and make plans. and an impairment index. scaled scores. In this subtest. which is visually appealing to many test takers. Also. there are smaller than usual differences in K-SNAP performance between African-American and Caucasian individuals. Results The K-SNAP yields several scores. the examinee is shown partially completed inkblot pictures and is asked to name the objects in the pictures. The Mental Status subtest assesses the test taker's alertness. the examinee is asked to guess a secret word by analyzing a series of fourletter words that provide clues to the answer. This cultural neutrality makes the K-SNAP a preferred method for testing African-Americans. In this subtest. Compared to other neurological and cognitive assessments. and Four-Letter Words. especially with regard to decline in fluid intelligence. because the test is brief and includes a variety of tasks. It is the most complex of the subtests. Each subtest contains between 10 and 25 items. a composite score. It is the easiest and shortest of the four subtests. Raw scores are calculated first. Number Recall. they refer simply to the number of points that the examinee scored on a particular subtest. including raw scores. The raw scores are converted to scaled scores to simplify comparisons between the subtests and between examinees. The subtest scaled scores are standardized to have a mean of 10 and a standard deviation of three.

Flanagan. Needham Heights. and a difference of at least 24 points between the predicted and actual composite scores. . Overall. Robert J. Encyclopedia of Human Intelligence. New York: Macmillan. The impairment index is based on the following four factors: the KSNAP composite score. 3rd edition. and they get most. Sternberg. of the items correct. Gary. it has been shown to have good validity as well. as well as people with neurological or cognitive impairments. demonstrating the K-SNAP's validity as a measure of neuropsychological impairment. Lichtenberger. Gestalt Closure is considered a less complex task than Number Recall. As a mental status examination. Resources BOOKS Groth-Marnat. For example. New York: Routledge. that person may simply prefer sequential processing tasks. 1998. if an examinee has a composite score below 70.. An impairment index is also calculated and provides an objective measure of cognitive and neurological impairment. the difference between the scaled scores on the Number Recall and Gestalt Closure subtests. Because the K-SNAP is based on similar theories and on the same standardization sample as other Kaufman tests. and the difference between the actual composite score and the predicted composite score based on the test taker's level of education.. The Handbook of Psychological Testing. and Dawn P. New York: John Wiley and Sons. the test taker's performance on the Mental Status subtest. Someone who performs better on the more difficult Number Recall subtest may exhibit some kind of brain dysfunction. interpretation across the range of Kaufman tests is easier than comparing results from the K-SNAP to results from tests designed by other persons. On the other hand. 1994. a large difference in performance in the Number Recall and Gestalt Closure subtests. Kaufman.The results of the Mental Status subtest are primarily of interest when working with middle-aged or elderly people. These four factors determine whether a more comprehensive assessment of impairment is necessary. Elizabeth O. McGrew. and Alan S. such as the KAIT. however. Most people find the Mental Status subtest very easy. Some of the interpretation of the K-SNAP involves comparisons of performance on tasks of varying complexity. 1999. Essentials of Cognitive Assessment with KAIT and Other Kaufman Measures. a low score on the Mental Status subtest. One example of such impairment is damage to one hemisphere of the brain. For example. The Intelligence Test Desk Reference. if not all. Kline. Handbook of Psychological Assessment. There have been no studies. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 1997. the K-SNAP has above-average to good reliability. Broadbooks. Paul. MA: Allyn and Bacon. there may be indications of impairment. 2000. Debra Y. Kevin S.

brain.Q2-Level Ages / Grades: 11 through 85+ . score.Ali Fahmy. yield scaled scores (M= 10. Qualification level: B. person. percentile ranks. Read more: Kaufman Short Neurological Assessment Procedure . and descriptive categories. SD= 3). Four-Letter Words subtests. functioning. used. people. plus a descriptive category for Mental Status. K-SNAP Composite yields standard scores (M = 100.html#ixzz1mN9I70Mq y y y y Administration: 30 minutes Scores: Yields three subtest scores and two composite scores. Ph.D. Number Recall. percentile ranks. as well as Recall/Closure Composite. theory http://www.children. skills. SD= 15). The Gestalt Closure. and descriptive categories.