ETHICS OF PRODUCTION IN BUSINESS

DEVELOPMENT OF BIOTECH BUSINESS Between the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, Monsanto had spent approximately $1 billion on developing its biotech business. Although biotech was regarded as a commercially unproven market by some industry analysts, Shapiro pressed forward with the research and development of biotech products, and by the beginning of 1996 he was ready to launch Monsanto's first biotech product line. Monsanto began marketing herbicide-tolerant GMO soybeans, genetically engineered to resist Monsanto's PATENTED Roundup herbicide, and insect-resistant GMO BT cotton, beginning with 2,000,000 acres of both crops. By the fall of 1996, there were early indications that the first harvests of genetically engineered crops were performing better than expected (yet WORSE results than traditional and organic crops). News of the encouraging results prompted Shapiro to make a startling announcement in October 1996, when he revealed that Monsanto was considering divesting its chemical business as part of a major reorganization into a life-sciences company. Monsanto restructured during the early 1990s to help cut losses during a difficult economic time. Net income in 1991 was only $296 million, $250 million less than the previous year. Despite this showing, 1991 was a good year for some of Monsanto's newest products. Bovine somatotropin finally gained FDA approval and was sold in Mexico and Brazil, and Monsanto received the go-ahead to use the fat substitute, Simplesse, in a full range of food products, including yogurt, cheese and cheese spreads, and other low-fat spreads. In addition, the herbicide Dimension was approved in 1991, and scientists at Monsanto controversially tested genetically engineered (GE or GMO) plants in field trials. Furthermore, Monsanto expanded internationally, opening an office in Shanghai and a plant in Beijing, China. Monsanto also hoped to expand in Thailand, and entered into a joint venture in Japan with Mitsubishi Chemical Co.

Monsanto and NTGargiulo joined forces to produce a (GMO) genetically altered tomato. the risk of introducing a plant variety with a new allergene or toxin using genetic modification is much smaller than using traditional breeding processes. claiming that GM foods are unnatural and therefore unsafe. Such concerns have led to the adoption of laws and regulations that require safety testing of any new organism produced for human consumption. Some groups or individuals see the generation and use of GMO as intolerable meddling with biological states or processes that have naturally evolved over long periods of time. EFFECTS OF GMO¶s Foodchain The safety of GMOs in the foodchain has been questioned by some environmental groups. ushering in a period of profound change. the sweeping. had been faithfully supported by further investments in the ensuing years. eventually emerging as the focal point of Monsanto's operations. An example of an allergenic plant created using traditional breeding is the kiwi. chemical. Monsanto expected to see growth in its agricultural. strategic alterations to Monsanto's focus were preceded by a change in leadership. Monsanto's efforts finally yielded tangible success in 1993. As the decade progressed. However. with concerns such as the possibilities that GMOs could introduce new allergens into foods. According to a study published in 1999. there was no current evidence to suggest that the processes used to genetically modify food were inherently harmful. The foray into biotechnology. making the last decade of the 20th century one of the most dynamic eras in Monsanto's history. Other people see this as a continuation in the role humanity has occupied for thousands of years. when BST was approved for commercial sale after a frustratingly slow FDA approval process. biotechnology played an increasingly important role. modifying the genetics of crops by selecting specimen of crops with the most desirable characteristics as parent for the next generation of crops. Transgenesis has less impact on the expression of genomes or on protein and metabolite levels than conventional breeding or plant (non-directed) mutagenesis. or contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance. begun in the mid-1980s with a $150-million investment in a genetic engineering lab in Chesterfield. while others are concerned about the limitations of modern science to fully comprehend all of the potential negative ramifications of genetic manipulation. and environmental groups still discourage consumption in many countries. the development of further biotech products moved to the forefront of Monsanto's activities.INTRODUCTION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD Biological process-The use of genetically modified organisms has sparked significant controversy in many areas. In 1993. In the coming years. a number of more recent studies have raised concern. and biotechnological divisions. Missouri. GMOs' proponents note that because of the safety testing requirements imposed on GM foods. One article calculated that the marketing of GM salmon could reduce the cost of . Fittingly.

the most notable among them being brain cancer. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1974. In the European Union. congressional hearings and internet hoaxes since its initial approval for use in food products by the U. thus increasing salmon consumption and preventing 1. Aspartame has been linked to various diseases.400 deaths from heart attack a year in the United States. .salmon by half. Aspartame is a methyl ester of the aspartic acid/phenylalanine dipeptide. because its breakdown products include phenylalanine. A 2007 medical review on the subject concluded that "the weight of existing scientific evidence indicates that aspartame is safe at current levels of consumption as a non-nutritive sweetener". It was first synthesized in 1965 and the patent expired in 1992. aspartame must be avoided by people with the genetic condition phenylketonuria (PKU).S. The safety of aspartame has been the subject of several political and medical controversies. It was first sold under the brand nameNutraSweet. since 2009 it also has been sold under the brand name AminoSweet. non-saccharide sweetener used as a sugar substitute in some foods and beverages.[3] However. ASPARTAME Aspartame is an artificial. it is codified as E951. Researches have revealed that aspartame makes direct contact with the brain cells of human beings which causes brain cancer.

. namely 6-8% of all children under the age of three."The next case could be less than ideal and the public less fortunate. it is no wonder at all that this is happening. Near-deaths and Food Allergy Reactions: In 1996. Animal and human tests confirmed the peril and fortunately the product was removed from the market before any fatalities occurred. but of life on Earth. Restructuring nature was not part of the bargain. It has been estimated that 25% of Americans have mild adverse reactions to foods (such as itching and rashes). Potentially.. Yet the FDA officials who are sacredly entrusted to safeguard the health of the general public. novel epidemics. Had they alone been relied upon. and unknowingly. "I've been treating children in the field of allergy immunology for 15 years. while at least 4% or 12 million Americans have provably more serious food allergies as objectively shown by blood iImmunoglobulin E or IgE levels. the products of three billion years of evolution.. Recorded Deaths from GM: In 1992. there were 37 deaths reported and approximately 1500 more were disabled. Released without safety tests. the allergens from one food can thus be transferred to another. The animal tests conducted. new sources of cancer. however.THE DISASTROUS EFFECTS CAUSED BY THE USAGE OF UNTESTED GMO¶S "Recombinant DNA technology faces our society with problems unprecedented not only in the history of science.this direction may be not only unwise. In addition. but dangerous." Deaths and Near-Deaths 1. the incidence rates for these children has been decidedly rising. The percentage of young children who are seriously food-allergenic is yet higher.. In other words. Since the very first commercially sold GM product was lab tested (Flavr Savr) animals used in such tests have prematurely died. dozens of Americans died and several thousands were afflicted and impaired by a genetically modified version of the food supplement L-tryptophan creating a debilitating ailment known as Eosinophilia myalgia syndrome (EMS) . Japan's third largest chemical company destroyed evidence preventing a further investigation and made a 2 billion dollar settlement. Writes Dr. Using genetic engineering. and in recent years I've really seen the rates of food allergy skyrocket. it could breed new animal and plant diseases. and especially . 2. they can go into anaphylactic shock (similar to a severe bee sting reaction) which can cause death. A settlement of $2 billion dollars was paid by the manufacturer. a disaster would have followed. Such intervention must not be confused with previous intrusions upon the natural order of living organisms: animal and plant breeding." The Center for Disease Control confirmed the spike on a US national level. there is a significant number of highly food-sensitive individuals in our general population. Some individuals. Given the increased adulteration of our diets. however. Brazil nut genes were spliced into soybeans to provide the added protein methionine and by a company called Pioneer Hi-Bred. Showa Denko.. It places in human hands the capacity to redesign living organisms..Our morality up to now has been to go ahead without restriction to learn all that we can about nature.All the earlier procedures worked within single or closely related species. Jacqueline Pongracic. are so allergic to this nut. were insufficient by themselves to show this. head of the allergy department at Children's Memorial Hospital in Chicago." writesMarion Nestle author of Food Politics and Safe Food. and head of the Nutrition Department of NYU in an editorial to the New England Journal of Medicine. thought to be safe to eat.

4. In research conducted by two of Monsanto's own scientists. under intense industry-lobbying pressure. The real impact cannot be revealed by experiments that look at just a few controlled factors or chemicals isolates. but a simultaneous rise in systemic. Cancer and Degenerative Diseases 3. including in the pollution of the air. an immensely potent carcinogen. and even though scientists warned that this resulted in an increase of IGF-1 (from (70%-1000%).of children. More startling was the fact that some chemicals were thought to be harmless by themselves but not in such combinations. the European Union. The contention by Monsanto that the hormone was killed by pasteurization or rendered inactive was fallacious. There are zillions of potential combinations for the 100. Similarly. FDA approved Monsanto's genetically-modified rBGH. In 1993. declared in 1992. For example.to4 times range. Yet Monsanto continued to market this product in the US until 2008 when it finally divested under public pressure. The epidemic of cancer is a major example and is affected by the overall polluted state of our environment. when injected into cows stimulates the pituitary gland in a way that the produces more milk. Non-traceable Effects on Cancer Rates: The twentieth century saw an incremental lowering of infectious disease rates. Canada. thyroid cysts and internal organ damage in rats. The FDA's own experiments indicated a spleen mass increase of 40-46%. refused to certify rBGH as safe. there is the potential. Scientists a few years ago were startled that combining chemical food additives into chemical cocktails caused many times more toxic effects than the sum of the individual chemicals. a genetically-altered growth hormone that could be then injected into dairy cows to enhance this feature. that genetically-modified (GM) foods were essentially equivalent to regular foods. whole body or immune system breakdowns. the most uniquely different foods ever introduced in the history of modern agriculture (and in the history of biological evolution)." Canadian studies confirmed such a suspicion and showed active IGF1 absorption. water. When two award-winning journalists. They involve the most novel and technologicallyviolent alterations of our foods. they were fired by Fox Network under intense pressure from Monsanto. ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate.8. with entirely new ways of rearranging the natural order with genetic mutations and that similar non- . IGF-1 is a very potent chemical hormone that has been linked to a 2 1/2 to 4 times higher risk of human colorectal and breast cancer. and food we take in. tried to expose these deceptions.in the 2. Ted Elasser and Brian McBride. an international health standards setting body. Australia and New Zealand have banned rBGR. Samuel Epstein of the University of Chicago and Chairman of the Cancer Prevention Coalition. Prostate cancer risk is considered equally serious . Rather all of nature is a testing ground. thus making milk production more profitable for the large dairy corporations. Indirect.000 commonly thrust upon our environment. Yet the FDA denied the significance of these findings. The truth is that genetically modified foods cannot ever be equivalent. especially where a single bacteria was overcome by an antibiotic. Direct Cancer and Degenerative Disease Links: GH is a protein hormone which.a sign of developing leukemia. The UN's Codex Alimentarius. According to Dr. together form benzene. two simple chemicals found in soft drinks. this "induces the malignant transformation of human breast epithelial cells. only 19% of the hormone was destroyed despite boiling milk for 30 minutes when normal pasteurization is 15 seconds.Steve Wilson and Jane Akre.

Angela Ryans and Joe Cummins.A Recipe for Disaster? . One study showed that gene mixing occurred in viruses in just 8 weeks (Kleiner." Results of this kind led the US Department of Agriculture to hold a meeting in October of 1997 to discuss the risks and dangers of gene mixing and superviruses. cancer affected only about 1 out 11 individuals. In the US in the year 1900. It is somewhat similar to Hepatitis B and HIV viruses and can pose immense dangers. This can give rise to more deadly viruses . In a Canadian study.in Round Up ready soy of Monsanto. A French study also showed the recombination of RNA of two Cucomoviruses. This kind of scenario applies to the cauliflower mosaic virus CaMV.as evidence of gene mixing or horizontal transfer. Cancer mortality rates rose relentlessly throughout the 20th century to more than triple overall. 1997). It now inflicts 1 out of 2 men and 1 out of 3 women in their lifetime. It is a kind of "pararetrovirus" or what multiplies by making DNA from RNA. Superviruses: Viruses can mix with genes of other viruses and retroviruses such as HIV. We definitively know X-rays and chemicals cause genetic mutations. a plant was infected with a crippled cucumber mosaic virus that lacked a gene needed for movement between plant cells. Cauliflower Mosaic Viral Promoter . and GM cotton and canola.and at rates higher than previously thought. Within less than two weeks. but no regulatory action was taken. and under conditions of minimal selection and in supposedly virus resistant transgenic plants.traceable influences can likewise cause cancer. Bt-maise of Novaris. the crippled plant found what it needed from neighboring genes . The issue and research involved are also detailed in the consumer reports article by Mae Wan Ho. This is significant because genes that cause diseases are often crippled or engineered to be dormant in order to make the end product "safe. and mutagenic changes are behind many higher cancer rates or where cells duplicate out of control. Viral and Bacterial Illness 5. the most common virus used in genetic engineering .

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