WESTERN ART

EGYPT
Egyptian civilization about fOUf Of five thousand H.C. Historically Egypt and
Mcsopolamia run parallel but the two and anistlc charaLiers differ very much.
Egypt wa.. comparatively a country nol UP!iet by so many war.; as Mesopotamia.
Egyptian power was in the hands of the priesthood while the safety of Mesopotamia relied
upon the power of the kings.
Life in Egypt is possible only because of the yearly floods of the Nlle - for this reason since
!.he remotest lime lhe Egyptians were skilled in irrigation works,
Except lhe region of Delta, in Egypt there is no rain - this explains lhe good preservation of
antiquities.
The abundance of stone and marnle enabled the Egyptians to erect astonishing monuments
The belief in the immortality of lhe soul caused the proouction of innumerable sculptures
and paintings. The belief thai the soul (KA) may return to its abode (the mummy), but the dead
must be provided with gods. relatives, servanls and objects in order to worship, to talk with
and 10 use a<; in real life.
Hence every person of financial means had his mortuary chamber HUed with sculptures and
paintings.
RELIGION:
Each lown had its deity - this was the source of many reljgionwlm. Over the local gods there
the national ones such as RA. the sun, giver of happiness. NUT and GEB, respeclively wife
(goddess of the sky), and husband (god of the Earth). Nut and Geb had two female and two male
childreu which form the couples of good and bad. OSIRIS and ISIS good - SET and NEPHTHYS bad
- Sel kJl1s Osiris, scattering his remains - HORUS, son of Osiris, defends his father and blinds Se\­
this (0 mean that hatred is blind. Isis (the compassion) gathers logether the remains of Osiris who
resuscitates. Thus Osiris, Isis and Horns are the gods connecled with the dead.
Old Egyptians also worshipped animals and many of their gods were represented by animal
and human forms.
ART:
Egyptian art maintained its characteristics for about four thousand years. Under the role of
Greece and Rome sculpture and painting changed considerably while archilecture retained its tradi­
tional characler.
Dates concerning Egyptian art :
B.C.
3300-2475 Old Kingdom-capil;il at Memphis. Period of the pyramids and Oldest
Pyramids a( Saqqara and Mednm (Stepped pyramids). Gre<llest pyramids at
Gizeh near Cairo-pyramid of King Cheops-pynl.mid of King Chephren and
pyramid of Micerinus. At Gizeh there is also the famous Sphinx and the
oldest mortuary temple.
SClllpture and Painting had already reached a very high expression.
2475-2160 Intermediflte kingdom - art in decline.
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263
2160-1790
1790-1580
1580-712
1520-1480
1501-1447
1411-1375
1375-1358
1292-1225
712-332
332-30
30 B'c-393AD.
395- 640
MIDDLE KINGDOM: Rock-£ut-tombs replaced the pyramids.
Egypt under the rule of the Arabs. HYKSOS. AJ1 in
NEW KINGDOM-capital at Thebes. Great period of architectural
constructions. The temples of KARNAK and LUXOR are the greatest
religious temples.
Queen Halasu (HaHhl'pSu.l). Mortuary temple of Queen Hatasu at DEIR
EL BAHAR] (1500) is one of the most wonderful monuments of lhe
antiquity.
King Thothmes III or Thutmosis-Great soldier and builder of many
temples.
King Amenophis ill buill LUXOR.
King Amenophis IV (IKHNATON) shifted the capital from Thebes to TEL EL
AMARNA. Originated a realistic art. Ikhnaton was followed by his son-in­
law. King Tutankamen, whose tomb discovered inlact in 1922. contained a
great quanlity of objecls of art.
King RAMSES ll-believed to have built the hypostyle hall of Karnak.
Famous his 10mb CUI Oul of rock. at Abu Simbel.
From the eighth century B.C. Egypt to disintegrate and ruled by
Ethiopia, Assyria, Babylonia and Persia. In the 7th century there was a
revival ofliterJ.ture and art referred 10 a... Saite or Neo-memphite an.
PTOLEMAIC period - Greek rulers. The temples of [sis iu the island of
Philae and of Horus at Edfu were erected in the GTeek. period - the latter
wa... finished by the Romans.
ROMAN period. During the Greco-Roman periods architecture retained
the old characteristies while seulpture and painting lost the tradi\ional
peculiarities.
Copt period. Coptic art has a Christian-Byzantine charaeler. No more
Egyptian lraditional arl. Very primitive e\pression in painting and
sculpture.
Moslim period - Egyptian Saracenic art was. very much influenced by
Coptic architecture and
A BARE OUTLlNE OF HISTORY IlDd STYLES OF ART
264
EGYPT
1.-2. Oldest step Pyramids at Sakkara and Medum.
3. Pyramid ofCheops at Gizeh, high 160 ffi.
4. The Egyptians knew building with vaults since 3.000 H.C. but used it vary little preferring roofing
their structures by the means of horizontal slabs of stone or granite.
S. The oldest mortuary temple at Gizeh (circa 3,000 B,C.) wherein we may notice the univenlal
principles of Egyptian architecture; namely, the pillar"An, the arehitrave "B" and the horizontal
roofing "e".
EG\"PT
1.-2. Masr.abas.
5. Rod CUI tomb at Beni Hasan where there are columns having si.\teen very shallow flutes, A,
suggesting as the prototype of the Greek fluted column.
Silpa Bbirasri
265
unnffilmm
x.­
EGYPT
I. Plan of Egyptian temple. "A" Pylons. "B" Coun. "C" Hyp.JSlyle hall. "D" Sanctuary.
2. Diagrams of Egyptian temple showing the height of the sections of the temple A. B. C. D.
diminishing to wards the Sanctuary (D).
3. Moulding universally used in Egyptain archilecture.
-1.. The hypostyle hall of the temple of Karnak had 134 large eolumns, lhe middle ones being 24 metre
h i g h ~ and having a diametre of three metres.
5. Diagram showing the opening to give light to the interior of lhe lemple.
Oldest f o r m ~ of Egyptian capitals used since 3,000 B.C.
I. Spread or bell capital.
2. bud capital.
3.-4. Decorated bell amI bud capitals.
5.-6.-7. Three types of columns used since old time.
8. Hathor capital. The column having lhecapital with the head oflhe goddess Halhor appears in later
period.
9. Painted I,;apilal with volules which may hayc been the prototype of the Greek ionic capital.
A BARE OUTLINE OF mSTORYand STYLES OF ART
266
EGYPT
Egyptian chain; and v a ~ e s .
Note the legs of the chairs fonned by lion - legs - lhis elemenl was used in Europe up 10 the end of lhe
last century. China too used the same form. Diagram I. shows achaa wilh small sphiuxes, a pt',culiar­
ity to be found in the French Empire style after Napoleon's conquest of Egypt.
Egyptian ornaments.
Silpa Bhirasri
267
MESOPOTAMIA
The land floode(! by the rivers Euphrates and Tigris was called by the Greeks "Mesopotamia",
but when referring to culture also Persia, Hittite and Phoenicia are included in Mesopotamian art.
Many people fought for the dominion of Mesopotamia, but at large, we may say that the
culture remained unchanged since the Sumerian period.
Be<:ause of the differenee in soil and geographic position the art of Mesopotamia is different
from that of Egypt.
All peoples of Mesopotamia had in common the following peculiarities:
I. Use of dried, baked and glazed bricks.
2. Thorough knowledge of irrigation.
3. Building palaces and temples on elevated terraces.
4. Use of vaulls and domes.
5. Use of seals.
6. Cuneifonn writing.
7. Use of terra cotta tablets.
8. Pottery and vases in alabaster.
DATES
(D.C)
4000-1950 Sumer
2750-1950 Akkad
2600-538 Babylorua
2700-612 Assyria
1900-1200 Hittite
3000-640 Elam
750-550 Media
600-332
Persia
3000-332 Phoenicia
SUMER·AKKAD
3000 TomM of Sumerian kings al Ur and Lagasha.
2750 The Akkadian king Sargon 1 conquered many Sumerian towns eSl1lblishing
the great Akkadian Empire.
2400 Portraits of King Gudea and his son Ur-Ningirsu. (Sumerian)
1950 Sumer and Akkad conquered by Babylonia.
BABYLONIA
2600 The Akkadian found Babylonia.
19SO King Hammui<l.bi conquered Babylonia establishing the first Babylonian
Empire: important civil laws.
1750 The Kassites eonquered Babylonia and brought in Mesopotamia horses
and chariots.
900-625 Babylonia under Assyria.
625 Chaldean dynasty-Nabuchadnezzar II conquered Jerusalem and brought the
Jews in captivity. This king buill many fine palaces and the famous walls of
the lawn measuring 61 kilometres-the ouler wall was 54 metres high and had
100 bronze doors.
538 Babylonia oceupied by King Cyrus of Persia.
A BARE OUTLINE OF HISTORY and STYLES OF ART
268
IDTTITE
1400 Hittite army reached Syria, fought against Egypt retaining part of Syria.
1120 Hillites under Assyrian rule. Hittite art is very similar 10 the Assyrian art.
ASSYRIA
2700-1200 Assyrian lowns vassals of other races.
1116-1093 King Tiglath Pileser I established the Assyrian Empire.
900-612 Assyria at her zenith.
722-705 Sargon II enlarged still more the lerritory of the empire. Famous for his
palaees at Korsabad. Art at its best.
612 Nineveh destroyed by the combined forces of Babylonia and Media.
ELAM
300) The negroid Elamites settled in Susa. Many vases and some bas-reliefs have
been fonnd in Susa.
640 Elam invaded by Persia ceased to exist.
MEDIA
750 King Dioces found the Median Empire with capital at Ecbatana.
612 King Cyaxarres conquered Assyria in cooperation with Nabopolassar, king of
Babylonia.
500 Media incorporaled in the Persian Empire.
PERSIA
640 Penlians settled at Susa and established the dynasty of the Achaememans.
550-530 Cyrus the Great conqnered Mesopotamia, Asia Minor and to the east reaehed
the Indus.
530-521 Cambyses conquered Egypt in 525.
521-485 Darius I started to build the palaces at Penlepolis.
485-465 Xenles I finished the palaces at Persepolis.
Ware against Greece
490 Penlian army defeated at Marathon.
480 Persian navy defeated at Salamis.
479 Penlian army defeated at Plalea.
332 Alexander the Greal conqnered Penlia.
A.D. 226-641 Sassaman Dynasty.
641 Moslim conquesl.
PHOENICIA
B.C.)(X)() Phoenician people settled in the Syrian coast, founded Byblos, Tyre &
Sidon.
2000 Tombs of the kings at Byblos.
900 Started to colonize Africa. Portugal and Spain,
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269
814-146 Carthage founded in 8 14.
332 Conquered by Alexander.
Phoenician invemed the alphabet, made works in glass. metal and
ceramic.
ASSYRIA
By comparing Assyrian and Egyptian ornaments we nole that the former are more elegant
than the latter.
I. The Mesopolamian lemple had many fonus. bUI in principle it was a solid mass with corridors
around it, The staircases leading to the small temple at the top were built outside the receding storeys.
2. Diagram showing the method of vault building.
3. Entr.mce 10 the Palace of Sargon ]] at Korsabad.
4_ Assyrian bas-relief with houses roofed by semi-sphcrical and elliptical domes.
5.Assyrian "Bull" 10 be found also in Persian art.
6. Typical assyrian section of wall. Also for the finial of the walls, the Assyrian llsed t h i ~ zig-zag.
A BAKE OUTLINE OF HISTORY and STYLES OF ART
270
PERSIA
1. Plan of the hypostyle hall at Persepoli inspired by Egyptian architecture.
2.-3. Column and capital of the hypostyle haJJ at Persepoli. a fine composition eminently Persian.
Both Capital and column influenced Indian art from (he 3rd 10 the 1st century H.C.
4. Rock-cut door showing its Egyptian origin.
5. Decorations in glazed bas-relief were common LO Mesopotamia and Pen;ia.
6. Elliptical dome of the Sassanian dynasty built on square plan divided in eight by the means of
brackets-like additions al comers n A". Very possible it was from Pen;ia that the architeds of Byzantium
were inspired to build their domes on pendentives.
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271
GREECE
Pre-Greek Period. (Non-Greek people)
B.C. 3(0)-2000 Aegean period. Only pottery remains of this period.
2000-1400 Crelean or Minoan period. Palaces at Cnossus and PhaeslUs.
Pre-Homeric Period (Greek Race)
20(X) Greeks moving from the region of Danube invaded Greece.
J-WO-llOO Mycenean period. After Ihe collapse of Minoan Kingdom Greek towns
carried on the Cretean culture.
1184 War of Teoy (lliulII).
1100 Dorian invasion (a second group of Greeks moving, as the first, from
the DanubIan regions invaded the Greek !Owns. Many Greeks left Greece
and settled on the coast of Asia Minor.
Period of reconstruction after the Dorian invasion.
'XX)
Homer. Iliad, Odyssey.
776 First Olympic Games.
700-600 ColonIes in Sicily. south Italy and coast of the Black Sea. In Sicily and
south Italy (Magna Graecia), there are many Greek temples and theatres In
fairly good condition.
Periods or Greek Art.
800-650 Pnmitive 450-300 Classic
650-450 Arcnaeic 300-146 HellenistiC
Wars with Persia
490 Persian army defeated at Marathon.
480 Greeks destroyed the Persian na"'Y at Salamis
479 Victory of the Greek army at Platea.
444-430 Under the leacleT';nip of Perides, Alhens reached its classical period.
431-404 Peloponnesian wars between Alhens and Sparta.
382-336 Philip the Great of Macedouia united Greece.
356-323 Alexander the Great conquerecl Egypt. Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, Persia.
200-148 Macedonian Wars against Rome. Rome conquered Macedonia.
'46
Rome invadecl Gree.::e. Greek art followed its Hellenistic eycle.
Greek Hellenistic
300-133 PERGAMUM, a famous .::entre of art in Asia Minor. The Acropolis of
Pergamum was constructed after the victory of Attalus I (241-194)
over the Gaules. (traditioflt1l and arl).
300 B.C.-30 B.C. ALEXANDRIA, Uncler the Ptolemaic dynasty, Alexandria rose to great
importance both in science and arts. particularly realistic art which
influencecl Rome.
ca. 100 B.C. RHODES. Of thIS school remains the famous group of Laocoon.
ca. 100 B.C. THRALLES in Asia Minor. The well known group of the Farnese Bull
belongs 10 the school of Thralles.
ROME. In Rome too, Greek artists worked,creating many among
whieh the torso of Belvedere by Apollonios Imo of the first century B.C
A BARE OUTLINE OF HISTORY and STYLES OF ART
272
Names or the Greatest Artists.
SCULPTORS: First classic period
MYRON (450) Statue of Discabolus.
POLICLETIUS (430) Statues of Amazon and Spear-bearer.
PHEIDIAS (500-431) Slatues of Minerva in !.he Acropolis of Athens, and of in the
temple ofOJympia.
Second classic pniod :
SCOPAS (400-340} Sculptures on the Mausoleum of Aliearnassos.
PRAXITELES (385·320) Hennes carrying the child Dionysus and Aphrodite.
LYSIPPUS (3RO-JIB) The most proline sculptor who seemed to have done about 1.500
statues; the sculptor of Alexander.
PAINTERS : No works of the great Greek {lainlen; have reached modem lime.
POLYGNOTUS worked about 470-440.
ZEUXIS worked about 420-390.
APELLE-4th B.C", worked for Philip and Alexander.
The fme craftsmanship of the Greek may be noticed from their vases which are divided into
four Primitive period having auimal and geometric figures. Archaic perioJ with black figures
on red background. period with red figures on black background aud period with
many colours.
ACROPOLIS : Each Greek town had its The most famo of Atheus where
there are the finestl.emples of the Greek arehitecture, namely:
PARTHENON (447-432) iu Doric order by lctinus and Callicrdte tures in the
pediments representing the birth of Athens and the dispute of the gods .cna for the
patronage of the town Athens and the bas-relief of the Panathenaic pnxessioll,
ERECHTHEUM (420-408) built in memory of the bero Erechtheus.lonic order. for
the female statues called the caryatids.
THE TEMPLE OF NTKE (Victory) archaic. Ionic order having classic sculptures.
THE PROPYLAEA (437-432) is the gateway to enter the sacred of the Acropolis.
Ionic and Doric orders.
Choragic Monument of Lysicrates outside the Acropolis of Athens is tbe best specimen of
Greek Corinthian order.
Greek Forms or Governmenl : Kingdoms
/arismcmls)
Oligarchy (flew richeJ)
Democracy
Tyranny
Names or lhe Principal Gods and Semi Gods or Greek Mythology.
Chaos dominates the worId in its chaotic slate.
Uranus and Gea had twelve ehildreu, six called Tlrans, three called Cyclops and three called
Centimanjs
a titan, rebels against Uranus and gets control of the world.
Rhea, wife of Cronus, eom'cals her child, bus, who, when adult, defeats the father and
controls the Universe. Titans rebel and Zeus, helped by the Cyclops. wins and becomes the chief god
of the Greek pantheon.
Zeus. Jupiter, Jove. Herll,Juno Athena. Minerva, Palla
Apollo. Phoebus, Sol. 9 Muses. Aurora.
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273
Artemis. Diana, Selene
M"".
Hermes, Mercury.
Dionysus, Bacchus.
Heracles, Hercules.
Centaurs.
Satyres.
CRETE
Aphrooite, Venus
Cupid. Eros.
Poseidon, Neptune.
Demeter, Ceres.
Perses.
Medusa.
Fauns.
Vulcan.
Psyche.
Pluto, Hades. Orcus.
Hestia, Vesta.
Nike, Victory.
ALIas.
Nirnphes.
Cretean, or Minoan ornaments showing the high aesthelic sense of the Crel.ean people.
I. PeculiarCrel.ean column, narrower at the base than allhe top. Mycenean art used the same column.
A BARE OUTLINE OF HISTORY and STYLES OF ART
274
MYCENAE
I. Tomb of Agamemnon or Treasury of Atreus at Mycenae.
2. Entrance door of the Tomb. Note how Mycenean art was influem:l"d by Crele.
3. Forms of doors and domE" which are also lenned "Pelasgic art". Either for a coincidence or
a same origin. also the Indian dome is buill by the means of horizonlallayers.
4. Mycenean vase belraying its artistic origin from Crete.
GREECE
Greek oede" of architecture
I. Doric Order.
2. lOllic Order.
3. Corinthian Order.
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Silpa Bhirasri
275
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GREECE
I. Doric order. Doric order is fanned by a column withoul base and having twenty shallow flutes. The
entablature A. if> fonned by the architrave B, by the frieze C and by the cornice D. The frieze C has
alternatively a triglyph E and a metope F. The metope may be plain or may have a sculpture in high
relief.
2. Ionic order. Ionic column has twenly fourcleep flules and belween flutes there is a fillet. The frieze
C of the ionic and Corinthian orders is in general enriched with a bas-relief. The columns of the ionic
and Corinthian orders have the base.
3. Antefixa, applied along the sides of the temples to conceal the joints of the marble slabs of the roof.
Also used a<; finial of the pediment 4, or finial to stele.
4. Many pediments of the Greek temples were decorated with statuary.

It
Corinthian Order. While the temples of Doric
and lonie orders dale from the lOth and 8th cen­
IUry B.C., the Corinthian order slaned from the
5th century B.c.
A BARE OUTLINE OF HISTORY and STYLES OF ART
276
GREECE
Plans of Greek Temples.
I. Distyle in Amis.
2. Prostyle.
3. AmplJi Prmayle.
4. PeripleraJ.
5. Pseudo-peripteral.
6. DiplemJ.
7. Pseudo-dipleraJ.
Front eln'3lion
8. Telrnstyle. four columns in fronl.
9. Hexastyle. six columns in fronL
10. OclaStyle. eight columns in fronl.
11. Decastyle, len colnmns in front.
12. PeripteraJ cin.:nlar temple.
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GREECE
I. Section of Tholos having inside Corinlhian order and outside [k)ric order.
2. The Tower of the Wind.
3. Greek Theatre.
4. Mausoleum al Halicamassos.
5. Chordgic Monument of Lysicrates.
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.·277
GREECE rnl ornaments.
Greek archileCtll
GREECE
I. TriJXld.
2 S"nd fD" I,mp tlDn Dfm". .. acanlh" 10"".
. Ornaments for decora .'h the charaetenstle
3. I mamenls WI
4. S c u l p ~ r a 0 bas-relief.
5. Chair from a
A BARE OUTLINE OF HISTORY and STYLES OF ART
278
ETRURIA
1100-900 Probable dale of [he settlement of the Etruscans in Ilaly. They came
from Asia Minor bringing inlo Italy the use of arches and in
building. The Etruscans were influenced also by Greek culture. They
transmitted both Mesopotamian and Greek cultures to Rome.
7m-5th century Best period of Etruscan civilization.
6th cenwry Etruscan kings ruled Rome.
4th century Auacked by the Greeks. Gauls and Romans, the Etruscan power
declined.
280 Bruna incorporated in the Roman Rcpulic.
The Etruscan built temples on podium-occasionally their temples had three cells. They had
a special care for lhe tombs enriched with sculptures. paintings, metal works, elL.
The Etruscan had the cuMom to model or chisel the figures of the dead over lhe lids of the
sarcophagus-through this cuslom thcy become master of portrairure. They were also skilled in metal
works and sculpture in terra colla with which they used 10 decorate the temples.
Usually the Etruscan confcderation consisted in twelve towns. the principal ones having
been'
VEIO-VETRI-NORCHIA-CHIUSI-PERUGJA
FJESOLE-YOLTERRA-AREZZO ctc.
Periods or sculpture :
800"'00­ primitive, expressing the character of the Etruscan rural people,
400-300 ­ very Hellenistic.
300-100 - fine bearing the charncter of thc Etruscan people more than in the
previous period.
Famous works or sculpture :
The Wolf-lbe Chimera-Thc Head of Brutus-The Apollo of Veio-The Orator.
ROME
From the 6th to the 4th century B.C. Rome was influenced by EtruscancuJture. From the 3rd
to about 50 B.C. Greece was the inlellectual mistress of Rome. After thc 50 B.C. Rome
expressed artistically her own character and from this date to the end of thc 2nd century A.D. Roman
art reached ils classical period.
Roman all reflects Ihe characteristics of a people of soldiers, lawyers, and
agriculturists.
ARCHITECTURE: Romc shines in architectural construction,,_ Thc use of bricks. arehes and vaults
cnabled Rome to erect fine buildings all ovcr the empire.
Palac.es -Forums - Theatres and AmphjlhealJes - Stadiums - Circus - Thcnnal baths - Mauso­
leums - Acqueducts - Commemorative columns, Arches of Triumph, Bridgcs and Roads, tcstify thc
greatness of thc Roman civilization.
SCULPTURE : Roman sculpwre differs from thc Greek onc because it is realistic both in fonns and
subjects. In portraiture the Roman reoched a very high achievement.
PAlNTING : Specimens of fine Roman paintings, which had the same character as thc Greek ones,
Silpa Bhirasri
279
have been found in large quanlity especially in Pompeii.
Roman paintings show fine drawing and colours. but (hey are still lacking the three
dimensional understanding.
MOSAIC : The Roman used mosaie ex.tensively as d«:oration on the walls and floors.
STUCCO: Also stucco was used to deeorate the walls of relatively small moms.
Principal dates :
B.C. 753 Foundation of Rome.
618-510 Rome under Etruscan rulers.
510 Rcpublie.
280 Rome Mistress of Italy.
264-241 1st Punic war.
218-201 2nd Punic war.
202 Scipio. tile African wins the battle ofZama over Hannibal, the Cailhagenese
general.
149-146 Third Punic war-destruction of Carthage
148 Rome conquered Macedonia.
146 Rome occupied Greece.
100-44 Julius Caesar.
31 Octavian defeated Marcus Antony at Anctium.
30 Octavian Augustus was proclaimed first Roman Emperor.
A.D. 14 Death of Augustus.
54-68 Nero.
64 Rome partially destroyed by fire.
69-79 Emperor Vcspasian built the Colosseum.
79 Pompeii. Stabia and Erculaneum destTOyed by the reuplion of Vesuvius
79-81 Emperor Titus conquered Jerusalem. Arch oflitus in Rome.
98-117 Emperor Trajan conquered Dacia. Column of Trajan in Rome and Arch of
Triumph in Benevento.
117-138 Emperor Hadrian-built the Panlheon and his Mausoleum in Rome.
161-180 Emperor Marcus equestrian statue in Rome.
193·211 Emperor Septimius Severns-his arch in Rome.
211-217 Emperor Caracalla-his famous thennae in Rome (221 x 104 m.).
284-305 Emperor Diocletian-his Palace at Spalato.
305-312 Emperor Maxcntius. CiITUS of Maxcntius in Rome.
306·337 Constantine. Arch of Constantine in Rome.
331­ Edict of Milan gi\ling freedom to Christianity.
330 Conslantine establishal a new capital in Byzantium.
379-385 Emperor Theodosius-divided the Roman Empire into Western and Eastern
empire.
410­ Alaric of the Visigoths raided Rome.
450 ­ Attila. the Hun, in\laded Ilaly.
455 ­ Vandah sacked Rome.
475 - Romulus, last Roman emperor.
RELIGION: Roman religion was very like lhat of Greek ha\ling the same pantheon of gods. From
the Etrnscan. the Roman inherilalthe practice of prophecies by consulling the enlTails of the animals
for such a purpose.
.. A BARE OUTLINE OF HISTORY and STYLES OF ART
280
ETRURIA
1. Etruscan lumulus with podium" A".
2. Temple wilh three cells. The Etrusean temple had a ba.<oement.
3. Etruscan gateway.
4. Etru:<;can door reminding its origin from Pelasgic an which is lo be found in Asia Minor, Crete and
pre-Homeric Greece.
ETRURIA
Etrusean ornaments.
1. Funerary vase wilh a frieze of griffins reminiscenee of the art of Babylonia.
2. CapitaJ with woman-heads, a peculiarity of Etruscan art,
3. Bed-slelld whose form may be traced in Neo-classic furniture
Silpa Bhfrasri
281
-EB.
1-­
ROME
Rome used five orders of :
Dorie Order, Ionic Order, Corinthian Order. Composite Order and Tuscan Order.
1. Roman Doric Order. Contrary to the Greek Doric order the Roman one has the base and the flutes
deeper than the Greek prototype.
2. Later Doric Order.
3. Roman Ionic Order.
A
1
ROME
I. Roman Corinthian Order is more elaborated than the Greek prototype. Particularly we should note
the brackets. A. under the cornice which were universally used in Renaissance archileclUre.
2. Composite Order. The Composite capital is composed with the elements of the ionic order (upper
part) and the elements of the Corinthian order (lower part).
A BARE OUTLINE OF HISTORY and STYLES OF ART
282
4
ROME
1. Pseudo-peripteral hexastyle temple. Note that the Roman temple, like the Etrusean one, have a
basement (Podium) instead of the three steps of the Greek temples.
2. Pantheon. "A" exterior. "8" interior. "C" detail aUhe inlerior.
3. Peripler<11 circular temple of Vesta.
4. Mausoleum of Adrian as it may have appeared in its original foml. To day il is called Castel 51.
Angelo. or Mole Adriana.
ROME
I. Roman vaults. Building with arches and vaults ellabled the Romans to erect :m.:hitectural
monuments all over their Empire.
2. Roman basilica.
3. Acqueducl. The ACqlleduets were one of the greatest engineering work of Rome.
4. Types of doors and windows to be found agaill in the architecture of Renaissance.
5. Later Roman architecture, now termed as Baroque
Silpa Bhirasri
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2
ROME
I.Roman buildings were slrueturally ~ u p p o r 1 e d by arches and vaults, but as enrichment the
Romans used columns. The ordcr of Ihese eolumns '.. aried according to storeys. Ground floor had
Doric order (A). First floor had Ioni\: order (B) and Second floor had Corinthian order (C).
2. Roman Arch oflbrinmph which may have three or one arch.
3. Diagram of the Colosseum Amphitheatre which could accommodale forty fi'o'e thonsand
pen;ons.
ROME
I, Italic House.
2. Pompeian mural paintings. Note the picture with architectural pen;pective,a peculiarity of Pompeian
Art.
A BARE OUTLINE OF mSTORYand STYLES OF ART
284
ROME
Roman ornaments chiselled in marble showing a richer inlerpretation of the natural forms than the
Greek ones (particularly rhe acanthus leaws).
ROME
1. Ornaments for decorating ceilings executed either in stucco or in coloun:,
2. Roman marble table.
Silpa Bhirasri
285
CHRISTIAN ART
1st-10th Century A.D.
Christianity preaching love, brotherhO<Xi and the hope of an eternal spiritual life, triumphed
over the Persian Mithaism, the Greco-Roman mythology and over the worship of the Egyptian god­
dess Isis.
But becaui>e the Christian idology wa<; opposite to the principles over which the Roman
Empire was buill, so the Roman emperors persecuted the Christians. For this reason the Christians
had to build the calaeombs where they eould bury their dead and also eould meet to worship their God.
1st century 313 A.D. - Catacombs dug underground. Seulptural decoralion on the sargophagus,
painting, mosaic and stueco in the assembling halls.
313- Edict of Milan issued by Constantine the Great gave freedom to Christianity.
Christians slarted to build their basilicas, baptisteries and monasteries. While lhe
basiliea and baptistery of the Christians originated from Roman buildings, the monasteries
were a new conceplion whieh saw ils greatest aehievement in the Romanesque period, 9th­
13th century. Basilicas and baptisteries were deeorated with glass mosaic in the apses and
with marble mosaic on the floors and other pans of the building.
6th Century - After the end of the 6th century Christian art was influeneed by that of Byzantium
especially in what concerns mosaic with golden background. While in Haly the
basilicas had, like the Roman temples, round columns and no dome, in Syria, and Asia
Minor some basilicas had square pillars and domes ereeted over a square plan with
small arcades in the four comers functioning as support of the dome, a peculiarity
borrowed from Persian structures and afterwards developed by the Byzanline art.
Important Christian basilicas and baptisteries in Italy:
St. Paul, oUlside the walls. Rome Sl. John in Lateran. Rome
St. Prudentia. St. Stephen, round.
New Sl. Apollinare. Ravenna
BYZANTINE ART
4th-13th Century A.D.
330 - To control the unreslful Eastern empire, Constantine established a new capital at
Byzantium, afterward called Coustaminople, the modern Istanbul.
4th Century - The Christian church divided into the Catholic Church (Western Empire) and the
Greek Church (Eas/ern Empire).
5th Century - After the fall of Rome. Byzantium inherited and carried on the Roman culture.
. ARCHITECTURE
On account of the fusiou of Western and Eastern ideas in Byzantium there rose a new art­
panicularly characteristic is building the dome over a square plan erected in the ceuter of the church
(Greek cross) and the universal use of glass mosaic enriching almost all parts of the interiors. Byzan­
tine arehitecture is to be found principally in Greece. Asia Minor, Syria, Annenia and Russia, here
particularly in Moscow, Kiev, Novgorod.
527-565 Emperor Juslinian, a great mind who reunited part of Italy, Spain and Africa into
his empire. He built many towns, roads, bridges and churches.
583-602 Emperor Maurice eSlablished the Exarchale in Ravenna where many Byzantine
A BARE OUILINE OF HISTORY and STYLES or ART
286
strul:lures were buill. From Ravenna this an spread to Venice and to Dalmatia.
SCULPTURE AND PAINTING
Because !.he Greek church did not penni! !.he worship of sculptural images. so sculpture was
not so imponant as painting, To worsen this maner, betweeu 726-847 there wa... an iconoclastic reac­
tion. All sculptures were destroyed. Nevenheles,,> many low-reliefs east in bronze and, slill more,
carved in ivory were made. From these specimens we note that byzantine sculpture was eilher a very
primitive expression or was an imitation of old Greek e;o;amples. Aeeordingly, artists of t h i ~ period
focussed their talent in painting, e;\pressing it through !.he medium of mosaic. These mosaic paintings
have a primitive hieretie character, their composition developing rhythmically and horizonLally over
the large area of the golden background hannoruze perfectly with the solemnity of the architecture.
7th Century-After the middle of the seventh century Mohammedans started to attack the
Byzflntine Empire diminishing its power till on the 1453 Constanlinoples was
conquered by the Turks
Important Bf7.8otine Churrhes.
6th Century 51. Sophia of Constanlinoples. The most beantiful specimen of the Byzantine
churches made by Anthemins of Thralles and Isidorus of Miletus, built under the
emperor Jnstinian
6th Century - Baptistery in Ravenna.
11th Century - St. Mark of Venice.
12th Century - Metropolitan Cathedral of Athens.
COPTIC ART
395-640 A.D.
CoptiC art refers to the artistic produetion of the Christian Egyptians. Roman art began to
decline at the beginning of the third century and in about a hundred years from classicism had
degenerated in primitive forms.
Egypt, as part of the Roman Empire, followed the same declining parable find aceordingly
when the Roman left the control of Egypt, this country had fI Christian art with local primitive pecu­
liarities.
The Copts built churches and monasteries decorated with ornament.s having a very eastern
character-besides the peculiarity of the ornaments, some of the Coptic chnrches, although planned as
the Christian basilica.'>, at the end of the building, instead of the apse, had one or three domes.
It is very importanl \0 remember that when the Mohammedans conquered Egypt in the year
640 A.D. they were strongly influenced by Coptic art in forming their own style of architecture,
PAINTING AND SCULPTURE
In what concerns represenUltion of human figures. the Coptic mural paintings appear a crude
expression. Coptic textiles have that charming character as all primitive arts have.
Byzantium influenced Coptic architecture and sculpture-in fact CoptiC carvings in ivory
resemble closely the Byzantine carvings
Silpil Bbi("lIsri
287
CHRISTIAN ART
I. Roman Basilica which St'ned as an official building for administrative wort.
2.-3. Christian Basilica inspired by the Roman one. The Basilica may have the mn-e and lwo aisles, or
the nave and fOUf aIsles.
4. Plan nfChristian Basilica. Around !he Apse (A) there wen: !he sits for the monks auending the
mass
5. In later period it was added 3 Transept (B) to accommodate a larger number of monks.
6.-7. Respectively Roman and Christian interior of Basilica. The Roman used columns
supporting the entablature. The Christjans used arches without entablature.
8. Some Christian Basilicas had a transversal arch each "bay", but the mofwas universally in wood.
Church, a feature respected also dUring the Romanesque period. In the churches of northern Europe
the bell tower was an integral part of the Church.
BYZANTINE ART
1.-1.-1. Byzantine capitals. The block over the capital (A) is a characterislic of t h i ~ style.
2. 2.-2. Ornaments carved in marhle.
3. Diagram ~ h o w i n g the sharp character of the Byzantine acanthus leaf.
A BARE OUTLINE OF HISTORYaud STYLES OF ART
288
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BYZANTINE ART
I. Roman dome was generally built on circular plan or over eight pillars.
2.-3. Byzanline method of building domes on square plan by the means of pendentives (A). This idea
may have originated from Persia and afterwards was used by the Mohammedans in their Mosques.
4. A section of a Byl;antine Church showing pendemives.A.
5.-6. Plans of Byzantine Churches. A, Byzantine Churches may have one or more domes, but the
central one is mdispensable.
7. Christian western Churches up to Ihe 14th century A.D. had no dome.
8. From the Renaissance period also many western churehes were built with domes, but these are
placed at the centre of the transept (8) not as a central fealure as in Byzantine style. Therefore the
Byzamine church is built on a Greek-cross plan while the western churches are built on Lalin-cross
plan-respectively C.D.
Silpa Bhirasri
289
SARACENIC ART
7th-17th Century A.D.
Arabia is a semi-desert land-only here and there a scarce pasturage gives support [0 some
population. The rest of the Arabs have to depend on the income of the caravans. Thus the over­
populalion of that country was in the past the cause of the many Arab invasions of Syria, Mesopotamia
and Egypt.
MECCA. Since remOle lime, Mecca was a holy town where Arabs went in pilgrimage to worship a
Black Stone believed to represent the spiritual Power. The Arabs mct in Mecca every year to compete
in poetry, in singing, in sports, etc. so for the Arabs Mecca was what Olympia was for the Greeks.
570-632 - Mohammed was born in Mccca in the year 570. He was one of the many poor Arabs till at
25 yean; of age when he married Kadya, a rich widow. At forty he started to preach a new
religion, the ISLAM, based very much on Judaism and Christianity.
At fust he met with strong hostility and in the year 622 he had to fly for his life to MEDINA,
the flight is referred to as HEGIRA. He won his opponents in an open battle and since
then Islam was firmly established.
Al Mohammed's death, the Arabs Slillted lO conquer many countries to leach lheir own
new religion.
ART: Arabs had not a proper architeclure or art and accordingly they had to adopt, and adapt to their
own needs.lhe art of the conquered races. Hence differences to styles in Saracenic art. But religious
principles dictated everywhere forms peculiar to Islam resulting in a certain universal style in all the
Mohammedan world.
Islam does not pennit the representation of human and animal forms, thus to enrich their
monuments the Arabs developed a peculiar geometrical ornamentation calletl Arabesque. Indeed,
some animals may be found in decorative objects. but not human figures, these were permitted only in
miniatures.
Arabs of the past were great builders who left astonishing monumems in Europe,Africa and
Asia.
Saracenic minor-arts such as ceramic, metal works, textile, etc. are really wonderful and
mfluenced both Eastern and Western arts.
Mohammedan Conquests
640 Egypt.
641 Persia.
642-710 Syria, North Africa and Spain.
11 th Century Asia Minor.
1193 Started to conquer India forming the Pathans dynasties.
1453 Turks conquered Constantinoples.
1526 The Mongolian Mohammedans conquered all India and formed lhe
Mogul Empire which lasted till 1761.
STYLES Egyptian Style
Persian Style
Moorish or Spanish Style
Hindo-SardCenic Style
Turkish Style
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290
Most impoI1.TIu monumenls of Mohammedan architecture :
Anlbia Great Mosque-changed many -It!'. present fann is of the 16th century.
Syria Mosque of Aksah.. . 7th eenlury.
" Omar.. . 8th century.
Egypt Mosque of Amm.. . 7th century.
Abu Tooloon 9th century.
Sultan Hassan... . 14th century.
Katt Bey.. 15th cenlury.
Spain Mosque of Cordova 8th century.
The Alcazar eastle.... . 14th cenlury.
Tower of GilaJda at Seville 12th eentury.
Royal Palace al Alhambra.. . 14th century.
Persia Palace 011 M:olshita 7th century.
Tomb at Sullanieh 13th century.
lspahan 15th centu!)'.
Turkey Mosque of Suleiman 1.. 16th cemury.
" AhmedI.. 17thcentury.
India Mosque at Futtephore Sikri 16th cemu!)'.
Dewan-kas (audience hall) at Futtehpore 16th century.
Taj Mahal atAgra.. 17th century.
MUli Musjid, or Pearl Mosque at Agra.. ... 17th century.
lumma Musjid at DeihL ·'llIfV.
,
m

7
SARACENIC ART
I. Plan of a Mosque.
2. Mosque with Minaret, Aralx)-Egyptian style.
3. Hindu-Saracenic style originated from Persian Mohammedan art.
4. Turkish style which originated from Byzantine architecture of Constaminopie.
5. Pendentive with pattern, peeuliar to the Muslim Art.
6. Mihrab, the holy niche, located towards the Mecca.
7. Mimbar (pulpit).
8. 9. 10. of Saracenic domes.
Silpa Bhirasri
291
4 _-" 0 •
SARACENIC ART
1.-2. MoorishArches (Spain).
3. Pen;ian and Indian style.
4. EgypLian style.
SARACENIC ART
Saracenic ornaments are based on geometric forms. Because !.he Koran forbids !.he representation of
human and animal figures so the Arabs developed an elaboraLe omamentatiou from which arose !.he
term "Arabesque" Lo mean omamems.
1. Stalactite pattern very much used in Egypt and in Spain.
2.3.4.5. Typical shapes of Saracenic vases.
A BARE OUTLINE OF HISTORY and STYLES OF ART
292
ROMANESQUE ART
9th-Bib cenlury
Romanesque art is referred to also as Norman. Lombard or Carolingian art. While Byzantine
art represented a mixture of Westem and Eastern idea.o;. Romanesque art is linked again to Rome.
The simplicity ofRomanesque architecture and decoration was a reaction to the profusion of
the Byzantine enrichments.
In this dark period the monasteries were the only centre of knowledge and of humanitarian
activity.
In the Romanesque period there was a great aCli ..'ity of architectural constructions. Monas­
leries, ehurches. public and private palaces were built in an aSlonishing number.
ARCHITECTURE: Romanesque architecture presents oUlstanding characteristics which mainly
determined the birth of the Gothic style. In general, the churches had the same plan of the Christian
basilicas. Some had timber roofs, others had vaults in stone or bricks. On account of the great weight
of the vaults it was necessary to thicken the walls, to reduce the opening of the windows and to add
buttresses correspouding to each bay. Always because of the eonsiderable thickness of the walls, the
doors had, in its horizontal section, a cone or angle like shape. Series of small narrow areades decorat­
ing the exterior of the building are peculiar (0 this style. To the unique apse of the Christian basilica,
other apses were added, or small apses were ineluded in the large central one.
In many eases, to receive the weight of the vaults, piers replaced the eolumns.
Iu order to house many monks a transept was added to the church ereating in such a way a
plan referred to as uljn cross (B}';:;cmrirre church Juul a Greek cross). Contrary to the Byzantine
ehurches, whose interiors were completely adorned with mosaie, the Romanesque church presents a
rare simplicity of decoration. Few spots were enriehed with sculptuml ornaments, many of these
ornaments had strange fantastie animals interlaced with foliage.
The bell-tower (campanile) became a universal feature. In Italy the bell-tower is detached
from the church, while in northern countries it is part of the church.
MONASTERIES: The Romanesque mona"teries, genemlly built in wonderful natural spots, have
an imposing and mystie character. The monastery is formed by many cells running around a eloister
with arcades in its four sides and a well in the center. Attached to the donnilof)' (cells! there is the
church and the refectory.
CIVIL BULDINGS : The simplicity of the civil and public buildings, such as fortress-like palaces
and public buildings, generally used as governmental residences and town-halls, is most effective 10
give a srrong sensation afforce and dignity.
SCULPTURE: The artists of the Romanesque period abandoned the imitation of Bzyantiue fonns,
started again the study of Roman art and principally began 10 study and observe Nature.
PAINTING : In this period frescoes started to replace mosaic. The arts of stained glasses and
illumination began to be very importaut. Painting was used also to decorate the wooden structure of
the rook
Imponant Romanesque buildings:
ITALY Pisa - The Cathedral, the Baptistery and the Leaning Tower - 11th,
12th Century.
Aorence - St. Miniato - II th Century.
Verona - St. Zenone - 12th Centuf)'.
Silpa Bhirasri
193
Pavia - The Certosa of Pavia - 13th Century.
FRANCE Paris - St. Germain des Pres - 11m Century.
Toulouse - St. Semin - 11m Century.
Caen - Abbaye aux Hommes - 11m Century.
Caen - St. Etienne - 11m Century.
GERMANY Cologne - Church of Apostles - 11th Century.
Worms - Cathedral of Worms - 11m Century.
Cologne - Church of Sl. Manin - 12m Century.
Bonn - the Minster - 12th Century.
ENGLAND Cathedral of Gloucester.
Tewkesbury
Lincoln
Tower of London.
N.B. Few Norman structures in England retain their old character
because many were transformed during the Gothic period.
GOTHIC ART
12th-15th Century A.D.
Towards the end of me 12th century Europe seemed to awake from a long sleep. St. Dominie
of Spain. LI70-1221, and St. Francis of Assisi. 1182-1226, preaching a new sense of humanity and
Justice, stimulated a spiritual and material progress which stamped out the feudal social system op­
pressing sinee long European peoples, Free lowns grew in power and prosperity. The intellectual
acti..... ity which hitherto was the monopoly of the monks passed into the hands of me laymen who,
encouraged by emulation. engeudered new intellectual life in Europe.
Guilds were organized among whieh that of the master builden; was very importaut.
Gothic an originated in England and France and very soon it spread all over Europe. Haly,
being the site of the e1assic art, did not understand the beauty of Gothic art and so its monuments of
this period do not show the style in its purity as it is the case of me Northern examples.
Contrary to Christian and Romanesque styles, Gomic architecture was no more connected
with Roman art. It developed from struetural problems which. although present in the Romanesque
architecture, were not solved in that period.
As mentioned previously, the Romanesque architects started to build barrel vaults in stone.
replacing in such a way the limber roof of the Christian basilicas, but as the thrui;t of the barrel vaull
ii; very much sideward it had to be supported by thick walls and by buttresses plaeed outside the
building corresponding to each bay. Because the walls had a struetural function, so as not to weaken
them, the windows were very narrow and smaiL The Gomic archileets solved the problem by using
the pointed (or o g i ~ ' e ) vault instead of the barrel one. The thrust of the pointed vault is much more
vertieal. Besides, the pointed vault may be supponed by many ribs transmitting its weight to a lofty
pier (Il compound of columns in Il single unity) looking like huge palm-trees. Because the pointed
vaults augment sensibly the height of the whole building so the gothic ehurch has a very lofly
appearance. A flying arch. or flying buttress, starting from the top of the inner piers transmits the
weight of me vault of the nave to an outer pillar which is surmounted by a pinnacle 10 give it more
stability. Afterwards, the pinnacle became a peeuliarity of the style. The sideward thrust of the vaults
of me aisles is also received by this outer buttress. In sueh a way the walls were relieved of their
previous function and so could be buill very thin. To give more light to the interior. large windows
replaced the small ones of the Romanesque buildings. The space of this large opening was divided by
the means of small columns having pointed arches intersecting geomelrically one another. The large
surface of the windows left free, suggested the decoration with stained glasses; one of the greatest
A BARE OUTLINE OF HISTORY and STYLES OF ART
294
artistic production of the Gothic style.
Tn this way a new style merged exclusively on accOUnt ofstrucrural principles Gothic archi­
tecture is cla<;sified as follows:
Early Gothic
Geometrie Gothic
Perpendicular Gothic
Flamboyant Gothic
The Perpendicular style was very much used in England while the Flamboyant is more
common in France.
Some of the mOSl importanl Gothic cathedrals:
FRANCE' Cathedral of NolTe Dame de Paris 13th Cenrory
Rouen 13th
Rheims 13th
Amiens 13th
Chartres 13th
ENGLAND: Westminsler Abbey 13th
Cathedral of Lincoln 13th
Salisbury 13th
Gloucester 14th
Canterbury 1.1th
Winchesler 14th
Wells 13th
GERMANY' Cologne 14th
Ulm 14th
Nuremburg 15th
Vienna 14th
BELGIUM: Antwerp 15m
Town HaJl of Brussels 15th
ITALY: Cathedral of MiJan 14th
" Aorence 14th
Ducal Palace of Venice 14th
SPAIN . Calhoon!.! of Seville 15th
" Burgos 16th
PA[NTING
The glories of Gothic painting are the and stained - no other
have in beauty and in technique the magnificenl Gothic stained Illuminations are
brilliant in colour. fine in drawing and very appealing for their naive compositions. They were used to
enrich and illustrale religious scripts and boJks recording historical evenK
Muml painting was treal.ed as large illuminations, thus not very important.
SCULYfURE
During the Gothic period sculpture made great progress-the stereotyped Byzantine forms
slarted 10 be replace<l by more uatural ones.
Particularly the sculptures decoraling Notre Dame de Paris are exceptionally remarkable­
some of these sculptures show already a keen observation of Nature, a peculiarity which will blossom
with the lIalian primitives and laler on in the Renaissance.
Silpa Bbirasri
295
ROMANESQUE ART
I. Section of a Romanesque church with barrel \·ault!>. The weight of the brick or stone vault com­
manded a thid W<l1J and eventually "but tresses" built outside and corresponding to each bay.
2. For the same reason of me increased weight of the roof, or beller ceiling, me columns became a
solid m a . ~ s composed of pillars and columns.
3. Diagram Illustrating the constructive system of me barrel vault.
4. Diagram showing how me ribs were builL
5. Plan of 1:1 Romanesque chnrch from which we remark that this style added many apses fA) to the
main apse (8).
6. Onlt bay of the Romanesque Church. Note that thlt windows on account of the consider<lble thick­
ness of the wall are larger inside than outside-this to permit the light to enter obliquely and so illumine
the interior. Note also the small arches (C) referred to a ~ "lriforium"
A DARE OUTLINE OF HISTORY and ST\'LES OF ART
296
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1. One bay of a Romane!ique Chlll"Ch showing the new architectural feature, the "triforium" (A), a
gallery over the aisles, which in Gothic period was used almost universally.
2. The fronl of the Romanesque churches of north Europe in general has two towers fonning a unity
with the main strUcture of the church. This peculiarity was retained also in Golhie style.
3. Churches hailing a central tower at the cross of the transept started (0 be built in Romanesque art
and followed in Gothic architecture.
4. Due to lhe considerable thickness of the walls, many Romanesque ehurehes have doors fonned by
receding planes enriched either with pillan; or little columns,A.B.
S. Narrow arcades were one of the most remarkable characteristics of Romanesque architeclure.
ROMANESQUE ART
1.-2. Romanesque capiLals.
3.-4, TypicaJ ornaments.
5. Another type of Romanesque door 10 be found in panicular in small churehes.
Silpa Bhirasri
297
3
9 8
7
GOTHIC ART
I. Section of a Gothic church with the characteristic pointed arches.
2. Another section showing the flying arches, or nying buttresses (A).
3. Diagram from which we may see how the venicaJ buttress (8), receives the weight of the vault by
the means of the nying arch.
4. Structural principle of the pointed vault. Note that all the ribs spring from the piers (column).
5. Sections of different ribs of the vaults. The moldings are based on circles.
6. Romanesque window.
7. Gothic window. Because the weight of the vanlts was received by the piers and by the buttresses SQ
the walls were reduced to a minimum of thickness. For this rea<;on, the windows of the Gothic style
arc large and in general divided in two, three or more spaces by the means of slender columns.
8.-9. The Romanesque tower is characterized by horizontal diVisions. while the GoUtic lower is
divided by venicallines.
A BARE OUTLINE OF HISTORY and STYLES OF ART
298
~ ..,
GOTHIC ART
I. Early-Gothic wherein we may nOlice still some reminiscence of the Romanesque art in the round
=h.
2. Geometric Gothic.
3. Perpendicular Gothic, very much used in England .
.t. Three sections of "piers"
GOTHIC ART
I. -2. With the syslemofthe ribs of the vaults springing as l e a ~ ' e s of a palm tru from the pieI,the
Gothic artists made very complicated designs of the ceiling as it appean; in djagr<lffi 2.
3. Ramboyant Gothic (jlame-like ornamellls) was much used in France
4. Metal works sho.... ing the ",mgularity" of the Gothic style.
Silpa Bhirasri
299
ITALIAN PRIMITIVES
13th-14th Century A.D.
While in France and England sculpture and painting had to follow the architeclural character
of the Gothic style, the Italian sculptors and painters were free from such a kind of architectural
influence. At that time between France and It.aly there was a keen intellectual intercourse which was
very beneficial for the development of the art of both countries.
In Italy, the love for Nature was vcry much stimulatcd by writers such as Dante Alighieri
(1265-1321), Petrarca (1304-1374) and Boccaccio (1313-/375). These poets, by writing in vulgar
language, enablerl common people to understand and appreeiate high conceptions and beautiful things
which in the past were understood only by few persons who knew Latin.
Pisa and Siena were the two principal centres of the Italian primitives. Niccola Pisano (ca1225
- J280) and his son Givanni (1250-1320) are famous for their expressive sculptures in the Baptisteries
of Pisa and Siena. In Siena Simone Martini (1285-/344). Duccio (worked between 1278-1285) and
Lorenzetti (worked between 1319-1347) drew great admiration for their spiritual works. But the ge­
nius who reacted most sucessfully against Byzantine influence, who trierl to understand pel1Jpective in
drawing and colours, who tried to render the relationship belween objeets and space, who eould fairly
draw and compose groups of figures expressing tragedy, love, piety and faith, was Giollo (1266­
1337). Giotto worted principally in Assisi, Florence and Padua.
After Giollo's death no painler was able to bring farther the Master's ideal. The artists who
followed him, imitated him, forming in such a way what is referred to as the Giottesque School.
Painting had to wait about eighty years more to see another great master, Masaccio, who
opened the glorious and new chapter of modem painting. One of the principal causes which enabled
the Italian paintel1J to reach a very high standard in their art was the facl that they painted again in
fresco, a medium with which lhe artist could transmit with enthusiasm his artistic temperament and
feeling.
RENAISSANCE
15th-16th Centnry A.D.
The slow but steady progress of Europe, started in the 12th century, saw its climax in the
beginning of the 15th century. Time was ripe for a wonderful rebirth of the human intellect.
Florence was a prosperous town lrading with all Europe. Among ils noble f a m i l i e ~ , the
Medici was the richest. One of the Merlicis, Lorenzo, called also the Magnific, was a great mind and
also very ambitious in lhe desire to win the primate over the Florentine Republic.
Fate had doomed floreuce to be the center of this Human rebirth and Nature produced a
myriad of great minds.
Lorenzo del Medici spent his money lavishly LO support artists, to entertain kingly gather­
ings of savants, to discuss philosophy, literature, sociology, eLe.. The literature of Greece and Rome
was tTanslaled and commented upon. Excavations in Rome lo find Greek and Roman statues were
ordered by Lorenzo and the masterpieces were sent to Florence and placerl in the Medici's garden in
order thal the young artisls could get inspiration. But the Greek examples did not affecl the spiritUal
expression of Renaissance. Of eourse, the florentine artists were deeply impressed by the beauty of
the Classie sculptures, but as they believerl in a religion so differenl from the Greek mythology, so
they created and art essentially Christian.
The painted or sculptured figures of this period express love, pity, sorrow and hope,just the
same sensations proved by any human being-this because those figures represent historical person­
ages who have suffered, believed and loverl as much as we do. The Greek statuary represent abstract,
idealized gods. Hence the great difference of artistic expression beLween Greece and Renaissance. It
A BARE OUTLINE OF mSTORY lind STYLES OF ART
300
was when Renaissance started its declining cycle thai Greek aesthetics influenced again European an
reaching its climax in the Neo-Classic period.
Masaceio and Donatello were the lWo greatest artists of lhe first renaissance.Masaccio (].IO)
-1428), died at twenty-seven, but his short life was sufficient to immortalize him wilh his famous
frescoes of the Brancacci Chapel in the Church of the Cannine in Aorence. Masaccio was lhe tirst to
understand spacial volumes his figures sland like statues in respect to space.
Donatello (1386-1466) was the lirst and greatest impressive sculptor who endowed his
figures wilh such a humanistic feeling that in beholding them we feel deeply moved. Donalello worked
principally in Aorence and Padua.
The peculiar Christian spirit emphasized in sculpture and paiming of Renaissance is not so
much noticeable in architecture. Indeed architecture of Renaissance was 10 a great extent a revivaJ of
Roman fonm. Ardlil£Cts, such as Brunelleschi (1379-1446) the builder of the Dome of the Cathedral
of Rorence, used to go 10 Rome to study Roman structures from where they derived formulae for their
new building:i. By and by lhese fonnulae became fixed and were referred 10 as Vetruvian orders which
archil£Cts of the 18th and 19th century universaJly respected. Nevertheless, belween Roman and Re­
nai:isance archil£Cture. there is a remarkable difference of 'feeling'. The fonner.treated in large scale.
is impressive reflecting the greatness of lhe Roman Empire. 11le laner, more delicate, corresponds to
the new religious spirit and 10 the ret1nement of the Renaissance society.
From Rorence, aJ1 spread all over Italy, forming local schools, and from Italy spread all over
Europe. In that period Italy was rich and the most culturally advanced among all European countries,
bUI it lacked unity whereas continuou!'. wars waged between towns weakened her and made her the
prey of foreign invasions.
Charles VIII and Francis I invaded Italy in 1494 and 1527 and being astonished
by the beauly of the Italian art, brought back to their country Italian artisl.s who influenced lhe French
Renaissance.
Spain ordered many works of an from Haly; Italian artists went there to execnte works and
very soon Spain had her own centers of art.
Rander was a great centre of Renaissance. Its artistic expression differs very much from the
Italian School. Remish art influenced Franee, Holland and Gennany.
Some of the most important halian Schools:
Florentine School - Masaeeio 1401-1428 Painter
Filippo Lippi 1406-1469
Bonicelli 1444-1510
Leonanio da Vinci 1452-1519
Donatello 1386-1466 Sculptor
Verrocehio 1435-1488
Ghiberti 1378-1455
Luca della Robbia 1400-1482
Michelangelo 1474-1564 Sculptor & Painter
Brunelleschi 1377-1446 Architeet
Alberti L404-1472
Roman Shool Michelangelo Sculptor & Painter 1474-1564
Raphael Paimer 1483-1520
Bramante 1444-1514 Architect
Vignola 1507-1573
Bernini
1598-1680 Archilect & Sculplor
Veoetian School Gentile Bellini 1429-1507 Painter
Giovanni Bellini 1430-1516
Carpaccio 1460-1525
Giorgione 1477-1510
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301
Titiall 1480-1576 Painter
Timorello 1518-1594
Veronese 1528-1588
Tiepolo 1693-1770
Paduan School Mantegna 1431-1506
Umbrian School Piero della Francesea 1416-1498
Perugino 1446-1524
RlIphael 148:.1-1520
Milanese &:hool Leonardo da Vinci 1452·1519
Suardi ealled Bramantino 1460-1536
Sodoma
1477-1549
Luca Signorelli (of Cortona) 1441-1523
Parmese &:hool Correggio 1494-1534
BAROQUE STYLE
1600 - 1700
The hal ian Rcnaissanee was pure in fonn and spirit for about a hundred and fifty years.
Aftel"W'ards it startcd to dlXline-exuberance of ehiaroscuro,of curved lines and intensity of colours are
the characteristics of the Baroque style- posture and gesture of the human figures are so much empha­
sized a" 10 appear Iheatrical. Details and drapery became important while construetive forms were
disregarded. Of course. these deflXts refer to the average production because there are works of art
done in the Baroque period ehaste in movement or colours.
The principal lines of lhe buildings of the Baroque style are curved both in plan and eleva­
tion. In archillXture rich effeets of chiaroscuro were cherished.
But at large. with all its defects and exaggemtions. the Baroque style has also its good qual­
ity.1t is an art exnberAnt, although pompous, corresponding to Ihe manners and thinking of the people
of Ihat period.
RENAISSANCE
FLANDER
In Ihe Dih century Flandel was the principal Enropean centre of miniature: it influenced
both France and Gennany.
In the 14th century Flander felt the ascendency of Giono's art, while in Ihe 151h centul)'
some Italian painters, such as Piero della Francesca. were inspired by tile Flemish School in painting
portraits in profile. Flemish artists painted many mundane and popular snbjects: interiors ofhou-.es
and inns-festivals. games and other subjeels ot' outdoor life. The figures and their surrounding were
rendered with a<;tonishingly fine observation; eVery detail was reproduced wilh fidelity and at the
same time wllh a wonderful sense of art.
Except for religious pictures, which in some cases may have been fairly large, Flemish
paintings are small.
Contnrry to the Italian Sehool, also in religious painting the Flemish did not idealize ligures.
On the contrary it seems as if they enjoyed 10 represent realistic features also in their unaesthetic or
ugly appearance.
Among Ihe races of Europe, the Flemish, especially Breughel the elder, were the first to
have treated landscape as the main subject of the painting, Dutch, English and French followed re­
spectively. China only had represented an aesthetic moving since the 8th cen­
tury.
A BARE OUTLINE OF HISTORY aDd STYLES OF ART
302
After the middle of Ihe 16th century, some Aemish in particular Van Orley, 1493­
15-1-2, introduced in their l:ountry the art of Michelangelo, Raphael and other Italian anists affecting
for the worse traditional art. Luckily many painters did not follo\l.' Ihis trend retaining the
charaClensllcs of old art.
SCULYTURE: Rander had not a peculi;lr school of seulplure-this felt the direct aseendeney of the
Italian art_ thus it had not an outstanding individuality as painting had.
Great Flemish Painters: Hubert Van Eyck 1366-1426
Jan Van Eyck 1380-1441
Memling 1430-1491
G. David 1460-1523
Q. Matsys 1466-1530
P. Breughel the dder 1525-1569
Rubens 1577-1640
Van Dyck 1599-1641
Teniers 1610-1690
RENAISSANCE
SPAIN
For centuries, Spain was occupied by Ihe The influenee of the Moorish art is very
nolieeable in Spanish textile and ceramic. Spain started her renaissance movement in the middle of
the 15th century. Monuments for sepulchres ordered in Italy, Italian artists working in Sp3in and
finally Spanish who had studied in Italy. formed the Spanish Renaissance.
For re3Sons of a slrong religious con111cl going on for centuries between the Spanish Catho­
lic and the Mohammedan peoples, the Christian art of Spain W3S expressed with a very strong realism
meant to impress npon the the snffering and martyrdom undergone by Christ, Mary and all
Silims. This tragic. violent realistic expression saved Spain in the 19th eenlury to become enslaved of
classic culture and do neo-classic art as France, Germany and Italy did. Indeed Goya's realism, im­
and keen observation of human nature were due to the traditional Spanish realism.
Great Spani."ih Masters: EI Greco 1538-1614 Painter
F. Ribalta 1551-1628
De Ribera 1590-l652
Velasquez 1599-l660
Muri.llo [618-1682
Goya 1746-1828
POLYCHROMATIC SCULPTURE: Spain had a very important school of polychromatic
sculplure which saw ils glory in the 17th century.
Colored images in wood, terra cotta or stone. were made both in the Gothic period and
ItaJian Renaissance. but none gave such an important impulse to this art as the Spanish did. The
polychromatie statuary was carved in wood and afterwards painted and gilded. The almost
fanatic religious feeling reaches its climax in these sculptures.
The polychn)malic sculpture had two distinct schools: the Castillian and the Andalusian
ones. Of the Ca<;tillian School the best artists were .
A. BemJguete 1490-1561
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303
C. Becerra. 1520-1571
G. Hermandez 1560-1636
S. Ca.rmona L8th eentury.
The artists of the Andalusian School were :
J.M. Montanes 1568-1649
A.Cano 1601-1657
P. de Mend 1693
RENAISSANCE
GERMANY
Germany was first influenced by the Flemish and by the Italian art. But German
art cannot be confounded with any other expressions. It has a vel'}' definite characler dne principally to
racial. mental and sensitive peculiarities and dne also to the deep influence Gothic art had left upon
that people.
In comparison with ltalian art. the German painting and sculpture appear somewhat harsh­
but this is the wry charncter of the German expression and so it must be appreciated accordingly,
During the 16th and 17lh century, Germany was tom by religious wars. V fought
agaimt the Protestants from 1446101555 and from 1618 lO 1648 there was another long periexl of
religious wars. When peace was re-established, Renaissance was already in its decline. But also in
a disturbed political surrounding, German artists. specially painters. left outstanding
masterpieces of art.
Great C..erman Masters :
School of Cologne.. . Stephen Lochner 1451 Painter
Swabian School of Ausgburg Martin Schongauer 1430 - 1491
Hans Burgkmair 1473 - 1531
Hans Holbein the Elder 1460 - 1524
Westphalian-SchooL. Heinrich Aldegrever 1502 - 1558
School of Nuremberg Adam Kraff 1455 - 1509 Sculptor
Peter Visher the Elder 1450 - 1529
Dnrer 1471 - 1528 Painter
Holbein the Younger 1497 - 1543
NEO-CLASSlCISM: In the 18th ceutury Germany was Ihe centre of study of classic literature and,
as in France, an was under the spell of Greco-Roman forms. The Gennan political and military grow­
ing power backed the feeling of classic greatness. German bUildings oflhe nco-classic style are more
imposing than the French and English specimens.
The reaction against neo-classicism in Germany was more total than in France where neo­
and romanlicism worked in lhe same period. In Germany romanticism supplanted alto­
gether nco-classicism.
RENAISSANCE
HOLLAND
Due principally to religious contlicts, in the 16th century Holland suffered very much under
the Spanish domination. After their liberation, the Dutch worked hard to their power and

In the field of art. Holland has strict affinities with the Flemish Sl'ht>t)I, so much that in many
the art of thesc two peoples is identical. In portraiture. the Dutch were great maSlers. 111 time of
A BARE OUTLINE OF mSTORYand STYLES OF ART
304
Frans Hals and Rembrandt pornaiture representing either a single person, or groups of person:-. was
very fashionable.
Becallse the Dutch were Protestant so lhey did not do many religious paintings; like in
Hander. the religious paimings done by the Dutch were treated realistically as the secular art.
[0 general the lonalily of the Dutch School is a golden brownish tint which resembles the
Venilian School. Indeed lhe Dutch and Venitian Ochools are appealing for their rich and warm colouring.
Contrasts of light and dark is a peculiarity of the Dutch SchooL
In architectlJre and sculpture the Dutch did no\ produce mallY important works during the
Renaissance perioo-On the contrary, mooem Dutch architecture is Important.
Great Dutch Masters :
J, Bosch 1450-1516 Painter
Frans Hals 1580-1666
Rembrandt 1606-1669
G. Terborch 1617-1681
P. de H()()(:h 1630-1677
Venneer 1632-1675
E. 1631-1672
J. Rnisdael 1628-1682
M. Hobbema 1638-1709
Van den Velde 1633·1707
RENAISSANCE & ROCOCO
FRANCE
Inspired by the flemish art, the French had an important school of miniature in the 14th
century. particularly in portrditure the French miniaturists reached a high standard. From 1;109 to
1377 the Pope in Avignon (France) and there he received works of the Italian
which had some influence in developing French art.
But the Renaissance movement in France started only after King Charles VIII (1483-1598)
and King Francis I (1515-1547) had returned to lheircountry from the waged against Italy. These
kings being impressed by the beauty of the Italian art brought with them some Italian artists, among
whom Benvcnule Cellini (1500-1577), who gave impulse to the French renaissance movement.
Before the influence of the Italian art, French painting and sculpture still retained Gothic
characteristics.
Great Frencb Ma...ters of tbe rlrst period :
J.Fouquet 1416-1480
M.Colombe 1431-1490
J. Cousin 1500- [590
Poussin 1594-1665
La Tour 1593-1652
The authority of the French kings so absolute that art 100 was the monopoly of the
royalty. For this French art benme nationalistic glorifying (he deeds of the kings. Related to
the same idea of greatness, subjects of the Greco-Roman mythology were cherished by the French
patrons of art. Usnally the king named an artist as director of lhe work of the state-thus architecture,
painting and sculpture were organized under academies.
Also the produdion of minor art, such as metal works. ceramic, textile and jewellery were
organised in royal industries. The Gobelins (farge carpets for lumgillg on the walls) were famous all
m'er Europe. These carpets were made after full size coloured cartoons by great artists. Because
Silpa BhirllSri
305
French an was made for royalty and uoblemen. so il developed a finesse of colours and execution
proper to meet the fa,,'our of sucll a refined society.
ROCOCO: The Frencll Renaissance Ilaving started late. very soon it developed into Rococo style.
In lime, Rococo ruus parallel to the Jtalian Baroque. Between Rococo and Baroque architecture lhere
is a striking difference. The eXleriors ofllle Baroque buildings have curved lines, wllile Rococo build­
ings have a facade with straighl lines. Rococo ornaments have the same character as the Baroque
ones, bUI more delicate.
In the 18th cenlury Chinese texlile, porcelain and lacquer works iuflueuced French and
DUlch ornamental ans.
The most importanl architects of tile 17lh century were : F. Mansart, J. Marat and Le Vau.
/16/2 -/6701
Le bruno 1619-1690, was the favourite p:linter under Louis XIV.
After the death of Louis XIV art became more popular, but the habits and eustoms of the
upper class, which obviously supported artists, had so as In demand only a frivolous art
corresponding lO Iheir own life. But also in a surrounding so hoslile to high artistic expressions,
valiant artists succeeded in ereating wouderful maslerpieces.ln geueral, the suhjects preferred for this
kind of art were inspired either by the Greco-Roman mylhology or had the character of genre art.
Greal painlers of the Rococo period:
Watteau 1684-1721
Boucher 1703-1770
Fragouard 1732-1806
Prmcipal portraitists :
La Tour 1704 - 1788
Chardin 1699 ­ 1779
Vigee Lebrun 1755 - 1842
Contrary 10 painting, Rococo sculpture maintained a classic academic character, Only in
small sculpture, made in ceramic or bronzes, the Rococo frivolism is uoticeable.
Pajou (1730-1809), Houdon (1741-1828) and Clexlion (1738- 1814) are the greatest sculp­
tors of the 18lh century.
Social discouteutment and intellectual reaction against injustiee and frivolity brought a
in political matters as well as in art.
NEO·CLASSICISM : In the 19lh eentury many events concurred to fonn the Neoclassic style (in
Frallce referred to as Empire style). The French revolution. the excavations of Pompeii. started in
1748, the general teudency to admire classic literature and art, the conquests of
Napoleon (1767-1821), wllich stimulated the French to emulale lhe greatness of Rome and Greece,
detennined lhe re\ival of c1assil: arts.
David (1748-1825) and Prudhon (1758-1823) were the head schools of the Neoclassical
painting. Ingres r1780-1867), the greatest of all. aftinned still more Neo-c1assic style.
Archll.ecture was inspired by Greco-Roman examples. Greek orders were used as a univer­
sal conveution : the front nf the Greek temples witll its Iriangular pedimenl became a universal pecu­
liarity of all buildings.
ROMANTICISM: Young anists reacted violently agamst this lUnd of worshipping cultures of lhe
past and started afresh a new vigorous and far more sincere expression of art referred to as Romanti­
A BARE OUTLINE OF HISTORY u.nd STYLE.,li OF ART
306
cism. As the word means. romanticism is a more emotional. more human expression than !.he eold
neo-classic one. The romamic movement was started by Gericault who unfortunately died very young
( 179/- J824). After Gericault·s death. Delacroix ( J798-186JJ became the head of the romantic school.
The military victories of Napoleon original.ed a kind of paintingwilh military subjects, while
his conquest of Egypt opened the fanlasy of the anists for oriental reminiscences.
Rude (1784-1855). was the greatest seulplor of the French revolution who made the high
relief of !.he "Marseillaise" in the Arch of Thriumph of Paris.
REALISTIC SCHOOL: Inspired by !.he English realistic an (/anascapes and anif7l(l/s) French
artists slarted the realistic school which in its aim opposed bolh and
Carol (1796-1875), paysagist, Troyon (1810-1865), painter of animals. Millet
painter of rural subjects, and Courbet (1819-1877) were the principal artists of the French realistic
school.
RENAISSANCE
ENGLAND
Up to the 17th century Ihe imponant intellectual manifeslation of England was lrtenl­
ture.Although Henry Vlll (1509-1547) ealled many foreign artists, among whom Ihe great Holbein,
to work in England, the noblemen and upper class of that country did not yet appreciate painting.
England had in the past an important school of miniature, but contrary to Rander, Fr.lm:e and Ger­
many. the English miniaturists did not develop that art in larger expression.
In the 17th century, after the artistic activity of Van Dyck (1599-1641) Ihe English people
started to be interested in painting and English artists. among whom Peter Lely (1618-1680) origi­
ilar.eJ the English school.
In the 18th century portraiture was the highest expression of the English painters Because of
protestantism, also in England artists did not treat in large scale religious subjects.
Sir Reynold (1723-1792), Sir Gainsborough (1727-1788). Sir Lawrence (1769-1830), Sir
Raebnrn (1756-1823) and Russel (1754-1806) were the greatest painter.; of the 18th century.
The 19th century was very imporwnt because English painter.; sLatted to paint realistic land­
seapes and animals-Ihis realistic art iutluenced French artists who in their tum began the modem
movement in Europe. Previous to the English realism. landscape was trealed in a conventional way,
depicting lyric scenes wherein ruins of some Roman or Greek buildings wcre induded.
Crome (1769-1821), Constable (1776-1837) and Turner (1775-1851) were the greatest
paysagists of this school.
Later, the realists, Millais Rossetti (1828-1882), Hunt (1827-19/0) and F.M.
Brown (1821-1893) founded the Pre-Raphaelite sehool inspired by Italiiln <lJ1 previous to Raphael.
The aim of the Pre-Raphaelite school was to tender in painting a high moral sense, lyric and religious
spirituality. h was an art retlecting the very English temperament. In any way it was an art far more
sincere and substantial than Neo-Classicism.
ARCHITECTURE: Like in Franee and Gennany, in England too the influence of Gothic art was
very much felt, but at the end of the 16th century Italian architecture replaced the ogival fonns. Con­
trary to France and Germany where renaissance palaces had still the gothic roofing, the English archi­
tects adopted the Italian flat eeiling giving to the building a complete appearance of the renaissanee
style.
Inigo Jones (1573·1662) and Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723), the latter Ihe author of St.
Paul. were the prominent architects of England.
Silpa Bhirasri
307
In the 19th century Neo-Classicism dominated also in England. Greek orders were used
nniven>ally. AI the end oflhe 19th cenlury there appeared another change in architecturallasle. PubUc
and privale buildings were designed in classic forms while Gothic style was used for religious build­
ings.
Some or tbe most important buildings or the Renaissance.
ITALY: Hospital of Innocents.. . Florence
Riccardi Place [MedicO.. . Floren... --e
Palazzo PiltL.... . Florence
Pazzi Chapel.. Florence
Library of Venice Venice
Pesaro Palace.. .. Venice
Church of the Salute Venice
Famese Palace Rome
S1. Peter in Montorio Rome
SI. Peter in Vatican Rome
Durazzo Palace Genoa
Pala.n:o Municipio Genoa
Sauli-Palace Milan
Ospedale Maggiore. . Milan
FRANCE: Castle of Fontainebleau
CaslJe of Blois
Caslle ofVam Le Viconte
House of Agnese Sorel Orlean
Palace of Versaille
Louvre Paris
Luxemburg Paris
Pantheon Paris
The Invalids Paris
GERMANY: Castle of Hidelberg
Church of Buckeburg
The Rathhaus of Cologne
The Pellerhaus of Nuremberg
SPAlN: Casa of Ayunlamiento Seville
Palace of Charles V. Granada
Library and Cathedral Sanliago
The Escurial.. . Madrid
The Alcazar.. . Toledo
ENGLAND: Queen's College O ~ f o r d
Royal Hospital.... . Greenwich
Whilehall Palace London
Trinity College-Library.... ...Cambridge
Howard CasIJe.. . Yorkshire
Senate House.. .. .. Cambridge
St. Pan!.. London
Chjswick House.. . Chiswick
BELGIUM: Town Hall.. Antwerp
Palace of Justice.. . Brussels
Town Hall.... . Leyden
A BARE OUTLINE OF HISTORY and STYLES OF ART
308

1 I 3
i • : I
RENAISSANCE
1.-2. The church of Renaissance maintains Ihe same principles of planning as the Christian Basilica,
but in many a dome was added at the crossing of the transept. Thus the Renaissance church may
or may JJot have the dome.
3. Section of a church of the 15th century from which we may notice thallhe architects of Ihe
resumed Roman architecturnl forms.
4.-5. The facade of lhc palaces of the first period of Renaissanee were not enriched with columns or
pilaster.-;.
3
RENAISSANCE
I. Typical tomb of style.
2. Plain window of the 15th century.
3. More elaborated window of lhe 16th century.
4. Cornice of a palace of Renaissance having the same ornamenlal features as the Roman Corinthian
order.
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309
1.-2.-3. Door and capitals of the 15lh century.
3
RENAISSANCE
Comparative diagram showing the development of lhe architecture of the renaissance.
I. Plain architecture of lhe 15lh century.
2. More complex architecture of lhe middle period of Renaissance.
3. Specimen of lhe architecture before Baroque style.
A BARE OUTLINE: OF HISTORY and STYLES OF ART
310
L GJas!>es.
2. Wrought iron candelabroms.
3 Detail of an iron gale.
RENAIs..·'ANCE
Wood-{'arved tables.
Likewise archllecture also the ornament of the Renaissan<:e style were inspired by Roman
specimens.
Silpa Bhir.asri
311
BAROQUE
I. Facade of a Baroque church. Note thaI both in elevation and plan many buildings of the
Baroque period have curved lines. Also in those buildings in which the plan has straight lines, in
elevation the curves are always a dominating feature.
2.-3. Comparing the diagram 2 which is a building of the 17th century with diagram 3, an
example of the 18th century, we see that in the later architecture the "drum" (A) of the dome is
formed by a colonnade. This colonnade was applied both to and civil buildings.
4. Typical house of the style. The cenlral part looking like a Greek temple was the
principal characteristic of this art.
A BARE OUTLINE OF mSTORY and STYLES OF ART
312
BAROQUE
Bar<xlue ornamental Design. Here too, like in architecture, the curves are the very peculiarily of the
style.
ROCOCO
Rococo style was eminently used in France and is referred to as Louis XIV, Louis XV and Louis XVI.
Rococo art ha.<; the same characterislic of Baroque bllt is much more elegant and refined. ArchitectUJe
of the Rococo period docs not presenl the movemenl of masses and lines like the Baroque buildings.
Silpa Bhirasri
313
ROCOCO
1. Characterislic lable of the rococo
period. Also the legs of the chairs
had the same curves and ornaments.
2.-3. Vases in porcelain and detail of
textile showing the influence of
Chinese art.
NEO-CLASSIC STYLE
Winged sphinxes A, palmets B,
garlands C, and lyres D, were
universally used to decorate
both archJlecture and furniture.
NEO-CLASSIC STYLE
In furniture and ornamenls, this
sty Ie was VeT)' much inspired by
Greco-Roman and Egyptian arts.
In furniture the curved lines of the
~ o c o period were replaced by
sImple straight ones.
Q
D
A BARE OUTLINE 010' HISTORY and STYLES OF ART
314
MODERN ART Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Fauvism, Futur­
ism, Cubism, Surrealism,Abstractism, etc.
As already said, Neo-C1a...sicisrn was a ({Xli imllatj\'e re,"j,al of Greco-Roman An. Such
kind of an did not renccllhe social and intellectual life of Europe of the 18th century. Creative minds.
principally Gericault, reacted against Neo-Classicisrn formmg the Romanlic School. RomantICism
abandoned Greek mythological subjects gettmg inspirations from the literall.lTe of the Middle Age.
from sagas and fmm the European life of [he eighteenth cenlury.
No doubt Romantieism was a wamler and far more sincere expression of An than the cool
N'eo-CIIDosic one. but. as the word means. in romanticism the aim is 10 appeal 10 sentiments and
movmg sense!> which makes it difficult to remain within the limits of pure an and oftcn there a
tendency to degenerate towards what wc now term 'commercial an:
To\\.ards the middle of the 18lh cenlury. a group of young French painters denounced txlLh
and romanticism as obsolete. group wa!> styled
Impressionism refused to il1uslrate poetry, history or religious subjects. Their idea was Lo
render the impression they received fmm life, from Nature or still-life. Anything. any subject. was
wonhy 10 paml. illumined about colour-theory by modem ,..cience, the Impressionisls aimed at and
succeeded in rendering luminou!> tints and light. But many of the of this School have the
defect of lackmg that peculiar inward sense which is the greatest quality in Cezanne and Van Gogh. In
the dfon to render colour and light. some of the impressionists painted the object superficially di ...re­
gardmg the three dimensional pla.. tic principles.
sculptoTh broke with the monotony of the academic !>culpture giving nc\\. VI­
tality and freshness conveying (he direct feeling and enthUSiasm of the anis\.
The defect of impressionistic sculpture is to appear too sketchy. that IS to say, too much
of masses and too much chiaroscuro. Post-ImpressIOnism Just the conclusion of impres­
sionism. Same luminosity of colours, same subject!> taken directly from Nalure. but having a perfect
undeThtandlng of the three dimensional relationship among objects and space and con\eying that
Inward abstract quality of life which is so mdlspen!>able to an.
From the half of the 19th century westcrn social life underwent great changes through
mechamcal and scientific applications. Supponed by science. a critical philmophy attacked old be­
lief!>. changed economy,dcmocratic ideals ""'ere theconsequencc ofmodemcconomy.
Iron was used m huge structural works and cement revolutlonalized architecture. Exchange of cul­
ture\ b} the mean!> of films and photographs and the imponation into Europe of many
objects of an of people completely different from those of the West, opened up fields of inspirallon
unknown in the past. The simplicity of modem architecture dictated simpler painting and sculpture.
Western anlst!>, findmg no more sources of inspiration from Hellemstic an. were greedy to get mspl­
ration from CXOtlC ans and also, being free from illustrating traditional traditional litcrature or reli­
giom subjects. were anxious to express lheir individual conceptions and style
Modem anists passed through one experiment after another. Fau\ ism. Futurism, Cuhi... m.
Surrealism. and so on, are expressions which. right or wrong, all try to free an from the
appeaflng realism. Ours is a period of experiments which cenainly. sooner or later. will blossom in
something trul) substanlial. As in politic and in all other human manifestaliom of our day. an too
passes a peflod of transition. Great anists create new anistic expressions, othcrs, less creative, follow
the masters fonning in this way of different conceptions and The aim of each modcm
anist IS 10 be 'INDIVIDUAL'. that is to say. to express his own an free from others' conceptions and
styles. To appreciate this individual an difficult because it has no relation with our inLellectual
patflmony of the pas\. For this reason. in our day art cannot be "0 popular as it was when it
illustrated subjects ""ell known by all the citizens of one or more countries. But 3.\ an may be ex­
pressed under all forms and style.... so when it gives u.... food of Imagination or rapls our senses, then IT
IS ART.
Let us remember that Man has produced in every period of his progress a profusion of
Silpa Bhirasri
315
anistic work". Comparatively, very few of these works are masterpieces which have remained so
throughout all ages. The bulk,eveu if roomed in museums for historical records, cannot be considered
as masterpieces. This rule must guide us in judging modem art. One should ueither aceept nor refuse
conlemproary an just because it is modem, but should view it objectively according to its real valuc.

Silpa Bhira.'iri

263

2160-1790 1790-1580 1580-712

1520-1480

1501-1447 1411-1375 1375-1358

1292-1225 712-332

332-30

30 B'c-393AD.

395- 640

MIDDLE KINGDOM: Rock-£ut-tombs replaced the pyramids. Egypt under the rule of the Arabs. HYKSOS. AJ1 in regre~s. NEW KINGDOM-capital at Thebes. Great period of architectural constructions. The temples of KARNAK and LUXOR are the greatest religious temples. Queen Halasu (HaHhl'pSu.l). Mortuary temple of Queen Hatasu at DEIR EL BAHAR] (1500) is one of the most wonderful monuments of lhe antiquity. King Thothmes III or Thutmosis-Great soldier and builder of many temples. King Amenophis ill buill LUXOR. King Amenophis IV (IKHNATON) shifted the capital from Thebes to TEL EL AMARNA. Originated a realistic art. Ikhnaton was followed by his son-in­ law. King Tutankamen, whose tomb discovered inlact in 1922. contained a great quanlity of objecls of art. King RAMSES ll-believed to have built the hypostyle hall of Karnak. Famous his 10mb CUI Oul of rock. at Abu Simbel. From the eighth century B.C. Egypt ~taned to disintegrate and wa.~ ruled by Ethiopia, Assyria, Babylonia and Persia. In the 7th century there was a revival ofliterJ.ture and art referred 10 a... Saite or Neo-memphite an. PTOLEMAIC period - Greek rulers. The temples of [sis iu the island of Philae and of Horus at Edfu were erected in the GTeek. period - the latter wa... finished by the Romans. ROMAN period. During the Greco-Roman periods architecture retained the old characteristies while seulpture and painting lost the tradi\ional peculiarities. Copt period. Coptic art has a Christian-Byzantine charaeler. No more Egyptian lraditional arl. Very primitive e\pression in painting and sculpture. Moslim period - Egyptian Saracenic art was. very much influenced by Coptic architecture and ornamenl~.

264

A BARE OUTLlNE OF HISTORY IlDd STYLES OF ART

EGYPT

1.-2. Oldest step Pyramids at Sakkara and Medum.
3. Pyramid ofCheops at Gizeh, high 160 ffi. 4. The Egyptians knew building with vaults since 3.000 H.C. but used it vary little preferring roofing their structures by the means of horizontal slabs of stone or granite. S. The oldest mortuary temple at Gizeh (circa 3,000 B,C.) wherein we may notice the univenlal principles of Egyptian architecture; namely, the pillar" An, the arehitrave "B" and the horizontal roofing "e".

EG\"PT 1.-2. Masr.abas. 5. Rod CUI tomb at Beni Hasan where there are columns having si.\teen very shallow flutes, A, suggesting as the prototype of the Greek fluted column.

Silpa Bbirasri

265

unnffilmm

x.­

EGYPT I. Plan of Egyptian temple. "A" Pylons. "B" Coun. "C" Hyp.JSlyle hall. "D" Sanctuary. 2. Diagrams of Egyptian temple showing the height of the sections of the temple A. B. C. D.
diminishing to wards the Sanctuary (D).
3. Moulding universally used in Egyptain archilecture.
-1.. The hypostyle hall of the temple of Karnak had 134 large eolumns, lhe middle ones being 24 metre
high~ and having a diametre of three metres.
5. Diagram showing the opening to give light to the interior of lhe lemple.

Oldest form~ of Egyptian capitals used since 3,000 B.C. I. Spread or bell capital.
2. bud capital.
3.-4. Decorated bell amI bud capitals.
5.-6.-7. Three types of columns used since old time.
8. Hathor capital. The column having lhecapital with the head oflhe goddess Halhor appears in later
period.
9. Painted I,;apilal with volules which may hayc been the prototype of the Greek ionic capital.

266

A BARE OUTLINE OF mSTORYand STYLES OF ART

EGYPT Egyptian chain; and va~es.
Note the legs of the chairs fonned by lion - legs - lhis elemenl was used in Europe up 10 the end of lhe
­ last century. China too used the same form. Diagram I. shows achaa wilh small sphiuxes, a pt',culiar
ity to be found in the French Empire style after Napoleon's conquest of Egypt.

Egyptian ornaments.

King Hammui<l. 2. Babylonia under Assyria. Many people fought for the dominion of Mesopotamia. Building palaces and temples on elevated terraces. Cuneifonn writing. Hittite and Phoenicia are included in Mesopotamian art. Use of vaulls and domes. 8. Use of terra cotta tablets.bi conquered Babylonia establishing the first Babylonian Empire: important civil laws. The Akkadian king Sargon 1 conquered many Sumerian towns eSl1lblishing the great Akkadian Empire. . we may say that the culture remained unchanged since the Sumerian period.C) 4000-1950 2750-1950 2600-538 2700-612 1900-1200 3000-640 750-550 600-332 3000-332 Sumer Akkad Babylorua Assyria Hittite Elam Media Persia Phoenicia SUMER·AKKAD 3000 2750 2400 1950 TomM of Sumerian kings al Ur and Lagasha. but at large. This king buill many fine palaces and the famous walls of the lawn measuring 61 kilometres-the ouler wall was 54 metres high and had 100 bronze doors. DATES (D. Thorough knowledge of irrigation. 7. Chaldean dynasty-Nabuchadnezzar II conquered Jerusalem and brought the Jews in captivity. Use of seals. 3. All peoples of Mesopotamia had in common the following peculiarities: I. Babylonia oceupied by King Cyrus of Persia. (Sumerian) Sumer and Akkad conquered by Babylonia. Portraits of King Gudea and his son Ur-Ningirsu.Silpa Bhirasri 267 MESOPOTAMIA The land floode(! by the rivers Euphrates and Tigris was called by the Greeks "Mesopotamia". BABYLONIA 2600 19SO 1750 900-625 625 538 The Akkadian found Babylonia. 5. 4. Use of dried. Pottery and vases in alabaster. baked and glazed bricks. but when referring to culture also Persia. 6. The Kassites eonquered Babylonia and brought in Mesopotamia horses and chariots. Be<:ause of the differenee in soil and geographic position the art of Mesopotamia is different from that of Egypt.

PHOENICIA B. Hillites under Assyrian rule. Famous for his palaees at Korsabad. Penlian army defeated at Marathon. Cyrus the Great conqnered Mesopotamia. . Moslim conquesl. Xenles I finished the palaces at Persepolis. Alexander the Greal conqnered Penlia. Many vases and some bas-reliefs have been fonnd in Susa. Asia Minor and to the east reaehed the Indus. King Cyaxarres conquered Assyria in cooperation with Nabopolassar. 226-641 641 Penlians settled at Susa and established the dynasty of the Achaememans. Media incorporaled in the Persian Empire. Sassaman Dynasty. Persian navy defeated at Salamis.)(X)() Sidon. Hittite art is very similar 10 the Assyrian art. Assyria at her zenith. Sargon II enlarged still more the lerritory of the empire. PERSIA 640 550-530 530-521 521-485 485-465 Ware against Greece 490 480 479 332 A. Started to colonize Africa. King Tiglath Pileser I established the Assyrian Empire. founded Byblos. Elam invaded by Persia ceased to exist. Darius I started to build the palaces at Penlepolis. ELAM 300) 640 The negroid Elamites settled in Susa. 2000 900 Phoenician people settled in the Syrian coast.C. ASSYRIA 2700-1200 1116-1093 900-612 722-705 612 Assyrian lowns vassals of other races. king of Babylonia.268 IDTTITE A BARE OUTLINE OF HISTORY and STYLES OF ART 1400 1120 Hittite army reached Syria. Tyre & Tombs of the kings at Byblos. Cambyses conquered Egypt in 525. Portugal and Spain. MEDIA 750 612 500 King Dioces found the Median Empire with capital at Ecbatana. Penlian army defeated at Plalea. Nineveh destroyed by the combined forces of Babylonia and Media.D. Art at its best. fought against Egypt retaining part of Syria.

metal and ceramic. 3. Phoenician invemed the alphabet. made works in glass. I. 332 Conquered by Alexander. Diagram showing the method of vault building. 5. bUI in principle it was a solid mass with corridors around it. 6.Silpa Bhirasri 269 814-146 Carthage founded in 8 14. ASSYRIA By comparing Assyrian and Egyptian ornaments we nole that the former are more elegant than the latter. The Mesopolamian lemple had many fonus. 4_ Assyrian bas-relief with houses roofed by semi-sphcrical and elliptical domes.mce 10 the Palace of Sargon ]] at Korsabad.Assyrian "Bull" 10 be found also in Persian art. The staircases leading to the small temple at the top were built outside the receding storeys. Entr. the Assyrian llsed thi~ zig-zag. . Also for the finial of the walls. 2. Typical assyrian section of wall.

-3. Very possible it was from Pen. Rock-cut door showing its Egyptian origin.ia. a fine composition eminently Persian.C. Column and capital of the hypostyle haJJ at Persepoli. Decorations in glazed bas-relief were common LO Mesopotamia and Pen. 4. 2. Elliptical dome of the Sassanian dynasty built on square plan divided in eight by the means of brackets-like additions al comers n A". Both Capital and column influenced Indian art from (he 3rd 10 the 1st century H.270 A BAKE OUTLINE OF HISTORY and STYLES OF ART PERSIA 1. 6. .ia that the architeds of Byzantium were inspired to build their domes on pendentives. Plan of the hypostyle hall at Persepoli inspired by Egyptian architecture. 5.

Period of reconstruction after the Dorian invasion. Rome invadecl Gree. ~hools. there are many Greek temples and theatres In fairly good condition.::entre of art in Asia Minor. The Acropolis of Pergamum was constructed after the victory of Attalus I (241-194) over the Gaules. J-WO-llOO Mycenean period. Of thIS school remains the famous group of Laocoon. Greeks destroyed the Persian na"'Y at Salamis Victory of the Greek army at Platea. Asia Minor. Periods or Greek Art. 1l00-~J 'XX) Homer. (Non-Greek people) Aegean period. In Sicily and south Italy (Magna Graecia). War of Teoy (lliulII). (traditioflt1l and . 1184 Dorian invasion (a second group of Greeks moving. a famous .C. Only pottery remains of this period. Alexander the Great conquerecl Egypt. 3(0)-2000 2000-1400 Crelean or Minoan period. ca. Uncler the Ptolemaic dynasty. ca.Silpa Bhirasri 271 GREECE Pre-Greek Period. ROME. Rome conquered Macedonia. Alhens reached its classical period. Palaces at Cnossus and PhaeslUs.eali~-ric arl). Greek art followed its Hellenistic eycle. Under the leacleT'. B.C. ALEXANDRIA. as the first.::e. Alexandria rose to great importance both in science and arts.C . In Rome too. Iliad. south Italy and coast of the Black Sea. 300 B.-30 B.C. Philip the Great of Macedouia united Greece.C. Macedonian Wars against Rome.nip of Perides. Mesopotamia. Greek artists worked. After Ihe collapse of Minoan Kingdom Greek towns carried on the Cretean culture. 800-650 Pnmitive 650-450 Arcnaeic Wars with Persia 490 450-300 Classic 300-146 HellenistiC 480 479 444-430 431-404 382-336 356-323 200-148 '46 Greek Hellenistic 300-133 Persian army defeated at Marathon.creating many s~'ulptures among whieh the torso of Belvedere by Apollonios Imo of the first century B. RHODES. The well known group of the Farnese Bull belongs 10 the school of Thralles. THRALLES in Asia Minor. Pre-Homeric Period (Greek Race) 20(X) Greeks moving from the region of Danube invaded Greece. Odyssey. from 1100 the DanubIan regions invaded the Greek !Owns. 776 700-600 ColonIes in Sicily. 100 B. particularly realistic art which influencecl Rome. Peloponnesian wars between Alhens and Sparta. Many Greeks left Greece and settled on the coast of Asia Minor. First Olympic Games.C. 100 B. Persia. PERGAMUM.

C". Primitive period having auimal and geometric figures. Titans rebel and Zeus.500 statues. Phoebus. helped by the Cyclops. eom'cals her child. wins and becomes the chief god of the Greek pantheon. PRAXITELES (385·320) Hennes carrying the child Dionysus and Aphrodite. Ionic order having classic sculptures. PAINTERS : No works of the great Greek {lainlen. Famou~ for the ~tanding female statues called the caryatids. . Minerva. three called Cyclops and three called Centimanjs CroflU. THE PROPYLAEA (437-432) is the gateway to enter the sacred premisc~ of the Acropolis. ERECHTHEUM (420-408) built in memory of the bero Erechtheus. rebels against Uranus and gets control of the world. THE TEMPLE OF NTKE (Victory) archaic. Uranus and Gea had twelve ehildreu. Chaos dominates the worId in its chaotic slate.cna for the patronage of the town Athens and the bas-relief of the Panathenaic pnxessioll.272 A BARE OUTLINE OF HISTORY and STYLES OF ART Names or the Greatest Artists.emples of the Greek arehitecture. POLICLETIUS (430) Statues of Amazon and Spear-bearer. Second classic pniod : SCOPAS (400-340} Sculptures on the Mausoleum of Aliearnassos.~ a titan. Jupiter. Palla Apollo. Sol. when adult. and of Zeu~ in the temple ofOJympia. have reached modem lime. Rhea.~I of Atheus where ACROPOLIS : Each Greek town had its Acropoli~. POLYGNOTUS worked about 470-440. The most famo there are the finestl. LYSIPPUS (3RO-JIB) The most proline sculptor who seemed to have done about 1. SCULPTORS: First classic period MYRON (450) Statue of Discabolus.Juno Athena. who. six called Tlrans.lonic order. wife of Cronus.he Acropolis of Athens. wa~ the sculptor of Alexander. Choragic Monument of Lysicrates outside the Acropolis of Athens is tbe best specimen of Greek Corinthian order. PHEIDIAS (500-431) Slatues of Minerva in !. Archaic perioJ with black figures on red background. 9 Muses. Herll. worked for Philip and Alexander. 'I-. ZEUXIS worked about 420-390. bus. Clas~ic period with red figures on black background aud HeJlenj~tic period with many colours. APELLE-4th B. Aurora. Ionic and Doric orders. defeats the father and controls the Universe. Zeus. The fme craftsmanship of the Greek may be noticed from their vases which are divided into four period~. namely: PARTHENON (447-432) iu Doric order by lctinus and Callicrdte tures in the pediments representing the birth of Athens and the dispute of the gods Pos~ . Jove. Greek Forms or Governmenl : Kingdoms Ari~tocracy /arismcmls) Oligarchy (flew richeJ) Democracy Tyranny Names or lhe Principal Gods and Semi Gods or Greek Mythology.

Nirnphes. Mycenean art used the same column. Vesta. Pluto. Heracles. Orcus. Centaurs. Dionysus.ean column. Diana. Neptune. Vulcan. Victory. Demeter. CRETE Cretean. Ceres. Hercules. . Venus Cupid. Medusa. Bacchus. Mercury. Aphrooite. or Minoan ornaments showing the high aesthelic sense of the Crel. ALIas. Eros. Hades.Silpa Bbirasri 273 Artemis.ean people. Nike. Fauns. Psyche. narrower at the base than allhe top. Satyres. Poseidon. PeculiarCrel. I. Selene M"". Perses. Hestia. Hermes.

Mycenean vase belraying its artistic origin from Crete. Forms of doors and domE" which are also lenned "Pelasgic art"..lf\Oa. Tomb of Agamemnon or Treasury of Atreus at Mycenae. ­ ~ GREECE Greek oede" of architecture I. 2. !. 3. 3.~ . [J. if IlL !. Note how Mycenean art was influem:l"d by Crele. ~V"~. 4. .274 A BARE OUTLINE OF HISTORY and STYLES OF ART MYCENAE I. Corinthian Order. lOllic Order. 2. -' . Entrance door of the Tomb. Doric Order. Either for a coincidence or ~cause a same origin. . also the Indian dome is buill by the means of horizonlallayers.

C. the Corinthian order slaned from the 5th century B. The entablature A. if> fonned by the architrave B. applied along the sides of the temples to conceal the joints of the marble slabs of the roof. Antefixa. Corinthian Order. o~ I t .Silpa Bhirasri 275 ~E~ "llliiJl~ ¥ 4 \~~=-'= "'r r--­ 0 3 :S:-l GREECE I. The metope may be plain or may have a sculpture in high relief. Doric order is fanned by a column withoul base and having twenty shallow flutes. The frieze C of the ionic and Corinthian orders is in general enriched with a bas-relief. 2.. While the temples of Doric and lonie orders dale from the lOth and 8th cen­ IUry B. The columns of the ionic and Corinthian orders have the base. finial of the pediment 4.c. The frieze C has alternatively a triglyph E and a metope F. Ionic order. Doric order. 4. Ionic column has twenly fourcleep flules and belween flutes there is a fillet. Also used a<. by the frieze C and by the cornice D. Many pediments of the Greek temples were decorated with statuary. or finial to stele. 3.

· . six columns in fronL 10. OclaStyle. .. .. Prostyle.. DiplemJ. Greek Theatre.276 A BARE OUTLINE OF HISTORY and STYLES OF ART GREECE Plans of Greek Temples. Pseudo-dipleraJ. 12. 11... 9. PeripteraJ cin. 5. four columns in fronl. 3. Hexastyle. Pseudo-peripteral.. 5. I. . eight columns in fronl. 4... . Distyle in Amis.. · .. Telrnstyle. · . Mausoleum al Halicamassos. 2.. The Tower of the Wind. ·. Section of Tholos having inside Corinlhian order and outside [k)ric order.:nlar temple. . . 4. Decastyle. u• • • D © ·... Front eln'3lion 8. 12 GREECE I... · · e .. 6. 9 ....Il • : : " '0 " · . 7..... · . 2... Chordgic Monument of Lysicrates. AmplJi Prmayle..... . len colnmns in front.. PeripleraJ. 3..

5.·277 GREECE Greek archileCtll rnl ornaments.mp tlDn Dfm". I mamenls WI 4. GREECE I. . . .'h the charaetenstle 3. Ornaments for decora . TriJXld. . Sculp~ra 0 bas-relief. Chair from a 2 S"nd fD" I. acanlh" 10"".Silps Bhirasri .

the Etruscan power declined.es -Forums . very Hellenistic. Auacked by the Greeks. tcstify thc greatness of thc Roman civilization. and agriculturists. which had the same character as thc Greek ones. Best period of Etruscan civilization. The Etruscan had the cuMom to model or chisel the figures of the dead over lhe lids of the sarcophagus-through this cuslom thcy become master of portrairure. They were also skilled in metal works and sculpture in terra colla with which they used 10 decorate the temples. The Etruscans were influenced also by Greek culture.Circus . expressing the character of the Etruscan rural people.C. Bridgcs and Roads. They had a special care for lhe tombs enriched with sculptures. the principal ones having been' VEIO-VETRI-NORCHIA-CHIUSI-PERUGJA FJESOLE-YOLTERRA-AREZZO ctc.278 ETRURIA 1100-900 A BARE OUTLINE OF HISTORY and STYLES OF ART 7m-5th century 6th cenwry 4th century Probable dale of [he settlement of the Etruscans in Ilaly. In portraiture the Roman reoched a very high achievement. paintings.C.Theatres and AmphjlhealJes ._ Thc use of bricks. ~ntury ARCHITECTURE: Romc shines in architectural construction.Thcnnal baths . elL.Acqueducts . Gauls and Romans. Periods or sculpture : 800"'00­ primitive.. PAlNTING : Specimens of fine Roman paintings. .Stadiums . Famous works or sculpture : The Wolf-lbe Chimera-Thc Head of Brutus-The Apollo of Veio-The Orator. 280 Bruna incorporated in the Roman Rcpulic.C. They came from Asia Minor bringing inlo Italy the use of arches and vault~ in building. Usually the Etruscan confcderation consisted in twelve towns. arehes and vaults cnabled Rome to erect fine buildings all ovcr the empire. Etruscan kings ruled Rome. Palac. lawyers. SCULPTURE : Roman sculpwre differs from thc Greek onc because it is realistic both in fonns and subjects. 400-300 ­ fine _~culpture. metal works. Arches of Triumph. The Etruscan built temples on podium-occasionally their temples had three cells. They transmitted both Mesopotamian and Greek cultures to Rome.Mauso­ leums . After thc 50 B. Rome expressed artistically her own character and from this date to the end of thc 2nd century A. Roman art reached ils classical period.Commemorative columns. ROME From the 6th to the 4th century B. Roman all reflects Ihe characteristics of a people of soldiers. Greece was the inlellectual mistress of Rome.D. bearing the charncter of thc Etruscan people more than in the 300-100 previous period. From the 3rd to about 50 B. Rome was influenced by EtruscancuJture.

D. Arch oflitus in Rome. last Roman emperor. Julius Caesar. Nero. Arch of Constantine in Rome. CiITUS of Maxcntius in Rome. Vandah sacked Rome. 2nd Punic war. . Emperor Theodosius-divided the Roman Empire into Western and Eastern empire. Column of Trajan in Rome and Arch of Triumph in Benevento. Octavian defeated Marcus Antony at Anctium. Rome partially destroyed by fire. Octavian Augustus was proclaimed first Roman Emperor.Silpa Bhirasri 279 have been found in large quanlity especially in Pompeii. Third Punic war-destruction of Carthage Rome conquered Macedonia. Emperor Maxcntius. Constantine.tensively as d«:oration on the walls and floors. RELIGION: Roman religion was very like lhat of Greek ha\ling the same pantheon of gods. STUCCO: Also stucco was used to deeorate the walls of relatively small moms. 753 618-510 510 280 264-241 218-201 202 149-146 148 146 100-44 31 30 A. Rome Mistress of Italy.C. Scipio. the Hun. From the Etrnscan. Emperor Septimius Severns-his arch in Rome. Roman paintings show fine drawing and colours. 1st Punic war. Emperor Vcspasian built the Colosseum. the Roman inherilalthe practice of prophecies by consulling the enlTails of the animals . Pompeii. Stabia and Erculaneum destTOyed by the reuplion of Vesuvius Emperor Titus conquered Jerusalem. Romulus. Emperor Diocletian-his Palace at Spalato. tile African wins the battle ofZama over Hannibal. 14 54-68 64 69-79 79 79-81 98-117 117-138 161-180 193·211 211-217 284-305 305-312 306·337 331­ 330 379-385 410­ 450 ­ 455 ­ 475 - Foundation of Rome. Rome occupied Greece. Attila. Emperor Caracalla-his famous thennae in Rome (221 x 104 m.~acrified for such a purpose. Emperor Trajan conquered Dacia. MOSAIC : The Roman used mosaie ex. Emperor Hadrian-built the Panlheon and his Mausoleum in Rome. Rome under Etruscan rulers. in\laded Ilaly. the Cailhagenese general. Death of Augustus. Principal dates : B. Alaric of the Visigoths raided Rome. Emperor Marcus Aureliu~-his equestrian statue in Rome. Conslantine establishal a new capital in Byzantium. Rcpublie.). but (hey are still lacking the three dimensional understanding. Edict of Milan gi\ling freedom to Christianity.

1.can door reminding its origin from Pelasgic an which is lo be found in Asia Minor. The Etrusean temple had a ba. 280 A BARE OUTLINE OF HISTORY and STYLES OF ART ETRURIA 1.. Funerary vase wilh a frieze of griffins reminiscenee of the art of Babylonia. ETRURIA Etrusean ornaments. 2.<oement. CapitaJ with woman-heads. 3. 4. Crete and pre-Homeric Greece. 3. Etru:<. Etruscan gateway. a peculiarity of Etruscan art. Temple wilh three cells. Bed-slelld whose form may be traced in Neo-classic furniture . Etruscan lumulus with podium" A". 2.

The Composite capital is composed with the elements of the ionic order (upper part) and the elements of the Corinthian order (lower part). Particularly we should note the brackets.­ ROME Rome used five orders of archil~ture : Dorie Order. A 1 ROME I. 3. 1. Composite Order and Tuscan Order. Roman Ionic Order. Later Doric Order. 1. Composite Order. under the cornice which were universally used in Renaissance archileclUre. 2. 2. Corinthian Order. Ionic Order. A. Roman Doric Order. Contrary to the Greek Doric order the Roman one has the base and the flutes deeper than the Greek prototype. Roman Corinthian Order is more elaborated than the Greek prototype.Silpa Bhfrasri 281 -EB. .

:hitectural monuments all over their Empire. have a basement (Podium) instead of the three steps of the Greek temples. 2. 4. Types of doors and windows to be found agaill in the architecture of Renaissance. now termed as Baroque . 3. Angelo. Pseudo-peripteral hexastyle temple. 4. Later Roman architecture. Roman vaults. ROME I. Acqueducl. or Mole Adriana. 5. Building with arches and vaults ellabled the Romans to erect :m. Note that the Roman temple. 2. Pantheon. To day il is called Castel 51. "A" exterior. Roman basilica.282 A BARE OUTLINE OF HISTORY and STYLES OF ART 4 ROME 1. like the Etrusean one. Peripler<11 circular temple of Vesta. The ACqlleduets were one of the greatest engineering work of Rome. Mausoleum of Adrian as it may have appeared in its original foml. "8" interior. "C" detail aUhe inlerior. 3.

The ordcr of Ihese eolumns '. Italic House. Pompeian mural paintings. Diagram of the Colosseum Amphitheatre which could accommodale forty fi'o'e thonsand pen.Silpa Bhirasri 283 2 ROME I.pective.a peculiarity of Pompeian Art.. Ground floor had Doric order (A).Roman buildings were slrueturally ~uppor1ed by arches and vaults. 2. .aried according to storeys. but as enrichment the Romans used columns. 2.ons. ROME I. Note the picture with architectural pen. Roman Arch oflbrinmph which may have three or one arch. First floor had Ioni\: order (B) and Second floor had Corinthian order (C). 3.

Ornaments for decorating ceilings executed either in stucco or in coloun:.284 A BARE OUTLINE OF mSTORYand STYLES OF ART ROME Roman ornaments chiselled in marble showing a richer inlerpretation of the natural forms than the Greek ones (particularly rhe acanthus leaws). ROME 1. Roman marble table. 2. .

The Christian church divided into the Catholic Church (Western Empire) and the Greek Church (Eas/ern Empire). triumphed over the Persian Mithaism.Silpa Bhirasri 285 CHRISTIAN ART 1st-10th Century A.D. so the Roman emperors persecuted the Christians. 5th Century . Prudentia. He built many towns. 9th­ 13th century. Annenia and Russia. Important Christian basilicas and baptisteries in Italy: St. roads. For this reason the Christians had to build the calaeombs where they eould bury their dead and also eould meet to worship their God. Paul. 583-602 Emperor Maurice eSlablished the Exarchale in Ravenna where many Byzantine 330 - . a great mind who reunited part of Italy. round columns and no dome. To control the unreslful Eastern empire. the monasteries were a new conceplion whieh saw ils greatest aehievement in the Romanesque period. New Sl.Catacombs dug underground. like the Roman temples. 6th Century . Rome St. John in Lateran. painting.After the fall of Rome. bridges and churches. baptisteries and monasteries. 313Edict of Milan issued by Constantine the Great gave freedom to Christianity. opposite to the principles over which the Roman Empire was buill. . Basilicas and baptisteries were deeorated with glass mosaic in the apses and with marble mosaic on the floors and other pans of the building. round. in Syria. ARCHITECTURE On account of the fusiou of Western and Eastern ideas in Byzantium there rose a new art­ panicularly characteristic is building the dome over a square plan erected in the ceuter of the church (Greek cross) and the universal use of glass mosaic enriching almost all parts of the interiors. Spain and Africa into his empire. Novgorod. and Asia Minor some basilicas had square pillars and domes ereeted over a square plan with small arcades in the four comers functioning as support of the dome. Kiev. Constantine established a new capital at Byzantium. Asia Minor. oUlside the walls.After the end of the 6th century Christian art was influeneed by that of Byzantium especially in what concerns mosaic with golden background. Byzantium inherited and carried on the Roman culture . Seulptural decoralion on the sargophagus. 527-565 Emperor Juslinian. Christians slarted to build their basilicas. But becaui>e the Christian idology wa<. afterward called Coustaminople. While lhe basiliea and baptistery of the Christians originated from Roman buildings. Christianity preaching love. Ravenna Rome BYZANTINE ART 4th-13th Century A.D. 4th Century . the modern Istanbul.D. a peculiarity borrowed from Persian structures and afterwards developed by the Byzanline art. here particularly in Moscow. the Greco-Roman mythology and over the worship of the Egyptian god­ dess Isis. mosaic and stueco in the assembling halls. St. Syria. Stephen. . Byzan­ tine arehitecture is to be found principally in Greece. While in Haly the basilicas had. Apollinare. Sl. brotherhO<Xi and the hope of an eternal spiritual life. 1st century 313 A.

he medium of mosaic.Baptistery in Ravenna. Nevenheles.. These mosaic paintings have a primitive hieretie character. 6th Century 51.> many low-reliefs east in bronze and. they were strongly influenced by Coptic art in forming their own style of architecture. at the end of the building. their composition developing rhythmically and horizonLally over the large area of the golden background hannoruze perfectly with the solemnity of the architecture. All sculptures were destroyed.D. Egypt.'>. betweeu 726-847 there wa. although planned as the Christian basilica.\pressing it through !. It is very importanl \0 remember that when the Mohammedans conquered Egypt in the year 640 A.8otine Churrhes. 12th Century . an iconoclastic reac­ tion. Mark of Venice. had one or three domes. 7th Century-After the middle of the seventh century Mohammedans started to attack the Byzflntine Empire diminishing its power till on the 1453 Constanlinoples was conquered by the Turks Important Bf7. Roman art began to decline at the beginning of the third century and in about a hundred years from classicism had degenerated in primitive forms. The most beantiful specimen of the Byzantine churches made by Anthemins of Thralles and Isidorus of Miletus.o. some of the Coptic chnrches. this country had fI Christian art with local primitive pecu­ liarities. CoptiC art refers to the artistic produetion of the Christian Egyptians. 11th Century . followed the same declining parable find aceordingly when the Roman left the control of Egypt.s having a very eastern character-besides the peculiarity of the ornaments. Sophia of Constanlinoples. Byzantium influenced Coptic architecture and sculpture-in fact CoptiC carvings in ivory resemble closely the Byzantine carvings .St. built under the emperor Jnstinian 6th Century . slill more. SCULPTURE AND PAINTING Because !. as part of the Roman Empire. COPTIC ART 395-640 A. so sculpture was not so imponant as painting.. To worsen this maner. PAINTING AND SCULPTURE In what concerns represenUltion of human figures.he worship of sculptural images. the Coptic mural paintings appear a crude expression.he Greek church did not penni! !.286 A BARE OUILINE OF HISTORY and STYLES or ART strul:lures were buill. From these specimens we note that byzantine sculpture was eilher a very primitive expression or was an imitation of old Greek e. e.Metropolitan Cathedral of Athens.D. From Ravenna this an spread to Venice and to Dalmatia. The Copts built churches and monasteries decorated with ornament. instead of the apse. Coptic textiles have that charming character as all primitive arts have. artists of thi~ period focussed their talent in painting. carved in ivory were made.. Aeeordingly.amples.

-3. 6. Some Christian Basilicas had a transversal arch each "bay".-2. Around !he Apse (A) there wen: !he sits for the monks auending the mass 5. 8. 2. 3.-1. In the churches of northern Europe the bell tower was an integral part of the Church. 2. 2. or the nave and fOUf aIsles.-1. Ornaments carved in marhle. Respectively Roman and Christian interior of Basilica. Plan nfChristian Basilica. 4.-7. a feature respected also dUring the Romanesque period. The Basilica may have the mn-e and lwo aisles. but the mofwas universally in wood. Roman Basilica which St'ned as an official building for administrative wort. Church. BYZANTINE ART 1. In later period it was added 3 Transept (B) to accommodate a larger number of monks. The block over the capital (A) is a characterislic of thi~ style. The Christjans used arches without entablature. . Diagram ~howing the sharp character of the Byzantine acanthus leaf. The Roman used columns supporting the entablature. Christian Basilica inspired by the Roman one. Byzantine capitals.Silpil Bbi("lIsri 287 CHRISTIAN ART I.

288 A BARE OUTLINE OF HISTORYaud STYLES OF ART ' m··~· tj "---. • '_'. had no dome.-6. Byzantine Churches may have one or more domes.D. Christian western Churches up to Ihe 14th century A. From the Renaissance period also many western churehes were built with domes. Byzanline method of building domes on square plan by the means of pendentives (A). 7 15 _ . but the central one is mdispensable. A section of a Byl. 5.. @Q Ba .D. 2. 7. Plans of Byzantine Churches. This idea may have originated from Persia and afterwards was used by the Mohammedans in their Mosques. IliiI BB li:I BYZANTINE ART I. 4.#" 6 -'0. 3 ::::.-3.A..antine Church showing pendemives. Therefore the Byzamine church is built on a Greek-cross plan while the western churches are built on Lalin-cross plan-respectively C. . 8. Roman dome was generally built on circular plan or over eight pillars. .'::: #.'--. A. but these are placed at the centre of the transept (8) not as a central fealure as in Byzantine style.

textile. Indeed. Mohammedan Conquests 640 641 642-710 11 th Century 1193 1453 1526 Egypt.Silpa Bhirasri 289 SARACENIC ART 7th-17th Century A. Turks conquered Constantinoples. The Arabs mct in Mecca every year to compete in poetry. of age when he married Kadya. Asia Minor. But religious principles dictated everywhere forms peculiar to Islam resulting in a certain universal style in all the Mohammedan world. The Mongolian Mohammedans conquered all India and formed lhe Mogul Empire which lasted till 1761. the flight is referred to as HEGIRA.Africa and Asia. At fust he met with strong hostility and in the year 622 he had to fly for his life to MEDINA. but not human figures. a rich widow. He was one of the many poor Arabs till at 25 yean. etc. thus to enrich their monuments the Arabs developed a peculiar geometrical ornamentation calletl Arabesque. Arabs of the past were great builders who left astonishing monumems in Europe. Arabia is a semi-desert land-only here and there a scarce pasturage gives support [0 some population. At forty he started to preach a new religion. metal works. Since remOle lime. the ISLAM. are really wonderful and mfluenced both Eastern and Western arts. Mecca was a holy town where Arabs went in pilgrimage to worship a Black Stone believed to represent the spiritual Power. The rest of the Arabs have to depend on the income of the caravans. so for the Arabs Mecca was what Olympia was for the Greeks. He won his opponents in an open battle and since then Islam was firmly established.Mohammed was born in Mccca in the year 570. Al Mohammed's death.D. the Arabs Slillted lO conquer many countries to leach lheir own new religion. etc. Saracenic minor-arts such as ceramic. Persia. Syria. North Africa and Spain. MECCA. some animals may be found in decorative objects. Thus the over­ populalion of that country was in the past the cause of the many Arab invasions of Syria. Islam does not pennit the representation of human and animal forms. 570-632 .lhe art of the conquered races. in singing. Started to conquer India forming the Pathans dynasties. and adapt to their own needs. these were permitted only in miniatures. Mesopotamia and Egypt. Egyptian Style Persian Style Moorish or Spanish Style Hindo-SardCenic Style Turkish Style STYLES . Hence differences to styles in Saracenic art. in sports. ART: Arabs had not a proper architeclure or art and accordingly they had to adopt. based very much on Judaism and Christianity.

4. Plan of a Mosque. Mosque with Minaret.. Mihrab. Persia Palace 011 M:olshita 7th century. Mimbar (pulpit). 2. 15th cenlury.. 9.TIu monumenls of Mohammedan architecture : Anlbia Great Mosque-changed many time~ -It!'. 5. or Pearl Mosque at Agra. India Mosque at Futtephore Sikri Dewan-kas (audience hall) at Futtehpore 16th century. 3.. the holy niche.. Taj Mahal atAgra.. SARACENIC ART I. 6. Pendentive with ~lalactite pattern. Turkish style which originated from Byzantine architecture of Constaminopie. . located towards the Mecca. . . 17thcentury.. Egypt Abu Tooloon 9th century.. 12th eentury. present fann is of the 16th century. 14th cenlury. 16th cemu!)'. 17th century.290 A DARE OUTLINE OF HISTORY and STYLES OF ART Most impoI1.. 7.... peeuliar to the Muslim Art. . lumma Musjid at DeihL ·'llIfV.. Type~ of Saracenic domes. 8th century. . Aralx)-Egyptian style. 14th century.. 7th century. MUli Musjid. Hindu-Saracenic style originated from Persian Mohammedan art. Sultan Hassan. " AhmedI. . . Tower of GilaJda at Seville Royal Palace al Alhambra. 8. Turkey Mosque of Suleiman 1. 8th century. Mosque of Amm. Tomb at Sullanieh Mo~que lspahan 15th centu!)'. . 10.. Syria Mosque of Aksah.. m &~IJ 7 . Katt Bey. Spain Mosque of Cordova The Alcazar eastle. 16th cemury.. " Omar. 13th century. 7th eenlury. 17th century. 14th century.

. SARACENIC ART Saracenic ornaments are based on geometric forms.Silpa Bhirasri 291 4 _-" 0 • SARACENIC ART 1. Stalactite pattern very much used in Egypt and in Spain. 4.ian and Indian style. 1. EgypLian style.he term "Arabesque" Lo mean omamems.4.3. Pen.-2.he Koran forbids !.he representation of human and animal figures so the Arabs developed an elaboraLe omamentatiou from which arose !. Because !.5. MoorishArches (Spain). 2. Typical shapes of Saracenic vases. 3.

SCULPTURE: The artists of the Romanesque period abandoned the imitation of Bzyantiue fonns. in its horizontal section. Zenone . CIVIL BULDINGS : The simplicity of the civil and public buildings. Monas­ leries. Contrary to the Byzantine ehurches. the doors had. many of these ornaments had strange fantastie animals interlaced with foliage. The simplicity ofRomanesque architecture and decoration was a reaction to the profusion of the Byzantine enrichments. other apses were added. others had vaults in stone or bricks..cmrirre church Juul a Greek cross).11th.o. to receive the weight of the vaults. Iu order to house many monks a transept was added to the church ereating in such a way a plan referred to as uljn cross (B}'. In the Romanesque period there was a great aCli. genemlly built in wonderful natural spots. The bell-tower (campanile) became a universal feature. public and private palaces were built in an aSlonishing number. PAINTING : In this period frescoes started to replace mosaic. Series of small narrow areades decorat­ ing the exterior of the building are peculiar (0 this style. On account of the great weight of the vaults it was necessary to thicken the walls. 12th Century. In Italy the bell-tower is detached from the church. have an imposing and mystie character. . The monastery is formed by many cells running around a eloister with arcades in its four sides and a well in the center. generally used as governmental residences and town-halls. The arts of stained glasses and illumination began to be very importaut. or small apses were ineluded in the large central one. In many eases. Some had timber roofs. started again the study of Roman art and principally began 10 study and observe Nature. MONASTERIES: The Romanesque mona"teries. Lombard or Carolingian art. such as fortress-like palaces and public buildings. ehurches.The Cathedral. whose interiors were completely adorned with mosaie.:. To the unique apse of the Christian basilica. In general. the churches had the same plan of the Christian basilicas. piers replaced the eolumns. While Byzantine art represented a mixture of Westem and Eastern idea. Attached to the donnilof)' (cells! there is the church and the refectory.292 A BARE OUTLINE OF HISTORY and STYLES OF ART ROMANESQUE ART 9th-Bib cenlury Romanesque art is referred to also as Norman.. In this dark period the monasteries were the only centre of knowledge and of humanitarian activity.St. the Romanesque church presents a rare simplicity of decoration.St. ARCHITECTURE: Romanesque architecture presents oUlstanding characteristics which mainly determined the birth of the Gothic style. Verona . Painting was used also to decorate the wooden structure of the rook Imponant Romanesque buildings: ITALY Pisa . Miniato . to reduce the opening of the windows and to add buttresses correspouding to each bay. the Baptistery and the Leaning Tower . Aorence . is most effective 10 give a srrong sensation afforce and dignity.12th Centuf)'. Always because of the eonsiderable thickness of the walls. a cone or angle like shape.'ity of architectural constructions. while in northern countries it is part of the church. Romanesque art is linked again to Rome. Few spots were enriehed with sculptuml ornaments.II th Century.

ENGLAND Cathedral of Gloucester. Gomic architecture was no more connected with Roman art. engeudered new intellectual life in Europe. was very importaut.t of the barrel vaull ii. the pointed vault may be supponed by many ribs transmitting its weight to a lofty pier (Il compound of columns in Il single unity) looking like huge palm-trees.13th Century. Caen . Cologne .12m Century.B.Silpa Bhirasri 193 Pavia . Free lowns grew in power and prosperity. FRANCE N.St. Tewkesbury Lincoln Tower of London. or flying buttress. The large surface of the windows left free. although present in the Romanesque architecture. Caen .Church of Apostles . encouraged by emulation.Church of Sl. Dominie of Spain.12th Century.11th Century. Worms .D. starting from the top of the inner piers transmits the weight of me vault of the nave to an outer pillar which is surmounted by a pinnacle 10 give it more stability. Afterwards. Francis of Assisi..St. To give more light to the interior. the pinnacle became a peeuliarity of the style. . GOTHIC ART 12th-15th Century A. the windows were very narrow and smaiL The Gomic archileets solved the problem by using the pointed (or ogi~'e) vault instead of the barrel one. Besides. replacing in such a way the limber roof of the Christian basilicas. Guilds were organized among whieh that of the master builden. one of the greatest . Semin . The space of this large opening was divided by the means of small columns having pointed arches intersecting geomelrically one another.11m Century. 1182-1226. St.11m Century. It developed from struetural problems which.The Certosa of Pavia . did not understand the beauty of Gothic art and so its monuments of this period do not show the style in its purity as it is the case of me Northern examples.Abbaye aux Hommes . Contrary to Christian and Romanesque styles. Toulouse . Etienne . suggested the decoration with stained glasses. and St. Bonn . Manin .St. A flying arch.11m Century. Because the pointed vaults augment sensibly the height of the whole building so the gothic ehurch has a very lofly appearance. the Romanesque architects started to build barrel vaults in stone. so as not to weaken them.the Minster . Because the walls had a struetural function. Gothic an originated in England and France and very soon it spread all over Europe. GERMANY Cologne . ity which hitherto was the monopoly of the monks passed into the hands of me laymen who. large windows replaced the small ones of the Romanesque buildings. preaching a new sense of humanity and Justice. but as the thrui. being the site of the e1assic art. very much sideward it had to be supported by thick walls and by buttresses plaeed outside the building corresponding to each bay. Towards the end of me 12th century Europe seemed to awake from a long sleep. Germain des Pres . LI70-1221.11m Century. Paris . stimulated a spiritual and material progress which stamped out the feudal social system op­ pressing sinee long European peoples. were not solved in that period. The intellectual acti. In sueh a way the walls were relieved of their previous function and so could be buill very thin. The thrust of the pointed vault is much more vertieal.Cathedral of Worms . The sideward thrust of the vaults of me aisles is also received by this outer buttress. Haly. As mentioned previously. Few Norman structures in England retain their old character because many were transformed during the Gothic period.11m Century.

Some of the mOSl importanl Gothic cathedrals: FRANCE' Cathedral of NolTe Dame de Paris Rouen 13th Cenrory 13th 13th 13th 13th 13th 13th Rheims Amiens Chartres ENGLAND: Westminsler Abbey Cathedral of Lincoln Salisbury Gloucester Canterbury Winchesler Wells GERMANY' Cologne Ulm Nuremburg Vienna BELGIUM: Antwerp Town HaJl of Brussels ITALY: Cathedral of MiJan " Aorence Ducal Palace of Venice SPAIN .! of Seville " Burgos 13th 14th 1. a peculiarity which will blossom with the lIalian primitives and laler on in the Renaissance. Tn this way a new style merged exclusively on accOUnt ofstrucrural principles Gothic archi­ tecture is cla<. fine in drawing and very appealing for their naive compositions.ed as large illuminations.294 A BARE OUTLINE OF HISTORY and STYLES OF ART artistic production of the Gothic style. Calhoon!. thus not very important. . They were used to enrich and illustrale religious scripts and boJks recording historical evenK Muml painting was treal.sified as follows: Early Gothic Geometrie Gothic Perpendicular Gothic Flamboyant Gothic The Perpendicular style was very much used in England while the Flamboyant is more common in France. SCULYfURE During the Gothic period sculpture made great progress-the stereotyped Byzantine forms slarted 10 be replace<l by more uatural ones. Illuminations are brilliant in colour.1th 14th 13th 14th 14th 15th 14th 15m 15th 14th 14th 14th 15th 16th PA[NTING The glories of Gothic painting are the illumination~ and stained gla~ses . Particularly the sculptures decoraling Notre Dame de Paris are exceptionally remarkable ­ some of these sculptures show already a keen observation of Nature.no other period~ have ~urpassed in beauty and in technique the magnificenl Gothic stained glas~es.

Diagram Illustrating the constructive system of me barrel vault. 3.~s composed of pillars and columns. Section of a Romanesque church with barrel \·ault!>. Onlt bay of the Romanesque Church. or beller ceiling. Plan of 1:1 Romanesque chnrch from which we remark that this style added many apses fA) to the main apse (8). 6. The weight of the brick or stone vault com­ manded a thid W<l1J and eventually "but tresses" built outside and corresponding to each bay. me columns became a solid ma.Silpa Bbirasri 295 ROMANESQUE ART I. 4. For the same reason of me increased weight of the roof. Note also the small arches (C) referred to a~ "lriforium" . Note that thlt windows on account of the consider<lble thick­ ness of the wall are larger inside than outside-this to permit the light to enter obliquely and so illumine the interior. Diagram showing how me ribs were builL 5. 2.

.296 A DARE OUTLINE OF HISTORY and ST\'LES OF ART 2 3 I~ ·1. ~ '] ~~.+. The fronl of the Romanesque churches of north Europe in general has two towers fonning a unity with the main strUcture of the church. 3.'. 4. the "triforium" (A). II i . ". or little columns.". many Romanesque ehurehes have doors fonned by receding planes enriched either with pillan. I • 5 1.B.1 . 3.hi __ ~ :. Another type of Romanesque door 10 be found in panicular in small churehes. which in Gothic period was used almost universally.-2. 1. .i I . J. Narrow arcades were one of the most remarkable characteristics of Romanesque architeclure. Romanesque capiLals.-4. One bay of a Romane!ique Chlll"Ch showing the new architectural feature.1"'""\. 5. . TypicaJ ornaments. I/.A. Due to lhe considerable thickness of the walls. 4 _ ' . S. ROMANESQUE ART 1. ¥~ Ei ~I. This peculiarity was retained also in Golhie style... a gallery over the aisles. Churches hailing a central tower at the cross of the transept started (0 be built in Romanesque art and followed in Gothic architecture. 2.

Note that all the ribs spring from the piers (column). Romanesque window. 8. For this rea<. 2. Gothic window. 6. The moldings are based on circles. 3. the windows of the Gothic style arc large and in general divided in two. receives the weight of the vault by the means of the nying arch. .on. Structural principle of the pointed vault. 5. Diagram from which we may see how the venicaJ buttress (8). while the GoUtic lower is divided by venicallines. Section of a Gothic church with the characteristic pointed arches. 4.Silpa Bhirasri 297 3 9 8 7 GOTHIC ART I. or nying buttresses (A). 7. The Romanesque tower is characterized by horizontal diVisions. three or more spaces by the means of slender columns. Sections of different ribs of the vaults. Because the weight of the vanlts was received by the piers and by the buttresses SQ the walls were reduced to a minimum of thickness.-9. Another section showing the flying arches.

ing the ".. very much used in England . in djagr<lffi 2. 3.. -2. GOTHIC ART I. Geometric Gothic. Metal works sho. With the syslemofthe ribs of the vaults springing as lea~'es of a palm tru from the pieI... . Three sections of "piers" GOTHIC ART I. 2.the Gothic artists made very complicated designs of the ceiling as it appean. Early-Gothic wherein we may nOlice still some reminiscence of the Romanesque art in the round =h.mgularity" of the Gothic style. Perpendicular Gothic.t.298 A BARE OUTLINE OF HISTORY and STYLES OF ART ~ . .. Ramboyant Gothic (jlame-like ornamellls) was much used in France 4. 3.

saw its climax in the beginning of the 15th century. eLe. The painted or sculptured figures of this period express love. who opened the glorious and new chapter of modem painting. Duccio (worked between 1278-1285) and Lorenzetti (worked between 1319-1347) drew great admiration for their spiritual works. Niccola Pisano (ca1225 . Excavations in Rome lo find Greek and Roman statues were ordered by Lorenzo and the masterpieces were sent to Florence and placerl in the Medici's garden in order thal the young artisls could get inspiration. believed and loverl as much as we do. a medium with which lhe artist could transmit with enthusiasm his artistic temperament and feeling. The Greek statuary represent abstract. called also the Magnific. was Giollo (1266­ 1337). idealized gods.Silpa Bhirasri 299 ITALIAN PRIMITIVES 13th-14th Century A. Masaccio. literature. the Medici was the richest.aly there was a keen intellectual intercourse which was very beneficial for the development of the art of both countries. Pisa and Siena were the two principal centres of the Italian primitives. In Siena Simone Martini (1285-/344). In Italy. The artists who followed him. Painting had to wait about eighty years more to see another great master. by writing in vulgar language. Time was ripe for a wonderful rebirth of the human intellect.. One of the Merlicis. Fate had doomed floreuce to be the center of this Human rebirth and Nature produced a myriad of great minds. The slow but steady progress of Europe. piety and faith. love. Among ils noble familie~. Florence and Padua. Lorenzo del Medici spent his money lavishly LO support artists. started in the 12th century. Lorenzo. who trierl to understand pel1Jpective in drawing and colours. sociology. Giotto worted principally in Assisi. who eould fairly draw and compose groups of figures expressing tragedy. One of the principal causes which enabled the Italian paintel1J to reach a very high standard in their art was the facl that they painted again in fresco. After Giollo's death no painler was able to bring farther the Master's ideal. forming in such a way what is referred to as the Giottesque School. to entertain kingly gather­ ings of savants. These poets. to discuss philosophy. pity.D. But the Greek examples did not affecl the spiritUal expression of Renaissance. but as they believerl in a religion so differenl from the Greek mythology. RENAISSANCE 15th-16th Centnry A. the love for Nature was vcry much stimulatcd by writers such as Dante Alighieri (1265-1321). But the ge­ nius who reacted most sucessfully against Byzantine influence. While in France and England sculpture and painting had to follow the architeclural character of the Gothic style. imitated him.D. Of eourse. Florence was a prosperous town lrading with all Europe. the Italian sculptors and painters were free from such a kind of architectural influence.J280) and his son Givanni (1250-1320) are famous for their expressive sculptures in the Baptisteries of Pisa and Siena. so they created and art essentially Christian. At that time between France and It. sorrow and hope. Petrarca (1304-1374) and Boccaccio (1313-/375). The literature of Greece and Rome was tTanslaled and commented upon. who tried to render the relationship belween objeets and space. the florentine artists were deeply impressed by the beauty of the Classie sculptures. It .just the same sensations proved by any human being-this because those figures represent historical person­ ages who have suffered. Hence the great difference of artistic expression beLween Greece and Renaissance. enablerl common people to understand and appreeiate high conceptions and beautiful things which in the past were understood only by few persons who knew Latin. was a great mind and also very ambitious in lhe desire to win the primate over the Florentine Republic.

brought back to their country Italian artisl.treated in large scale. Remish art influenced Franee. there is a remarkable difference of 'feeling'. Masaccio was lhe tirst to understand spacial volumes his figures sland like statues in respect to space. Ardlil£Cts. more delicate. and from Italy spread all over Europe. Italian artists went there to execnte works and very soon Spain had her own centers of art. Its artistic expression differs very much from the Italian School. but his short life was sufficient to immortalize him wilh his famous frescoes of the Brancacci Chapel in the Church of the Cannine in Aorence.Masaeeio Filippo Lippi 1406-1469 Bonicelli 1444-1510 Leonanio da Vinci 1452-1519 Donatello 1386-1466 Sculptor Verrocehio 1435-1488 Ghiberti 1378-1455 Luca della Robbia 1400-1482 1474-1564 Sculptor & Painter Michelangelo Brunelleschi 1377-1446 Architeet Alberti L404-1472 1474-1564 Sculptor & Painter Roman Shool Michelangelo 1483-1520 Paimer Raphael 1444-1514 Architect Bramante Vignola 1507-1573 1598-1680 Archilect & Sculplor Bernini 1429-1507 Painter Veoetian School Gentile Bellini 1430-1516 Giovanni Bellini 1460-1525 Carpaccio 1477-1510 Giorgione .300 A BARE OUTLINE OF mSTORY lind STYLES OF ART was when Renaissance started its declining cycle thai Greek aesthetics influenced again European an reaching its climax in the Neo-Classic period. is impressive reflecting the greatness of lhe Roman Empire. From Rorence. belween Roman and Re­ nai:isance archil£Cture. such as Brunelleschi (1379-1446) the builder of the Dome of the Cathedral of Rorence.Masaccio (]. Nevertheless. forming local schools.IO) -1428). corresponds to the new religious spirit and 10 the ret1nement of the Renaissance society. used to go 10 Rome to study Roman structures from where they derived formulae for their new building:i.s who influenced lhe French Renaissance. Donalello worked principally in Aorence and Padua. bUI it lacked unity whereas continuou!'. 11le laner. The peculiar Christian spirit emphasized in sculpture and paiming of Renaissance is not so much noticeable in architecture. died at twenty-seven. In that period Italy was rich and the most culturally advanced among all European countries. Indeed architecture of Renaissance was 10 a great extent a revivaJ of Roman fonm. Charles VIII and Francis I respet:ti~'ely invaded Italy in 1494 and 1527 and being astonished by the beauly of the Italian art. Donatello (1386-1466) was the lirst and greatest impressive sculptor who endowed his figures wilh such a humanistic feeling that in beholding them we feel deeply moved. Holland and Gennany. Some of the most important halian Schools: 1401-1428 Painter Florentine School . Masaceio and Donatello were the lWo greatest artists of lhe first renaissance. Spain ordered many works of an from Haly. aJ1 spread all over Italy. Rander was a great centre of Renaissance. wars waged between towns weakened her and made her the prey of foreign invasions. The fonner. By and by lhese fonnulae became fixed and were referred 10 as Vetruvian orders which archil£Cts of the 18th and 19th century universaJly respected.

Silpa Bbirosri 301 Paduan School Umbrian School Milanese &:hool Parmese &:hool Titiall Timorello Veronese Tiepolo Mantegna Piero della Francesea Perugino RlIphael Leonardo da Vinci Suardi ealled Bramantino Sodoma Luca Signorelli (of Cortona) Correggio 1480-1576 Painter 1518-1594 1528-1588 1693-1770 1431-1506 1416-1498 1446-1524 148:. with all its defects and exaggemtions. Flemish artists painted many mundane and popular snbjects: interiors ofhou-. . Contnrry to the Italian Sehool. Of course.~ an aesthetic moving ~ub. corresponding to Ihe manners and thinking of the people of Ihat period. But at large. also in religious painting the Flemish did not idealize ligures. were inspired by tile Flemish School in painting portraits in profile.1700 The hal ian Rcnaissanee was pure in fonn and spirit for about a hundred and fifty years. The figures and their surrounding were rendered with a<. China only had represented land~cape~ a. Flemish paintings are small. were the first to have treated landscape as the main subject of the painting.tonishingly fine observation. especially Breughel the elder. the Baroque style has also its good qual­ ity.es and inns-festivals. Except for religious pictures. the Flemish. Details and drapery became important while construetive forms were disregarded. RENAISSANCE FLANDER In Ihe Dih century Flandel was the principal Enropean centre of miniature: it influenced both France and Gennany. which in some cases may have been fairly large.1-1520 1452·1519 1460-1536 1477-1549 1441-1523 1494-1534 BAROQUE STYLE 1600 . these deflXts refer to the average production because there are works of art done in the Baroque period ehaste in movement or colours. The principal lines of lhe buildings of the Baroque style are curved both in plan and eleva­ tion. although pompous.iect since the 8th cen­ tury.posture and gesture of the human figures are so much empha­ sized a" 10 appear Iheatrical. Among Ihe races of Europe.of curved lines and intensity of colours are the characteristics of the Baroque style. English and French followed re­ spectively. eVery detail was reproduced wilh fidelity and at the same time wllh a wonderful sense of art. On the contrary it seems as if they enjoyed 10 represent realistic features also in their unaesthetic or ugly appearance. games and other subjeels ot' outdoor life. Aftel"W'ards it startcd to dlXline-exuberance of ehiaroscuro. Dutch. In the 14th century Flander felt the ascendency of Giono's art. In archillXture rich effeets of chiaroscuro were cherished. such as Piero della Francesca. while in Ihe 151h centul)' some Italian painters.1t is an art exnberAnt.

Germany and Italy did. Colored images in wood. BemJguete . The almost fanatic religious feeling reaches its climax in these sculptures. in particular Van Orley. This tragic. Breughel the dder Rubens Van Dyck Teniers 1366-1426 1380-1441 1430-1491 1460-1523 1466-1530 1525-1569 1577-1640 1599-1641 1610-1690 RENAISSANCE SPAIN For centuries. The polychn)malic sculpture had two distinct schools: the Castillian and the Andalusian ones. 1490-1561 A. the Christian art of Spain W3S expressed with a very strong realism meant to impress npon the believer~ the snffering and martyrdom undergone by Christ.302 A BARE OUTLINE OF HISTORY aDd STYLES OF ART After the middle of Ihe 16th century. Indeed Goya's realism. Italian artists working in Sp3in and finally Spanish arti~t~ who had studied in Italy. Great Flemish Painters: Hubert Van Eyck Jan Van Eyck Memling G. terra cotta or stone. Raphael and other Italian anists affecting for the worse traditional art.' Ihis trend retaining the charaClensllcs of old art.lr school of seulplure-this felt the direct aseendeney of the Italian art_ thus it had not an outstanding individuality as painting had. Of the Ca<.tillian School the best artists were . Monuments for sepulchres ordered in Italy. Great Spani. David Q. SCULYTURE: Rander had not a peculi."ih Masters: EI Greco F. violent realistic expression saved Spain in the 19th eenlury to become enslaved of classic culture and do neo-classic art as France. Matsys P. Ribalta De Ribera Velasquez Muri. Luckily many painters did not follo\l. but none gave such an important impulse to this art as the Spanish did. The influenee of the Moorish art is very nolieeable in Spanish textile and ceramic. introduced in their l:ountry the art of Michelangelo.llo Goya 1538-1614 Painter 1551-1628 1590-l652 1599-l660 [618-1682 1746-1828 POLYCHROMATIC SCULPTURE: Spain had a very important school of polychromatic sculplure which saw ils glory in the 17th century. some Aemish paiute~. were made both in the Gothic period and ItaJian Renaissance. im­ pres_~ionism and keen observation of human nature were due to the traditional Spanish realism. 1493­ 15-1-2. formed the Spanish Renaissance. Spain started her renaissance movement in the middle of the 15th century. Mary and all Silims. Spain was occupied by Ihe Moo~. For re3Sons of a slrong religious con111cl going on for centuries between the Spanish Catho­ lic and the Mohammedan peoples. The polychromatie statuary was carved in wood and afterwards painted and gilded.

The Gennan political and military grow­ ing power backed the feeling of classic greatness.~s. left outstanding masterpieces of art. Renaissance was already in its decline. Germany was tom by religious wars. After their liberation. Charle~ V fought agaimt the Protestants from 1446101555 and from 1618 lO 1648 there was another long periexl of religious wars. It has a vel'}' definite characler dne principally to racial.M. Becerra. But German art cannot be confounded with any other expressions. an was under the spell of Greco-Roman forms. When peace was re-established. Montanes 1568-1649 A. ca~es In the field of art. S. the German painting and sculpture appear somewhat harsh­ but this is the wry charncter of the German expression and so it must be appreciated accordingly. so much that in many the art of thesc two peoples is identical. German bUildings oflhe nco-classic style are more imposing than the French and English specimens. specially painters. in the 16th century Holland suffered very much under the Spanish domination. Hermandez 1560-1636 L8th eentury..erman Masters : School of Cologne. mental and sensitive peculiarities and dne also to the deep influence Gothic art had left upon that people. German artists. the Dutch worked hard to re-e~lablish their power and progre. In portraiture. Holland has strict affinities with the Flemish Sl'ht>t)I..h a disturbed political surrounding. de Mend 1693 RENAISSANCE GERMANY Germany was first influenced by the Flemish and afterward~ by the Italian art. 1520-1571 G. as in France. Ca. In Germany romanticism supplanted alto­ gether nco-classicism. The reaction against neo-classicism in Germany was more total than in France where neo­ cla~sicism and romanlicism worked in lhe same period. RENAISSANCE HOLLAND Due principally to religious contlicts. 111 time of . Stephen Lochner Martin Schongauer 1430 Hans Burgkmair 1473 Hans Holbein the Elder 1460 Heinrich Aldegrever 1502 Adam Kraff 1455 Peter Visher the Elder 1450 Dnrer 1471 Holbein the Younger 1497 - 1451 Painter 1491 1531 1524 1558 1509 Sculptor 1529 1528 Painter 1543 NEO-CLASSlCISM: In the 18th ceutury Germany was Ihe centre of study of classic literature and.~t C. the Dutch were great maSlers. Swabian School of Ausgburg Westphalian-SchooL. School of Nuremberg .Silpa Bhirasri 303 The be.~u(. During the 16th and 17lh century. But also in .Cano 1601-1657 P. In comparison with ltalian art.. Great C.rmona artists of the Andalusian School were : J.

. Contrasts of light and dark is a peculiarity of the Dutch SchooL In architectlJre and sculpture the Dutch did no\ produce mallY important works during the Renaissance perioo-On the contrary. Bours~e J.. Indeed lhe Dutch and Venitian Ochools are appealing for their rich and warm colouring.Fouquet 1416-1480 M. textile and jewellery were organised in royal industries. ceramic. Terborch P. Before the influence of the Italian art. like in Hander. But the Renaissance movement in France started only after King Charles VIII (1483-1598) and King Francis I (1515-1547) had returned to lheircountry from the W~ waged against Italy. Bosch Frans Hals Rembrandt G. subjects of the Greco-Roman mythology were cherished by the French patrons of art. Becallse the Dutch were Protestant so lhey did not do many religious paintings. From 1. de H()()(:h Venneer E. Rnisdael M. or groups of person:-. These kings being impressed by the beauty of the Italian art brought with them some Italian artists. These carpets were made after full size coloured cartoons by great artists. For this re~on. French painting and sculpture still retained Gothic characteristics. [0 general the lonalily of the Dutch School is a golden brownish tint which resembles the Venilian School. particularly in portrditure the French miniaturists reached a ~'ery high standard. painting and sculpture were organized under academies. mooem Dutch architecture is ~'ery Important. the religious paimings done by the Dutch were treated realistically as the secular art. such as metal works. who gave impulse to the French renaissance movement.109 to 1377 the Pope re~ided in Avignon (France) and there he received works of the Italian primili~'es which had some influence in developing French art. Usnally the king named an artist as director of lhe work of the state-thus architecture.Colombe 1431-1490 J. Also the produdion of minor art.ters of tbe rlrst period : J. Great Frencb Ma. was very fashionable. Because . French art benme nationalistic glorifying (he deeds of the kings. Great Dutch Masters : J. Related to the same idea of greatness. among whom Benvcnule Cellini (1500-1577). Hobbema Van den Velde 1450-1516 Painter 1580-1666 1606-1669 1617-1681 1630-1677 1632-1675 1631-1672 1628-1682 1638-1709 1633·1707 RENAISSANCE & ROCOCO FRANCE Inspired by the flemish art. The Gobelins (farge carpets for lumgillg on the walls) were famous all m'er Europe.[590 Poussin 1594-1665 La Tour 1593-1652 The authority of the French kings w~ so absolute that art 100 was the monopoly of the royalty. Cousin 1500.304 A BARE OUTLINE OF mSTORYand STYLES OF ART Frans Hals and Rembrandt pornaiture representing either a single person. the French had an important school of miniature in the 14th century.

ROMANTICISM: Young anists reacted violently agamst this lUnd of worshipping cultures of lhe past and started afresh a new vigorous and far more sincere expression of art referred to as Romanti­ . but the habits and eustoms of the upper class. The eXleriors ofllle Baroque buildings have curved lines. the Rococo frivolism is uoticeable. But also in a surrounding so hoslile to high artistic expressions. Archll.1788 1699 ­ 1779 1755 . bUI more delicate. started in 1748. the conquests of Napoleon (1767-1821).'our of sucll a refined society.ecture was inspired by Greco-Roman examples. J. aftinned still more Neo-c1assic style. wllich stimulated the French to emulale lhe greatness of Rome and Greece. Marat and Le Vau. ROCOCO: The Frencll Renaissance Ilaving started late. The most importanl architects of tile 17lh century were : F. Social discouteutment and intellectual reaction against injustiee and frivolity brought a chang~ in political matters as well as in art. Rococo ruus parallel to the Jtalian Baroque. Greek orders were used as a univer­ sal conveution : the front nf the Greek temples witll its Iriangular pedimenl became a universal pecu­ liarity of all buildings. had so dcg~nerdt~d as In demand only a frivolous art corresponding lO Iheir own life. Houdon (1741-1828) and Clexlion (1738.Silpa BhirllSri 305 French an was made for royalty and uoblemen. made in ceramic or bronzes.ln geueral. the suhjects preferred for this kind of art were inspired either by the Greco-Roman mylhology or had the character of genre art. the general teudency to admire classic literature and art. /16/2 -/6701 Le bruno 1619-1690. which obviously supported artists. porcelain and lacquer works iuflueuced French and DUlch ornamental ans. so il developed a finesse of colours and execution proper to meet the fa. was the favourite p:linter under Louis XIV. Pajou (1730-1809). the greatest of all. very soon it developed into Rococo style. Mansart. Rococo ornaments have the same character as the Baroque ones. the excavations of Pompeii.1814) are the greatest sculp­ tors of the 18lh century. wllile Rococo build­ ings have a facade with straighl lines. Rococo sculpture maintained a classic academic character.. Only in small sculpture. In lime. David (1748-1825) and Prudhon (1758-1823) were the head schools of the Neoclassical painting. The French revolution.1842 Contrary 10 painting. Between Rococo and Baroque architecture lhere is a striking difference. NEO·CLASSICISM : In the 19lh eentury many events concurred to fonn the Neoclassic style (in Frallce referred to as Empire style). Ingres r1780-1867). After the death of Louis XIV art became more popular. detennined lhe re\ival of c1assil: arts. valiant artists succeeded in ereating wouderful maslerpieces. In the 18th cenlury Chinese texlile. Greal painlers of the Rococo period: Watteau Boucher Fragouard Prmcipal portraitists : 1684-1721 1703-1770 1732-1806 La Tour Chardin Vigee Lebrun 1704 .

306 A BARE OUTLINE OF HISTORY u. were the prominent architects of England.J824). the latter Ihe author of St.Although Henry Vlll (1509-1547) ealled many foreign artists. The military victories of Napoleon original. was the greatest seulplor of the French revolution who made the high relief of !. but contrary to Rander. Sir Lawrence (1769-1830). REALISTIC SCHOOL: Inspired by !. Brown (1821-1893) founded the Pre-Raphaelite sehool inspired by Italiiln <lJ1 previous to Raphael. painter of rural subjects. In any way it was an art far more sincere and substantial than Neo-Classicism. ARCHITECTURE: Like in Franee and Gennany. painter of animals. and Courbet (1819-1877) were the principal artists of the French realistic school.nd STYLE. The romamic movement was started by Gericault who unfortunately died very young ( 179/. Troyon (1810-1865). RENAISSANCE ENGLAND Up to the 17th century Ihe mo~t imponant intellectual manifeslation of England was lrtenl­ ture.lm:e and Ger­ many. Inigo Jones (1573·1662) and Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723). Paul. lyric and religious spirituality. after the artistic activity of Van Dyck (1599-1641) Ihe English people started to be interested in painting and English artists.ed a kind of paintingwilh military subjects. Millais (1~29-1~97). England had in the past an important school of miniature. but at the end of the 16th century Italian architecture replaced the ogival fonns. Constable (1776-1837) and Turner (1775-1851) were the greatest paysagists of this school. the realists. Rude (1784-1855). As the word means. In the 18th century portraiture was the highest expression of the English painters Because of protestantism. while his conquest of Egypt opened the fanlasy of the anists for oriental reminiscences. Later. The 19th century was very imporwnt because English painter. Previous to the English realism. also in England artists did not treat in large scale religious subjects. . Crome (1769-1821). In the 17th century. among whom Peter Lely (1618-1680) origi­ ilar. to work in England. of the 18th century. Fr. in England too the influence of Gothic art was very much felt. Sir Raebnrn (1756-1823) and Russel (1754-1806) were the greatest painter. The aim of the Pre-Raphaelite school was to tender in painting a high moral sense.eJ the English school. Millet (1814-/~75). Sir Reynold (1723-1792). After Gericault·s death. among whom Ihe great Holbein. paysagist.~m and romantici~m.he English realistic an (/anascapes and anif7l(l/s) French artists slarted the realistic school which in its aim opposed bolh neo-classici. Delacroix ( J 798-186J J became the head of the romantic school. landscape was trealed in a conventional way.. depicting lyric scenes wherein ruins of some Roman or Greek buildings wcre induded. Sir Gainsborough (1727-1788). Hunt (1827-19/0) and F. Con­ trary to France and Germany where renaissance palaces had still the gothic roofing. sLatted to paint realistic land­ seapes and animals-Ihis realistic art iutluenced French artists who in their tum began the modem movement in Europe.he "Marseillaise" in the Arch of Thriumph of Paris. Carol (1796-1875).. the English miniaturists did not develop that art in larger expression. more human expression than !..li OF ART cism.he eold neo-classic one. romanticism is a more emotional. h was an art retlecting the very English temperament. the English archi­ tects adopted the Italian flat eeiling giving to the building a complete appearance of the renaissanee style. Rossetti (1828-1882).M. the noblemen and upper class of that country did not yet appreciate painting.

... . Some or tbe most important buildings or the Renaissance.. Greek orders were used nniven>ally.... Peter in Montorio Rome SI. Leyden . Greenwich Whilehall Palace London Trinity College-Library... . Brussels Palace of Justice.. Church of the Salute Venice Famese Palace Rome S1. .Silpa Bhirasri 307 In the 19th century Neo-Classicism dominated also in England. Florence Pazzi Chapel. Library and Cathedral Sanliago The Escurial.. Yorkshire .. . . ... .. ...n:o Municipio Genoa Sauli-Palace Milan Milan Ospedale Maggiore. FRANCE: Castle of Fontainebleau CaslJe of Blois Caslle ofVam Le Viconte House of Agnese Sorel Orlean Palace of Versaille Louvre Paris Luxemburg Paris Pantheon Paris The Invalids Paris GERMANY: Castle of Hidelberg Church of Buckeburg The Rathhaus of Cologne The Pellerhaus of Nuremberg SPAlN: Casa of Ayunlamiento Seville Granada Palace of Charles V.... . Pan!. BELGIUM: Town Hall. . Florence Venice Library of Venice ... Peter in Vatican Rome Durazzo Palace Genoa Pala. Florence Floren... Chiswick Chjswick House.. London .Cambridge Howard CasIJe.. St. . AI the end oflhe 19th cenlury there appeared another change in architecturallasle. PubUc and privale buildings were designed in classic forms while Gothic style was used for religious build­ ings. Cambridge Senate House... ITALY: Hospital of Innocents. Antwerp . Toledo ENGLAND: Queen's College O~ford Royal Hospital.-e Riccardi Place [MedicO. Town Hall.. Palazzo PiltL. Venice Pesaro Palace... Madrid The Alcazar.

-5. Thus the Renaissance church may or may JJot have the dome. The facade of lhc palaces of the first period of Renaissanee were not enriched with columns or pilaster.-. 4.308 A BARE OUTLINE OF HISTORY and STYLES OF ART ~~~rll! 1 I i • : I 3 RENAISSANCE 1.-2. The church of Renaissance maintains Ihe same principles of planning as the Christian Basilica.~ance style. Cornice of a palace of Renaissance having the same ornamenlal features as the Roman Corinthian order. 3.. Plain window of the 15th century. but in many c~s a dome was added at the crossing of the transept. 3. 2. Section of a church of the 15th century from which we may notice thallhe architects of Ihe Renais~am:e resumed Roman architecturnl forms. Typical tomb of ReJJais. 4. 3 RENAISSANCE I. . More elaborated window of lhe 16th century.

2.-3. 3. Plain architecture of lhe 15lh century. . Specimen of lhe architecture before Baroque style. 3 RENAISSANCE Comparative diagram showing the development of lhe architecture of the renaissance.Silpa Bhirasri 309 1. Door and capitals of the 15lh century. I. More complex architecture of lhe middle period of Renaissance.-2.

Likewise archllecture also the ornament of the Renaissan<:e style were inspired by Roman specimens. 3 Detail of an iron gale.310 A BARE OUTLINE: OF HISTORY and STYLES OF ART L GJas!>es..·'ANCE Wood-{'arved tables. Wrought iron candelabroms. . 2. RENAIs.

4. Comparing the diagram 2 which is a building of the 17th century with diagram 3. 2. Also in those buildings in which the plan has straight lines. we see that in the later architecture the "drum" (A) of the dome is formed by a colonnade. This colonnade was applied both to religiou_~ and civil buildings.asri 311 BAROQUE I. The cenlral part looking like a Greek temple was the principal characteristic of this art. . Typical house of the Neo-clm~sic style. in elevation the curves are always a dominating feature.Silpa Bhir. an example of the 18th century. Note thaI both in elevation and plan many buildings of the Baroque period have curved lines. Facade of a Baroque church.-3.

ROCOCO Rococo style was eminently used in France and is referred to as Louis XIV. like in architecture. the curves are the very peculiarily of the style.<. the same characterislic of Baroque bllt is much more elegant and refined. Louis XV and Louis XVI. ArchitectUJe of the Rococo period docs not presenl the movemenl of masses and lines like the Baroque buildings. Rococo art ha.312 A BARE OUTLINE OF mSTORY and STYLES OF ART BAROQUE Bar<xlue ornamental Design. Here too. .

Also the legs of the chairs had the same curves and ornaments. this sty Ie was VeT)' much inspired by Greco-Roman and Egyptian arts.Silpa Bhirasri 313 ROCOCO 1. garlands C. Q D NEO-CLASSIC STYLE Winged sphinxes A. Characterislic lable of the rococo period. were universally used to decorate both archJlecture and furniture. Vases in porcelain and detail of textile showing the influence of Chinese art. NEO-CLASSIC STYLE In furniture and ornamenls.-3. and lyres D. In furniture the curved lines of the ~oco period were replaced by sImple straight ones. 2. . palmets B.

No doubt Romantieism was a wamler and far more sincere expression of An than the cool N'eo-CIIDosic one.tic principles. the Impressionisls aimed at and succeeded in rendering luminou!> tints and light. was wonhy 10 paml. are expressions which. RomantICism abandoned Greek mythological subjects gettmg inspirations from the literall. Impressioni~t sculptoTh broke with the monotony of the academic !>culpture giving nc\\. othcrs. Fau\ ism. so when it gives u.. were anxious to express lheir individual conceptions and style Modem anists passed through one experiment after another. follow the masters fonning in this way ~chf)(lls of different conceptions and "tyle~. . In the dfon to render colour and light. Ah~tractism and so on. The aim of each modcm anist IS 10 be 'INDIVIDUAL'. some of the impressionists painted the object superficially di.re­ gardmg the three dimensional pla. Such kind of an did not renccllhe social and intellectual life of Europe of the 18th century.\ an may be ex­ pressed under all forms and style. being free from illustrating traditional traditional litcrature or reli­ giom subjects. in romanticism the aim is 10 appeal 10 sentiments and movmg sense!> which makes it difficult to remain within the limits of pure an and oftcn there i~ a tendency to degenerate towards what wc now term 'commercial an: To\\. Anything.314 A BARE OUTLINE 010' HISTORY and STYLES OF ART MODERN ART Impressionism. But 3... Let us remember that Man has produced in every period of his progress a profusion of . Iron was used m huge structural works and cement revolutlonalized architecture. Great anists create new anistic expressions. were greedy to get mspl­ ration from CXOtlC ans and also. in our day art cannot be "0 popular as it was when it illustrated subjects ""ell known by all the citizens of one or more countries. . any subject. same subject!> taken directly from Nalure. from sagas and fmm the European life of [he eighteenth cenlury. Post-ImpressIOnism i~ Just the conclusion of impres­ sionism. Western anlst!>. Creative minds. Cubism. Exchange of cul­ ture\ b} the mean!> of publication~.. reacted against Neo-Classicisrn formmg the Romanlic School. too much empha~i~ of masses and too much chiaroscuro. films and photographs and the imponation into Europe of many objects of an of people completely different from those of the West. Impressionism refused to il1uslrate poetry.ards the middle of the 18lh cenlury. opened up fields of inspirallon unknown in the past. illumined about colour-theory by modem .cience. VI­ tality and freshness conveying (he direct feeling and enthUSiasm of the anis\. as the word means.. right or wrong. but. From the ~cond half of the 19th century westcrn social life underwent great changes through mechamcal and scientific applications. then IT IS ART.sicisrn was a ({Xli imllatj\'e re. an too passes a peflod of transition. all try to free an from the appeaflng realism. less creative. Futurism. from Nature or still-life. a group of young French painters denounced txlLh neo-dassici~m and romanticism as obsolete.Abstractism. will blossom in something trul) substanlial.dcmocratic ideals ""'ere theconsequencc ofmodemcconomy. Thi~ group wa!> styled a~ impre~sionists. that is to say. Ours is a period of experiments which cenainly. As in politic and in all other human manifestaliom of our day. to express his own an free from others' conceptions and styles. that IS to say.. but having a perfect undeThtandlng of the three dimensional relationship among objects and space and con\eying that Inward abstract quality of life which is so mdlspen!>able to an. findmg no more sources of inspiration from Hellemstic an. Fauvism. But many of the painting~ of this School have the defect of lackmg that peculiar inward sense which is the greatest quality in Cezanne and Van Gogh.al of Greco-Roman An. Same luminosity of colours.. principally Gericault.. The simplicity of modem architecture dictated simpler painting and sculpture. history or religious subjects. Industrie~ changed ~ocial economy. a critical philmophy attacked old be­ lief!>. etc.m.... sooner or later. For this reason. As already said. Futur­ ism."j. Neo-C1a. food of Imagination or rapls our senses. Cuhi. The defect of impressionistic sculpture is to appear too sketchy. Supponed by science.lTe of the Middle Age. To appreciate this individual an i~ difficult because it has no relation with our inLellectual patflmony of the pas\. Their idea was Lo render the impression they received fmm life. Post-Impressionism. Surrealism. Surrealism.

One should ueither aceept nor refuse conlemproary an just because it is modem.Silpa Bhirasri 315 anistic work".eveu if roomed in museums for historical records. This rule must guide us in judging modem art. . but should view it objectively according to its real valuc. very few of these works are masterpieces which have remained so throughout all ages. cannot be considered as masterpieces. Comparatively. The bulk.

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