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EBWAIE-B DAMEIL CjDAFJKli.XXJD)

XutKshaL Jun^t' 4..jdif.i>y X.Jjt/OAiii'i: ^'.JM>>^>^,Stran4l,j.t>ntu>fi^.

TRAVELS
IN

VARIOUS COUNTRIES
OF

EUROPE ASIA AND AFRICA
CLARKE

E. D.

LL.D.

PjiRt

THE FIRST-

RUSSIA TAHTARY AND TURKEY
FOURTH EDITION

VOLUME THE FIRST

LONDON
PRINTED FOR
BY
R.

T.
IN

CADELL AND
THE STRAND

W.

DA VIES

WATTS CROW N COURT TEMPLE BAR.

MDCCCXVI.

'

-

.

.

'i

•'

.

CSSt

ADVERTISEMENT
FOURTH EDITION.

Intelligence has
of a
transaction

lately reached the

author

connected

with the
is

First
highly

Part
and
\

of these

Travels,

which

so

honourable to the individual
to the
it

whom it concerns, Sovereign whom he represented,
hoped
every
one,

that

is

interested

in

the character of the British Nation in foreign
countries, will be gratified

by

its insertion.

It

was conveyed
of the

in a Laiiii letter

from the Capital

Don

Cossacks, written

by Colonel Alexius
all

Papof,

president

and
;

director of

their

scholastic institutions

to the following purport.

Sir

Gore Ouseley being upon his
where he had resided
to the

return from

Persia,

in his capacity

of

British Embassador

Court of

the Shah,

came

to

the

Cossack

Capital.

Here he de-

spatched a messenger to Colonel Papof, inviting

cy

'

•'/^ c">

T^

•'"

ADVERTISEMENT
that officer to his presence.
arrival, Sir
*'

Upon

the ColoneVs
state, that;,

Gore Ouseley proceeded to

as the Representative of a British Sovereign,
it

he conceived
the

to

be his duty
hospitality

to

acknowledge

disinterested

shewn by the

Colonel,

and by the

Cossacks in general, to those

English travellers

who had
to

visited Taker kask;

and therefore he begged
family such a

bestow upon his

then in his

mark of his gratitude as it was power to offer." Having accompanied
handsome
present. Sir

this declaration with a

Gore further gratified his guest, by translating,

from

this

work,

all

those passages which related

either to himself, or to his

countrymen;
is

until

the worthy Cossack,

as he

kind enough to

confess, " shed tears of delight."

In relating a circumstance of this nature, an

author

may

easily be credited

when he

pro-

fesses himself not to

be more

indifferent to the

honour thereby conferred upon his work, than
to
its

general

success';

but no author

will

(1)

Notwithstanding a ferocious attack made upon
it

it

in

an American

Review,

has passed through Three Editions in that country.
article

The

Agents for the Russian Government caused the
in the

which appeared

American Review,

said to be written by a Russian, to be re-

printed, and inserted in one of the minor Journals of England.

An

allusion

TO THE FOURTH EDITION.
be so sensibly affected by the encouragement he receives, as one who
is

conscious of wit-

nessing, in the favourable reception
his

shewn

to

writings,

the triumph

of truth.

Having

every reason to be convinced that they have
outlived the opposition

made

to them, in conse-

quence of the description given of the Russians, he

now confesses that, when he
Pakt of
to be
excite.
his Travels,

published the First

he was not politician enough
it

aware of the clamour

was

likely

to

In shewing that his testimonies con-

cerning this people coincided with those of the

most reputable writers who had gone before
him^, he thought he had
fulfilled

an obligation

allusion to the Foreign Editions of this

work having been introduced,
it,

the author cannot avoid noticing a French Translation of
at Paris in 1813,
in three

published

volumes octavo; because

it is

accompanied

parte.

by Notes, said to have been inserted under the surveillance of BuonaThose Notes are evidently intended to persuade the Russian
Government of the bad policy of an alliance with Great [Britain
:

the writer, perhaps, not being aware that this alliance

is

not so

much

a matter of choice, as oi necessity,

French Notes explanatory of

the text of an English author are sometimes highly diverting: of this

we have au
plains,

instance in a Note, of the Edition

now mentioned, upon

the words ^'purlieus of St. Giles's;" which the French translator ex-

by saying that they signify
le

*'

Certaines terras dhnemhrtes des

Jorits royales, et sur lesqueUes
torn. I. p. 163.

propriitaire a droit de chasse."

Voy.

Note

(I)

du Traducteur.

Paris, 1813.'

(2)

Even the
in this

eulogists of the

Russian Government might be cited to

prove that the condition of the people docs not differ from the account
given of it
the

work.

monarch

as a divinity; styling

" The peasantry," says Mr. Eton, " look upon him (Zemnoi Bog) God of the
Turkish Empire, p. 433.)
It

Earth."

{Hee Eton's Survey <f the

remained

ADVERTISEMENT TO FOURTH EDITION.
to the public.
to

Leaving,

however,

this point

be decided by
opposition,

his adversaries;
to

and

their

harmless
all

the inevitable

fate of

political struggles, fitted
;

only to serve the

interests of party

and, moreover, being called

upon
of his

for a Fourth Edition of the particular portion

work
;

against which so

much hostility was
it,

levelled

he has nothing more to say of
at length, printed in a

than

that

it is,

more commo-

dious form, and with every attention to accuracy

which repeated revision has enabled him
bestow.

to

Mr. Thornton {Present State of Turkey, vol. II. p. 99. Note, shew what were Mr. Eton's real sentiments concerning the Russian Governmmt; by contrasting the observations he made after the death of Catherime, with those which he bad before published.
remained
for

Lond.

180.9) to

" Two
the

years," observes Mr. Thornton,

"

after writing an euloeium
Postsci-ipt
;

a ussian

Government, Mr. Eton wrote his

on though both

were

publisheil tojfether.

and then we are
BE HEARD."

told,
is

" that

The Empress Catherine was then dead; it is time the voice of truth shall
as
to the

*'

It

only in foreign politics," Says Mr. Eton, "that she
internal

(Catherine) appears great:
{Russian')

government of the

Empire, a most scandalous negligence, and a general corrup-

tion in the

management

of affairs, was visible, in every department,

from Petersburg to Kamcliatka."

Cambridge, Jan.

1.

1816.

ADVERTISEMENT
TO

THE THIRD QUARTO EDITION OF
PART THE
FIRST.

A THIRD

Edition of the First

Part

of these
that

Travels, within the short space

of time

has elapsed since

its

original publication,

may

be considered as affording

a

good

practical

answer

to

certain objections
it.

which have been
this

made

against

Whether
the

presumption

be true or

false,

author ventures,

upon

such encouragement, to proceed with the rest
of the

work according

to his original plan.

In the revised
:

present Edition, the text has been
the account given of the state of the
Russia has been suffered to remain

society in

nearly as

it

was printed

in the

former Editions,
spot.

and as

it

was written upon the

TncMPiNGToN, near Cambridge,

May

1,

1813.

ADVERTISEMENT
TO

THE SECOND QUARTO EDITION OF
PART THE
FIRST.

In

the present Edition,

some Verbal corrections

will

be found

in various passages.
;

Some

addi-

tions

have also been made

and

it is

hoped that
have

they will add to the general interest excited by
the work.

The Notes,

in certain instances,

been augmented, and the number of Inscriptions
increased,

by very valuable communications
Kelsall,

from Charles
Cambridge,

Esq. of Trinity

College^

who

lately

pursued a similar route

to that of the author, in the South of Russia.

Robert Corner, Esq. of Malta, has also obligingly

added

to the Appendix,

an important article

concerning the Internal Navigation of the Russian

Empire^

After the fullest and most impartial consideration, the

author

is

contented to rest the truth

(l)

See the

^j'jieridi.v

to this

Volume.

ADVERTISEMENT
and validity of
his

remarks,

concerning the

Russian character, upon the evidence afforded

by

ahuost every enhghtened Traveller

who has
Lord

preceded him.

In addition to their testimony,

the unpublished observations of the late

Royston' may be adduced,

to

shew

that, sub-

sequently to the author's travels,

and under

happier auspices of government in Russia, the
state of society

appeared to that gifted young

Nobleman, as
ing pages.

it

has been described in the followto

Lord Royston, when writing

an

(1)

The kindness

of

tlie

Earl of Uardwicke authorizes this allusion
carries with
it

to his Son's Letters. public consideration.

Lord Royston's name

a claim to

Althoujjh the knowledge of his great acquirecircle of his

ments had scarcely transpired beyond the
acquaintance, his erudition was
reg^arded,

Academical

even by a PoRSoN, with

wonder.

The loss sustained by his dcdth can never be retrieved ; but some consolation is derived from the consciousness that all the fruits of his literary labours have not been annihilated. The sublime prophecy of his own Cassandra, uttering" a parable of other times," will yet be
heard;
in his native

language, shewing

"

her dark speech," and thus

pourtraying his melancholy end.

" Ye

cliffs

of Zarax,

and ye waves which wash

Opheltes' crags, and melancholy shore,

Ye
Ye

rocks of Trychas, Nedon's dangerous heights,
rid^jes,

Dirphossian
plains

and Diacrian caves,
'

where Phorcyn broods upon the deep,
his floating palaces,
.'

And

founds

what sobs

Of dying men shall ye not hear what groans Of masts and wrecks, all crashing in the wind ?

What mighty

waters, who^e receding waves

Bursting shall rive the continents of earth?"
J'iscoii'id

Royston's Cassandra, p. S3.

TO THE SECOND EDITION.
accomplished friend,

who was snatched from
by a
fate

the pursuit of worldly honours

as

untimely, although not so sudden as his

own%

thus briefly, but emphatically, characterizes the
state of refinement in the

two great

cities of the

Russian Empire ^
to

"

A

journey from Petersburg

Moscow

is

a journey from Europe to J[sia.
to the society of the former city,

With respect
I

am

almost ashamed to state

my

opinion, after

the stubborn fact of
thither,

my
I

having

tmce returned
it

each time at the expense of a thousand
but although

miles

:

had not imagined

pos-

sible that

any place could exist more devoid of
rational conversation, I

the

means of enjoying
now, since

am

my

residence here,

become of

a different opinion.

Not

that

I

have not been

excessively interested,

both during this and

my

former

visit to Moscoiv.

The

feudal magni-

ficence of the nobility, the Asiatic dress

and

manners of the common people, the mixture
of nations
the
to

be seen here,

the

immensity,
architecture

variety,

and

the

singular

of the city, present, altogether, a

most curious

(2)

Rev G. D.

JVhittington,

author of an " Historical Survey of

Gothic Architecture," published since his death by certain of bis distin-

guished friends.

See the elegant tribute to his memory, in a Preface

to that work, by the Earl of yJbei-deen.
(3) This Letter
is

dated, Moscou, April 13M, 1809.

:

ADVERTISEMENT
and amusing assemblage."
the
In a former part of

same

Letter, the inattention of the superior
is

Clergy to the religion of the lower orders,
forcibly illustrated.

The words are as follow You have probably received some account of my journey to Archangel; of my movement
"
thence, in a north-easterly direction, to Mezen
of the distinguished reception
I
;

received from

the

Mayor of that highly -civilized^ city, who made me a speech m Russian, three-quarters of an
rein-

hour long; of my procuring, there, twelve

deer, and proceeding towards the Frozen Ocean,
until I

found a Samoied camp in the desert,
rivers

between the

Mezen and Petchora ; and of
nation,

my ascertaining, that that
over almost
in a state of
all
;

which extends
still

the NoTth of Russia, remains

Paganism a circumstance, of which

the Archbishop of the diocese

was

ignorant."

The

description, given in this work, of the

miserable condition of the Russian peasants, and
of the scarcity of provisions in the interior of

the country, has been disputed.
therefore see

Let us
said

now
upon

what Lord Royston has
It is

this part of the subject.

contained in a

(.1)

So marked in the original.

;

TO THE SECOND EDITION.
Letter to

Mr.

JVhittington,

from Casan, dated

May

l6th, 1807.

"I

left

Moscow on Tuesday

the 5th of
arrived

May

;

and the

first

town

at

which

I

was

Pladimir, formerly the capital of an

independent sovereignty, and the residence of a

Grand Duke.
are alone to

The accommodations are such as be met with all over Muscovy ; one

room, in which you sleep with the whole family,
in the

midst of a most suffocating heat and smell
to

no furniture

be found, but a bench and table
"

and an

absolute dearth

of provisions

In the Extracts, added to the Notes, from

Mr.

Hebers Journal, there are certain observations

which are said
in the

to

be at variance with the remarks
it is

Text

;

but

hardly necessary to add,
this

that

they were

introduced for

especial

reason.
that the

Some persons have
hospitality

also

insinuated,

author has accused the Russians of
;

want of

although the very reverse
his writings.

may be proved from

In describing

the reception which he experienced at Moscow,

he lays particular stress upon tho
the inhabitants
;

hospitality

of

" although,^'

to

use his

own

words

in the
it

Fourth Chapter of the present
at that time to

Volume, "

was considered dangerous

have the character of hospitxdity towards Englishmen^

ADVERTISEMENT

He

also

cites a passage,

in the

Notes, from

a French

work

of

celebrity,

to prove,

with

reference to Moscow, that rhosphntte des Russes
paroit
ici

dans lout

son jour."

Another extract

from Lord Roystons Letters will shew, that the

same

characteristic of the inhabitants
;

was ob-

served by his Lordship
declares,
it

although, as he expressly

did not alter his ''general upinion'
It is

of the people.

taken from a Letter to the

Right Honourable Charles Yorke, dated Moscow,

May
sure

5th,
I

I

b07.

" Notwithstanding

all
I

the pleashall

promise myself from
:

my

tour,

be

sorry to leave Moscow

the hospitality of the
it is

people

is

very great

;

and

unpleasant to be

always forming new and agreeable acquaintance,
with the expectation of shortly leaving them,

and the probability of never seeing them again.

On
it is,

leaving Petersburg, notwithstanding
I

my

ge-

neral opinion,

felt

very strongly how painful

to quit, for ever, a place in
;

which we have
it

resided for some time
that feeling

and believe

was

solely

which caused

me

to return thither

from Moscow."

Indeed

it

may be

urged,

that

even those

Authors who endeavour

to present a favourable

view of the Russian people, and who

strain

every

TO THE SECOND EDITION.
effort to

accomplish the undertaking, are conthe

tinually betraying

hidden

reality.

Their

pages,

hke embroidered vestments upon the

priests of Moscoiv, disclose, with every gust that

separates them, the rags and wretchedness they

were intended
threw

to

conceal'.

Nor

is

it

only in
hostility

those periods of Russian history
off the veil,

when

and enabled other nations

to

observe the real disposition of the people towards

every country but their own, that their character
has been thus manifested.
in peace or
civilization,
It is alike

displayed

war

;

in

circumstances of seeming

or of acknowledged barbarism; in

the reign of Peter, or of Catherine; under the

tyranny of Paul, or the mild government of

Alexander.
traveller
nelle,

These are
:

facts,

indeed, which a

may withhold
to

he

may say,
y

with Fontenot

" If 1 had

my hand full of truths I luould
escape;
ov,

suffer

one of them
^'^

like
to

Voltaire,

he may wait

until he

has leisure

methodize

(l)

You can

hardly imagine any thinsj

ance of the priests of these churches on their

more showy than the appearfestival days. But if the
you would
gene-

wind should chance to blow
probably
feel a

aside the sacred vestment,

degree of disgust not easily described, at seeing shoes
shirt, of the coarsest materials,

and stockings, and breeches, and
rally ragged,

and always dirty, appearing from under robes of the most
Letters from Scandinavia,
vol. I./. 7

superb and costly embroidery."
Lond. 1796.

K

; ;

ADVERTISEMENT
events,'''

prior to their communication

:

but

if

he
the

expect credit to be given, when he

tells

theme of

praise,

when

all its

that "

is

lovely and
it is

of good report" claims

due regard,

not

from such philosophy, that he can hope
acquirement'.

for its

At
is

all

events, the subject, as far as the author

concerned, shall

now

rest.

Another portion

of his Travels, describing objects of a more
pleasing
nature,
diverts
his

attention

from

Scythian wilds

and from

all their

fur-clad tribes

from uniformity of scenery and of disposition, to
regions highly diversified, and to human-nature

under every circumstance of character; from

wide and barren

plains, to varied territories

" flowing with milk and honey;" from rivers,

and lakes, and stagnant waters,

to seas traversed

by " men out of every nation under heaven *' Parthians, and Medes, and Elamites, and " THE dwellers in MESOPOTAMIA, AND IN

(I)

" Even

the Author of the History of Ciiari.es XII. of Peter

I.

and of the age of Louis XIV. was of opinion, that it was of greater importance to say what is useful than what is true ; as if what was
false could ever

be useful

!

In a Letter to Count Schuvalof, he says.

I have leisure to methodize the terrible tient of the death of the Tsarevitch, I have begun another work.' Is this the language of a philosophical historian?" Mem. of the Court of Petersburg, p.8\.
Until

TO THE SECOND EDITION.
JUDEA, AND IN CapPADOCIA, IN PoNTUS, AND " Asia, Phrygia, and Pamphylia, in Egypt,
**

**

" and
*'

the parts of LyBIA, about CyPvENE, Jews and proselytes, Cretes, and Arabians."
in

and

strangers op Rome,

VOL.

I.

PREFACE
TO

PART THE

FIRST.

In presenting the First Part

of his Travels

to the Public, the author is desirous to explain

the general extent of his undertaking.

His design

is,

to complete, in

three separate
Europe, Asia,

Parts, a series of Tra\^els,

in

and
of

jifrica; so that

each portion, consisting of

one, or more, volumes,

may

constitute a survey

the

some particular region. Thus, for example, Part now published, relates to Travels in Russia, Tahtary, and Turkey; a Second Part

may include the observations
Egypt, and
Palestine
;

collected in Greece,
finally,

and,

a Third

Part, those objects which were presented in Denmark, Norway, Siueden, Lapland, and Finland,
But, in order to accomplish so extensive an

undertaking, some
the manner of
its

indulgence
;

is

required to
credit for a

execution

some

better disposition towards his fellow-creatures,

than the author's severe penance in Russia

may

se^m

to

have excited.

It

is

not so generally

h2

;

'

ii

PREFACE.
may
be, that the passage of a small

known
rivulet,

as

it

which separated the two countries of
and
Russia, at the period of the author's

Siveden

journey, and
Finland, the

before

the

dismemberment of

mere crossing of a bridge, conducted the traveller from all that adorns and dignifies the human mind, to whatsoever, most
abject, has
fore, the

been found

to

degrade

it.

If,

there-

Empress and Autocrat of all the Russias, Catherine the Second, could find a Volney, who would prostitute his venal pen to varnish the deformities of her reign and of her empire if Potemhin did not want an apologist,
late
;

and an advocate, even among the Writers of
this

country;

Great

Britain

will

forgive

the

frankness of one,

among her

sons,

who has
in

ventured, although bluntly, to speak the truth.
It is

a language not wholly obscured

the

more cautious descriptions of former Writers.
Tuhervile, of
Olearius, of

England
;

;

Augustine, of

Germany

Denmark

and,

more

recently, the

Abhe

de la Chappe, of France, together with the

authors of

many anonymous

productions,

re-

present the real character of the people, in
colours,

which neither the

antidote of Aleksye
'

Mus'ine Puchk'ine, the drivellings of Voltcdre, nor

(1) See f^oltaire's

Correspondence with the Empress Catherine, ia
life.

the latter part of his

PREFACE.
all

jii

the hired deceptions of French philosophers
savans,

and

have been able

to

wipe away'.

A few
those

words, by

way

of acknowledgment, to

who have

contributed to the accomplishit

ment of the present undertaking, will not be deemed superfluous
:

is

hoped,

at the

same

time,

it is

not necessary to repeat expressions
in

which occur

the

following

pages.

With

the exception, therefore, of Lord

Whitworth,

whose respectable name the author here begs
leave to introduce, no repetition will be offered.

To his kindness, while Ambassador
the very existence of the First

at Petersburg,

Part of

this

work may be ascribed
to

;

and

his character

ought

stand recorded,

in

having afforded, as an
rare

English Minister,
liberal

the very

example of

patronage to his travelling countrymen,

during the whole of his embassy.

(2)

" Omnes

eiiini

pas/im, ciijusciinque conditionls sint, nullo reNobiles,

spectu personarum bat/ito, durissiuia servitute premuntur.

magnates,

pra^fecti, primoies,

consiliariique universi,

se chlopos, id
;

est, abjectissimos et vilis-.imos servos Magtii

Ducis fatentur

et

bona

sua omnia, mobilia et immobilia, quas possident, non sua, sed Principis esse a;;uoseunt.

Ut autem

equestris ordo ^

Magno Duce,

ita

enim plebeius ordo k Nobilihiis et Magnatihus gravissini^ premitur : colonorum enim et oppidanorum boua, niilitarium homiuum et Nobilium praedae exposita sunt.
.Sex dies

coloni in septimana dominis suis

laborant; Septimus dies privato labori conceditur.
laborant,
nisi

Neque

hi

strenuS

bene verberuti."

Desniptio Moicovia:.

L. Bat.lQiiQ,

iy

PREFACE.
In the course of the subsequent narrative, the

author has generally used a plural expression,

even with reference
vations.

to his

own

personal obser-

This

mode

of writing

was adopted,

hot solely, with a view to divest his style of
egotism, but in allusion to his friend, the cause

and companion of

his travels,
College,

CKlvvSyM. A. of Jesus
prise,

John Marten Cambridge; whose
and suavity of his
firm-

unceasing ardour in prosecuting every enter-

added

to the mildness

manners, endeared him to the inhabitants of every
country he visited.

The constancy and

ness which he preserved through all the trials and privations of a long and arduous journey
as well as the support

which he rendered

to

the author, in hours of painful and dangerous
sickness,
srratitude.

demand the warmest expressions of The Plants collected during the route
;

were the result of their mutual labour but the whole of the Meteorological Statement in the
jippendix\ together with the account given of

Relays and Distances^, are due to his patient
observation and industry.

To

the Rev.

Reginald Heber,

late

Fellow of

All- Souls College, Oxford, the author is indebted

(1)
(2)

See the Appendix to Vols. II. IV. VI.
Ibid.

&

VIII.

PREFACE.
for

the

valuable

Manuscript Journal

which
In

afforded the extracts given in the Notes.
addition to

Mr. Hehers habitual accuracy,
statistical information,

may

be mentioned the

which

stamps a peculiar value on his observations:
this

has enriched the volume by communica-

tions

which the author himself was incompetent

to supply.

To Aylmer Bourke Lambert,
ties,

Esq. Fellow

of the Royal, Antiquarian, and Linnaean Socie-

author of several Botanical writings, and,
others,

among
Genus

of

a splendid

work on the
kindness
in

Pinus, as well as possessor of the finest
in

Herbarium

Europe,

for

his

arranging the Plants collected in the Crimea,

and

in

preparing

a List of

them

for

the

Appendix^.

If the Vignettes prefixed to the several
ters,

Chap-

answer the purpose

for

which they were

hi tended,

by

exhibiting, within a small compass,

(3)

^ee Appendix

to Vol. II.

Mr. Lamhert

is

the present possessor of

the celebrated Herbarium of Pallas, purchased by Mr. Cripps during
his

residence with the Professor, and brought to England, in the

Braakel, by the author's brother, the late Coj)tain George Clarke, of
the Royal Navy, A. D.
1

805.

Vl

PREFACE.
and
her,
in the least obtrusive

manner, objects
is

re-

ferred to in the text,

the merit

solely

due

to

whose name appears occasionally annexed to those Designs, and who, from the rudest documents, has afforded an elegant and faithful
representation of truth.

Notwithstanding the care bestowed upon the
accuracy of the text,
it is

highly probable that

some

errors have escaped the author s notice.
this

Should

prove to be the case,

it is

hoped that

the Public will overlook defects in the style of a

mere writer of

travels

;

from which the more

responsible pages

of an Addison, a Steele, and

a Gibbon, have not been found exempt.

In the

progress of transcribing a journal written in a
foreign land, remote from scenes of literature,

more

attention

was

often given to fidelity of

extract,

than to elegance,

or even

purity of

composition.

The
names,

unsettled state of English orthography,
it

as far as

affects the introduction of

Russian

produces considerable embarrassment

to the writer

who wishes

to follow a fixed rule.

Upon this subject it not only happens that no two authors agree, but that the same author is inconsistent. Jonas Hanimy, whose writings are

PREFACE.
more accurate than those of any other Enghsh
traveller

vii

who

has visited Russia,

may be
is

con-

sidered as affording, perhaps, the best model
in

this

respect:

but Hanway himself

not

consistent'.

In the Russian alphabet there

is

no

letter

answering to our JV; yet
PVoronetz.

we

write Moscow, and

Where custom
this

has long sanctioned

an abuse of

kind,
to

the established

mode

seems preferable

any deviation which

may

has, in this respect, been guided
,-

wear the appearance of pedantry. The author by the authority and example of G/Z^/'o^z who affirms ^ that
" some words, notoriously corrupt, are fixed,

and as

it

were

naturalized, in the vulgar tongue.
strip-

The Prophet Mohammed can no longer be

ped of the famous, though improper, appellation of MaJiomet ; the well-known cities of Aleppo,
Damascus, and Cairo, would almost be lost in
the strange descriptions of Haleb, Damashh, and

Al
is

Cahira.'^

But,

the line to

may be fairly asked, where be drawn What are the Russian
it
?

(I)

The name
in p. 15,

of the

same place

is

written Kieva in vol.1, p. 9.

KUieva

and Khiva in a note.
1

Nngeti Tartars, in p. 8. vol,
his

I.

are written .Vw^w/ Tartars in p.

1.

Throughout

work, the termi-

nating vuuel

is

sometimes

i,

and

as often y; as, Valdai, poderosnoi,

and

YatiUtshy, Nasoroivsky.
{%)
i'.S. to Prtf. eh.

xxxix, Hist, of the Decline and

Fall,

&o.

viii

PREFACE.
names, which

we

are to consider as fixed and

naturalized in the vulgar tongue f

Are we

to write
;

Woronetz^ or Vorontje ; Wolga, or Volga
or Kiof; Azow, or Azof?

Kiow,

Lord Whitworth wrote

Chioff and Asoph, although both these

names
the

have the same

original termination

.

It is

B

iVtdy) redoubled in

compound words, which
Thus, as
it is

occasions the principal difficulty, and which has

been confounded with our W.
mentioned by
Storch"^,

from Levesque, the Russian
'

word

Vvedenie, signifying

introduction,' consists

of the preposition vo or v
conduct).

(into),

and

vedenie (to

The proper

initial

letter in English,

therefore, for this word,

power
this

it

alone possesses
false

would be V, whose and not fV, which
;

conveys a
word,

idea of pronunciation.

When

compound occurs
it is

as the termination of a

best expressed by our/; as Orbf,

for Orlow;

which exactly answers the mode of

pronunciation in Russia.

Some

writers use the

letter doubled, as ff: the latter

f

is

however

superfluous.

The

plan pursued by the author,

but to which, perhaps, he has not regularly
adhered, was to substitute a ^for the Russian

(1)

Account of Russia, by Charles Lord fVhitworth.
Tableau de I'Euipire de Russie,
torn, I.

Strawierri/

Bill, 1758.
(2)

torn.

I.

p. I9.

See also Histoire

de Russie par Levesque,

p. 17.

Hamb.

1800.

PREFACE.
VF, whenever it
the middle, of a

ix
in

occurs at the beginnmg, or
;

word

and any; whenever

it is

found as a termination.

There
as an

is

yet another letter of the Russian

alphabet, which,
initial,

from

its

frequent recurrence

requires a perfect reconciliation to

some
cheese

settled
:

law of English orthography
this

;

viz.

the Tcherve

has the power of our
in the

ch, in

and

child,

and occurs

name

of the

Cossacks of the Black Sea, Tchernomorski.

With

regard to words terminating in
Faldai,
Paulovskoi,

perhaps

it

ai and oi, as would be well to
;

substitute ay and oy, as Falday, Paulovskoy

or

y

only, as Valdy, Paulovsky ;

which

last offers a

close imitation of the vulgar
ciation in general
different
dialects,
:

mode

of pronun-

but the variety caused by
in

different

parts
is

of

the

empire, will, after every attention

paid to a

settled rule of writing, occasion frequent per-

plexity

and embarrassment.

In the orthography of the

names of places
by

immediately south o^ Moscow, frequent attention

was paid
map, the
Tartary,

to the

Map

of Reymann, published

Schmidt, at Berlin, in 1802.
territories of the

But even
Cossacks,

in that

Don

Knhan

and the

Crimea,

appear only as a

forlorn blank.

Many

years

may

expire before

PREFACE.
Russia, like Sweden, will possess a Hermelust,
to illustrate the g-eography of the

remote proit is

vinces of her empire; especially as
in her policy, to maintain the

a

maxim

ignorance which
those parts of

prevails in Europe, concerning

her dominions.

On

this accomit, the indecision,

which must appear

in the perusal of this

volume,

to characterize the description of the country

between Biroslaf and Odessa, admits of explanation. The geography of all that district is
little

known; the courses of the

Dniester, the

Bog, and the Dnieper, as well as the latitude

and soundings of the coast near their embouchures, have never been adequately surveyed.

The only

tolerable charts are preserved

by the Russian Government,
secreted from the eyes
of

but sedulously
Europe.
lot,

It

has

however
in

fallen to the author's

to interfere,

some degree, with this part of its political system, by depositing within a British Admiralty certain documents, which were a subsequent acquisition, made during his residence
Odessa.
in

These he conveyed from
life.

that country,

at the hazard of his

They

are too volu-

minous

for insertion in the

work, but

may

serve

to facilitate the navigation of the Russian coasts

of the Black Sea,
Britain

if

ever the welfare of Great
the

should

demand

presence of her
In making this

fleets in that part of the world.

PREFACE.
addition to our stock of knowledge, for the use

XI

of our navy, no ties of confidence, or of honour,

were broken with a people who have violated every engagement with this country. Those documents were entrusted to the author by
persons fully authorized to concede the information, and their injunctions have been sacredly

obeyed.

TABLES
OF

RUSSIAN MEASURE, WEIGHT,

&

MONEY.

MEASURE.
The The
Archine, or Russian Yard, equals 28 English Inches.
Sajen, or Russian Fathom, equals 7 English Feet.
P'ersts

Three

equal 2 English Miles.
is

The The

Russian Foot

exactly that of England.
1

Ver shock equals

English Inch and^.
equal
1

104

Versts

-

Degree.
Ferst.

500 Sajens
3 Ar chines l6 Vershocks

=1 =1
=
1

Sajen.

Archine.

*

WEIGHT.
smallest weight of Russia
is

The

the Solotnickj which equals

six grains.

3 Solotnicks equal

1
1

Lot.

32 Lots

-

40 Pounds

= =

Pound.
Poud.

1

TABLE OF RUSSIAN MONEY.
The
in
first silver

money of Russia was coined

at

Novogorod

1420, in small pieces, which were called Copeeks.

The

present value of the Copeek

may be
all

estimated as equal to an

English Halfpenny.

Almost

calculations

of the countty are

made according

to the

number o[ Copeeks.
In

TABLE OF RUSSIAN MONEY.
In 1654, Roubles were introduced at
bars,

Moscow

in the

form of

with deep notches

in

them

[roubli),

which enabled the

possessor to detach as

much

of the bar as his payment might

require*.

Hence

the origin of the
is

word

iJoM^/e.

Almost

all

the copper

money of Russia

coined in Siberia, and prin-

cipally at Catherineburg, near the

Ural Mines.

Sixteen Roubles

of pure copper weigh a Pond.

At

present, the specie of the country has nearly disappeared,
is

and paper

its

only representative.

The Copeek no

longer

exists as current coin.

The following statement of the Names and Value Money is chiefly extracted from Georgi.f
SILVER MONEY.
1
1

of Rvissiau

Rouble

-

-

-

-

equals 100 Copeeh.
-

Polten, or

\ rouble
-

1 1
I

Polupolten, or i rouble

Dvagriven
Paetalten

-

-

1 1

Griven

Paetach

-

-

-

-

= = = = = =

50
25

Do.
Do.

20
15

Do.
Do.

10
5

Do.

Do.

COPPER MONEY.
1

Paetach

-

-

-

-

equals

5 Copeehs.

1 yJlline 1
1

-

Grosh

-

-

-

Copper Copeek

-

= = =

3

Do.

2
1

Do.
Do.

This

last

coin represents, in front, the Figure of St. George
a

on horseback, piercing

dragon with

his spear.

" From

this

spear," says Georgil, called Copoea in Russian, the

word Copeek

has been derived.

* Georgi, Descript.

de

St. Peters, p.

187.

Edit

Fraiic. Peters. 1793.

f
i

Ibid. sect. 8. chap. 3.
Ibid.
p. 191.

TABLE OF RUSSIAN MONEY.
1

Denga, or Denushka

-

-

-

-

equals

|-

a Copeek.

1

Polushka, the smallest coin of Russia
takes
its

=

^

Do.
Ushka

The Polushka

name from

a

hare-skin,

(which, before the use of money, was one of the lowest articles

of exchange) J Pol signifying half; and Polushka, half a
skin.

Iiare's

The

gold coinage of Russia
first

is

scarcely ever seen.

It consists

principally of ducats, the

of which were struck by

Petek

THE Great, worth two

roubles and twenty-five copeeks each.

When

the luihor was in Petersburg, a coinap^e was going on

at the mint, day

and nighr,

for the private use of the
j

Emperor

Paul, of seventy-three por^c^ of gold

the whole of which was

made

into ducats.

The mint was worked by

steam-engines.

LIST OF

EMBELLISHMENTS AND MAPS
CONTAINED IN

10 LIME THE FIRST.
TO SERVE AS DIRECTIONS TO THE BINDER.

A

newly engraved Portrait of the Author
.

.

.

to

face the

Title.
\.

General Outline of the Author's Route

.

.

to face

Chap.
p.

Map Map

of the INIouths of the

Don

....
....

339.
S-l-S.

of the Situation of Tcherkask

p,

LIST OF THE VIGNETTES
IN VOLUME THE FIRST.
THE VIGNETTES ARE ENGRAVED ON WOOD, BY AUSTIN.

CHAP.
No.
1.

I.

Tage

Profile of the

Emperor Paul, from a Drawing by
1

E. D. Clarke
2.

Crystallization of

Water

12
II.

CHAP.
3.

Arms

of Novogorod

14

CHAP.
i. 5.

iir.

Window

of a

Ri/ssiari

Cottage
.

32

Stockings used by Female Peasants of the Valday

44

CHAP.
6.

IV.

Archbishop of Moscow at the Ceremony of the
Resurrection

58

7.

Gipsies dancing the Barina
I.

80

VOL.

C

VIGNETTES TO THE FIRST VOLUME.

CHAP.
Ko. 8.

V.
'

Pace

Gate of JVIoscow

86

CHAP.
9.

VI.

Arms

of the City of

Moscow
VII.

107

CHAP.
10. 11.

Plan of the City of i¥o5cow

140
loi

Great

Gun

of ik/bicom

12.

Facsimile of the Hancl-wi-iting of

Peter the
165

Great
CHAP.
13.

VIII.

A

Russian Broshy

171

14.

CHAP. IX. The Rustic Pipes of Russia CHAP. X. common

193

15.

The

sort of Sandal

to

all

tlie

Northern

Nations

227

CHAP.
16.

XI.

Antient Tumuli, as they appear covering the Steppes, 260

CHAP.
17.

XII.
his

Manner

in

which the Author, and

Companion,

traversed the Steppes of Russia
18.

297
317

Portrait of a

Calmuck

Woman
xiir.
.
. .

CHAP.
19.

Double Canoe, used by the Don Cossacks

343

CHAP. XIV.
20.

Hamaxoiii of Herodotus,

as seen at the present day,

395

CHAP. XV.
21.

Map

of the proposed Junction of the Rivers Volga

and Don

426

GENERAL STATEMENT OF CONTENTS
TO PART THE FIRST,

VOLUME THE
Advertisements

FIRST.

to the

Fourth, Third, and Second Editions.
to the First

Preface

Edition.

Tables of Russian Measure,
List of EmlelUshments,

Weight, and Money.
Vignettes.

Maps, and

CHAP. L
P. 1.

PETERSBURG.
Preliminary Observations
conduct of the

— State of public —Insolence of Emperor
CHAP. n.
p. 14.

affairs

the police

— Strange — Extraordi-

nary phcenomenon,

JOURNEY FROM PETERSBURG TO MOSCOW.
Departure from Petersburg

—Manner of travelling— Palace of — Gardens —Anecdote of expedition Tsarskoselo North-west Coast of America — Ledyard — Barbarous decoration of apartments — Arrival at Novogorod — Cathedral—Antient Greek paintings — Manner of imitating them Russia — Superstitions of Greek Church — Virgin — Russian Bogh. hands — Story of her with
Billings's
to

the

the

in

the

three

origin

GENERAL STATEMENT OF CONTNETS.
CHAP.
p. 31.

III.

Aiitient history

Russia — churches of Novogorod — —Evagrius — Baptism of Olga, afterwards Helena Procopius — General —Arms of Novogorod — Ceremony of — Costume— Tumuli — route picture of of Valday —Jedrova — Domestic manners of peasants — Servile empire — Vyshney Foloshok — Torshok — Tver — of Milanese vagrants — Folga — Tumuli — Klin — Petrovshy — Moscow — Police —Accommodations. Arrival
First
in
cros.si"g

NOVOGOROD.

this

Heights^

the

state

the

at

CHAP.
P. 58.

IV.

MOSCOW.
Peculiarities

—Persian, Kirgissian, and Bucharian ambas— Ceremonies olserved Easter — Fasts and — Palm Sunday — Holy Thursday —Magnificent ceremony of Resurrection —Excesses of populace— Presentation of —Ball of peasants — Ball of nobles Paschal eggs
Russian hotel
sadors
Festivals

of climate

—Impressions made on afrst arrival—
at

the

the

the

the

the

"^Characteristic incident of caprice in dress.

CHAP.
p. 86.

V.

MOSCOW.
Surprising talent of imitation

— Remarkable Booksellers— State of fraud practised by a native —Libraries of the nobles— Equipages— Costume of the Bourgeoisie —Amusements of people — Chapel of the —Nature of imposTverschaia—Miracles wrought ture — of a merchant —Assassination of an archbishop — Motive for worship of pictures—Resemblance between
among
the Russians
artist

literature

the

there

the

Artifice

the

GENERAL STATEMENT OF CONTENTS.
Russians and Neapolitans
their

huslands

— Children

— TFives of the nolles— Conduct of
of Orlof

— Princess Menzikof—

Retributive spirit exercised
his mother.

by the Emperor at the funeral of

CHAP.
p. 107.

VI.

MOSCOW.
State of exiles in Siberia
citizen

— Tobolsky — Generous conduct of a — Prince turned pawnbroker— Picture-dealers— Stale people— Opinions entertained of medicine — Manners of — Relative condition of and English of —Noble behaviour of Count GolovMns peasants— Servantt — Theft committed by a party of nobles — of Convent of New Jerusalem — New prohibitions — Public Basil— fvan Trinity — Church of censors — Convent of Basilovich — Tubervile's
the the
slaves
their lords

the nobility

the

the

the

St.

Letters.

CHAP. vn.
p. 140.

MOSCOW.
Sunday market

— Promenades during Easter—Kremlin — Holy — Great Bell— Great Gun —Antient palace of the Tsars Qate
— Imperial Treasury — Manuscripts— Superb model— General

appearance of the Kremlin

— First Christian church— Festival

of the Ascension.

CHAP. vni.
p. 171.

MOSCOW.
Order of the Maltese cross

— Minerals
objects
:

Pictures— Antiquities— Shells
of Botterline

— Botanic garden — Philosophical instruments—— Stupendous of Natural History — and mode of English horse-dealers — Public baths
Other
collections

— Gallery of Galitzin—Library
their
use,

of Count Golovkin

Tiational importance-^Foundling Hospital.

GENERAL STATEMENT OF CONTENTS.
CHAP.
IX.

P. 193.

MOSCOW.
Fisit to the

Archlishop of Moscow

his conversation:

— Convent

of NicoLL

NA Perrera
and food

Stalls for fruit

Banquets of the
Russian
tables
to

— Anecdote

— Sparrow Hill— Public morals— nobles — Barbarous observed at
etiquette

— Funeral

of Prince Galitzin


of two English

Gentlemen
in Virtu

Precautions

be used in travelling

—Dealers

Adventurers and swindlers
Condition of the peasants.

—Immense wealth of

the nobles

CHAP. X.
P. 227.

JOURNEY FROM MOSCOW TO WORONETZ.
Departure from Moscow

— Celo Molody — Serpuchof-~Insolence —River Oka — Celo Zavody —Antient games— — Tula— manuVast Oriental plain — State of factures — Imperial fabric of arms— Present of Tula— Economy of fuel— Iron mines — Road from Tula JVoronetx
and
extortion

travelling

its

stale

to

—Dedilof— Change of climate— Boghoroditx— Celo Nikit&koy — Bolshoy Platy —EJJremof— Nikolaijevka— Celo Petrovskia Palnia —Eletz — Ezvoly — Zadonetz — Celo Chlebnoy — Besluxevka

— Celo Staroy Ivotinskoy — JVoronetx.
CHAP.
XI.
p. 260.

FROM WORONETZ, TO THE TERRITORY OF THE DON COSSACKS.
Present state of Woronet?^

— IFine of the Don— Change of manners, and of features — Neglect of drowned persons — Tumuli — Malo-Russians — Plains south of JVoronetx — Celo Usmany — Podulok
external

— Climate and productions — Garden — Inundation and product of — of Peter the Great — Arsenal— Commerce, and Increase of
the rivers

buildings

internal

GENERAL STATEMENT OF CONTENTS.

—Mojocks, Ekortzy, and leslakovo — Locova —Paulovskoy — Plants—Animals— Trade— Rash conSloloda duct of a young peasant — Kazinskoy Chutor— Nizney Momon —Dohrinka—Metscha— Kasankaia, stanitxa of Don
Moscovskoy
first

the

Cossacks.

CHAP.

XII.

p. 297.

Appearance of the Cossacks

— House of Ataman — Voyage by water— AmuseRiver people— Departure— Steppes ments and dances of — Of — brandy a carnp of Calmucks Laxovai from mares milk — Personal appearance of Calmucks —Arts, armour, and lueapons — Recreations and of —Acenovskaia — Of Suroke, or Bobac, of Steppes — Nature of — The Biroke and named Russian maps — Stragglers from the army — Distinction Don — Kamenskaia Steppes and of between Cossacks of word ~—Tron Foundries of Lugan — Etymology of — Numerous camps of Calmucks—Approach Axo.y.
at

TERRITORY OF THE DON COSSACKS.
Kasankaia

the

Ideal dangers of the Country
the

Visit to

their

distilled

condition
the

life

the

Suslic

villages

in

the

the

the

Tanai's

to

CHAP.
CAPITAL OF THE
o

XIII.

p. 343.

DON

COSSACKS.
the

Arrival at Axay

—Public entry — Reception by Don Cossacks — Population of — Fiew of Don — — Mode of fasting — Analogy of a Court between Don and Nile — Natural and — Fishes — Extraordinary appearance of Tcher— Origin of kask — Inhabitants and pubtic
their territory

the

Cele-

bration

festival
the

the

curiosities

antiquities

buildings

the

Cossacks

of

— Circassians — Commerce of Tcherkask — Polished manners of people — Remarkable wager — Survey —Entire houses moved—Diseases of people— town of Greek impostor — Departure from Tcherkask.
their

— Causes of their increase—Emigrations — Foundation
capital the

the

the

— —

GENERAL STATEMENT OF CONTENTS.
CHAP. XIV.
P. 394.

VOYAGE DOWN THE DON, TO AZOF AND TAGANROG.
I-lsit to

for the Sea of Azof— General view of the South of Russia — De RuBRuauis Tahtars—Armenian Colony of Nahhlshivan —Fortress of St. fiemetry Ratsof—Division of the Don — Tumuli — Fortress and village of Azof— City of Tana'is — probable situation — Condition of the garrison of Azof—
its

the General-in-chief of the Cossack

army

— Emharkation

Opinion entertained of the Cossacks

—Departure from Azof
—Arrival at Taganrog.

—Maoris

Remarkable phcenomenon

CHAP.

XV.

P. 426.

EUROPEAN AND ASIATIC SHORES OF THE SEA OF AZOF.
Taeranrog

— Commerce,
laW'

external and internal

— Canal of com-

munication between the Caspian and Black Sea

ceremony of the Calmucks

— Consecrated

— Marriage
of the

ensigns

Calmuck

—Difference

betiveen their sacred arid imlgar

writings -• Sarmacand

— Farious inhabitants
P.

of Taganrog

Antiquities— Voyage across the Sea of Azof

— Chumburskuia

— Margaritovskaia.
ADDITIONAL NOTES,
Appendix, No.
p. 451.

447— 450.

I.

Letter from Count Soltijcof Governor of Moscow, explaining
the Author's situation in Russia.

No. n.
p. 453.

Account

of the internal navigation

of Russia, translated from,
to the

an Original Document afforded
Country by a Board appointed
communication by water.

Government of that

to

survey all the means of

S,:..-Mh.ni,.,3.

^^0

'''Hill'-

'h'/m'/'7///:,:

>^-,x^.

^
CHAP.
I.

PETERSBURG.
Prelimhiary Observations

— State

of Public Affairs

Strange Conduct of the Emperor
Police

— Insolence

— Extraordinary Phcenomenon.
to
is

of the

A.
ries

CURIOSITY
of Europe

visit

the

Eastern bomidaexcited
in

^^j^

'

naturally

by the
and

''"'"v"^

circumstance of their situation,
rarely traversed
little

a country

by any
in

literary traveller,

noticed

either

antient

or in

modern

history.

Abov# two thousand
I.

years ago, the

VOL.

B

'

PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS.

Tandis, watering the plains of Sarmatia, sepa-

rated the Roxolani and the Jazyges from

the

Hamaxohii and the Alani. In modern geography,
the

same

river,

altered

in

its

appellation,

divides the tribe of the
Tchernomorski,

Don

Cossacks from the

whose

territory extends

from the

Sea of ''Jzof to
their

the Kuban.
in the

The Greeks, by

commerce

Euxine, obtained a slight

knowledge of the
Palus
M.tlotis.

people

who

lived

on the

The
but

wars
the

of Russia

and

Turkey sometimes directed our attention to this

remote comitry;
inhabitants,

knowledge of
the

its

both

among

Antients

and

Moderns, has scarcely exceeded the
their domestic

names of

the tribes, and their character in war.

With

habits, the productions of the

land, the nature of its scenery, or the remains

of antiquity they possess,

we

are

very

little
,-

acquainted.

By

referring

to Antient

History

we

find

that

the

same want of information
This

prevailed formerly as at present.

may be

accounted for by the wandering disposition of
a people, seldom settled for any length of time

upon the same spot
polis
in

:

and with regard

to their

successors, since the establishment of a metro-

the marshes of the Don,

arid

the

expulsion of the Kuban Tartars

by

the Cossacks

of mitted to

the

Black Sea, the country has been sub-

very

little

examination.

It

was

PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS.
among these people that the political differences England and Russia drove the Author, a
from the
last
cities

of

willing exile,

of Petersburg and

Moscow,
century.

in

the

year of the eighteenth

Necessity
;

and

inclination

were

coupled together
faction,

of

escaping

and he had the double satispersecution from the
and of surveying-

enemies

of his

country,

regions which, in the

warmest sa\lies of hope, he had never thought it would be his destiny
to explore.

In the course of this journey, through extensive plains deserts,

which have been improperly called

and
little

with as

among a secluded people who reason have been deemed savages,
dis-

he had certainly neither the luxuries and

sipation of polished cities, nor the opportunities

of indolence, to interrupt his attention to his
journal.
If therefore
it

fail

to

interest

the

public, he has no apology to offer.
it

He

presents

in

a state

as

similar

as

possible to that

wherein

notes written
as

upon the spot were
whatsoever his feeble

made;
abilities

containing

were

qualified to procure, either for

imormation or amusement;

and adhering, in

every representation,

strictly to the truth.

E 2

; :

PETERSBURG.

After suffering a

number of
;

indignities,

in

common

with others of our countrymen, during

our residence in Petersburg
of March, 1800, matters
mities,

about the middle

that

our

excellent

grew to such extreAmbassador, Sir
found
it

Charles

(now

Loi-d) IVkitivortli,

neces-

sary to advise us to go to Moscow.

A

passport

had been denied
despatches
to

for his courier to

proceed with
to

EnglancL

In

answer

the

demand made by our Minister for an explanation, it was stated to be the Emperor s pleasure.
In consequence of which. Sir Charles inclosed

the

note

containing

his

demand,
the

and

the

Emperor's answer,

in a letter to

English

Government, which he committed to the postoffice with very great doubts of its safety.

Strange

Conduct
of the

mean time, every day brought with it 'some new example of the Sovereign's absurIn the
dities

Emperor.

and tyranny, which seemed

to originate

in

absolute insanity.

The sledge
the

of

Count
order,

Razumovsky was,

by

Emperor's

broken into small pieces,

while he stood by

and directed the work.
found with
driver.
It
it

The horses had been
streets,

in

the

without

t\A

happened

to be

of a blue colour

and the Count's servants wore red liveries upon which a ukase was immediately published.

PETERSBURG.
prohibiting, throughout the

Empire op all the
In consequence

RussiAs, the use of blue colour in ornamenting
sledges, and of red liveries.

of this sage decree, our Ambassador, and
others,

many

were compelled
evening, being

to alter their equipages.

One

at

his

theatre

in

the
in

Hermitage, a French piece

was performed,

which the story of the English Powder-plot

was

introduced.
it

The Emperor was observed
;

to listen to

with more than usual attention
it

and as soon as

was concluded, he ordered

all

the vaults beneath the palace to be searched.

Coming down the
spective,

street

called

The Per-

he perceived a Nobleman

who was
by
the
?"

taking his walk, and had stopped to look at

some workmen who were planting
Monarch's
order. — " What

trees

are

you doing
" Oh,
is

said the Emperor.

" Merely seeing the

men
that

work," replied the Nobleman.

your employment

—Take give him a spade — There, now work
?
!

off his pelisse,

and

yourself'."'

When
self,

enraged, he lost

all

command
rise to

of him-

which sometimes gave
the

very ludi-

crous scenes.

when

The storm was
in

Emperor had

knew very well gathering, by a trick the. those moments of blowing
courtiers

CI

PETERSBURG.

CHAP, from his under-lip against the end of his short
v«-^j-^ nose.
his

In one of his furious passions, flourishing

cane

about,

he struck by accident the
lustre,

branch of a large glass

and broke

it.

As soon

as he perceived
in

he attacked the lustre
not give up his

what had happened, good earnest, and did
until
it

work

was

entirely

demolished.

In the rare intervals of better temper, his

good-humour was betrayed by an uncouth way
of swinging his legs and feet about in walking.

Upon

those occasions he
folly.

was

sure to talk with

indecency and

But the instances were few in which the gloom spread over a great metropolis, by the madness and malevolence of a suspicious tyrant, was enlivened even by his ribaldry. The accounts of the Spanish Inquisition do not afford more painful sensations than were excited
in

viewing the state of Russia at this time.

Hardly a day passed without unjust punish-

seemed as if half the Nobles in the Empire were to be sent to Siberia. Those who were able to leave Petersburg went to Moscoiu. It was in vain they applied for permission to
ment.
It

leave the

country

:

the

very request
If

might

jncur banishment to the mines.

any family

%
PETERSBURG.
received visitors in an evening;
if

7
four people
v

chap.

were seen walking together
inquisitive,

;

if

any one spoke

J^
*"

>

too loud, or whistled, or sang, or looked too

Jf thl

"

and examined any public building
attention
;

^°^'*^^*

with too
danger.

much
If

he was in imminent
in the streets, or fre-

he stood

still

quented any particular walk more than another,
or walked too fast or too slow, he was liable to

be reprimanded and insulted by the police-

Mungo Park could hardly have been exposed to a more insulting tyranny among the Moors in JIfrica, than Englishmen experiofficers.

enced at that time
Petersburg.

in Russia,

and particularly

in

dress
officer

They were compelled to wear a regulated by the police and as every
:

had a

different

notion

of the proper

mode

of enforcing the regulation,

they were

constantly liable to interruption in the streets

and public places, and
impertinence.

to

the

most

flagrant

This dress consisted of a threeor, for

cornered hat,

want of

one, a round hat
;

pinned up with three corners

a long queue
;

j

single-breasted coat and waistcoat
at

and buckles,
instead
arrest

the

knees,

and

in

the

shoes,
to

of

strings.

Orders were

given

any

person
loons.

who

should

be found wearing pantahis sledge,

A
;

servant

was taken out of
if it

and caned
neckcloth

in the streets, for

having too thick a
thin,

and

had been too

he

8

PETERSBURG.
would have met with a
never
similar

punishment.

After every precaution, the dress,
satisfied the police or the

when put
:

on,

Emperor

either

the hat
hair

was not

straight on the head, or the

was not cut wore her hair Court square enough. A Lady rather lower in her neck than was consistent with the ukase, and she was ordered into close confinement, to be fed on bread and water. A

was too

short,

or the coat
at

gentleman's hair

fell

a

little
;

over his forehead,

while dancing at a ball
officer

upon which a policeattacked him with rudeness and with
if

abuse, and told him
his hair,

he did not instantly cut

he would find a soldier

who

could

shave his head'.

When

the ukase

first

appeared concerning the
an English merchant,

form of the
streets

hat^ the son of

with a view to

bafile the police,

appeared

in the

of Petersburg, having
at

on his head an
of which the
It

English hunting-cap,
police-officers

sight

were puzzled.
they said,
*'

"

cocked

hat,"

neither

was not a was it a

round

hat."

In this embarrassment, they reaffair to

ported the

the Emperor.

An ukase was
at the
to describe

accordingly promulgated,

and levelled

hunting-cap; but not knowing

how

(l)

A mode

in

which criminals are punished

in Russia.

PETERSBURG.
the anomaly, the

9
that " no

Emperor ordained,
luith the.

chap.

peison should appear in public

thing on his k^^^^,-^

head worn by the merchant'' s son''

An order against wearing
tops
officers

boots with coloured
police-

was most rigorously enforced. The
English boots.

stopped a foreigner driving through the

streets, in a pair of

This gentleman

expostulated with them, saying that he had no
other,

and certainly would not cut
;

off the

tops

of his boots

upon which the

ofticers,
fell

each

seizing a leg as he sat in his drosky,

to

work,

and drew

off his boots, leaving

him

to go bare-

footed home.

If

Foreigners ventured to notice any of these
all

enormities in their letters, which were

opened

and read by the

police, or

expressed themselves

with energy in praise of their

own

country, or

used a single sentiment or expression offensive
or incomprehensible to
their spies, they
instant,

the police-officers
liable to

or

were

be torn

in

an

without any previous notice, from their

families

and

friends,

thrown

into a sledge,

and

hurried to the frontier,

or to Siberia.

Many

persons were said to have been privately mur-

Never was there a system of administration more offensive in the
.

dered, and more were banished

eyes of

God

or man.

A

veteran

officer,

who

10
CHAP,

PETERSBURG.
had served
fifty

years

in the

Russian army, and

V—..^^ attained the rank of Colonel, was broken without the smallest reason. Above an hundred officers

met with
ruined
suffer
;

their

discharge,

all

of

whom were
punishment.

and many others were condemned to
severer
said to

imprisonment or
of
all

be the Emwas peror's ill-humour; and when the cause of that ill-humour became known, it appeared that his

The cause

this

mistress,

who

detested him, had solicited per-

mission to marry an officer to
betrothed.

whom

she

was

To such

excessive cruelty did his

rage carry him against the author of an epigram,

had been contrasted with his mother's, that he ordered his tongue to be cut out; and sent him to one of those remote islands, in the Aleoutan Tract, on the North-west
in

which

his reign

coast

of

America,

which are

inhabited

by

savages'.

Viewing the career of such men, who,
whirlwind,^

like

a

mark

their

progress through the

ages in which they live by a track of desolation.

(l)

The

following^

is

the

literal sense of

that memorable Epigram.
to finish with hrich-

It originated in the

Emperor Paul's attempting
which

wor;^ the beautiful Church of St. Isaac,
liad

his predecessor

Cathebink

begun

in marhle.

" Of two " Whose

reigns behold the image:

base

is

marble, and

summit

brick!"

PETERSBURG.
can

n
we
read of regisays

we wonder
?

at the stories
is

cides

" There

something,"

Mungo
In the

Park, " in the frown of a tyrant, which rouses
the most inward emotions of the soul."

prospect of dismay, of calamity, and of sorrow,

which mankind might experience
of Paul,

in the reign

we began
we

to feel a true presentiment
;

of his approaching death

and do freely confess,
it,

much

as

abhor the manner of

that

it

was

" a consummation
Devoutly to be wish'd."-

The season be^an to change before we left Petersburg. The cold became daily less intense
<-' "-"

Extraordinary Jr'hse-

;

nomcnon.

and the inhabitants were busied
the

in

moving from

Neva

large blocks of ice nito their cellars.

A most interesting and

remarkable phsenomenon

took place the day before our departure,

—the

thermometer of Fahrenheit indicating only nine
degrees of
point
;

temperature

below

the

freezing

and there was no wind.
in the

At

this time,

snow,
fell

most regular and beautiful
our clothes,

crystals,

gently upon

and upon the

sledge, as

we were

driving through the streets.

All

of

these

crystals

possessed exactly the

same

figure,

and the same dimensions.

Every
with

one of them consisted of a wheel or
six equal rays,
.equal

star,

bounded by circumferences of diameters having all the same number
;

12
size of

PETERSBURG.
of rays branching from a

common
stars

centre.

The
to

each of those

little

was equal

the circle presented
into

by the
in

section of a pea,

two equal
fell

parts. This

appearance continued

during three

hours,

which time no other

snow
to

;

and, as there

was

sufficient leisure

examine them with the

strictest attention,

we

made

the representation given in the

first figure.

Water,

in its crystallization,

seems

to consist

of radii diverging from a

common
it

centre,

by

observing the usual appearances on the surface
of ice
;

perhaps, therefore,

may be

possible

PETERSBURG.
to obtain the theory,

13

and

to ascertain the laws,

from which

this

structure

results \

MongCy
of Paris,

President of the National Institute
noticed, in falling snow,
rays,

stars with six equal

descending,

during winter,

when

the

atmosphere was calm.
his observations

Hauy records
'muriate

this, in

on the

of ammonia^.

The

first drosky^

had made

its

appearance in
left it
;

the streets of Petersburg before

we

and

we began
that the

to

entertain
fail,

serious

apprehensions

snow would

and our sledge-way to

Moscow be
makes
(1)

destroyed.

We

had often been told

of the rapidity with which the
it

warm
;

season

appearance

in this climate

there being

An

equiangular and equilateral plane hexagon
if

is

divisible into

three equal and similar rhombs: and
attentively observed,
it will

the engraved Figure

A

be
is

appear that each linear ray of the star

a diagonal (See Figure B), joining the acute angles of a rhomb, whose
sides are the loci of the

extreme points of the

lines of ramification

from those diagonals.

The rhomb may

therefore be the primitive,

fmm
if

of water crystallized.

This seems the more manifest, because
all

equal and similar rhombs be applied between
in the spaces 1, 3, 3, 4,
5,
;

the rays of the

star A,

and

6,

an

etjuilatcral

and equiline

angular hexagon will be the result
in Figure C.
(2)

as represented

by the dotted

"

II

en resulte des ctoiles a
la

six rayons,

lorsque

le

temps

est
Ics

calme, et que
cristaux."
(3)

temperature n'est pas assez ^lev^e pour dcsformer
torn.
ii.

Hauv, Traitc de Min.
droshy
is

p. 386.

The

a kind of bench upon four wheels, used in Russia
:

as our Hackney-coaches

it

contains four or six persons, sitting hack to

back, thus driven sideways by the coachman,

who

sits

at the end of the

bench

This vehicle succeeds the sledge, after the melting of the snow.

14

PETERSBURG.
hardly any interval of spring,

but an almost

instantaneous transition from winter to summer.

The frozen provisions of sumed by the appointed
putrify

the city,
time,

if

not con-

which may be

generally conjectured to a day, almost instantly

when

the frost disappears.

CHAP. IL
FROM PETERSBURG TO MOSCOW.
tyeparture

from Peierslurg
Expedition

Palace of Tsarskoselo
lings's

— Manner of Travelling — — Gardens —Anecdote of BilNorth-west Coast of America
the

to the

—Ledyard— Barbarous Decoration of Apartments —Arrival Novogorod— Cathedral —Antient Greek Paintings — Manner of imitating them Russia — Greek Church — Virgin Three of — Russian Bogh. Hands— of her Origin
at
in

Superstitions

the

ivith

Stoi-y

W

E

left

Petersburg on the

morning of the
1800.

third of April,

and arrived with great expedi-

tion at Tsarskoselo.

Our

carriage had been
;

Departure

placed upon a traineau or sledge

and another

[^i)„f^"

.K

16
CHAP,
^^-J^
'

FROM PETERSBURG
sledge, following us,
is

conveyed the wheels.

It

proper to describe our

mode

of travelling,
it.

Manner of

that others

may

derive advantage from

If

"^

'

the journey be confined to countries only

where
if

sledges are used, the

common method adopted
always the best
;

by the

inhabitants

is

but

a

passage be desired with ease and- expedition

from one climate

to another,

some contrivance

should secure the traveller from the rigours of
the seasons, without impeding his progress

by
the

superfluous

.

burthen.

For

this

purpose,
is

kind of carriage called a German hdtarde
convenient.

most

A

delineation of one of these is

given in the work of Reichard',
tions

who
it

also

men-

the

expense of building

in

Viennay

where those carriages are made of the money required by the London coachand they answer every purpose of makers
for one-fourth
;

travelling,

full

as

well
is

as

vehicles

made

in

England.

The

hdtarde

nothing more than an

English chariot with a dormeuse, advancing in
front,

and made

sufficiently high to furnish a

commodious seat for two persons on the outWe caused the driver side, upon the springs. in front but it would be to sit upon the trunk better to provide for him a little chair raised for The door of the dormeuse within that purpose.
;

(ij

Guide

lies

Voyageurs

eii

Europe,

torn.

ii.

planchc

1.

TO MOSCOW.
the carriage lets

17
it

down upon

the seat;

contains
^

chap,
y

leathern cushions, and a pillow covered with
thin leather.

»>

The

carriage

has,

imperial, a well, a sword-case

besides, an which may be

converted into a small library, and, instead of a

window behind,

a large lamp, so constructed

as to throw a strong light without dazzling the

eyes of those within.

Thus provided,

a person

may
riage

travel night

and day,

fearless of want, of

accommodation, or houses of repose.
is

His car-

his
;

home,

which accompanies him
he choose to
halt,

everywhere

and

if

or acci-

dents oblige him to stop in the midst of a forest
or a desert, he
or

may

sleep, eat, drink, read, write,
in-

amuse himself with any portable musical

strument, careless of the frosts of the North, or
the dews, the mosquitoes, and vermin of the

South.

Over snowy

regions, he places his house

upon a sledge, and,
its

wheels

;

snow melts, upon being always careful, where wheels
the
in

when

are used for long journeys through hot countries,
to soak

them

water whenever he stops

for

the night.

Setting out from Petersburg for the South of
Russia, the traveller bids adieu to all thoughts

of inns, or even houses with the
saries of bread

common

neces-

and water.
if

He

will not

even

find clean straw,

he should speculate upon
c

VOL.

I.

18

FROM PETERSBURG
the chance of a bed.
>

CHAP,
II.
'i.

Every
.

thiiifir
.

he

mav want

y

must therefore be taken with him. A pewter tea-pot will prove of more importance than a
chest of plate; and more so than one of silver,

because

it

will not

be stolen, and

may be

kept

equally clean and entire.

To

this

he will add,

a kettle

;

a saucepan, the top of which

may be

used

for a dish; tea, sugar,

and a large cheese,

with several loaves of bread

made

into rusks,
will

and as much fresh bread as he thinks
till

keep

he has a chance of procuring more.

Then,

while the frost continues, he
food, such as

may

carry frozen

game

or fish, which, being conflint,

gealed, and as hard as

may jolt about among
any
in

his kettles in the well of the carriage without

chance of injury.
country
;

Wine may be used
in a hot, or

a cold

but never

even

in a

tem-

perate climate,
countries,
if

while upon the road.

In hot

a cask of good vinegar can be pro-

cured, the traveller will often bless the

means
a

by which

it

was

obtained.

When, with
skin,

parched tongue, a dry and feverish

he

has to assuage his burning thirst with the bad
or good water brought to him, the addition of

a

little

vinegar will

make

the draught delicious.
it

Care must be taken not
it

to use

to excess

;

for

is

sometimes so tempting a remedy against
it is

somnolency, that

hardly possible to resist

using the vinegar without any mixture of water.

^

TO MOSCOW.
The
1

19

palace of Tsarshoselo

is

twenty-two versts
'^

chap.
Talace of Tsarsko-

from Petersburg,
1

and

the

only object worth
1

—v—

notice between that city and JSovogorod.
built of brick, plastered over.
is

T*^

7

T

It is

Before the edifice

a large court, surrounded

by low buildings

for the kitchens

and other out-houses.
and
is

The

front of the palace occupies an extent of near

eight hundred feet
in a

;

it

entirely covered,

most barbarous
and
All

taste,

with columns, and
stuck

pilasters,

cariatides,

between the
true style of

windows.

of these, in the

Dutch gingerbread, are gilded. The whole of the building is a compound of what an architect
ought to avoid, rather than to imitate.

Yet so

much money
ticularly

has been spent upon it, and parupon the interior, that it cannot be

passed without notice.
press Elizabeth
;

was built by the Emand was much the residence
It
life,

of Catherine, in the latter part of her

when

her favourites, no longer the objects of a licentious

passion,

were chosen more as adopted

children than as lovers.

In the gardens of this palace, persons,

who

Gardens.

wished

to gain

an audience of the Empress,

were accustomed to place themselves when she descended for her daily walk. A complaint in
her legs caused her to introduce the very expensive alteration of converting the staircase of

e2

;

20
tlie

TSArxSKOSELO.
Herjnitage, at Pelerslmrg, into an
ofFerino-

inclined

plane;

easy descent.

a more commodious and more A similar alteration was intro-

duced
It
Anecdote
of Billings's

at Tsarskoselo.

This conducted her from

the apartments of the palace into the garden.

was

in

one of those walks, as Professor Pallas

aftcrwards informed me, that Commodore Billings *
obtained,
.

Ex.

by a stratagem, her
.

final

order for
coast
oi
r

pedition.

.

his

expedition

to

the

i

•»

North-west

t

i

America. Bezborodko, the Minister, although he had received the Empress's order, put him off from time to time, not choosing to advance
the

money
;

requisite for the different preparaBillings
in

tions

and

began

to fear the plan

would

never be put
his

execution.

In the midst of

despondency, Professor Pallas undertook to
the matter

make

known

to the

Empress, and

advised the
Tsarskoselo.

Commodore to accompany him to As soon as they arrived, Pallas conducted him to a part of the garden which he knew the Empress would frequent at her
usual hour.
before she
affability,

Here they had not waited

long,

made her appearance. With her usual
she entered into conversation wdth
;

Professor Pallas
his health, his

and, after inquiries respecting
officer,

asked the name of the young

companion.
is

The

Professor

informed her

adding, " he

the person

whom

your Majesty

was pleased

to appoint, in

consequence of

my

TSARSKOSELO.
recommendation, to the

2]
of the ex-

command

pedition destined for the North-west coast of

" And what," said the Empress, America." " has delayed his departure ?" " He waits, at
this

moment, your Majesty's orders," rephed the

Professor.

At

this the

Empress, without any
ruffled,

reply,

and evidently somewhat

quick-

ened her pace towards the palace.
Minister, with orders that he should

The next
set

morning the necessary supplies came from the
out

immediately.

That the expedition might have been confided
to

better

hands, the public have been

since informed,

by

the Secretary Sauer\

This

Professor Pallas lamented to have

discovered,

when it was too late. But the loss sustained by any incapacity in the persons employed to
conduct that expedition,
is

not equal to that
recall
said,
Ledyard.

which the public suffered by the sudden
of the

unfortunate Ledyard:

this,

it

is

would never have happened, but through the
jealousy of
his

own countrymen, whom he
as

chanced to
point
of

encounter
the

he was upon the

quitting

Eastern continent for

(l)

See Acccnuit of an

Expedition

to

the Northern

Parts

of

Russia, &c. by Martin Sauer, Secretary to the

Expedition.

4to.

Loud. 1802.

22
CHAP.

TSARSKOSELO.
America, and

who caused

the information to

be sent

to

Petersburg

which occasioned the

order for his arrest.

The gardens
the English taste

of Tsarskoselo are laid out in
;

and therefore the only novelty
is

belonging to them

their

situation,

so

fiar

removed from the nation whose customs they
pretend to represent.

Barbarous Decoration of the
ments.

Tlic iutcrior of thc buildiug presents a
r.

number
up

01

spacious and

gaudy rooms,

iitted

p

i

m

a

stylc Combining a mixture of barbarism and

magnificence hardly to be credited.

The

w^alls

of one of the rooms are entirely covered with
fine pictures,

by the best by other masters. These
the whole

of the Flemish, and are fitted together,

w^ithout frames, so as to cover, on each side,

of the wall,

without the smallest
But,

attention to disposition or general effect.
to

consummate the Vandalism of those who
found a place
the pictures

directed the work, v/hen they

they could not conveniently
v/ere cut,
cidental
in

fill,

order to adapt them to the acleft

spaces
at

vacant.

The

soldiers of

Mummius,

the

sacking of

Corinth,

v/ould

have been puzzled to contrive more ingenious
destruction of the Fine Arts.

best works were

among the

Some of Qstades number of those

;

TSARSKOSELO.
thus ruined.
tliority

23

We

were

also assured,

by au-

we

shall not

venture to name, that a
of

profusion

of

pictures

the

Flemish School

were then lying
the

in a cellar of the palace.

But

most extraordmary apartment,

and that
stransfers

which usually attracts the notice of

more than any other,

is

a room, about thirty

feet square, entirely covered,

on

all sides,

from

top to bottom, with amber;
of innumerable

a lamentable

waste

^ecimens

of a substance which
so
ill

could nowhere have

been

employed.

The
even

effect

produces neither beauty nor magIt

nificence.
in

Avould have been better expended

ornamenting the heads of Turkish pipes

a custom which consumes the greatest quantity
of this beautiful mineral.

by

it

on the walls

is

The appearance made dull and hea^'y. It was
In an

a present from the King of Prussia.

apartment prepared
floor

for

Prince Potemhin^

the

was covered with
hundred

different sorts of exotic

wood, interlaid; the expense of which
to an
roubles for

amounted
of the

every squared archine.

A

profusion of gilding appears in

many

other rooms.

The ball-room is an hundred and forty feet long by fifty- two feet wide, and two stories high. The walls and pilasters of another
apartment were ornamented with
as well as the tables
it

lapis-lazuli,

contained.

The Cabinet

of Mirrors

is

a small room lined with large


24
CHAP,
*

TSARSKOSELO.
pier-glasses, looking
is

upon a

terrace, near

which

r--j

a covered gallery above two hundred and
feet

There are various statues about the house and gardens, in marble and
sixty
long.
in bronze,
all

without merit.

The chapel

is

entirely

of gilded wood, and

very richly or-

namented.

A
which

small flower-garden leads to the bath,
is

ornamented with
.

jasper, agates,

and
is

-statues and columns of marble.
«j^V'

m. kkM^ ^''^"

.

.

also similarly adorned with a
tiful

The number

orotto

of beau-

minerals,

wrought as columns, busts, bas&c.
;

reliefs, vases,

among
the

others, there is a

vase

composed

of

precious

stones

of

Siberia.

From
by

this grotto is

seen a lake, on
to

which appears the
erected
the

rostral

column
in

Orlof;

Empress

honour of the

naval victory he obtained over the Turks at
Tchesme.

After

we left

Tsarskoselo, the

snow diminished

very

fast, and our fears of reaching Moscow upon sledges increased'. But during the night, and part of the morning of the 4th of April,

(l)

The

carriage-road from Petershurg to Moscow, a distance of

near 500 miles, consists, in the
laid across.

summer

season, of the trunks of trees
it

In consequence of the jolting these occasion,

is

then

one

ot the

most painful and tedious journeys

in Europe.

:;

"

NOVOGOROD.
it fell in

25
all

such abundance, that

trace of the

chap.

roads disappeared, and
or twice before

we

lost

our

way once

we

arrived at

NOVOGOROD.
The place was half buried in snow, but we managed to get to the Cathedral, curious to
see the collection of pictures, idols of the
Arrival at

"^^°'°

Greek

Church, which that antient building contains

and which, with many others dispersed in the cities and towns of Russia, were introduced
long before the art of painting
in Itahj.

was

practised

The knowledge

of this circumstance

led us to hope that

we

should

make some very
:

curious acquisitions in the country

and upon

our

first arrival

from the Swedish
to a

frontier,

we

had given a few pounds
for his

Russian

officer

God

;

this

consisted of an oval plate

of copper, on which the figure of a warrior
beautifully

painted on a gold ground.
St.

was The
the

warrior proved afterwards to be
Nevski
:

Alexander

and

as

we advanced

through

country to Petersburg, there was hardly a hut,
or

a post-house, that did not contain one or
paintings

more

the figures

upon small pannels of wood of these were delineated, after the

manner of the earliest specimens of the art, upon a gold ground, and sometimes protected

26
criAP.
'
'

NOVOGOROD.
in froiit

by a

silver coat of mail; leaving only

,

the

faces

and hands

of

the images visible.

A

small attention to the history and character

of the Russians will explain the cause.

Anticnt

Greek
Paintings,

When
f^j-g^;

the relidon of the Greek ~
into

Church was
propagators,

introduccd

Russia,

its

prohibited by the Second

Commandment from

the worship

of carved images, brought with

them the pictures of the Saints, of the Virgin, and the Messiah. Very antient sanctuaries in the Holy Land had paintings of this kind, which
the early Christians

worshipped; as

may be

proved by the remains of them
that country'.

at this time in

To
of

protect these holy symbols

of the
fingers

new
and

faith
lips

from the rude but zealous
its

votaries, in a country

where the arts of multiplying them by imitation were then unknown, they were covered by
plates of the the

most precious metals, which
alone
visible.

left

features

As

soon as the

Messengers of the Gospel died, they became

(1)

In the
earliest

first

edition,

it

The

notice

of

the use of pictures

was erroneously written "first Christians." of is in the Censure

the Council of

Illiferis,

three hundred years after the Christian a?ra.
of the most antient churches in Palestine,

4mon!j the ruins
t"ie

of

some

author found several curious examples of encaustic painting', of a very early date. One of these, from Sepphoris, near Nazareth, is

now

in the

possession of the Principal Librarian of the University

of Cambridge.


NOVOGOROD.
themselves Saints,
their followers.

27
chap.
'
'

and were worshipped by
pictures they had brought
in

The

,

were then suspended
of them, preserved
sidered
racles.

the

churches,
relics.

and
con-

regarded as the most precious

Many

now

in

Russia,

are

as
It

having the power of working mi-

would then necessarily

follow, that,

with

new

required.

preachers, new pictures must be The Russians, characterized at this
r• • •

Manner of
imitating them in

day by a

talent of imitation,

although without

1

1

1

a spark of inventive genius, strictly observed
not only the style of the original painting,
the manner of laying
it

but

on,

and the substance

on which
the

it

was

placed.

Thus we
Bogh a
of
to
;

find,

at

end of the
placing
in

eighteenth century, a

Russian
picture,

peasant

before

his

purchased
Petersburg,

the

markets
similar

Moscow

and

exactly

those brought

from Greece during the
representation

tenth

of

figures

the same stiff which the Greeks

themselves seem to have originally copied from

works

in

Mosaic,

the

same mode of mixing
on a plain gold

and laying
surface,

on

the

colours

same custom of painting upon wood, and the same expensive covering of a
the
silver coat of mail
;

when, from the multitude

and cheapness of such pictures, the precaution at first used to preserve them is no longer
necessary.
In other instances of their religion,

28
CHAP,
"

NOVOGOROD.

i

the copies of sacred relics
'

seem

to

be as much

objects of worship
originals

among

the Russians as the

themselves.

This will appear from
a building, erected at

the description of Moscow. In the neighbourhood

of that city there

is

prodigious expense, in imitation of the Church
of the

Hohj Sepulchre

at

Jerusalem

;

having

exactly the same form, and containing a faithful
representation of the same absurdities.

Cadiedrai.

fhe Cathedral
St. Sophia,

of Novogorod,

dedicated to
to at

in

imitation of the

the magnificent edifice
Constantinople,

name given erected by Justinian
to

was
in

built in the eleventh century.

Many

of the pictures

seem

have been there
finished,

from the time
before
into

which the church was

and doubtless were some of them painted long
its

consecration,

if

they were not brought
the
introduction

the

country with

of

Christianity.

At any

rate,

we may

consider

some of them as having originated from Greece, whence Italy derived a knowledge of the art, and as being anterior to its introduction in
that country.
Little

can be said of the merit

of any of these pictures.

They

are

more

re-

markable
Superstitions of the

for singularity than beauty.

In the
enter,

dome

of a sort of ante-chapel, as ^
.

vou
"^

Greek

are seen the representations of monsters with

many heads

;

and such a strange assemblage

NOVOGOROD.
of imaginary being-s, that
it

29
ciiap.

might be supposed

a Pagan rather than a Christian temple.

The

-y

'

different representations of the Virgin, through-

out Russia, will shew to what a pitch of absurdity superstition has been carried.
all

Almost

of

churches

them are to be found in the principal and the worship of them forms a
;

conspicuous feature
sians.

in

the manners of the Rus-

Some

of those pictures have a greater
:

number

of votaries

but, although they

be

all

objects of adoration, yet they have each of

them

particular places, where, as tutelary deities, th^y

obtain a

more peculiar reverence
small chapels

;

and someof these

times

there are

and churches

dedicated particularly to
representations
:

some one

— such,
;

for

example, as

The
with

Virgin op Vladimir
Bleeding

The Virgin with the
Virgin
of the Universal

Cheek;
!

and The

Three Hands

The authors

History assign this last picture to the church
of the Convetit of the

New

Jerusalem.

It

was
in

perhaps originally painted as a barbarous representation, or symbol, of the Trinity
;

and

that case

it

more properly

applies to another

convent

in

the neighbourhood of Moscow.

The

following

story has, however, been circulated
its

concerning

history.

An

artist,

being employed on a picture of the

V

30
CHAP,
^

NOVOGOROD.
yirgin and Child^ found, one day, that instead
'

V


it''

of two hands which he had driven to the /'7ro-m, o '

''M
'

Three

a third had been added

during his absence

from his work.

Supposing some person to

be playing a trick with him, he rubbed out
the third hand, and, having finished the picture,
carefully locked

the

door

of

his

apartment.

To

his great surprise,

he found the next day

the extraordinary addition of a third hand in
his picture,

as before.
still

He now began
it

to

be

alarmed

;

but

concluding

possible that

some person had gained access to his room, he once more rubbed out the superfluous hand, and not only locked the door, but also barricadoed
the

windows.
as he

The next
had
left

day,

ap-

proaching his laboratory, he found the door

and windows
to his utter

fast,

them

;

but,

dismay and astonishment, as he

went

in,

there appeared the

same remarkable

alteration in his picture, the P^irgin appearing

with three hands regularly disposed about the
Child.

In extreme

trepidation,

he began

to

cross himself, and proceeded once

more
it

to alter

the picture
in person,

;

w hen

the Firgin herself appeared

and bade him forbear, as

was her

pleasure to be so represented.

Many

of these

absurd representations are
angels.

said to be the

work of

In the Greek

NOVOGOROD.
Church they followed the
and have continued
to

31
of Paganism,

idols

maintain their place.

They
sights
is

are

one of the

first

and most curious
;

which attract a

traveller's notice

for

it

not only in their churches that such paintings

are

preserved

;

every room throughout

the

empire has a picture of
small,

this nature, large or
in ^"'^"'"

called the

Bogh, or God, stuck up
every person

one corner':

to this

who
is

enters

offers adoration,

before any salutation

to the master or mistress of the house.

made The
all

adoration
right

consists
in

in

a

quick motion of the
the

hand

crossing;

head bowing

the time in a
that
it

manner so rapid and

ludicrous,

reminds one of those Chinese-Mandarin
which,

images seen upon the chimney-pieces of old
houses,

nodding, for the
children.

when set amusement

a-going,

continue

of old

women and
paintings

In

the

myriads of

idol

dispersed throughout the empire, the subjects

represented are very various

:

and some of

them, owing to their singularity, merit a more
particular
description,

than

can be afforded

without engraved representations.

(l)

The

picture itself
is

is

said to bear the

name

of Obraze

;

but as
il

the Ol»aze
is

considered by every Russian as his Household Gotl, very generally called Bogh, which is the Russian came for God.

CHAP.

III.

NOVOGOROD.
Antient History of Novosorod

— Chirches Russia — Procopius— Evagrius — Baptism ofOlga, afterwards Helena—Arms of Novogorod— Ceremony of Crossing — General Picture of Route— Heights of Valday — Costume— Tumuli—Jedrova— Domestic Manners of Empire— Vyshney State of Peasants — — Tver — Milanese Vagrants — Vbloshok — Torshok Volga — Tumuli — Klin — Petrovsky — Arrival —Accommodations. Moscow —
First

in

this

the

Servile

the

at

Police

CHAP.
III.

1 HE

melancholy ideas excited by the present
felt

Antient History of Novogorod.

appearance of Novogorod have been
travcllers.

by

all

Who

has not heard the

antient

NOVOGOROD.
saying, which prevailed in the days of
its

33
great^

chap.
'

ness^?

Nomade Slavonians were
first

its

founders,

-^

_

about the time that the Saxons, invited by Vortigern,

came

into Britain.

Four centuries

History of ^°^^g*»roA

afterwards, a motley tribe, collected from the ^ original inhabitants of all the watery and sandy
plains around the Finland Gulph,

j,

^^^

made

it

their

metropolis.

Nearly a thousand
Ruric,
at

years

have

passed,

since

the

Norman,

gathering

them together
extend over
Russias
:

the

mouth

of the Folchova,

laid the foundation

of an

empire, destined to
of
all

the

vast

territories

the

afterwards, ascending the river, to the
its

spot where

rapid current rushes from the

Ilmen to the Ladoga Lake, he fixed his residence
in

Novogorod.

In the midst of those intestine divisions which
resulted from the partition of the empire at the

a.d. 1015.

death of

Vladimir,
his

who
sons,

divided
there

his

estates

between

twelve

arose

three

independent princes, and a number of petty
confederacies.

The

seat

of government

was

successively removed from Novogorod, to Suzedal, Vladimir,

and Moscoiu.

Novogorod adopted

a mixed government, partly monarchical, and
partly republican.
In the middle of the thir-

(2)

" Quis CONTRA Deos, et Magnam Novogordiam
I.

?"

VOL.

D

34
CHAP,
in.
A.D, 1250

NOVOGOROD.
teeiith

century,

victories of its

was distingaislied by the Grand Duke, Alexander Nevsky,
it

over the Swedes, on the banks of the Neva;
and,

by

its

remote

situation,

escaped the raIn the
the

vages of the Tahtars in the fourteenth.
fifteenth, it
First,

submitted to the yoke of Ivan

w^hose successor, Ivan the Second, in the

sixteenth,

ravaged

and desolated the place,
the
dignified
its

carrying

away

the Palladium of the city,

famous

bell,

which the inhabitants had

with the appellation of Eternal.

But

ruin

was not

fully
;

accomplished until the building of
all

Petersburg

when

the

commerce

of the Baltic

was

transferred to that capital.

Bodies, miraculously preserved, or rather

mum-

First

Churches
in Russia,

mied, of Saints who were mortal ages ago, are shewn in the Cathedral of St. Sophia. This edifice has been described as one of the most antient in the countiy. The first Russian churches were r ccrtaiuly of wood and their date is not easily Christianity was preached to the ascertained.
.
-i

^

t

;

inhabitants of the

Don so early as the time of That Emperor was zealous in buildJustinian. ing churches among remote and barbarous
According to Procopius, he caused a
of the

people.

church to be erected among the Ahasgi, in

honour
priests

Theotocos^ and

constituted

among them.

The

same author also

relates, that the inhabitants of Tana'is earnestly

NOVOGOROD.
intreated

35
chap.
III.
^•

him

to

send a bishop amono- them, which
Evagrius Scholasticus
'

was accordingly done.
Procopius.

has related this circumstance, as recorded by

But by Tandis is said to be intended the stream which runs out of the Mceotis into
the Euxine
;

that

is

to say,

the Cimmerian Bos-

phorus, or Straits of

Taman.

The

arrival of a

bishop so invited, and under such patronage,

might be followed by the establishment of a church; and it is probable, from existing documents, as well as the traditions of the people,
that this really happened, either on the Asiatic

or the European side of those Straits, about that
time.

The

jurisdiction of the province afterto

wards annexed
included the
Kertchy.
Isle

the

crown of Russia by
Great,

Svetoslaf the First, father of Vladimir the

of Taman, and the Peninsida of In those districts, therefore, we might
first

be allowed to place the
Christian

tabernacles
in

of

worship

;

although,

the

distant

period of their introduction, the foundation of
the Russian Empire
It
is

had scarcely been

laid.

pleasing to bring scattered portions

of

history to bear

upon any one

point; particularly

when, by so doing, the obscurity of some of

them may be

elucidated.

The journey
to

of Olga,

wife of Igor, son of

Ruric,

Constantinople,

(1)

Lib.

iv, c.

23.

D 1

;

NOVOGOROD.
after

avenging the death of her husband upon
" She

the Volga, occurred very early in the annals of
that country.
ivent,''

say the compilers

of the
Baptism of

Modern

Universal History^, "-for what
to Constantinople.''''

veason tve kuow
it is
1^^

iiot,

Yetv^hen
;

thf rakiX
ceiltllry!"'

related, that she

was baptized there ^

that,

consequcncc of her example, many of her

subjects

became converts

to Christianity; that

the Russians, to this day, rank her
Saints,

among

their

and annually commemorate her

festival;

the cause of her journey will hardly admit of a

doubt.

The

result of

it

proves incontestably

the

introduction of Christianity, and the esta-

blishment of churches in Russia, at an earlier
period than
A.D.
991.

is

generally admitted; namely, the

baptism of Fladimir\
(1)
(2)

Vol.

XXXV.

p.,

182.

The Emperor, John

Zimisces, according to
It

some

historians,

was

ber godfather upoii this occasioni

ha» been related, that he be-

came enamoured

of the Scythian Princess,

and proposed marriage

which was refused.

The
;

old lady, notwithstanding, was at that time

in her sixty-sixth year

for she died at the age of eighty,

which hapby
dis-

pened fourteen years after her baptism.
Eastern Emperor's amorous propensities,
surdity.

Collateral annals,

cordant chronology, seem to prove that the whole story, about the
is

founded in error and ab-

Zimisces was not crowned until Christmas-day

A.D. 969.

Ten

years before this period, Helena (which was the

Olga, after her baptism) had sent ambassadors to

name borne by Otho, Emperor of

the West, desiring Missionaries to instruct her people.

A

mission

was consequently undertaken by
into Russia,
(3)

St. Adelhert,

bishop of Magdehurg,

A.D. 962.
place this event four years earlier.

Some authors
is

The present

chronology

that of Du. Fresrwy,

;

NOVOGOROD.
This subject
is

37
chap.
Chrisinto

materially connected with

the history of the Fine Arts; for with
tianity,

the art of painting

was introduced

Russia.

Some
first

of the

most chosen

idols of their

churches are, those curious Grecian pictures

which the

Gospel Missionaries brought with

them from upon them
afford

Constantinople.

The

inscriptions

often exhibit the Greek characters
;

of those times

and the pictures themselves
examples of the
art,

interesting
it

many

centuries before

became known

enlightened nations of Europe.
art

more Nor was the
to the

of painting

alone

introduced with Christhat they

tianity into Russia.

AH

or of any useful and liberal art,
turies afterwards,

knew of letters, for many centhe

was derived from
of the

same

source.

The

inhabitants

South-Sea

Islands can hardly be more savage than were

the Russians,
to them.

when the Gospel was first preached The full accomplishment of this great
till

event certainly did not take place

Vladimir

became converted.
and
it

It

was

a condition of his

marriage with the sister of the Greek Emperor
is

said, that

no less than twenty thou-

sand of his

same day. sure was nothing less than a complete revolution in their manners and in their morals. The Vladimir led the way, by his example.

were christened on the The change effected by this measubjects

^«<0'j:Ce^-JS-

38

NOVOGOROD.
Pagan
'

\— —
y

^^^^*

idols,

and eight hundred
;

concubines,

were dismissed together and the twelve sons, which his six wives had borne unto him, were
baptized
:

churches

and monasteries

brought
civiliza-

around them towns and villages; and
tion

seemed

to

dawn upon

the plains and the

forests of Scythia.

Indeed, a memorial of the

blessed effects of Christianity,

among a people
brute
in

who were
creation,
Arms
of

scarce
to

removed from the
be preserved even

seems

the

Government of Novogorod, the district where it was first established; and the ludicrous manner in which this event is
of the
typified, is consistent

Arms

with the barbarism of the
supporters,
ice,

people.

Two

bears,

are

repre-

sented at an altar upon the

with crucifixes
is

crossed before the Obraze, or Bogh, on which

placed a candelabrum with a

triple lustre,

as an

emblem

of the Trinity \

The

fortress

of Novogorod
It

is

large,

but of
after

wretched appearance.

was constructed

the plan of the Kremlin at Moscow, towards the

end of the
cathedral.
fortress

fifteenth century,

and contains the
leading to this

Upon

the bridge,
is

from the town,

a small sanctuary,
either deposits

where every peasant who passes
(0 See the Vignette

to the preceding Chapter.

NOVOGOROD.
his candle

39
chap.
,.
>

or

his

penny.

Before this place,

which
really

is

filled

with old pictures of the kind

already described, and which a stranger might

mistake

for

a

picture-stall,

devotees,

during the whole day,
crossing themselves.

may be

seen bowing and

A

Russian hardly com-

mits any action without this previous ceremony.
If

he be employed

to

drive your carriage, his

crossing

occupies two minutes

before

he

is

mounted.
is

When
his

he descends, the same motion

repeated. If a church be in view, you see him

at

work with
.S*^.

head and hand, as
If

if

seized

with

Vitus s dance.

he make any earnest

protestation, or enter a room, or go out,

are

entertained

with

the

same

you manual and
time

capital exercise^.

When

beggars return thanks
;

for alms, the operation lasts a longer

and

then between the crossing, by

way

of interlude,

they

generally

make

prostration,

and touch

their foreheads to the earth.

The snow

increased very fast in our road
to

from Novos[orod
common
it
:

Tver

;

but afterwards

we had

(2)

It ^¥as

a

practice

among

the early Christians, towards

the end of the second centun,-.

Tertullian,

who

flourished

A.D. 192,

thus mentions

"Ad omnem

pr()g;ressum atque

promotum, ad

omnem

aditum

et exitum, ad vestitum,

mensas, ad lumina, ad cubilia, ad
jatio exercet,

sedilia,

ad calceatum, ad lavacra, et quaecunque nos conver-

frontem crucis signaculo teriraus."

TaluUian. de Coron. Mil. cap.

3.

40
CHAP,
III.

FROM PETERSBURG
scarcely sufficient for the sledofes, and in
"^

some
than

places the earth

was

bare.
this

The

traveller will

be

readers at
April
6, 7,

more interested in home and he
;

information

will of course

compare
;

the observation with the date of the journey the weather in Russia
irregular
It
is

as

not subject to those

vicissitudes experienced in England.

may

generally be

ascertained

by the Ca-

lendar.

A

notion has

become

prevalent, that the road
is

from Petersburg to Moscow
through forests
;

a

straight
it it

line

perhaps, because

was the

intention of Peter the Great to have

so

made^

The country
fir

is

generally open,

a wide and

fearful prospect of hopeless sterility,

where the

and the

dwarf

birch,

which cover even

Arctic regions, scarcely find existence.
soil is, for

The

the most part, sandy, and of a nature
at defiance.

to

set agriculture

Towards the

latter part of the journey, corn-fields of conside-

rable extent appeared.

What

the
;

summer road
but our pro-

may

be,

we

are unable to say

(l)

When

Jonas

Hanway

(Travels, Vol.

I.

p.i)2.)

passed in 1743,

only one hundred miles had beeti ci:nipleted according to the original plan
5

which was, to make a bridge of timber

for the

whole distance of

four hundred and eighty-seven miles.
miles, according to the calculation

For that space of one hundred

made by him, no

less

than two

millions one hundred thousand trees were required.

TO MOSCOW.
^ress was as devious as possible.
In
soil
all

41
the
v

chap.

province or district of Valday^ the

is

hilly,

-y-/
°*

not to say mountainous

;

so that
itself,

what with

the

^^aS'ay.

undulations of the road

from the heaps

of drifted snow, and the rising and sinking of the country, our motion resembled that of a vessel
rolling in

an Atlantic calm.

Our good

friend

Professor Pallas experienced as

rough a journey

along this route, a few years before.
tions the delay,

He mento

and even the danger,

which
So

he was exposed on the Heights of Valdny ®.
seasons, that in both cases the

precisely similar were the circumstances of the

snow

failed in the

moment

of arrival in Moscow,

The female peasants
costume
that
It consists of

of the Valday have a

Costur.ic.

resembles
a shift with

one
full

in

Sivitzerland.

sleeves,

and a

short petticoat, with coloured stockings.
this^ in winter,

Over

they wear a pelisse of lamb's

wool, as white as the snow around them, lined

with cloth, and adorned with gold buttons and
lace.

The

hair of
is

unmarried women, as

in

most

parts of Russia,

braided, and hangs to a great

length

down

their backs.

On
;

their

heads they

wear a handkerchief of coloured silk. married, the hair is trussed up and this
(3) Travels

When
consti-

through the Southern Provinces, &c. Vol.

I. p. 4.

42
CHAP,
III.
'

FROM PETERSBURG
tutes the

outward mark of a virgin, or of a matron.

Generally speaking, the traveller

may

pass over

a vast extent of territory without noticing

any
is

change

in the

costume.
!

How

very different

the case in Italy

bridge in
a different

where the mere passage of a the same city, as at Naples, leads to mode of dress. The male peasants of
of a sheep's hide, with the wool

Russia are universally habited, in winter, in a

jacket

made

inwards, and a square-crowned red cap with a
circular

edge of black wool round the
bark
of

rim.

These, with a long black beard, sandals
of the the
birch-tree,

made

and woollen

bandages about the
Tumuli.

legs,

complete the dress.
occur
re-

Conical

mounds

of earth,
this

or

tumuli,

very frequently on

road.

The most

markable
Yezolhishy

may be observed
left;

in the stage

between
to

and Valday, on both sides of the road,

but chiefly on the

and they continue

appear from the latter place to Jedrova.

Pro-

fessor Pallas has given a representation of four

of these tumuli, in a Vignette at the beginning of the
first

volume of his
asked.

late

work'.

They
:

are

common
indeed
in
it

all

over the Russian Empire

and

may be

Where

is

the country,
?

which such sepulchral hillocks do not appear

(l)

Travels through the Southern Provinces, &c.

TO MOSCOW.

43
chap.

We had
Petersburg

been pestered the whole way from

by a

bell,

which the driver carried,
;

suspended
it

to his belt

but were not aware that

passed

for

a mark of privilege, until

we

arrived

at Jedrova.

Here we saw a poor fellow cudgelled
because he had presumed

by a

police-officer,

to carry a bell without ^ipoderosnoy-, the title to

such a distinction.

The whole journey from

Petersburg to Moscow

Jedrova.

offers nothing that will strike

a traveller more
It

than the town or village of Jedrova.

consists

of one street, as broad as Piccadilly, formed the gable -ends of

by

wooden
;

huts,

whose

roofs

project far over their bases

and

this street is

terminated by the church.

A

view of one
seldom
such

of these towns will afford the Reader a very
correct idea of
all

the rest, as there

is

any difference
places
found.
holes,

in the

mode

of constructing the

poorer towns of Russia.
is

A

window

in

a mark of distinction, and
in general

seldom ^

The houses

have only small

through which, as you drive by, you

see a head stuck, as in a pillory ^

(2) Tlie

Imperial order for horses.
It serves, as

Those who travel with post-

horses carry a hell.

the horn in Germany, to give notice

to persons on the road to turn out of the

way; such horses

heinjf in

the service of the Crown.
(3) See the Vignette to this Chapter.

44

FROM PETERSBURG
Upon some
of the

women we

observed such

stockings as the Tirolese wear; covering only
the lower part of the leg, about the ancle, with

a sort of cyUnder formed by spiral hoops of
wool.

The

forests, for the
;

most

part, consist of
in

poor
is

stunted trees

and the road,

summer,

described as the most abominable that can be
passed.
It is

then formed by whole trunks of

trees, laid across, parallel to

each other
as

;

which

occasion

such violent

jolting,

the wheels
it

'move from one
or to

to the other, that

cannot be

borne without beds placed for the traveller to
sit
lie

upon.

Domestic

Manners of
tiie

Pea-

a very interestino^ peep into the o x i J ^ mauucrs of thc peasantry. For this we were
jj^d

\ye

gants.

indebted to the
Poschol.

breaking of our

sledge

at

ing

The woman of the house was prepara dinner for the members of her family^ who

TO MOSCOW.
were
s:one to church. °
It

45
chap.
III.

consisted only of a

Presently her husband, a mess of pottage. boor, came in, attended by his daughters, with

some small loaves of white bread not larger than a pigeon's egg these the priest had consecrated, and they placed them with great care Then the bowing and crossbefore the bogh'.
:

ing

commenced and they began
;

their dinner, all

eating out of the

same bowl.
as

Dinner ended,
if

they went

regularly to bed,

to pass the

night there, crossing and bowing

as

before.

Having
served,

slept about an hour, one of the
to a

young

women, according

custom constantly oband presented him
rose

called her father,

with a pot of vinegar, or Quass, the Russian
beverage*.
fit

The man then

;

and a complete
to seize him,

of crossing and

bowing seemed
it

with interludes so inexpressibly characteristic

and ludicrous, that
serve gravity.
grunting

was very

difficult to

pre-

The pauses

of scratching and

—the

apostrophes to his wife, to him-t

(1)

This practice of placing an offering of bread from the Temple

before the Household God, was an antient Heathen custom.
(2) It
till
is

made by mixing
It

flour

and water together, and leaving

it

the acetous fermentation has taken place.
looks turbid, and of
its
it

The
is
;

flavour

is

like that

of vinegar and water. strangers
;

verj'

unpleasant to

but, by use,

we became fond
is

and

in the houses of

Nobles,

where attention
is

paid

to

brewing,

this

acidulous

beverage

esteemed a delicacy, especially during summer.

46
CHAP,
in.
self,

FROM PETERSBURG
God were such as drunken Barnaby might have expressed m Latin, but cannot be told in English.
and
to his
.
.

.

Servile State of
tlie

The
t

picturc of Russian manners varies Uttle
r
i

Empire.

With rcierencc to the Prince or the peasant.

t-«

i

The

first

nobleman

in the

empire,

when

dis-

missed by his Sovereign from attendance upon
his person, or

withdrawing

to his estate in con-

sequence of dissipation and debt, betakes himself to a

brutes.

mode of Hfe You will then

Uttle superior to

that of

find him, throughout the

day, with his neck bare, his beard lengthened,
his

body wrapped

in a sheep's skin, eating

raw

turnips,

and drinking

quass; sleeping

one half

of the day, and growling at his wife and family

the other.

The same

feelings, the

same wants,

wishes, and gratifications, then characterize the nobleman and the peasant; and the same system of tyranny, extending from the throne down-

wards, through
tions

all

the bearings and ramifica-

of society,

even to the cottage of the

lowest boor, has entirely extinguished every

spark of liberality in the breasts of a people

composed entirely of slaves. high and low, rich and poor, superiors; haughty and cruel
barbarous, dirty,

They

are

all,

alike servile to
to their depen-

dants; ignorant, superstitious, cunning, brutal,

mean.

The Emperor canes

TO MOSCOW.
the
first

47
wives

of his

grandees'; princes and nobles
;

cane their slaves

and the

slaves, their

and daughters.
flagellation

Ere the sun dawns
;

in Russia,
its

begins

and throughout

vast

empire, cudgels are going, in every department
of
its

population, from morning until night.

V'yskney

Voloshok

is

a place of considerable

Vyshney

importance, remarkable for the extensive canals

on which the great inland navigation of Russia
is

carried on.

A

junction has been formed
uniting,

between the Tvertza and the Msta,
a navigable channel of at least
versts, the

by

five

thousand
Per-

Caspian with the Baltic Sea".
is

haps there
inland

not in the world an example of
so
extensive,

navigation

obtained

by
and

ai'tificial

means, and with so
is

little its

labour; for

the Volga

navigable almost to
is

source

;

three versts, at the utmost,

all

the distance

(1)

An

officer chastised

by the Emperor Paul, upon the Parade at

Peterahurg, retired to his apartment and shot himself.

By

this it
is

should appear, that such ignominy from the hand of an Emperor

not common.
the beard
a Prince
:

Peter the Great, however, used to take his Boyars by and all Petersburg knows that Potenikin boxed the ears of
to applaud one of his jokes
*'

who presumed
" IVhat,"

by clapping the

hands

:

said he,

m'screant

!

do you take

me for a

stage-

player ? "
(2) See the
.V/>/>«?«rf<.c,

for a full ace unit of all the Internal

Navi-

gation

oj

Russia.

Ihis valuable documeut uas communicated to the

author, since the publication of the First Edition, by Robert Comer,

Esq. a British Officer at Malta.

;

48
CHAP,
^

FROM PETERSBURG
that has
canal.

been

cut

through^

in

forming the
of

The merchandize
Above
full

of Astracan, and
is

other parts of the South of Russia,
this place.

brought to

four thousand vessels pass

the canal annually.
is called,
is

The town,

or village, as

it

of buildings and shops.

It is

spacious, and wears a stately thriving appear-

ance;

forming a striking

contrast

with

the

miserable villages along this road.

At the

different stations

which occur

in the

route from Petersburg to Moscow, are buildings

appropriated to the Emperor's use,
passes.
reign.

when he

This rarely happens above once in a

As

there

is

hardly any place of accom-

modation
pose

for travellers,

no harm would happen

to the buildings if they
;

were used
the

for this pur-

neither

would

national

character

suffer

by such

hospitality.

Of course we allude

to
for

changes that

may

take place in better times

when we

traversed the country, kindness to

a stranger, and especially to an Englishman,

was

a crime of the

first

magnitude, and might
Siberia.
It is

prove the cause of a journey to
justice to

but

make

this

apology for the conduct of

those under the immediate eye of Government.

Tfirshok.

From

VyshneTj Voloshok

we come

to

Torshok^
for

seventy-one versts distant, remarkable

a

;

TO MOSCOW.
spring", superstitiously

49

venerated, and attracting*

pilgrims from

all

parts.
:

This town has no less

than twenty churches
of stone.
It is in

some of which are

built

a thriving condition.

At Tver, sixty-three versts farther, there is a decent inn. A shop is also annexed to it, as it

Tver.

more northern parts of Europe. This shop is kept by Italians, natives of the Milanese territory, a vag^rant tribe, whose ^ J^ industry and enterprise carry them from the Lake of Como to the remotest regions of the earth.
sometimes happens
in

Milanese Vagrants,

They They

are seen in

all

countries

;

even

in Lapland.

generally carry a large basket, covered
oil-skin,

with an

containing

cheap

coloured

prints, mirrors,

thermometers, and barometers

being, for the

most

part,

men

of ingenuity, of

uncommon
collect,

perseverance, industry, and honesty.

Living with the most scrupulous economy, they
after

many

years of wandering, their

hard earnings, and with these they return to
settle in the

land of their fathers, sending out an

offspring as vagrant as themselves.

At

Ti;er

we beheld the
interest;
ice,"

Volga, and not without
for

Votga,

considerable

though

bound

in

" thick-ribbed

and covered with snow, the
mighty waters, navigable
ro]]in£:

consciousness of

its

almost to their source,
VOL.
I.

throuoh a course

E

50

FROM PETERSBURG
of four thousand versts in extent, bearing wealth

and plenty,
tions.
It

is

one of the most pleasing

reflec-

seemed

to connect us with the Cas-

pian,
little

and the remote

tribes of those nations, so
its

known, who

dwell upon

shores.

The

situation of Tver,
is

upon the
It

lofty

banks

of the Fblga,

very grand.
its

has a number

of stone buildings; and

shops, as well as

churches, merit particular regard.
of the Volga and the Tvertza of Millions.
is

The junction
near the Street

Pallas speaks of the delicious sterlet

taken from the Volga, with which travellers are
regaled in this town, at
all

seasons of the year.

The journey from Tver
winter, with a khahitka \
is

to Moscoiu

in

the

performed

in fifteen

hours.

The

road

is

broad, and

more

straight

than in the former route from Petershvrg.
in

But

certain seasons, such as those
it

of melting

snow,

is

almost impassable.

In the second

stage from Tver, between the sixth and seventh versts from the post-house, on the left hand,

appeared
Tumuli.

an

entire

group

of

those

antient

Tumuli before mentioned.

They

are so perfect

(l) Thti khabitka

is

the old Soythian waggon.
otf,

In some parts of
tent.

Tahtary, the top takes

and at night becomes a
to the tents of the
call kkabitka.

Hence the

name given by the Russians
Tahtars
;

Calmucks and Naghux-

both of which they

TO MOSCOW.
in their forms,

51
•^

and so remarkably

situate, that

chap.
III.

they cannot escape notice.
learn of the peasants
if

We endeavoured to

they had any tradition

concerning them.

All the information they gave
all

us was, that they were constructed beyond

memory, and were believed

to contain bodies of
less reasonable,

men

slain in battle.

A notion
that

although

common

to countries
is,

widely distant

from each other,
Cambridge,

such mounds are
as the

the tombs of giants.

Thus, on the Hills near

two

are

shewn

Tombs

of

Gog and Magog, whence the name given to the eminence where they are situate. The

Tomb of
by

Tityusy the
in the

most antient of
is

all

those

mentioned

History of Greece,

described

Horner^, as a

mound of

earth raised over the
fell,

spot on which that giant
the Gods.

warring against

Eighty-three versts from Tver
small settlement between two

we came
hills
:

to a
is

KUn.

this

marked

in the
It

Russian

Map
it,

as

a town, and

called Klin.

hardly merits such distinction.

On

the right, as

we

left

appeared one of

those houses constructed for the accommodation
of the Empress Catherine, on her journey to the Crimea.
(2)

Pausanias saw

it

in Phocis,

at the

base of Parnassus, twenty

stadia

from Chccronea.

E 2

52
HAP.
J

MOSCOW.
The
the
rising

.

towers

and spires of Moscow

greeted our eyes six versts before
city.
;

we reached
is

The country around

it

flat

and

open

and the town, spreading over an immense

district, equals,

by its majestic appearance, that oi Rome, when viewed at an equal distance. As we approached the barrier of Moscow, we
bchcld, ou the
built of brick.
left,

Palace of

the large palace of Petrovshy,

It

wears an appearance of great

magnificence, though the style of architecture
is

cumbrous and heavy.

It

was erected
the

for

the accommodation of the Russian Sovereigns,

during their visits to Moscoiu

;

inhabitants

of which city pretend that none of

them durst

take up a lodging within

its

walls, being kept

much more
are at

in

awe

of their subjects than they
It
is

Petersburg.
to

said

the

Empress
her
littk

Catherine used
haughty republic'.

call

Moscow
is

This palace

about four

versts from the city.

Arrival at

Arriving at the barrier,

we were some
city, like

time

Moscow-

detained during the examination of our passports.

This entrance to the
is

most of

the others,

a gate with two columns, one on

(l)
Jl

''

lis

ne m'aiment pas beaucoup,

((lit

file ;)

—je

ne suis point

la

mode

a Moscou."
Lett, et Pens,

du Prince de

L'igne, tome

i.

p.

Hfa".

/

MOSCOW.
each
is

53

side,

surmounted by

the guard-house.

... Within

eaolcs'^.

On the

left
v

chap.
in. ,y,,—

this gate a

number

of slaves were employed, removing the

mud

from the streets, which had been caused by
the melting of the snow.
khahitkas, in great

Peasants with their

numbers, were leaving the

town.

Into these vehicles the slaves

amused

themselves by heaping as

much

of the

mud

as

they could collect, unperceived by the drivers,

who

sat

in

front.

The

officer

appointed to

superintend their labour chanced to arrive and
detect them in their filthy work, and

we hoped
His

he would instantly have prohibited such an
insult

from being offered to the poor men.

conduct, however, only served to afford another
trait of the national character.

Instead of pre-

venting any further attack upon the khatiikas,

he seemed highly entertained by the ingenuity
of the contrivance
;

and, to encourage the sport,
halt,

ordered every peasant to
horse, while they filled

and

to hold his

his khabitka with the
;

mud and
it

ordure of the streets
of the

covering with

the provisions

poor peasants, and

whatever else
wives and

their

khahitkas

might contain,
complete their
each

with which they were going peaceably to their
families.

At

last,

to

scandalous oppression,

they

compelled

(2)

See the Vignette

to

Chap. V. of this Volume.

54
peasant,
J

MOSCOW.
as

he passed,

to

sit

clown

in

his

khabitka,

and then they covered him also with

At this unexampled instance of cruelty and insult, some of the peasants, more spirited than the rest, ventured to murmur. Instantly, blows, with a heavy cudgel, on the head and shoulders,
silenced the poor wretches' complaints.
this

the black and stinking mud.

Before

began, the two sentinels at the gate had
it

stopped every khabitka, as

passed, with a
a

very

different

motive.

First,

loud

and

menacing tone of voice seemed
order of Government
silenced,
;

to indicate
it

some

but

was quickly
in

and became a whisper,

consequence

of a small piece of
their

hands by the

money being slipped into peasants when they passed
;

on without further notice.

If the practice con^

tinues, the post of sentinel at a Russian barrier

must be more
officer

profitable than that of a staff-

in the service.
fifty

We

were witness

to

upwards of

extorted contributions of this

nature, in the course of half an hour,

when

the

plunder ended as has been described.

A miserable

whiskered figure on horseback,

intended for a dragoon, was

now
;

appointed to

conduct us to the Commandant's
poderosnoy, together with

and here our

our other passports,

underwent a second examination.

The snow

MOSCOW.
was by
this

55
and the

time entirely melted;

sledge upon which our carriage

moved was
gave

dragged over the stones by

six horses, with so

much
it

difficulty,

that

at last the drivers

up, and declared the carriage
if

would break,

we compelled them to The dragoon said we must take advance. every thing, exactly as we arrived, to the
or the horses drop,

Commandant's;
carriage.

and

proceed

sitting

in

the

At the same time he threatened the peasants with a flagellation; and giving one of them a blow over his loins, bade him halt Another effort was of course at his peril.
made, and the sledge flew
to pieces.
It

was

highly amusing to observe the dilemma into

which the dragoon was now thrown

;

as it was not

probable either his menaces or his blows would
again put the carriage in motion.

A

drosky

was procured, on which we were ordered to sit; and thus we proceeded to the CommanFrom the Commandant we were next dant.
ordered to the Intendant of the Police
all
:

and

this did not

save us from the visits and

the

insolence

of

two or three

idle

officers,

lounging about as spies,

who

entered our apart-

ments, examined every thing

we

had, and asked

a number of frivolous and impertinent questions,

with a view to extort money.
found their

Some

of them

way even

into our bed-rooms,

when

5^

MOSCOW.

we were

absent, and gave our servant sufficient
to

employment

prevent them from indulging
;

a strong national tendency to pilfer

a species

of larceny which actually took place afterwards,

committed by persons much
in rank.

their

superiors

The accommodations for travellers are beyond
description bad, both in Petersburg and in Moscow.

In the latter, nothing but necessity

would

render them sufferable.
are

Three roubles a day
room, or rather a

demanded

for a single

kennel, in which an Englishman
to

would blush
floor

keep his dogs.

The

dirt

on the
destitute

may

be removed only with an iron hoe, or a shovel.

These places are

entirely

of beds.

They

consist of bare walls, with

two or three and
still

old stuffed chairs, ragged, rickety,

full

of

vermin.

The

walls themselves are

more

disgusting,

as the Russians cover
filth.

them with

the

most abominable

In thus giving the result of impressions

made
the

on entering
empu'e

this

remarkable
first

city,

we might
in
;

appeal to some of the

families

for the veracity of the
liberality

statement

but
un-

such a test of their
affect

would materially
therefore

their

safety.

We

shall

reservedly proceed to

relate

what we have

MOSCOW.
seen, in that confidence

i>/

which a due regard
Moscoiu contains

to
,

chap.

truth will always inspire.

much
for

worth notice; much that
the
fatigue
thither

may compensate
in

and privation required
the
its

going
the
of

for

filthiness

of

its

hotels,

profligacy
its police.

of

nobles,

and the

villainy

CHAP,

IV.

MOSCOW.
Peculiarities

— Impressions made on a Arrival — Russian] Hotel — Persian, Kirgisian, and — Bucharian Ambassadors — Fasts and Ceremonies observed Easter— Palm Sunday — Holy Thursday—Magnificent Ceremony of — Excesses of Populace — Presentation of Peasants— Ball of Paschal Eggs— Ball of — Nobles Incident of Caprice Dress.
of Climate
first

Festivals

at

the Resiirrectiou
the the

the

the

Characteristic

in

CHAP.
IV.
' ,

J-

HERE

is

nothing more extraordinary in this

Peculiarities

country than the transition of the seasons.
people of

The

of Climate.

Moscow have no

spring:

Winter

;

MOSCOW.
vanishes,

59
is

and summer

is !

This

not the work
;

of a week, or a day, but of one instant

and the

manner of
Petersburg

it

exceeds behef.
Moscoiu in

We

to

sledges.

came from The next

snow was gone. On the eighth of April, at mid-day, snow beat in at our carriage windows. On the same day, at sun-set, arriving in Moscow, we had difficulty in being dragged
day,

through the

mud

to the

Commandant's.

The

next morning the streets were dry, the double

windows had been removed from

the houses,

the casements thrown open, all the carriages were upon wheels, and the balconies filled with spectators. A few days afterwards, we expe-

rienced 73" of heat,
of Fahrenheit,

according to
the

the scale

when

thermometer

was

placed in the shade at noon.

We
which
Moscow

arrived at the
this city is
is in

season of the year in
to strangers,
;

impres.
on a fim
""^""^^
*

most interesting

every thing extraordinary

as well
it

in disappointing expectation, as in surpassing in causing

wonder and

derision, pleasure

and

regret.

Let the Reader be conducted back

again to the gate

tlience through the streets.
glittering

by which we entered, and Numerous spires, with gold, amidst burnished domes

and painted palaces, appear in the midst of an open plain, for several versts before you reach

60
CHAP,
tliis

MOSCOW.
Having passed, you look about, and wonder what is become of the city, or where you are and are ready to ask, once more, How
gate.
;

far is
is

it

to

Moscow

?

They

will tell you, "

This

Mosco2v

.^"

and you behold nothing but a wide
pig-sties,

and scattered suburb, huts, gardens,
yards, warehouses, and a refuse, as
materials sufficient
to

brick walls, churches, dunghills, palaces, timberit

were, of

stock

an empire with

miserable towns and miserable villages.

One

all the States of Europe and had sent a building, by way of represenAsia tative to Moscow : and under this impression

might imagine

tlie

eye

is

presented

with deputies from
:

all

countries, holding congress

timber-huts from
plastered palaces

regions beyond the Arctic

;

from Sweden and Denmark, not white-washed
since their arrival;
;

painted walls from
;

the

Tirol mosques from Constantinople
temples from

Tahtar

Buck aria; pagodas,
and public

pavilions,

and virandas, from China; cabarets from Spain;
dungeons,
prisons,
offices,

from

France; architectural ruins from Rome; terraces and trellisses from Naples; and warehouses from Wapping.
its immense popuyou wander through deserted streets. Passing suddenly towards the quarter where

Having heard accounts of

lation,

'

MOSCOW.
the shops are situate,

61
chap.

you might walk upon

the heads of thousands.

The

daily throng

is

*—s

there so immense, that, unable to force a passage

through

it,

or assign

any motive that might
always the same.

convene such a multitude, you ask the cause,

and are
the

told that

it is

Nor

is

costume
:

less various than

the aspect of

the buildings
sacks,

Greeks, Turks, Tahtars, Cos-

Chinese,
Poles,

Muscovites, English, French,

Italians,

Germans,

all

parade

in

the

habits of their respective countries.

We
was

were

in

a Russian inn;

a complete epito ours
suite,

UusvKin
,tcl.

tome of the
filled

city itself.

The next room

by an ambassador, and
In a
oi

his

from Persia.

chamber beyond the

Persians,

ivrsian,

Kirgisian,

lodged a party

Kirgisians; a people yet un-

amiBuchabalsadors.

known, and any of
in a cage,

whom

might be exhibited

some newly-discovered species. They had bald heads, covered by conical embroidered caps, and wore sheep-skins. Beyond
as

the

Kirgisians

lodged a nidus of Buchariansy
All these

wild as the asses of Numidia.

were
exto

ambassadors from their different
tremely jealous of each other,
Petersburg, to treat of

districts,

who had been

commerce, peace, and
our chambers opened
so that sometimes

war.

The doors

of

all
;

into one
all

gloomy passage

we

encountered, and formed a curious masque-

62
CHAP.
rade.
at

MOSCOW.
The
Kirgisians and
;

Buchanans were best
exchanged
visits

arm's length

but the worthy old Persian,
Orazai, often

whose name was
with us.
the custom

He brought
of his

us presents, according to
;

country

and was much

pleased with an English pocket-knife

we had

given him, with which he said he should shave
his head.

At

his devotions,

he stood

silent for

an hour together, on two small carpets, barefooted, with his face

towards Mecca

;

holding,

as he said, intellectual converse with

Mohammed.

Orazai came from Tarky, near Derhent, on the

western shore of the Caspian.

He had

with

his nephew, and a Cossack interpreter from Mount Caucasus. His beard and whiskers were long and grey, though his eye-brows and eyes were black. On his head he wore a large cap

him

of fine black wool.
silk,

His dress was a jacket of

over which was thrown a large loose robe

same materials, edged with gold. His fe€t were covered with yellow Morocco slippers, which were without soles, and fitted
of the
like

gloves.

All his
;

suite joined

in

prayer,
conti-

morning and evening

tut the old

man

nued

his devotions long after

he had dismissed

his attendants.

Their poignards were of such

excellent steel, that our English swords

were

absolutely

cut

by them.

Imitations of these

MOSCOW.
poiofnards are sold in Moscow, but of worse ^ " materials than the swords from England. When

63
chap.
IV.

they

sit,

which they generally do during the
their feet bare.

whole day, they have

Orazai

was very desirous
Taking
ting

that

we

should visit Persia.
it

out a reed,

and holding

in his left
left,

hand, he began to write from right to

put-

down our names, and noting the information we gave him of England. Afterwards he wrote his own name, in fair Persian characters, and gave it to us, as a memorial by which to recognise us if we ever should visit
Persia.

Upon

the journey, they both purchased and

sold slaves.

He

offered an Indian negro,

who

acted as his cook, for twelve hundred roubles.

An amusing embarrassment took place whenever a little dog belonging to us found his way into
the ambassador's room.
diately

The

Persians

imme-

drew up
their

their feet,

and hastily caught
as far back as

up

all

clothes,

retiring

possible

They told us, upon their couches. that if a dog touch even the skirt of their clothing, they are thereby defiled, and cannot
say their prayers without changing every thing,

and

undergoing

complete purification.

His

slaves sometimes played the balalaika, or guitar

with two strings.

The

airs

were

vei-y lively.

64
CHAP
aftcl

MOSCOW.
not unlike our English hornpipe.

The

ambassador's nephew obliged us by exhibiting
a Persian dance
;

which seemed
the

to consist of

keeping the feet close together, hardly ever
lifting

them
to

from

ground, and moving

slowly,

quick measure, round the room.
healths as

They drink
which
is

we

do;

and eat with
one dish,
they eat
If

their fingers, like -the jirahs, all out of

generally of boiled rice.

meat, it is rarely any other than mutton, stewed into soup. The young man drank of the Russian

beverage called hydromel, a kind of mead
sometimes, but rarely, he
surprised us, as the custom
in

;

and

smoked
pipe
is

tobacco.
;

The ambassador never used a
the East.

which

almost universal

Their kindness to their slaves was
:

that of parents to children pearing, like
father of
all

the old

another Abraham, the

man apcommon

his attendants.

interpreter, a Cossack of
rich.
It

The dress of their the Volga, was very
both with-

consisted of a jacket of purple cloth

lined with silk,

and a
a rich

silk waistcoat,

out buttons;

shawl round his waist;
;

large trowseTs of scarlet cloth
licent sabre.

and a magni-

Ambassadors of other more
drove
into

Oriental hordes

the court-yard

of

the

inn,

from

Fetersi'ia-g.

The Emperor had presented each

MOSCOW.
of

65

them with a barouche. Nothmg could be chap. more ludicrous than was their appearance. '^—% Out of respect to the sovereign, they had maintained a painful struggle to preserve a sitting

'

posture

in

the carriage, but cross-legged, like

Turks.

The snow having melted, they had
in this

been jolted
trees,

posture over the trunks of

which form a timber causeway between
;

Petersburg and Moscoiv

so that,

when taken

from their fine new move, and made the most pitiable grimaces imaginable. A few days after their arrival at
Moscow, they ordered
sold,
offer.
all their

carriages, they could hardly

carriages to be

for

whatever

sum any person would

It

is

now

time to take

leave of our Ori-

ental friends
ffive

and fellow-lodgers, that we may

an account of the ceremonies of Easter.
of Moscoiv celebrate the

The people
the rest of

a degree of

pomp and festivity The most Europe.

Pa que with unknown to
costliness

splendid pa-

geants of

Rome do not equal

the

and splendour of the Russian Church.
rival, in

Neither

could Venice, in the midst of her Carnival, ever

debauchery and superstition,

in licenthis

tiousness and parade,

what passes during
P

season in Moscow.
VOL.
I.

66
CHAP.
<

MOSCOW.
It
,/

should

first

be mentioned, there are no
Lent with more scrupulous

IV. .,-

people

who observe

nierX"
SalLt.''''

a-nd excessive rigour than the Russians.

Traif

veiling the road
at

from Petersburg to Moscow,
starving,

any time,

in

poor cottages, where the pea-

sants appeared

we

offered

them a
dashing

part of our dinner, they would shudder at the
sight of
it,

and cast

it

to the

dogs

;

out of their children's hands, as an abomination,

any food given to them; and removing every particle that might be left, entirely from
In drinking tea with a Cossack, he

their sight.

not only refused to have milk in his cup, but

would not use a spoon that had been in the tea offered him with milk, although wiped carefully in a napkin, until it had passed through scalding water. The same privation takes
place

among

the higher ranks

;

but, in propor-

tion as this rigour has

been observed, so much
the degree of gluttony
intelligence

the

more excessive
*'

is

and relaxation, when the important
that
Christ
is

risen''

has issued from

the

mouth of

the archbishop.

During Easter they
if rioting,

run into every kind of excess, rolling about

drunk the whole week
ery,

;

as

debauch-

extravagance,

gambling,

drinking,

and

fornication,

were as much a

religious obser;

vance as starving had been before

and that the

'

MOSCOW.
same
to the

67

superstition

which

kept

them

fasting

ciiap.

during Lent, had afterwards instigated

them

^—

v

most beastly excesses.
their reUgious

Even

customs are perfectly

adapted to their climate and manners.
thing can be

No-

contrived with more ingenious

policy to suit the habits of the Russians.

When

Lent fasting begins, their stock of frozen provisions
is

either exhausted, or unfit for use;
suffi-

and the interval that takes place allows
cient time for procuring, killing,

and

storing,

the fresh provisions of the Spring.

The

night

before the famous ceremony of the Resurrection,
all

the markets and shops of Moscoiv are seen

filled

with

flesh,

butter,
food.

eggs,

poultry,

pigs,

and every kind of
chasers
is

The crowd

of pur-

immense.

You
;

hardly meet a foot-

passenger
filled
is

who has

not his hands, nay his arms,
or a single droshy that

with provisions

not

ready to break down beneath their

weight.

The
Jleuries,

first

ceremony which took
feasting,

place, pre- Paim

Sim-

vious to

all this

was

that of the Paque
this

or Palm Sunday. On the eve of day the inhabitants of Moscoiv resort, in

car-

riages,
for the

on horseback, or on
F 2

foot, to

the Kremlin,

purchase of palm-branches, to place

68

MOSCOW.
before their Boghs, and to decorate the sacred
pictures in the streets, or

elsewhere.

It

is

one of the gayest promenades of the year.

The Governor, attended by
in procession,

the Maitre de Police,

the Commandant, and a train of nobiUty, go

momited on

fine horses.
;

The

streets are lined with spectators

and cavalry

are stationed on each side, to preserve order.

Arriving in the KremVm, a vast assembly, bearing
artificial

bouquets

and

boughs, are

seen

moving here and

there, forming the novel

and

striking spectacle of a

gay and moving

forest.

The boughs
fruit.

consist of artificial flowers, with

Beautiful representations of oranges and
in

lemons

wax

are sold for a few copeeks each,

and
this

offer

a proof of the surprising ingenuity

of this people in the arts of imitation.
occasion,

Upon
the

every person

who

visits

Kremlin, and would be thought a true Christian,

purchases one or more of the boughs called
Palm-hranclies
;

and,

in

returning, the

streets

are

crowded with

droshies,

and

all

kinds of

vehicles, filled with devotees, holding in their

hands one or more palm-hranches, according to
the degree of their piety, or the

number of

Boghs

in their houses.

The

description

often
in

given of the splen-

dour of the equipages

Moscow but

ill

agrees

MOSCOW.
with their appearance during Lent.

QQ

A

stranger,
v

chap.
^j

who

arrives with his

head
narrow

full

of notions of

Asiatic

pomp and

Eastern magnificence, would
streets,

be surprised

to find

execrably

paved, covered with

mud

or dust;

wretched-

looking houses on each side; carriages drawn,
it is

true,

by

six horses,

but such cattle
all

!

blind,

lame, old, out of condition, of
colours,

sizes

and

all

connected

by rotten ropes and old
;

cords, full of knots and splices

on the leaders,
to

and on the box, figures that seem
escaped the galleys
;

have

behind, a lousy, ragged

lackey, or perhaps two, with countenances exciting

more

pity than derision

;

and the carriage
as

itself like

the worst of

the nidit-coaches in

London.
far as
it

But

this

external wretchedness,

concerns the equipages of the nobles,

admits of some explanation.

The

fact

is,

that

a dirty tattered livery, a rotten harness,
horses,

bad

and a shabby

vehicle,

constitute one

part of the privation of the season.

On

Easter

Mondaij the most gaudy but fantastic splendour
fills

every street in the

city.

The second grand ceremony

of this season Ma.mday
'^'''''^^^^

takes place on T/mrsdai/ before Easter, at noon,

when

the archbishop

is

said to

wash the

feet

of the jlpostles.

This

we

also witnessed.

The

priests appeared in their

most gorgeous apparel.

70
CHAP.
'

MOSCOW.
Twelve monks, designed to represent the ttvelve Apostles, were placed in a semicircle before The ceremony was performed the archbishop. in the cathedral, which was crowded with
spectators.

The

archbishop,
is

performing

all

and much more than
his robes, girded

related of our Saviour

in the thirteenth chapter of St. John, took off

up

his loins with a towel,

and

proceeded to wash
until

the feet of

all

the monks,

he came to the representative of Peter,
rose and stood up
;

who

and the same

inter-

locution passed, between

him and the archbishop,

which

is

recorded to have taken place between

our Saviour and the apostle.

Ceremony
of the Resurrection.

The
of
all,

third,
is

aud most magnificent ceremony
It is

Celebrated two hours after midnight,
called

in the

morning of Easter Sunday.

the Ceremony of the Resurrection, and certainly

exceeds every thing of the kind at Rome

;

not

even excepting the Papal
holy week.

benediction,

during the

At midnight, the great bell tolled. Its vibrations seemed
of distant thunder;

of the cathedral
to

be the roUino;

and they were instantly
all

accompanied by the noise of
Moscow.
the

the bells in
stirring,

Every inhabitant
of carriages in

w^as

and

rattling

the

streets

was

MOSCOW.
greater than at noon-day.
in a blaze
;

71
city

The whole
in all the

was

chap.

lights

were seen

windows,

and innumerable torches
foundation to
takes place in
cross.

in the streets.

The
its

tower of the cathedral was
its
all

illuminated from

The same ceremony
;

the churches

truly surprising, considering their

what is number, they
and,

are

all

equally crowded.

We

hastened to the cathedral

:

it

was

filled
all

with a prodigious assembly, consisting of

ranks of both sexes, bearing lighted
to

wax

tapers,

be afterwards heaped as vows upon the

different shrines.

The

walls, the ceilings,

and

every part of this building, are covered by the
pictures of Saints and Martyrs.
In the
;

ment of our

arrival, the

doors were shut

moand

on the outside appeared Plato, the archbishop,
preceded by banners and torches, and followed

by

all

his train of priests,

with crucifixes and
three times, in pro-

censers,

who were making
;

cession, the tour of the cathedral;

chaunting

with loud voices

and

glittering in

sumptuous
silver,

vestments, bespangled with gold,
precious stones.

and
so

The snow had not melted
procession

rapidly within the Kremlin as in the streets of

the city

:

this magnificent

was

there-

fore constrained to

move upon

planks, over

72
CHAP,
IV.

MOSCOW.
the deep

mud which

surrounded the cathedral.
third
circuit,

After

completmg the
closed;
the

they

all

halted opposite the
still

great doors, which

were

archbishop,

with a censer,

then scattered incense against the doors, and

over the priests.

Suddenly, these doors were

opened, and the effect was magnificent beyond
description.
tators

The immense throng
bearing

of

spectapers,

within,

innumerable
the

formed two

lines,

through which

arch-

bishop entered, advancing with his train to a
throne near the centre.

The

profusion of lights

in all parts of the cathedral, and,

among

others,

of the enormous chandelier in the centre, the richness of the dresses, and the vastness of the

assembly,

filled

us with astonishment.

Having

joined the suite of the archbishop,

we accom-

panied the procession, and passed even to the
throne
:

here the police-officers

permitted us

to stand,

among

the priests, near an embroifor the archbishop.

dered stool of satin placed

The
sion

loud chorus, which burst forth at the en-

trance to the church, continued as the proces-

moved towards
was
for

the throne, and after the
;

archbishop had taken his seat
tion

a

moment

called

when my attenoif, by seeing
was employed

one of the Russians earnestly crossing himself
with his right hand, while his
left

MOSCOW.
in picking

73
liis

my

companion's pocket of

hand-

chap.

kerchief.

Soon

after,

the

archbishop descended, and
;

went

all

round the cathedral

first offering in-

cense to the priests, and then to the people as

he passed along.
the

When

he had returned to

his seat, the priests,

two by two, performed

same ceremony, beginning with the arch-

bishop,

who

rose and

lighted taper in his hand.

made obeisance, with a From the moment
heads and crossing

the church doors were opened, the spectators

had continued bowing
themselves
;

their

insomuch, that some of the people

seemed

really exhausted,

by the constant mo-

tion of the

head and hands.

We

had now

leisure to
priests,

examine the dresses

and figures of the
the most striking

which were certainly
ever seen.
fell

we had

Their
in

long dark hair, without powder,
rinsflets,

down,

or straio-ht and thick, far over their

rich robes

and shoulders.

Their dark thick
their

beards,

also,

entirely covered

breasts.

Upon the heads of the archbishop and bishops were high caps, covered with gems, and adorned
(ij

Like Poteaikin, " D'une main faisayit des signes aux Je mines
et

qui

lui plalsent,

de Vautre des sigties de croix."
ii.

Lett, et Pens,

du

Prince de Ligne, tome

p. 6.

74
CHAP,
IV.

MOSCOW.
by miniature
paintings,
set in jewels,

of the

Crucifixion, the

Virgin,

and the SainU.
satin

Their
of

robes of various-coloured

w^ere

the

most costly embroidery

;

and even upon these
set

were
stones

miniature
'.

pictures

with

precious

Such, according to the consecrated

record of antient days, was the appearance of
the high-priests of old;
of Aaron and of his

sons

;

holy men, standing by the tabernacle of

the congregation, in fine raiments, the workmanship of " Bezaleel, the son of Uri, the son
of Hur, of the tribe of Judah."
is

It is said

there

a convent in Moscow where

women

are enfor

tirely

employed

in

working dresses

the

priests.

After two hours had been spent in various

ceremonies, the archbishop advanced, holding
forth a cross,

which

all

the people

crowded

to

embrace, squeezing each
cation.

other nearly to suffo-

As soon, however, as their eagerness had been somewhat satisfied, he retired to the
sacristy,

under a pretence of seeking
;

for the

body of Christ
in

where putting on a
is

plain purple

robe, he again advanced, exclaiming three times,

a very loud voice, " Christ

risen

!""

(1) See tlie Vignette to this Chapter. (2)

The

vvhole of this pretended search for the lodif cf Christ,
."'

and

the subseciucnt shout of " Christos voscress

is

a repetition of the old

MOSCOW.
The most remarkable part of the solemnity now followed. The archbishop, descending into
body of the church, concluded the whole ceremony by crawling round the pavement on
the
his

75
^^j^^^
,

'

hands and knees, kissing the consecrated

pictures,
altars,

whether on the

pillars, the walls,
all

the

or the

tombs

;

the priests and

the

people imitating his example.

Sepulchres were

opened, and the
tible saints

mummied
:

bodies of incorrupof these

exhibited

all

underwent

the same general kissing.

Thus was Easter proclaimed
debauchery mstantly broke

:

and

riot

and
.

Excesses of
tl.e

loose.

The mn
continued

Popu-

Lko.

where

we

lodged
dancing,

became
and

a

Pandcemoniiim.

Drinking,

singing,

through the night and day.
of
all

But, in the midst

these excesses, quarrels hardly ever took

place.

The
full
;

wild, rude riot of a Russian popu-

lace

is

of humanity.

Few
;

disputes

are

heard
gered,

no blows are given
but

no lives endanmeetings take

by

drinking.

No

place, of any, kind,

without repeating the ex!

pressions of peace and joy, Christos voscress

scribes the

Heathen ceremony respecting the Finding of Osiris. Plutarch desame sort of procession and ceremony adding, "Then all
;

that are present ciy out with a loud voice, Osiris is found!" If«J ylvtrai x^auyh Tav vra^oirm, u; iv^ttfiivou roZ 'Offl^iSa;. Plut. (le Isid. et Osir,
C.

39.

76
CHAP.
IV.

MOSCOW.
Christ
is

risen!

to

which the answer always
voscress
!

is

the same,
indeed !

Vo

is tine y

He

.

,

is

risen

Preseiita'^

Oil Ettstcr

Monday begins the presentation of
:

Fascial
^ess-

the Paschcd eggs

lovers to their mistresses,

relatives to each other, servants to their
ters, all

mas-

bring ornamented eggs.

Every

offering

at this season is called a Paschal egg.

The

meanest pauper
egg,

in

the street, presenting an
Chiistos voscress,

and repeating the words
laid aside

may demand
All business
is

a salute evpn of the Empress.
;

the upper ranks are
dinners,
fill

engaged

in

visiting,

balls,

suppers,
air

masquerades;

while

boors

the

with

their songs, or roll intoxicated about the streets.

Servants appear in

new and tawdry

liveries,

and carriages
ration.

in

the

most sumptuous deco-

Ball of the

In the midst of this uproar

Peasants.

we made

our-

selves as

much

like Russians as possible,

and

went

in caftans to

one of the public balls of
It

was held in a suite of several apartments and a numerous band of music, composed of violins, wind
the citizens, given in our inn.
;

instruments, and kettle-drums, had been provided.

care to

The master of the inn had also taken invite a company of gipsies, to entertain

MOSCOW.
company by their dancing-. A single rouble was demanded as the price of admission. All
the
fears

'jy

chap.

of

appearing

like

foreigners

vanished
;

upon our entering the principal ball-room

for

we found

an assembly as various

in their

appear-

ance as the motley members of a masquerade.

Upon some benches was squatted
gravity and indifference,

a groupe

of Turks, regarding the scene with their usual

unmoved by shouts
pair

of joy or by tumultuous songs, by the noise
of the dancing, or

by the thundering of a

of kettle-drums close to their ears.

In another

room was

a party of Bucharians, with flat noses,
little

high cheek-bones, and

eyes; their heads

shaven, and having small conical embroidered

caps on the top of their bald sculls

:

these

men

wore red morocco
cloth,

boots, long trowsers of blue

with a girdle and a poignard.

Besides

the BucJtarians, were Chinese merchants, Cossacks,

and even Calmucks,
spectators.

all

of

whom

appeared as
room, the
city,

In the middle

of the

Russian

boors,

and the tradesmen of the

were dancing with prostitutes, while their own wives and daughters were walking about.

A party
dance,

of gipsies
called,

was performing the national from the air by which it is
It

accompanied,
lish

Barina.

resembled our Engof

hornpipe,

and was

full

expressions of

the most

ferocious licentiousness.

The male

78

MOSCOW.
dancer expressed his
contortions,

savage joy

in

squeaks,

and

sudden
then

convulsive

spasms
;

that

seemed

to agitate his
still,

whole frame
howling,

stand-

ing

sometimes

whining
to the

tenderly, or trembling in

all

his limbs

music, which was very animating.

This dance,

although extremely
fess to

common

in Russia, they congipsies
;

have derived from the

and

it

may

seem probable that our hornpipe was introduced by the same people. Other gipsies were telling fortunes, according to their unitherefore
versal
practice,
ice.

or

begging

for

presents

of

oranges and

This extraordinary people,

found

in all

parts of Europe,
casts of India,
:

was

originally

one of the

driven out of their

own

territory

they are distinguished among

Indian tribes by a

name which

signifies

Thieves\
the
the

They have
Finlanders.

a similar

appellation

among

They preserve every-where
manners, and
customs,

same what

features,
is

and,

more remarkable, almost always the
dress.

same mode of
of Lidia
in

The extraordinary
gipsies to the

re-

semblance of the female

women

was remarked by our officers and men Egypt, when General Baircl arrived with his
See the Commentary of Professor Porthan, oi Abo in Finland,
of that University.

(l)

upon the Chronicle

His works are not sufficiently

known.

He

has written the History and Origin of the Finland

Tribes ; and a very erudite Dissertation concerning the Gipsies.

;

MOSCOW.
army
to join

79

Lord Hutchinson.

had many

of their

women
all

with them,

The seapoys who were
their

^'/'^^•

exactly like om' gipsies.
dress, they lavish

In regulating

their finery
in Russia is
;

upon

their

head.

Their costume

very different

from that of the natives

they wear enormous

caps, covered with ribbons, and decorated in
front with a prodigious quantity of silver coins

these form a matted mail-work over their fore-

heads.

They

also

wear the same

coins as

necklaces, and a smaller kind as pendants to
their ears.

The
never
feel

Russians hold

contempt,

them in great speaking of them without
it

abuse

;

and

themselves contaminated by

their touch, unless
told.

be to have their fortune

They

believe gipsies not only have the

wish, but the power, to cheat every one they
see,

and therefore generally avoid them.
but

For-

merly they were more dispersed over Russia,

and paid no tribute
and
all

;

now they are

collected,

belong to one nobleman, to
tribute,

whom

they

pay a certain

and rank among the

number of
hands

his slaves.

They accompany

their

dances with singing, and loud clapping of the
;

breaking forth, at intervals, with shrieks

cries, adapted to the sudden movements, gestures, and turns of the dance. The male dancers hold in one hand a handkerchief, which they wave about, and manage

and short expressive

:

80

MOSCOW.
with
grace as well as
art.

CHAP

The

dance, like
of

that of the Jlmehs in Egypt, although full

the grossest libidinous

expression, and most

indecent posture,
Nothini? can be

is in

other respects graceful.
so

more

than the manner in

which they sometimes wave and extend

their

arms
lians

:

it

resembles the attitudes of Bacchana-

represented

on

Greek

vases.

But the

women do
keeping

not often exhibit
stiff

those attitudes

they generally maintain a
their feet close

upright position,

and beating a tattoo

with their high heels.

When

the Russians dance the the
balalaika.

barina,

it

is

accompanied with

Formerly

the nobles were great admirers of that simple

and pleasing instrument;

but now, imitating

: ;

MOSCOW.
the manners of France and England, they have
laid
it
it
;

81

aside.

Many

of

them are

still

able to

use

but as they

deem such an accomplishthe

ment a

sort of degradation in

eyes

of

foreigners, they are

seldom prevailed upon to
like

betray their
ladies,

skill

;

many

of the

IVelsli
Engli.slij

who, scarcely able to speak

affect ignorance of their native tongue.

Collected
for this

in

other parts

of rooms opened

assembly, were vocal performers, in
the most perfect har-

parties of ten or twelve each, singing voluntaries.

They preserved

mony, each taking a separate part, although without any seeming consciousness of the skill thus exerted. The female dancers and assistants in this ball were many of them prostitutes
but the wives and daugliters of the peasants

and

lovver

tradesmen
out

mingled
in

with
full

these

women,

dressed

their

national
all

costume, and were apparently not at
pleased with such
society.

dis-

The
and,
it

ball

of the nob les admits of a very diffeIt

Jaiioftiie

Nobk

rent description.

took place every Tuesday

;

may be
it.

truly said, that Europe exhibits

nothing like

The laws of the society exclude every person who is by birth a plebeian; and
this exclusion

has been extended to

forei2:ners

VOL.

I.

82
CHAP,
therefore

MOSCOW.

we

felt

grateful

in

being allowed

admission.

Prince Vlazemskoy,

who married an

English lady, kindly procured tickets for us;

notwithstanding

the

danger at that time of
atteiition to
living,

shewing kindness and
If his

Englishmen'.
is

Excellency
this

be now

he

requested

to

pardon

testimony of his generous condefeels sensible

scension.

The author

that

a

congeniality of sentiment will render any apojlogy superfluous for the sacrifice

he has

else-

where made

in the

cause of truth.

The
saloon,

coup
is

d'oeil,

upon

entering

the grand

inconceivable.

The company

con-

two thousand persons. The dresses were the most sumptuous tliat can be imagined and, what is more remarkable, they
sisted

of near

;

were conceived
in a high

in the purest taste,

and were
favourite

degree

becoming.
ladies,

The

ornaments of the
girdles

at this time,

were
in

cameos, which they wore upon their arms,

round
;

their

waists,

or

upon

their

bosoms
since

mode of adorning the found its way to our own
a

fair that

has

country, and

(l) I

wish to lay particular stress upon this circumstance, as almost

all travellers

have celebrated Russian hospitality, and particularly that

of the inhabitants of Moscow.

"

L'hospitalit6 des Russes," say the

Authors of the Voyage de Deux Francois,
jour."
^

"

paroit

ici

dans tout son

;

MOSCOW.
was
originally

83
the
to
^

derived

from Parh; but

chap.

women

of France and

England may
fashions

go

-

y

'

Moscoiu to see their

own

set off to
chiefly

advantage.
after the

The drapery was disposed The modes
generally

Grecian costume, and the hair worn
of dress

bound up round the head.
in

London and Paris are

blended
select

together

by

the ladies of Moscoiv,

who
it

from either that which
and, in justice
to

may become them best
charms,

their

must be
their

confessed no country in the world can boast of
superior beauty.

When,
it

in addition to

personal attractions,

is

considered, that the

most excessive extravagance is used to procure whatever may contribute to their adornment*;
that a whole

fortune
;

is

sometimes
in the

lavished

upon a
in

single dress

that they are assembled

one of the finest rooms
decorated
it

world, lighted

and

with matchless

elegance and
the effect has

splendour;

may be supposed

never been surpassed.

In such an assembly,

we had

every reason
.

Caprice in Dress.

to suppose a couple of English travellers

might

f2) It

is

related very generally, in the higher circles of the city,

that a Princess of Moscow,
colour of her

who had

jjurchased a wit; to imitate the

own

hair, confined her hair-dresser in a closet, fed

him

always herself, and allowed him only to come out during her toilette,
in order that her false tresses

might not be detected.

G 2

84
CHAP,
^
'

MOSCOW.
pass without notice.
^

We

had,

moreover, a

particular reason for hoping this

would be the
decree
of the

case; as,

in

obedience to

a

Emperor Paul, we had

collected our short hair

into a queue, which appeared most ridiculously curtailed, sticking out, like any thing but that

which it was intended to represent, and most remarkably contrasted with the long tails of the
Russians.

Unfortunately, the case
to see the

was

other-

wise

;

and a curiosity

becoming general,
found ourselves
persons, some of
tvho

to our

two Englishmen great dismay we

surrounded

by a crowd of
it

whom

thought proper to ask,

cut

our hair ?

Such questions,

may be

conceived, did not add to the evening's amuse-

ment but our astonishment was completed the
;

next day,

in receiving the

thanks and blessings

of a poor ragged barber,
at the inn, and
;

who had powdered us

whose fortune he assured us we had made all the young nobles having sent for him, to cut and dress their hair in the same
ridiculous manner'.

Such a

trifling incident
if
it

mentioned,

would not have been had not ultimately taken a

(0 A

review of this work has appeared in America, professed!}it

written by a Russian; indeed, such an origin.
that
it

bears strong internal evidence of

Its

author,

speaking of this anecdote, confesses
rigoi-ousli/ true,'"

has all the appearance of being

The same

;

MOSCOW.
very serious turn
fering, the
;

8;j

for the police-officers inter'

chap.
y

young men, who had thus docked themselves, were apprehended in the public walks, severely reprimanded, and compelled to
wear
false hair;

and we were obliged

to

use
with

the utmost circumspection, lest

we

should also

be apprehended, and

perhaps

treated

more

rigour.

The dances were called Quadrilles, Polonese, and English. The JValtz, once their favourite, had been prohibited. But whatever name they
gave to
the
their

dances, they were
^.

all

dull,

and

consisted merely in

sovt of pro77ienade.

Neither

men

nor the

women

exhibited the slightest

degree of animation
to

in the exercise,

but seemed
not
dress

consider
still.

it

as a

sort

of apology for
full

sitting

Every person wore a
either
in

the

men

appearing

uniform, or in

coats of very rich embroidery.

acknowledgment of hisfnith
possibility of another theft,

is

made with regard
:

to the pickpocket in

the Cathedral, stealing during his devotions

but he denies even the
It
is

mentioned
least

in p. 92.

for this writer
;

to explain

why he should deny the

improbable story of the three

especially as there are

many

living witnesses of its truth.

In stating

the time of our residence in Russia, with a degree of accuracy highly characteristic of his countrymen, instead of calculating the period

from the day of our arrival, he dates

it

from that of our dejmrture

!

;

CHAP. Y.
MOSCOW.
Surprising

Taloit

of Imitation among the Russians

Remarkable Fraud practised hy a Native Artist
Booksellers

— —

— State
the

— Equipages — Costume of Bourgeoisie— Tverschaia People — Chapel of Amusements of —Miracles wrought —Nature of Imposture— of a Merchant— Assassination of an Archbishop —Motive for Worship of Pictures—Resemblance Russians and Neapolitans— Wives of between — Conduct of Husbands— Children ofOrlof Nobles
Nolles
the
the
there

of Literature

— Libraries of
the

the

Artifice

the

the

the

their

—-Princess Menzicof-— Retributive Spirit exercised by
the

Emperor

at the Funeral

of

his

Mother,

CHAR
' .

In

whatsoever country

we

seek for original

Talent of
Imitation.

genius,

we must go
This
is

to Russia for the talent of

imitation.

the

acme

of Russian intellect

MOSCOW.
the principle of
all

87

Russian attainments.

The
it

chap.

Russians have nothing of their
not their fault
others invent.
tation
if

own

;

but

is

they have not every thing that

Their surprising powers of imiall

exceed

that has been hitherto

known.

The meanest Russian
to accomplish the

slave

is

sometimes able

most

intricate

and the most
copy, with
the
joint

delicate
single

works of mechanism;

to

hand,

what has demanded

labours of the best

workmen

in

France or in

Although untutored, they are the best actors in the world. A Russian gentleman,
England.

who had never beheld an European
assisted during the
in

theatre,

representation of a play

one of the remote eastern provinces, and his

was accidentally witnessed by persons who were capable of estimating its
performance
merit: they pronounced
it

to

be superior to

the acting of any of our European stage-players.
In other examples of their imitative powers,

the author has witnessed
If

something similar.

they were

instructed in the art of painting,

they would become the finest portrait painters
in the world.

To

the truth of this,
:

we saw one
who
he

striking testimony

in a

miniature portrait of
a poor slave,

the Emperor, executed

by

had only once seen him, during the

visit

made

to

Moscow.

For the resemblance and
it

the minuteness of the representation,

was

;

88
CHAP,
V.

MOSCOW.
indeed a surprising work.

The

effect

produced
trinket-

was

like that of

beholding the original through

a diminishing lens.

The Birmingham
imitations

manufactory,

where

of

precious

stones and of the precious metals are wrought

with

so

much

cheapness,

is

surpassed
is

in

Moscoiu;

because the workmanship

equally

good, and the things themselves are cheaper.

But the great source of wonder is in the manner of their execution. At Birmiyigham, they result in Moscow, from the labour of many persons
;

from the hands of an individual
in this

;

yet the

dif-

ference between divided and undivided labour

branch of trade occasions none
Venetian

in the

price of the articles.

In Moscow, imitations of

the Maltese and

gold

chains

were
is

offered for sale, capable of deceiving

any person,
This
cutlery;
is

unless he were himself a goldsmith.

not the case with

regard

to

their

because here a multiplication of labour
requisite.

more
the

They

fail

therefore

in

hardware

not owing to any inability in

imitating

works they import, but because they cannot afford to sell them for the same price. Where
a patent, as in the instance of Bramalis locks, has

kept up the price of an
the level
it

article in

England beyond
the Russians

would otherwise
it

find,

have imitated

with the greatest perfection
at a lower rate than the

and sold the copy

MOSCOW.
original,

89
This exchap.

although equally valuable.

traordinary talent for imitation has

been also
picture
Rcmarka.
^'^

manifested in the

Fine Arts.

A

Dietrici, in the style of Po/e/wZ^ero;-,

by was borrowed

by one of the Russian nobility from his friend. The owner of the picture had impressed his seal upon the back of it, and had inscribed it
with verses and mottoes of his

own composition. Having so many marks, he deemed his picture But a copy so perfect was safe anywhere.
both as to the painting, and to
in
all

finished,

the

circumstances of colour

the canvas, and to

the seal, and to the inscriptions, that
into

when put
to
its

the

original frame,

and returned

owner,

was not discovered. This circumstance was afterwards made known by
the fraud
;

the confession of the artist employed are

and there

now

residinsr
artists'

in

Petershiirs;

and Moscoiu
respectability

foreign

of the

highest

and

talents

who

attest its truth.
that,

One

of them,

Camporesi,

assured us,

walking in the

suburbs of Moscoiu, he entered a miserable hut
belonging to a cobler;

where, at the farther

end of the dwelling,
pans and
kettles,

in

a place designed to hold
to

and

dress victuals,
It

he

observed a ragged peasant at work.

was a

(1)

Guarengld of Petershiirg,

anil

Campm-esi of Moscow,

Italian

architects employed in the service of the Crown.

;

go

MOSCOW.
painter in enamel, copying very beautiful pictures.

The same

person,

he added, might
in

have been found the next day drunk
or howling

a cellar,

beneath the

cudgel of his task-

master.
in Russia,

Under the present form of government
it

is

not very probable that the Fine

Arts will ever flourish.
slave, or

A

Russian

is

either a

he has received his freedom.

In the

former instance, he works only

when

instigated

by the rod of his master, and is cudgelled as often as his owner thinks proper. While employed
is

in

works of sculpture or
off*,

painting,

he

frequently called

to

mend

a chair or a

table, to drive nails into a wainscot, or to

daub
falls,

the walls of the house.

When

evening

as certainly falls a cudgel across his shoulders

Avhich
if

is

not the

way
all

to educate artists.

But

he have received his freedom, the action of
stimulus to labour ends:
to

the cudgel ceasing,

he has then no other instigation
the desire of being able to

work, than
to

buy brandy, and
and there
is

become

intoxicated

:

this

he does whenever he
soon a

can procure the means,

period put to any further exertion of his talents.
Booksellers.
^

'pi^e

booksellers' shops in Moscoiv are better '
_

furnished than in Petersburg ; but they are very
rarely placed

upon a ground-floor.

The

con-

venience of walking into a shop from the street.

MOSCOW.
without climbino- a
flio-ht

91
is

of stairs,

almost

chap.
V.

peculiar to England-,

although there be some

exceptions,

as

in

the Palais

Royal at Paris,

and
an

in a

few houses at Vienna.

The

catalosrue

of Russian authors in

octavo

volume
as
it

some of the shops, fills of two hundred pages.
and English books,
in

French,

Italian,

German,

would be city, were
censors,
their
tents.

numerous here as

any other

not for the ravages of the public

who prohibit the sale of books, from own ignorant misconception of their conSometimes a
single volume,
is

page, of an author,
of the work,
sold.

nay a single prohibited, and the rest

thus mangled, permitted to be
is

There

hardly a single modern work
to their correction.
is

which has not been subject

The number

of prohibited books
is

so great,

that the trade
tions are often

ruined.

Contraband publicais

smuggled; but the danger
all

so imminent,

that

respectable booksellers

leave the trade to persons, either more daring,
or who, from exercising other occupations, are
less liable to suspicion.

Yet there are circumstances
state of public affairs in the
f,
. . .

arising
.
.

from the
.

state of

Literature.

two

cities,

which

give a superiority to the booksellers of Moscow.

In and near the city reside a vast
the Russian nobility.

number of

A

foreigner might live

92

MOSCOW.

many

years there, without ever hearing the
;

names of some of them
a few only are found,
Court,

whereas at Petersburg
all all

who

belong to the

and are therefore

known.

The
and
or

nobles of Moscow have,

many

of them, formerly

figured in the presence of their sovereign,

have been ordered to reside

in this city;

they have passed their youth in foreign travel,

and

have withdrawn

to

their

seats

in

its

environs.
libraries
;

Many

of

and, as the

them have magnificent amusement of collecting,
has

rather than the pleasure of reading books,

been the reason of
to

their forming those

sump-

tuous collections, the booksellers receive orders
a very large amount'.
is

When

a Russian

nobleman reads, which
stance,
it

a very rare circumeither

is

commonly a novel;

licentious trash in

some the French language, or some
'

English romance translated into that language.

Of

the latter, the

Italian

'

of Mrs. Raclcliffe
;

has been better done than any other

because,

representing customs v/hich are not absolutely
local,
it

admits of easier transition into any

other European tongue.

But when any attempt

(0 These orders are sometimes given
Komakqf, a Serjeant
ailections
in

in

the style related of Rimshy

and

said,

who succeeded Zoritz in the of Catherine the Second. This man sent for a bookseller, " Fit me vj) a handsome lib) art/ little hook^ above, and great
the Guards,
:

ones below."

MOSCOW.
is

93
Jones,'
'

made

to translate

'

Tom

The Vicar

of Walejield^ or any of our inimitable original pictures of English manners, the effect is ridiSquire Western culous beyond description. becomes a French Philosopher, and Goldsmith's

chap. V
/'

Primrose a Fleur de Lis.

Books of
of Moscoiu.

real literary reputation are not to

Libraries of

be obtained either in the shops of Petersburg or
Productions of other days, which

from
rare,

their

importance in science have become

are

never
volumes,

to

be found.

Costly

and

frivolous

sumptuously bound,

and

gorgeously decorated, constitute the precious
part of a library, in Russian estimation.

Gaudy

French editions, of Fontenelle, of Marmontel, of
Italian
terflies, kerville,

sonneteers, with English folios of but-

and flowers; editions by BasBensley, and Bulmer, with hot-pressed
shells,
;

and wire-wove paper
notice of

in short, the toys rather

than the instruments of science,
all

attract

the

the

Russian amateurs.

A

mag-

nificent library in Russia will

be found to conIn vain,

tain very little

of useful literature.

among

their stately collections,

smelling like

a tannery of the leather which bears their name,

may we

seek for classic authors, historians,

lawgivers, and poets.
pcedia, indeed, placed

A

copy of the

Encijclo-

more

for ostentation

than

£hi

MOSCOW.
for use,
'

CHAP,

may

perhaps, in a solitary instance or
;

two, greet the eye

but this will be found to
their

be the only estimable work throughout
gilded shelves'.

Equipages.

After LoudoTi and Constantinople,

Moscow

is

doubtless the most remarkable city in Europe.

A

stranger, passing rapidly through the streets,
it

might pronounce
teresting
;

to

be

dull, dirty,

and unin-

while another, having resided there,
it

would
If the

affirm, that

had rather the character
its

of a great commercial and wealthy metropolis.

grandeur and the riches of

inhabitants

be estimated by
pages, and the
each,

the splendour of their equi-

number of horses attached to Moscow would surpass all the cities of
There
is

the earth.

hardly an individual above

the rank of a plebeian

who would be
:

seen

without four horses to his carriage
rality

the gene-

have
is

six.

But the manner

in

which

this

pomp
upon

displayed presents a perfect burlesque

stateliness.

A

couple of ragged boys are
before a coachman,
in
in

placed as postillions,

such sheep-skins as are worn by peasants
the

woods

:

behind the carriage are stationed

(0 The

library of

Count

Botler/ine, hereafter noticed, deserved a

different character;

but perhaps, before the author can

make

the ex-

ception, the valuable Collection of this nobleman has been dispersed.

IVIOSCOW.
a

05
chap.

groupe of lackeys, more tawdry, but not
ludicrous,

less

than their drivers.
all

To

o-ive &'

greater effect to

this,
it

the

traces of

the

harness are so long, that

requires considerable

management to preserve the horses from being entangled, whenever they turn the corner of Notwithstanding a street, or when they halt. this, no stranger, however he may deride its
absurdity,
will venture to visit the nobles,
if

he wish

for their noticie,

without four horses
postillion,

to his chariot, a ragged

coachman and

and a parade of equipage that must excite
laughter in proportion as
it

his

insures their coun-

tenance and approbation.

Wives
of
their
in droskies,
ficient to

of

tradesmen,
are

during
seen

the

season

Costume.

festivals,

driving

about

with riches upon their persons suf-

purchase a peerage.

matted work of pearls,
bited

Caps made of with Turkish and Persian

shawls, and diamond ear-rings, are often exhi;

preserving, at the

same

time, the national

costume,

however costly the apparel.
is

This

costume
is

remarkably graceful when the shawl

worn, and as

much

otherwise

when
falls

it is

not.

The shawl
feet.

covers the head, and

in thin

folds over the shoulders, reaching almost to the

The

celebrated

Pallas

gave

to

us a

drawing representing the wife of a Russian

;

Q(3

MOSCOW.
tradesman, with an old duenna, or nurse,
>

CHAP,
^-

who
was

is

found

in

ahnost

every family.

It

executed by his

artist, Geisler.

With

that good

humour which always
the

characterized him, finding

women

unwilling to have their figures deli-

neated,

he caused Mrs. Pallas to assume the

dress of the young wife, and he put on his

own

person the habit of the duenna', thus affording

a scenic representation,
of the drama,
are, the Professor

in

which the persons

although strongly caricatured,

and

his JVife.

Amusement

Thc amusemcnts
children
;

of the people are those of

that

is

to say, of English children

for in Paris

and Naples the author has witnessed
states-

similar

amusements; grave senators and
sometimes
seen
horses, round-abouts,

men

being

wooden
be
the

mounted upon and ups-and-downs,
It will

wdth the lower order of inhabitants.
said, the English are a

grave people; but

a better reason

may

perhaps be assigned for

want of such
fairs.

infantine sports at our
is

wakes

and

Certainly there
forty

no part of our
fifty

island

where men of

and

years of

age w^ould be seen riding on a w^ooden horse,
or chuckling in a vaulting-chair.
sians, at the

Three Rusas they
like

same

time, will squeeze themselves

into

one of those chairs, and,
round,

are

whirled

scream

for

joy,

infants

^

MOSCOW.
tossed in the nurse's arms.
the present King of the T2V0

97

Some
Sicilies

years ago,

chap.
'

was accus-

<—

tomed to join amusement.

his principal courtiers in a similar

In the Gate of the Resurrection, at the eastern
.

rbnpei of
the Trrrschnia.

extremity of the Tverschnia, one of the principal
streets
in

Moscow,
before

there

is

a
all

small

open

sanctuary,

which, at

hours of the

day, people are assembled, crossing and prostrating themselves.

We
An

had the curiosity

to

penetrate the host of devotees,
this little

and

to

enter

temple.

old

man
after

with a long

beard was there
visitants,

selling candles to the

numerous

who, immediately

bu^ang the

them before a picture of the Virgin luith the Bleeding Chech. The place was filled with a variety of pictures of Saints and Martyrs: but there were two of the Virgin,
candles, placed
larger than the rest, facing the street
:

one of

them

is

said to have been brought hither

by

an angel; which causes the extraordinary devotion paid to this picture in particular
;

although

there be

many such

paintings in other parts of

Moscow, having the same reputation of a miraculous importation.

which reference
silver,

is

The particular picture now made, was framed
false,

to
in

set
I.

round with gems, true or

of

VOL.

H

98

MOSCOW.
various magnitude.
It

has

great
it

celebrity,

from the numberless miracles
to

is

supposed
restoring

have wrought,
kinds upon

in healing the sick,

sight to the blind,

and showering down favours
its

of

all

worshippers.

Now, sup(and some-

posing only four persons to present themselves

every minute before
times
fifty in

this picture,

the

same

instant

may

be observed

opposite the shrine,) no less a

number than ten
space of twelve

thousand eight hundred and eighty persons will

be found
hours.

to visit

it

in the short

of this

would be indeed a miracle, if, out number, one or two did not occasionally
It
relief,

experience

either from sickness of body,

or from sorrow, or in consequence of any other

wished-for change
if

:

and, whenever this happens,

only once in thirty days, (which would be

to reckon one only out of eighty-six

thousand

four hundred persons, not counting the nightly
visitants,) the noise of
it

is

circulated far and
;

wide

;

the story itself exaggerated

and the

throng of votaries thereby increased.

Upon

such ground an ideot might raise as vast a
superstructure of ignorance and
credulity as

any even Russia
street;

itself

has

witnessed.

The
a

picture of a Saint found accidentally in the

human bones dug up
;

in

a forest;

dream

some casual and rude representation
;

of a cross

a lusus natune (as in the colours

MOSCOW.
of a pied horse, or the veins in a piece of flint
or marble); in short, whatsoever represents, or
is
'

99
chap.

y

*

supposed
their

to resemble,

any thing belonging
a
resort

to

prodigious catalogue of superstitious

objects,
tees,

might

occasion

of a

devo-

give rise to a church, or to

marketsilver-

place for wax-chandlers, painters,
smiths,

and

as profitable as the shrine oi

Diana at

Ephesus.

A

circumstance

so
1

likely

has

frequently
re-

Artificcofa

happened.

A

Merchant.

merchant of Moscow, more

no^vned for speculation than for piety, caused

dug up, some years ago, with the supposed body of a Saint, in the interior of the empire, eastward of the city. The throng to this coffin, from all parts, became immense;
a coffin to be
the blind were, as usual, healed
their crutches
;

the lame left

suspended as trophies of miraand, in a short time,
all

culous cures

;

the other

churches were deserted, in consequence of the
reputation of the newly-discovered Saint.
It

was moreover
passionate
;

was very was angry at being disturbed; and insisted upon having a church
said,

that his saintship

that he

built over him, to ensure his future repose.

A
of

church was therefore erected
the whole
affair

;

when news

reaching the ears of the late
to

Empress Catherine, she ordered the building
H 2

.

100
CHAP,
^

MOSCOW.
be shut.
''

The Emperor Paul, from a determido
(as

»

nation to mido every thing that his mother had

done, and to

much

as possible) that

which she would not have done, caused it to be again opened although it were well known
;

in Russia, that the merchant,

after the

church

had been shut by the Empress's order, frequently
avowed, and laughed
mitted
'

at,

the fraud he had com-

.

Much

after the

same manner, during
one of the streets of

the plague in Moscojv, about thirty years ago,

a picture was placed

in

the city, to which the people eagerly thronged,

upon the

earliest

intelligence

of

its

arrival.

The archbishop Ambrose,

finding that the danger

of spreading infection increased as the people

Assassina-

crowded to this picture, ordered it movcd, aud conccalcd in a church
populace;

to
;

be

re-

but the

Arch'*''°^'"

doors of the church were forced open by the

and the venerable
to death.

prelate,

beingin-

dragged from the convent of Donskoy, was

humanly put

The

late

Empress,

in

her correspondence with Voltaire, gave an ac-

count of this event; recommendinor

it

to

him

as a supplement to the article Fanaticism, in the

French Rncychpcedia "

(0 Paul
burg-,

published an ukase, in the Imperial Gazette of Peters^
canonizinfi^ the

upon the 17th of December 1798,

new

Saint.

(2) Lettres de I'lmp^r. de Russie, &c.

Lett. 94.

'

MOSCOW.
All that has

101
^'^^'^^•
'

been said or written of Romanfeeble idea
It

Catholic bigotry affords but a
the
superstition

of
is

.—

of the

Greek Church.

certainly the greatest reproach to

human

reason,

the severest satire upon universal piety, that

has yet disgraced the history of mankind.
wild,

untutored savage of South America,
the

The who
be

prostrates himself before
his adoration to that

Sun, and pays
to

which he believes
light,

the

source of

life

and

exercises

more
is

rational devotion than the Russian,

who
Bogh,

all

day crossing himself before
sticking
St.

his

and
of
Motive for
^hl,,

farthing

candles

near
in

a
the

picture

Alexander Nevsky.

But

adoration
F^irgins,

paid

by

this

people to their Saints and

^T'

we may

discern strong traces of their nationaV

"^*"''^''-

character.
parasite, or

The homage they
to a picture,
;

offer to a court

is

founded upon the

same
tives.

principle

and

in all their views, political

or religious, they are actuated

A

Deity,

and a
their

despot,

by similar moby the nature of
to

the one, and the policy of the other, are too
far

removed from

view
All

admit of any
petitions,

immediate

applications.

their

therefore, instead of being addressed at once

either to a spiritual or to a temporal throne, are

directed to the one or to the other
falling

by channels
observation.

more immediately under Thus we ^n& favouritism to be the leading feature

102

MOSCOW.
of the Russian government, and the adoration
of
Saints

the whole
is

of

their

rehgion.

The
for-

Sovereign

disregarded in the obeisance offered

to his parasites;

and the Creator entirely

gotten in the idolatrous worship of his creatures.

Resemblance be-

tween the Russians and Nca. po ans.
I

^s wc livod iu some degree of intimacy with many of the Russian nobility, their manners and
'
.

.

.

,,

opmions could not escape our notice.
^j^^

Oi

ail

Europeans, they bear the greatest resemto

blance

the

Neapolitans.

The

nobles

of

Naples and Palermo are exactly like
Moscoiv,

those of

and even the peasants of the two

countries have a certain degree of resemblance.

This similitude

may

arise

from a similarity of
despotic,

government,

— vicious

and

ignorant

and

superstitious.

The same
and

character prevails
in their

in their national dances,

mode

of

dress.
tala
;

The

barina differs

little

from the taran-

and the female peasants of the Campagna

Felice dress like the

women
;

near Moscoiv,

—with
short,

the

same
;

sort of shoes

the

same kind of headsuits
;

dress

the

same embroidered

in

the same load of finery.

May

not this be thus
Grcecia

explained

:

the costume of
;

Magna

from the Archipelago

and the

art of

came dress was
It

introduced into Russia from Constantinople.

has been before mentioned, that, in their sports,
the Russians and the Neapolitans are alike.
In

MOSCOW.
the class of the nobles, the
rior to

103
are far supe-

women

the

men; they
the
to

are mild, affectionate,
thcNobiei.

often well-informed, beautiful, and highly ac-

complished

:

men

are

destitute of every
in

qualification

render them,

the eyes of

their female companions, objects of love or of

esteem.

It

is

not therefore wonderful,

that

ladies of rank in

Moscow have the character of
the profligate example so

not being strict in their fidelity to their hus-

bands

;

especially

if

lately offered

them

in their

Empress Catherine
Indeed,
it is

be taken
ficult

into consideration.

dif-

to conceive

how

the wives of the gene-

rality of the nobles in Moscow can entertain any

respect for their husbands
passion,

'

.

Married, without
self-love

by the policy and
frequently to

of their

parents,

men

they never saw
to tyrants,

until the time of

wedlock; subjected

who

neither

afford

good

examples
social

to

their

children, nor
to themselves

any source of
;

enjoyment

who

are superannuated before

the

age of thirty; diseased, dirty, and overthe
life

whelmed with debt:
regard the matrimonial
to that of

women

of Moscow

as superior indeed

imprisonment

in

a convent, but as

a state of slavery, from which they look towards
(1)

" MuHerum

conditio miserrima est
:

;

neque quicquam authoriGua^iiin,

tatis in aedibus

usurpant

a maritis bene verberatffi," &c.
Z/.

Descript. MoscovUe, p, Go.

Bat. 1630,

;

104
CHAP,

MOSCOW.
a joyful deliverance, in the death of their hus-

Every one acquainted with the real history of the Empress Catherine, and with her
bands.

manner of bursting the connubial bonds,
find
in
it

will

a

picture

of the

state

of female

society throughout the empire.

The wives

of

the nobles,

it is

true,

do not assassinate their
of wedlock are altorepresentation, of

husbands
gether

;

but the

ties

disregarded.

This

course, regards the general state of the
nity.

commuby any

The Reader

shall not

be offended, nor
purposes

the feelings

of individuals wounded,

detail of private anecdotes for public

neither

is

it

necessary to relate the few ex-

ceptions which

may be

found to the preceding
is

statement: whatsoever credit
Englandy
it

given to

it

in

will not

be contradicted

in Russia.

A

Russian nobleman will

sell

any thing he
;

possesses, from his wife to his lap-dog

from

the decorations of his palace, to the ornaments of his person
;

any thing

to obtain

money
it

;

any
sur-

thing for the pleasure of squandering
Visiting a trading mineralogist,

away.
court-

we were
with

prised

to
;

see

glass-cases

filled

dresses

and
for

still

more
as

so on being told that
;

these were dresses of the nobility

sent to be

exposed

sale,

often

as
is,

any of them
to order

wanted money.

Their plan

goods

;

MOSCOW.
to

105
chap.
^
'

any amount

for for

credit; to

pay

which they can procure nothing; and to sell what
it.

,

they have ordered, as soon as they receive

We
it is

should

call

such
it

conduct,

in

England,

swindling.

In

Moscow

bears another

name

;

there called Russian magnj/icence.

The children of those who murdered Peter m T r THE Third resided m Moscoiu when we were there one of them married the daughter of the Governor. The Princess Menzikof, granddaughter oi \he, favourite of Peter the Great, was also there we were often in her company and too much amused by her cheerful dispo•

children
^^ Orlof,

1

1

1

:

:

sition,

to report the style of conversation she

indulges everywhere.
a proverb in Russia
allusion in Evic/ajid.

However, that which

is

may

at the least bear an

When

the late EniDiess

died, her son,

and successor, caused the body
at

of his father to be taken up, and laid in state,

by

the coffin of his mother, in the palace
It is said

Petersburg.

there

was only one

per-

son, an archbishop,

who knew where they had
was interred without moin

buried him

;

as he

nument

or inscription,

the

church of the

monastery of
the

St. yllexander

Nevshy.

Orlof,

his
Rctribu.
tive Spirit

murderer, was then at Moscow.

An

order from

Emperor brought
the bodies were

mm

to Petersburg; to the

and

of the

when

removed

^^^°'^'

church

106 CHAP,
^

MOSCOW.

/

of St. Peter and
<>

St.

Paul

in

the citadel

,
'

he was

compelled to walk

in the procession

from the

palace to the church, following the body of the

person he had murdered so long before.

It

was then

the people of Petersburg

beheld an
of them,

interesting scene of retribution.

One

who was an
of
it

eye-witness, described the whole

to us.

The bodies were drawn upon low

chariots,

of

by horses. Immediately after the coffin Peter the Third, and close to it, w^alked,
faltering

with slow and

steps,

his

assassin,

Orlqf; having his eyes fixed on the ground, his

hands folded, and
to Orlof
festing,

his face pale as death.
;

Next

walked the Emperor

certainly mani-

by

this

sublime although mysterious

sacrifice to the

manes of

his father, an action

worthy of a greater character.
pire

The ceremony
in the Sout/i

ended, Orlof received an order to quit the em;

and lately was travelling

of

Europe.

(l)

The

place where state-prisoners are kept.

CHAP.

VI.

MOSCOW.
State of Exiles in Siberia

— Tobohky — Ge?ierous Ccndnct turned Pawnbroker— Picture — State of Medicine— Manners of People— Dealers Opinions entertained of English —Relative CondiSlaves and Lords— Noble Behaviour of of Count Golovkins Peasants — Servants cf Nobility — Nobles— Convent of Theft committed by a Party of theNeiv Jerusalem — New Prohibitions —Public Censors — Convent rf Trinity — Church of Basil— — Ivan Basilovidi
of a Citizen

—Prince

the

the

tion

their

the

the

the

St.

Tubervile's Letters.

Xn

England,

we

hear of persons being sent to
;

Siberia, as

a most severe punishment

and

we

entertain very erroneous notions

concernmg the

;

108
CHAP,
V

MOSCOW.
state of exiles in that country.
J

To

a Russian

..,-1

nobleman the sentence of exile can hardly imply

punishment.
is

The consequence

of their journey

very often an amelioration of their under-

standing and of their hearts.

They have no
;

particular attachment to their country

none of

that maladie du pays, which sickens the soul of

an Englishman

in

banishment.

They

are

bound

by no strong
neither have
Toboisicy.

ties of affection to their families

they any friendship worth pre-

serving.

Tobohhy,

from the number and the
is

rank of the exiled,
lous city,
full

become a
of

large and popu-

of shops,

and containing theatres,
public amusement.

besides

other

places

Its inhabitants,

above two thousand versts from

Moscow, have booksellers, masquerades, French
hotels,

and French wines, with the porter and

beer of

Endand.

Those who have resided
its

there, either as officers on duty, as travellers,

or as exiles, give the highest accounts of

gaiety and

population.

An

officer

of consi-

derable rank in the Russian service told us, he

would rather have the
at Toholshy, than

half of his
it

pay and

live

the whole of

in residence

at Petersburg.

Many, who have been ordered
Toholsky
taste.
is

homt?, have wished and sought to return thither.

This

is

no subject of wonder.
Gmelin,

admirably adapted to the Russian
cording to
it

Ac-

is

a very temple of

'

MOSCOW.
Bacchus and Indolence.
Provisions

lod

were

so
'

^"•'^^V 1.
,

cheap when he was there, in the middle of the last century, that a person might maintain
himself for ten roubles a year
of our money.
tival'
;

not two pounds
fes-

His account of the Easter

proves that there was not

much
is

difference

between the
Moscow
present.

state of society in Toholsky
;

and

in

at that time

and there

much

less at

A

circumstance occurred durins: our abode ^

CeneroiK Conduct of
^ citken.

in Moscow, attended

by a

trait
it

of so

much

gene-

rosity in a Russian, that
it.

is

a duty to relate

On Wednesday
No

the seventh of

May, the

Sub-Governor received an order
Siberia.

for his exile to

reason whatever was assigned for

the displeasure of the
alleged.

Emperor

;

no offence was

The

whole city flocked to take leave

of him, for he

was much beloved

:

and dan-

gerous as such a testimony of affection might

(1)

" Les gens

les plus

considerables se reudoient visite>, et se don-

noient des divertissemens.
ii'etoit

Quant an peuple,
cris,

il

6toit

comme

fou

;

ce
II

jour et nuit que promenades,

tumultes, batteries.

^toit difficile

d'allerdans les rues, tant ily avoit d'hommes, de femmes,
f^oyage de
Siberie, traduit

de Wtes, et de tratneaux."
torn. I.

par Keralio,
et faire des
le
h.

p. 53.

" On
visites.

passe gaiement les f^tes de P:\ques a recevoir

plus fut

Le peuple s'amusa K sa maniSre ; ce dont il s'occupa le commerce des filles publiques, qui ne sont pas rarcs
Je n'avois
vfi

Tobolsk.
ici."

nulle part tant de gens sans nez que j'en vis

Ibid. p. 67-


no
CHAP,
' ,

MOSCOW.
then prove,
'

the

inhabitants

crowded

to his

house, considering him as a
the caprice of a tyrant.

man sacrificed to Among others, came

an humble
It

citizen,
''

and demanded admission.

was granted.

You

are going to leave us,"
settle
I

said he, " and
afTairs.

may not have time to Do you not want money ?
"
I

your
as
said

come

your banker."

have need of some,"
is

the Governor, " but it can furnish." " How

thousand roubles!"
;

much more than you " Twenty-five much ? The honest fellow with'

drew and speedily returning with notes to the amount of the sum specified, placed them upon the table, carefully counting them over then
;

made

his

bow, and

retired.

nxrned

^^

Italian architect, of the

name

of Camporesi,

Pawnbroker.

procured ^
tures,

admission
a

for

us

at the

house of

Prince Trubetzkoy,
hosiery,

dealer in minerals, picantiquities
;

hats, cutlery,

in

short, all the furniture of shops

and of museums.

Having squandered away
gained a livelihood by
for others,

his fortune, this
for

man
His

selling,

himself and

whatsoever came

in his

way.

house, like a pawnbroker's shop, exhibited one
general magazine, occupying several rooms.

A
was

Prince presiding over this mart, and practising
all

the artifices of the meanest tradesman,

a spectacle perfectly novel.

Any

thing might

!

/

MOSCOW.
be bought of
the
his Excellency,

Ill

from a

pair of

chap.
«

bellows to a picture by Claude Lorraine.

In

,—

same room were handkerchiefs,
stockings,
artificial

antique

vases,

flowers, fans,

Co-

logne-water, soap, pomatum, prints, paintings,

books, guns, pistols, minerals, jewellery, harness,

saddles,

bridles,

pipes,

second-hand

clothes, swords, stuffed-birds, bronzes, buckles,

buttons, snuff'-boxes, wigs, watches, boots and
shoes.

"

My
who

house," said he, as
is

we

entered,

" and

all it

contains,
will

at
it

your service, or any
!

one's else,

buy

I

will sell

you the

house

for a single rouble,

provided you will pay
his Excellency, Prince

me

also a rouble for each article of its furniture.''

While we bargained with

It was to L. sent a note, which he read aloud. " Here's a man," said Prince borrow money.

Truhetzkoy, " with a million of

roubles in his
to

drawing-room, sends to

me for forty-five,

pay

the expenses of a journey to his country seat

You

see

how we go on

in Russia.''

The number
astonishing.
dealers,

of pictures in Moscoiu is really ^ ^ There are four or five eminent
large
collections.

Picture
Dealer--.

who have
is

The
filled,

palaces of the nobles are

many

of

them
It

and there
to sell

not one of their owners unv/illing

as

if

any picture he may possess. all Europe had been ransacked

seems
supply

to

112
CHAP,
VI.

MOSCOW.
At first view, a room adorned by them has an imposing and very splendid appearance but, upon a nearer approach, the charm vanishes they are almost all copies, and
such collections.
;
:

of them were brought from But the Russians themselves are so ingenious in the art of imitation, that a nobleman of skill avid judgment in painting has been

the major part

Vienna,

known

to purchase, of a dealer, copies

few days before by one of his own slaves,

made a who

more usual daily occupation of blacking shoes, and afterwards carried to the brandy-shop the wages of his ingenuity. As the nobles have rarely any went from
his

easel to his

money
Arts,

at

command,
in

their traffic in the Fine
is

as

other things,

carried
is

on by

exchange.

This sort of barter

that in

which

they take the greatest delight.
suit of clothes, just as they

They purchase
their physician

a picture for a carriage, or for an embroidered

pay

with a snuff-box.
infantine

In every pursuit the
is

same

disposition

displayed

;

and, like

children, they
in the

become

tired of their toys almost

moment they have acquired them.

In

their choice of pictures, they are pleased only

with gay and splendid colouring, highly finished,
in

gaudy frames
of

;

" quelque chose (Tcclatant

!"''

to

use an expression constantly in their mouths.

The works

Van

der JVerf, Watteau, Jordaens,

"

MOSCOW.
Berchem, and Gerhard Douw, bear the highest
prices;

113
^^^/J^^'-

but

if

productions by any of the

Bolognese masters be shewn to them, they are
rejected.

Nothing of the sombre
has

cast,

however

sublime,

any value

in

their

estimation.

The

works of the Caracci, of Domenichino, or

even of Michael Angela, would not meet with
admirers.

A

beautiful

head by

Corregio,

not
in

many
which

years ago possessed by
in the

an

artist

London,

course of those adventures to

fine pictures are liable, fell into the

hands

of a Russian priest.
time, because he

He

kept

it

during a short
it

had been

told

was a

celeit

brated work
"

;

but ultimately exchanged

for

some wretched
painter.
*'

copies, with an Italian miniature-

had too much shade," he said, and the lights were too pale it had the air
It
;

altogether

of a head from the guillotined
their physicians

The

method of paying
to the faculty

before mentioned, might
;

by trinkets, seem an inconvenience
not so.

but

it

is

Dr. Rogerson

at Petersburg, as

we were

informed, regularly

received his
it

snuff-box, and as regularly carried

to a jeweller for sale.
first

again to the

The jeweller sold it nobleman who wanted a fee
that the doctor obtained
at last the matter

for his physician, so

his

box again

;

and

became

so well understood between the jew^eller and

the physician, that VOL.
I.

it

was considered by both
I

114

MOSCOW.
parties as a sort of bank-note,

CHAR
^

and no words
it.

were necessary
State of

in transacting the sale of

filedicme.

Havino; mentioned the name of this respectable ^ ^ physician, it may be well to say something of

the state of medicine in the

business of an accoucheur

is

The always practised by
country.
all

women.

The Emperor ordered

the mid-

wives to undergo examination, before a board
of physicians, a few days before
burg.

we

left Peters-

In the regulation concerning apothecaries,

however well intended, the same wisdom was
not she\vn:
it

is

a reproach to the country.

If a stranger arrive, in immediate want of an

emetic' or of any trifling drug, he cannot obtain
it

without the written order of some physician.

If this take place in the night,

he

may

die

before the morning
sent
for,

;

for the physician, although

certainly

would not
Moscow,

attend.

In Petersis

burgy the fee of an eminent physician
five
roubles
;

twentyor

in

only

one

two.

Persons calling themselves English physicians are

found in almost every town upon the continent.

Sometimes they have served

in
;

apothecaries'

shops in London or in Edinburgh

but generally

(l)

A

remedy almost

infallible against those

dangerous fevers which
in

are the consequence of passing over
couutries,
if

unwholesome marshes

hot

taken withiu twenty-four hours.

MOSCOW.
they are Scotch apothecaries,
professional
riority.
skill,

iir>

who

are

men

of

riiAP.
,

and of acknowledged supeIn some places abroad the practitioners
:

y.

>

are really natives of England

but when
is

this

happens to be the case, the traveller

cau-

tioned to shun them, however celebrated they

may

be, as he values his existence.

With few
neither

exceptions, there are no instances of men of ability

among
among

expatriated English physicians

;

would such men leave

their country, to settle

foreigners, unless compelled

stances of misconduct at home.

by circumThose Ens:the

lishmen upon the continent

who bear

name

of

physicians will generally be found, upon inquiry,
to

have exercised no such profession
;

in their

own

country

but to have lived either as servants in
or to have practised as veterinary

the shops of apothecaries, of chemists, and of
druggists,

surgeons, farriers, or itinerant empirics.

The

Russian nobility are passionately fond of
;

iManners
People.

travelling

and, under the circumstances of the
this

Emperor Paul's administration,
increased with the difficulty of

passion

its gratification.

entertain extravagant notions of O the wealth and happiness of Englishmen ; and

Some

of

them

they have good reason so to do, since every
thing they possess that
is

either useful or in

any

degree

estimable comes to them

from

I2

;:

116

MOSCOW.
England.
'

-^

——
^^rf^,

Books,

maps,

prints,

furniture,

clothing,

hardware of all kinds, horses, carriages,
every
article of

hats, leather, medicine, almost

convenienx^e, comfort, or luxury,

rived from England, or
value.

it is

must be deconsidered as of no

Some

of the nobles are

much
;

richer

than the richest of our English peers
vast number,
poor.
as

and a
riches,

may be

supposed, are very-

To

this poverty,

and to those

are joined characteristics in which the Russian

peasant and the Russian prince are the same

they are
sian, of

all

equally barbarous.

Visit a Rus-

whatsoever rank,
will find

at his country-seat,

him lounging about, with his and you collar open, uncombed, unwashed, unshaven, half-naked, eating raw turnips, or drink ng The raw turnip is handed about in qicass. slices, in the first houses, upon a silver salver, with brandy, as a whet before dinner. Their
hair
is

universally in a state not to be described

and

their bodies are only divested of

vermin
these

when they
occasions,

frequent the
their shirts

bath.

Upon

and pelisses are held
a fact too notorious to

over a hot stove, and the heat occasions the

vermin

to fall off'.

It is

admit of dispute, that from the Emperor to the
(l) Suvorqf used to cleanse his shirt in this

manner, during a cam-

paign

;

stripping before the

common

soldiers, at the fires kindled in

their camps.


MOSCOW.
meanest
all
"

;

117
chap.

slave,

throughout the vast empire of
all its

the Russias, including

princes, nobles,

priests,

and peasants, there exists not a single

individual in a thousand
infested.

whose body

is

not thus

The

true

manners of the people are

not seen in Fetersburgy nor even in Moscow, by
entering only the houses of the nobility.
•of this class,

Some

letters of

and generally persons to whom recommendation are obtained, have
and introduced
refinements

travelled,
their

which
imitate.

friends

and companions readily

But the genuine Russian rises at an early hour, and breakfasts on a dram with black bread.
His dinner, at noon, consists of the coarsest and

most greasy food, the scorbutic effects of which are supposed to be counteracted by pickled cucumbers, by sour cabbage, by the juice of his vaccinium, and by his nectar guass. Sleep, rendering him unmindful of his abject servitude and of his barbarous life, he particularly indulges; sleeping always after eating, and going
early to his bed.

the

The principal articles of diet are same every^vhere grease and brandy. The
is

horrors of a Russian kitchen are inconceivable

and there
approach,

scarcely a bed in the whole empire
traveller

that an English
if

would venture
its condition.

to

he were aware of
nobles, the race

Among the

is

not yet extinct

;

118
CHAP,

MOSCOW.
of those servile beings who, at the pleasure of

the Tsar, were sent to be whipped like so

many

dogs.

The

short liberty they enjoyed in the

reign of
their

Catherine did not suffice to elevate minds from the depravity always incident

Under Paul, they again experienced indignities similar to those which had been offered to their forefathers. Potemkirii
to a state of slavery.

one of the meanest and the most profligate of

remember what their condition was originally, by inflicting blows upon any prince or nobleman with whom he chanced to be oftended and the Emperor Paul ventured to chastise the nobles who were his officers Under such government, if we find them servile, oppressive, cowardly, and tyrannical, it is no more than may be expected,
to
:

men, frequently taught them

'.

from their mode of education, and the
pline

disci-

they
in

undergo.
the

They

will

naturally

crouch

dust before

an

emperor, or

before one of those wretched creatures called
favourites,

and

will trample their inferiors be-

neath their feet^

(1) See (2)

Note

1. in p,

47.

"

Servituti gens nata, ad

omne

libertatis

vestigium ferox est

placida

si

prematur.
;

Necjue abnuunt jugum.

Ultro fatentur Prineipi
Sor-

se servire

illi

in suas opes, in corpora, vitaiuque jus esse.

didioris reverentiae humilitas Turcis

non

est in

suorum Ottomanorum

sceptrum."

Bardaii Descript. Moscovm, p.lA. L. Bat. \630.

;

MOSCOW.
They
people
fear
;

119
chap.

consider the English as a mercenary

and generally hate them, because they
;

them

or court them,

if

they stand in need

entertained

of their support.

One

of their princes thought

%f^''^'''°'

proper to declare in public, at his

own

table,

where we had been invited
laws of hospitality, that "

to dine,

and were

of course under the protection enjoined
in

by the
there
is is

England

not an individual, patriot, or placeman,
saleable to
the

who

not

highest

bidder.'^

Wilkes, Gibbon,

and Burke, with
is
;

He instanced many others
than

adding,
Russian.
to the

*'

English slavery

less justifiable

One

is

selfishness

the other, submission

laws"

It is

very true, that the system of slavery
-^
.

Russia, like

many

^
other evils,

-^

in

Relative

may be somenobleman be
for in that

Condition o{ slaves
Lords.

times productive of good.

If the

benevolent, his slaves are happy;

case they are fed, clothed, and lodged.

In
^

sickness they are carefully attended, and in
old age they have an asylum.

In case of acci-

dents from

fire,

if

a whole village be burned,
to rebuild
it.

the nobleman

must supply wood
it

But when, as
prietor
their
is

generally happens, the pro-

a

man

without feeling or principle,
indeed wretched.
In such

situation is

instances, the peasants often take the
their

law into

own

hands, and

assassinate their lords.

120
CHAP.
^

MOSCOW.

V

'

Jq prevent this, the latter from their own people, and
of
all

live in cities,

remote

altogether unmindful

that concerns their slaves,

except the
of the

tribute

the

latter are to pay.

Many

Russian nobles dare not venture near to their

own

villages,

through fear of the vengeance
In
to point out

they have well merited by their crimes.
this sad

survey,

it

is

soothing

whereon the attention, wearied by a vmiform view of depravity, may for
object,

any worthy

a few short
traits

moments

repose.

Some

noble

have presented themselves among the

slaves.

Noble Behaviour of Count Gulovkin's

Thc
.

father of

Count Golovkin was reduced to
of

the necessity of selling a portion of his peasants,
ui

Peasants,

consequcuce
of the

debts contracted in

the

service

Crown.

Upon
the

this

occasion,

deputies

chosen

among

slaves

came

to

Moscow, beseeching an audience of their lord.

One
were

venerable man, the oldest of the

number

advertised for sale, begged to
to

know why they

be so dismissed.
'*

" Because," said the

Count,

I

am

in

absolutely pay the debts

want of money, and must I have contracted."
all

" How much?" exclaimed at once
-

the deputies.
rejoined the

About
"

thirty thousand

roubles,''

Count.

God

help us

!

Do

not

sell

us

;

we

will

bring the money."

MOSCOW.
Peter the Third was a greater
friend to the
all

121
^^ft^VI.

Russian noUlity, during three months, than

^

the sovereigns of i??«^m in the collected periods of their power.

While under the oppressive
Paul, they kneeled,
liberated

and degrading

discipline of

and kissed the rod.
mitted them to

Peter

them from
;

slavery and from corporal punishment
sell their effects,
;

he per-

and

to settle

in other countries

to serve, if they pleased,
;

under other sovereigns
all

in short,

he gave them

they most desired;

and they assassinated

their benefactor.

The swarm
this

of servants in their palaces has ^

been already noticed.

A foreigner wonders how
The
fact
is, if

servants or the Nobuity.

can be maintained.
fifty

a noble-

man have

or five hundred servants, they
rouble.

do not cost him a

Their clothes, their Their

food, every article of their subsistence, are de-

rived from the poor oppressed peasants.

wages,

if

wages they can be

called,

rarely ex-

ceed

in their

value an English halfpenny a day'.

In the whole year, the total of their daily pit-

tance
copeeks

equals

about

five

roubles,

forty-seven

and a

half: this, according to the state of

exchange at the time

we were

there,

may be

estimated at twelve shillings and ninepence.

(

I

)

About a

copeek

and a

half.

122
CHAP.

MOSCOW.
But small as
omitted
nobles
;

tliis
it is

sum

is,

it

might have been

for

never paid.
to

Few among
owe
is,

the

deem

it

any disgrace
a debt.

their ser-

vants so

trivial

There

in fact,

no

degree of meanness too base for the condescension of a Russian nobleman.

To enumerate

all

we were eye-witnesses, would only weary and disgust the Reader.
the instances of which
It will suffice that

we end

with one.

Remarkable llieft.

A hat had
The

been stolen from our apartments.

servants positively asserted, that

some

young noblemen, who had been more lavish of their friendship and company than we desired,

had gained access

to the

chambers

in

our absence, and had carried

off the hat,

with

some other moveables even of less value. The fact was inconceivable, and we gave no credit to it. A few days after, being upon an excursion to the Convent of the
five
versts

New

Jerusalem, forty-

north of Moscow, some noblemen,
intention

to

whom our

was made known, during

the preceding evening, at the Societe de Noblesse,

overtook us on horseback.

One
racer,

of the party,

mounted upon an English
like

and habited

a Newmarket jockey, rode towards the side
;

of our carriage

but his horse being somewhat

unruly, he lost his seat, and a gust of wind carried off his cap.

The

author's

companion imme-

MOSCOW.
diately descended,

123
it

and ran

to recover

for its

^";J^-

owner

;

but what was his astonishment, to per-

own name, and the name of his hatter, It was no other than the idenon the hning tical hat which had been stolen by one of them from our lodgings, although now metamorceive his
!

phosed
it

into a

cap

;

and, under

its

altered shape,
for the

might not have been recognised, but

accident here mentioned'.

The

love of mimicry, already mentioned as

convent of
Jerusalem.

characteristic of the nation, has
to great excess in the

been carried

Convent of the New Jeruis

salem:

this

building

not only an imitation

of the Church of the Holi/ Sepulchre at Jerusalem,

but

it

contains representations of

all

the relics

(1)

The

prohibition concerning round hnts had rendered this kind

of cap very fashionable in Moscow,

A

translated extract from the

writings of one whose pages confirm every characteristic of the Rxissians given in this

work,

will

shew how

faithful a picture the state;

ment

of the fact above mentioned offers of the whole nation

and

also to

what extent the

vice of stealing

is

carried in that country.
vice of

" Next
officer,

to drunkenness, the
is

most prominent and common
first

the Russians

theft

From the

Minister to the General-

from the lackey to the
It

soldier, all are thieves, plunderers, in

and

cheats
v/hich

sometimes happens, that,

apartments

at Court, to

none but persons of quality and superior
is

officers are

admitted,
of

your pocket-look

carried off as if you were in a fair.

The King One
of

Sweden,
officers,

after

the battle of July, 17.90, invited a party of Russian
prisoners, to dine with him.

who had been made
:

them
be

stole a plate

upon which the offended king ordered them
Z/Wirf.

all to

distributed
silver."

among

the small towns, where they never again ate off
1801.
/».

Memoirs of the Court of Petersburg.

270.

124
CHAP,
VI.

MOSCOW.
consecrated in that edifice.
after the
It

was

built exactly
•'

same model; and within it are exhibited, The tomb of Christ, The stone rolled from The holes luhere the crosses of our the sepulchre
f

Saviour and the two thieves crucified with him were
placed,

The prison where he was
all

confined

;

toge-

ther with

the other absurdities fabricated

Empress Helena and her ignorant priests by Finding, however, some diffeat Jerusalem. rence between the original building in the Holy Land, and its model here, we asked the reason of the alteration. The monks replied, " Our building is executed with more taste, because and there are many it is more ornamental;
the

good judges who prefer
Jerusalem,

ours to the original

.-"

thus
at

most ignorantly implying, that the Church
been so rather on account of
its

so long an object of adoration, had

beauty, than

any thing contained
prove with more
the

in

it.

effect, to

But nothing can what an abject state
than that

human mind may be degraded,
to

the trumpery here, not having even the
title

empty
claim,

reverence

which

relics

may

but

confessedly imitations, should receive the

veneration and the worship paid to their originals.
holes in

A fat and
Here

filthy priest, pointuig to

some

a pavement in the midst of Russia, exstood the holy cross

claims, "

r

while boorish

devotees shed over the spot tears of piety, as

MOSCOW.
genuine as the drops that
fall

125

from the eyes of

chap.
VI.

pilgrims in the tabernacles at Jerusalem.

Within
figure,

a

cell, to

which they have given the name of

The
to

prison of Jesus Christ, is a
it

wooden
is

so ridiculously dressed, that

impossible
is

view

it

without laughter.
;

This image

as

large as

life

and

it is

intended to represent the

Messiah in

his

confinement, having a veil of

black crape cast about the head, face,
shoulders.

and

The

'

Virgin with Three Hands' also
:

makes her appearance here
picture
is

and an antient

exhibited,
:

which they say came from
in Russia
it

Jerusalem

it

is

exactly in the taste of those

modem
for

paintings

now manufactured

the churches and household gods, and

was probably one of the original models of the art. The dome of the building may be esteemed among the finest works of architecture in the
country.
It
is

lighted

in

a very pleasing

manner.

The expense

of

its

completion has
roubles, or

been rated

at thirty-eight

thousand
to

we
is

should have supposed

it

have been

much
of

greater.

In the library of the Convent there
thirty pieces

nothing remarkable, excepting
as the money paid
to

lead, she^vn

Judas Iscariot
copies of a

for betraying Christ;

of course,
at

similar

pretended

relic

Jerusalem.

The
valued

dresses of the

priests,

covered with jewels,
mitre aJone
is

are also displayed.

One

:

126
CHAP,

MOSCOW.
at twenty-four thousand roubles.

Some modem
are shewn,

Manuscript Bib
presented

es,

in

th^

Russian language,

by the sumptuously bound

late
in

Empress,

covers of gold, studded
;

with enamelled paint ngs

these are set round

with the finest Siberian emeralds, and with other
precious stones.

The approach
in a pleasing

to this

Convent

is

by a

gentle

ascent, on a fine verdant plain.

It is situate

country

;

and the excursion

to it

conducts a stranger through the most agreeable
of the environs of Moscoiv.
It

was once

fortified

a few pieces of artillery lay neglected near the
gate,

beneath some trees.

We were

presented

to the Superior, the

most greasy monk, without

exception,
Latin,

we

ever beheld.

He spoke

to us in

and gave us the history of

their great

whose portrait we had seen in the church, and who rose from the lowest
patriarch Nicon,
station to the high office he held.

After his

marriage, a separation took place, out of pure
devotion,

by the mutual consent
;

of

husband

and wife

one becoming prior of a monastery,

and the other prioress of a convent.

When we
inhabitants
prohibitions.

returned to Moscow,
in

we

found the

murmuring

consequence of new
appeared, forbidding

An ukase had

"

MOSCOW.
the importation of any kind of foreign
rature
music,
:

127
lite-

chap.

head were included maps, and whatsoever might be considered as
under
this

w—

v

'

a vehicle of science.

Some

notion

may be
public

Public
^""^""^

formed of the administration of the
censors,

by a

domiciliary visit the booksellers

received, during our residence in Moscow.

The

shops were to undergo examination for prints
or plans of Riga.

Every

article of their pro-

perty was of course overhauled.

Wherever
refe-

any thing appeared bearing the remotest

rence to Riga, for whatever purpose calculated,
it

was

instantly
to

condemned.
its

If the

word
in

'

Riga'

chanced
the leaf

make

appearance

any book

however valuable, though but on a

single page,

was

torn out.

In this

manner they
voyages

destroyed, in one day, works of geography,
history, the arts, atlasses, dictionaries,
;

ravaging, tearing, and blemishing, wheresoever

they came.

That the Russians have talents, no one will deny but they dare not display them. Since the death of Catherine, it seemed to be the wretched policy of their Government to throw
;

every obstacle in the
provement.
possessor
stupidity,
;

way

of intellectual im-

Genius became

a curse to

its

wit, a passport to Siberia.

Apathy,
;

and ignorance, were blessings

truth

128
CHAP,
v«.

MOSCOW.
and science,
author of
'

qualifications for the knout.

The

Man

Foi/age a Moscou,' even during
for the

the reign of Catherine, had atoned

brilUancy of his understanding in the wilder-

nesses of Toholshy^.
prohibitions

The number
it

of Paul's

became

so numerous, and

many

of
to

them were
I

so trivial, that

was necessary

carry about manuals of obedience, and assist

/the

/
f

things.

memory by Some

pocket-catalogues of forbidden
of these
fear.

prohibitions

excited

more laughter than
Emperor's
hibited any other

Pug-dogs, from the
to

resemblance

them, were pro'

name than

Mops.'

Ivory-

headed canes were on no account permitted,

being reserved solely for the use of the military. These, and

many

other absurd regulations, exto the insolence of the

posed foreigners daily
police.

not wearing flaps to his waistcoat

Mr. Cripps was actually arrested for and the
:

author narrowly escaped punishment, for having
string's in his shoes.

Convent of
'

Thc CouveM of
miles

the
is

Trinity,

distant forty

from Moscoiv,

worth seeing,

deemed particularly on account of its immense riches.
Radischef.

(l)

The unfortunate

He was made a

victim of the politi-

cal Inquisition

during the reign of Catherine.

Russian merchants

have given five-and-twenty roubles to read Radischef's book for a
sinsrle

hour.

MOSCOW.
Rather more than two miles farther
contains within
is

129
another
it

convent, less known, but more remarkable:
its

walls a Gothic church, erected
is

over a mount which

supposed to typify The
Christ.
is

Mountain of the Ascension of Jesus
the foot of the mount, and within
it,

At

a small

chapel, containing figures, executed in wax, to

represent the resurrection of Lazarus.

This ex-

traordinary work has been planned by Plato,

archbishop of Moscow,

who

resides there, and

under whose inspection the whole was executed.

The

place

is

called Bethany.

But the most remarkable
a strikmg monument
.,
.

edifice, as
.

it

affords church

of

oi national

r.

1

,

St, Basil.

manners,

is

the

Chufch of
ing;

St. Basil,

near the Kremlin,

It is

a

complete specimen of the Tahtar taste

in build-

and was erected by Ivan Basilovich the Second, in 1538. To add to the singularity of its
it

was the workmanship of Italian architects. Its numerous and heavy cupolas, surmounted by gilded crucifixes, exhibit a striking
history,

contrast of colour and ornament.

Pious indivi-

duals bequeath legacies towards the perpetual
gilding or painting of this or that
to their various fancies
;

dome, according
it is

so that

likely to
for

remain a splendid piece of patch-work
generations.

many

In order to account for the origin

of this building, and for the Tahtarian style exhivoL.
I.
jj:

130
CHAP,
VI.

MOSCOW.
,

bited in the architecture,

we must

look back to

the period of the Russian history when it was constructed.

The

stories
in

we have hitherto received
or ostentation
it

of the monarch
is

whose piety

said to have originated, are so contradictory,
little

that the subject itself merits a

investigation.

The more we
Russia,

inquire into

the real history of

and of the Russian Sovereigns, the more
have reason to believe, that the country
little

we

shall

and people have undergone
mio'htcut off
stitute

variation since

the foundation of the empire.

Peter the Great the beards of the nobles, and subfor Asiatic robes;

European habits
is still

but the

inward man
(l)
is

the same'.

A

Russian of the

related of

of

They who knew Potemhin, or who will merely attend to what him in page 18, will find that a picture of the manners Russian Arables made in the seventeenth century will equally repre1

sent those of their Princes in the eighteenth.

"

Pendant

le

r^pas les rots qui leur sortent de la bouche avee
I'ail,
ils

I'odeur de I'eau-de-vie, de

de I'oignon, et des raves, joints aux

vents du has ventre, dont

ne sont point scrupuleux, exhalent une
Ils

corruption capable de faire cr^ver ceux qui sont aupres d'eux.

ne

portent point leurs mouchoirs dans leurs poches, mais dans leurs

bonnets
a table,

;

et
s'ils

comme

ils

ont toujours la t6te nuS
de se "moucher,
ils
h.

lorsqu'ils

sont

ont besoin

se

servent de leurs

doights, qu'ils essuyent ensuite, et leur nez,

la

nappe."
1

Voyage en

Moscovie, par Augustin,

Baron deMayerburg, Leid. 688, />. 62. Olearius, secretary to the ambassador from the Court oi Denmark,

gave a bimilar account of their morals in the middle of the seventeenth
century.

The

following short extracts are from the best edition of

his works, translated

from the Gerniian by Wicquefort, and published
Moscovites ne manquent point d'esprit

at Paris, A.

D. 1666.
les
;

"
ils

II est

vray que
si

mais

I'employent

mal, qu'il n'y a pas une de leurs actions, qui ait

pour

MOSCOW.
nineteenth century possesses all the servile propensities, the barbarity of

181
<"TtV^r'-

manners, the cruelty,

the hypocrisy, and the profligacy, which characterized his ancestors in the ninth.
pour
le

but

la vertu, et la gloire,

qui en est inseparable

Leur
ne se ser-

Industrie et la subtilit^ de leur esprit paroist principalement en leur
trafic,

ou

il

n'y a point de finesse, ny de tromperie dont

ils

vent, pourfourber les autres, plustost que poursedefeudre de I'estre."

Voyage d'Olear.

torn. I.

p.

1

45.

" Et

d'autant que la tromperie ne s'exerce point sans faussete, sans
ils

menteries et sans defiances, qui en sont inseparables,
veilleusement bien s'ayder de ccs belles

soavent mer-

qualiti's, aussi

bicn que de la

calomnie."

Ibid. p. 146.

" De

cette facon d'agir des Moseovites, et
les

du peu de

fidelite qu'ils

ont entr'eux. Von peutjuger de ce que
etjusqu'h quel point Von

Estrangers en peuvent esp^rer,
rent jamais leur atnitie, Ils n' off
et

s'y peutjier.

et 7i'en contractent jamais,
(T en profiler .

que pour leur interest particuUer,

a dessein

La mauvaise
ils

nourriture qu'on leur donne en leur jeuqu'il lire et escrire, et

nesse, en laquelle

n'apprennent au plus
fait qu'ils
;

quelques petites pri^res vulg:aires,

suivent aveuglement ce

que

I'on appelle

aux bestes

I'instinct

de sorte que la nature estant

en

elle

mesme

deprav^e et corrompue, leur vie ne peut estre qu'un
C'est

debordement et d^reglement continuel.
donn^s, k qui
p. 148.

pourquoy

I'on n'y voit

rien que de brutal, et des effets de leurs passions et appetits desorils

laschent la bride, sans aucune retenue."

Ibid.

" Le

naturel pervers des Moseovites, et la bassesse en laquelle
ils

ils

sont nourris, joint k la servitude, pour laquelle

semblent estre n^s,

font que I'on est contraint de les traiter en bestes, plustost qu'en

personnes raisonnables.

Et
55.

ils

y sont

si

bien accoustumes, qu'il est

comme
It
is

impossible de les porter
Ibid. p.
1

au

travail, si I'on n'y

employe

le foiiet

et le baston."

the more necessary to cite these remarks, because authors of

celebrity, such, for example, as Puff'endorf, offer very erroneous no-

tions to the student in

modern

history.
les

" On

se

tromperoit beau-

coup," says he,
s'arretoit

"

si

pour connottre
<jt6

Russes d'aujourd'hui, on
le

aux portraits qui ont
ce si^cle."

faits

de cette nation avant
S^c.

com-

nwncement de

Introd.

h VHistoire Moderns,

tome IV,

p. 284, edit. Paris, 1756.

K

2

; :

132

MOSCOW.
John Basilovich
the First

has been considered

as one of the founders of the Russian

Empire
till

but his accession did not take place middle of the fifteenth century.
although described as a

the

He

arose, like

Buonaparte, in a period of national dismay; and

man

of impetuous vices,

intrepid, artful, treacherous, having all the fero-

city of a savage, he

has been hailed as the

dehverer of his country, and dignified by the
appellation of
'

The Great'

It is

a title which an

oppressed intimidated people have frequently

bestowed upon tyrants.
ever, Tahtars

Until his time, howwere lords of Moscow; the Tsars

themselves being obliged to stand in the presence of Tahtar ambassadors while the latter
sat at

meat
but

;

and

to

endure the most humiliat-

ing ceremonies.

Basilovich shook off the Tahtar

yoke

;

it

was long before the

Russians,

always children of imitation, ceased to mimic
a people by

whom
in

they had been conquered.

They had
manners,

neither arts nor opinions of their

own
all,

every thing

Moscow was Tahtarian; dress,
equipages,
in

buildings,

short,

excepting religion and language.
the conquest of Casan,

Basilovich, at

was solemnly crowned with the diadem of that kingdom this is said to be the same now used for the coronation of
:

the Russian Sovereigns.
successor,

In the reign of his
,

Moscow was

again

taken

by the

MOSCOW.
Tahtars,

133

and

its

Tsar subjected to an ignomi-

nious tribute.

Twelve years afterwards, the
but afterwards a ferotyrant,

eldest son of that successor, John Basilovich the
Second, then an infant,

cious

and

implacable

came

to

the

throne \

It is

a curious

fact, that, in

the very opening'

of his reign, three hundred artists, intended for

were arrested in the town of Lubeck. What the great work then carrying on in Moscow
Russia,

was,

is

now

uncertain; but

it

evidently proves a

disposition,

on the part of the sovereign, to

superinduce the hearts of TVestern nations over
the

long-established
Some

Oriental

customs of his

(l)

writers endeavour to apologise for the conduct and cha-

racter of John Basilovich the Second.

The Editors
has

of the
(Vol.

Modern

Universal History even speak of him with eulogiura.
p. 259.)

XXXV.
;

Mr. Coxe thinks
j;o?. I. jB.

his character
it

been misrepresented
*'

(Trav.

302.)

and yet allows

would be

contrary to his-

torical evidence to
If the horrible

deny many of the cruelties committed by him."

cruelties related of this
vol. I.

monarch by Dr. Crull
eye-witnesses of

(see

Account of Muscovy f
of his enormities

^. 33

1 .

Loud. 1698) be untrue, what

will

be

said of the narrative of those persons
?

who were
" But

many

Crull says, his affected sanctitj' led Jovius into the
if

mistake of calling him a good Christian.

any delight to reade

the terrible and bloudie acts of Ivan Basilovich, he

may

glut,

if

not

drowne himselfe
written of his

in bloud, in

that historic which Paul Odcrhorne hath
in

life,

and both there and

others take view of his other
I

unjust acts.

I will

not depose for their truth, though

cannot
I list

dis-

prove

it

:

adversaries perhaps

make

the worst.

For myselfe,

not

to rake sinkes against him, and would speake in his defence,

if I

found

not an uuiversall conspiracy of

all historic

and reports against hira."

Purchas

his Pilg rimes, lib.'w. c. 9. sect. I.

134
people.
Ill

MOSCOW.
this reign

was

built the

church to

which we have now alluded. The artists arrested in Luheck were Germmis. The architects employed for the Church of St. Basil were Italians;
probably obtained by the connexion which subsisted

between the Tsars of Muscovy and the

Emperors of Constantinople^

From whatever

country they came, the taste displayed in the
edifice is evidently Tahtarian.

How much

the

manners of the people were so at this period, may be shewn by reference to the curious and interesting documents preserved in Hakluyfs

was during the bloody administration of the tyrant who then ruled in Russia that the first ambassadors went
Collection

of

Voyages.

It

from England to that country.
they sent home,
it

By

the accounts

appears the situation of

Englishmen

in Russia

was precisely what we

experienced two hundred and thirty years after-

wards, under the tyranny of the Emperor Paul
the

;

same disgusting race around them; the same dread of being communicative in their letters; the same desire to quit a scene of
barbarity and profligacy.
(0 Some
years afterwards,

The

secretary to

A,D, 1557, the Tsar again made an un;

successful application to the Coui-t of Vienna for artists

stating, that

" he

could easily procure

gave the preference to

them from France and Italy, hut that he Germans; knowing them to be an upright,
See the authors cited
in

virtuous, and' honest people."

the Mod.

Univ. Hist.

vol.

XXXV. p. 217.

;

:

MOSCOW.
Randolph,

135

who went

as ambassador from

Queen

^Ifi^^'-

Elizabeth, was a person of the name of George
Tuhervile,

^—n

'

and wrote "Certaine Letters

^*

in Verse," Lmers!

to Dancie, Spenser,

and Parker, " descril)ing the

maners of the countrey and people."
pears to have been a young
that time.

He

ap-

man

of fashion at

We

have selected some of the most

striking passages in these Letters, for a note".

They

are very

little

known, and worth the

Reader's attention;

not merely because they

(2)

"

1

left

my

native soilc, full like a retehles?e

man,
:

And unacquainted

of the coast,

among

the Rosses ran

A

people passing rude, to vices vile inclinde,
fit

Folke

to be of

Bacchns train, so quaffing
* #

is

their kinde.

*

" Such
But

licour as they have,

and as the countrey gives.
lives.

chiefly

two, one called Kuas, whereby the Mousike
tart in taste,

Small ware and ^vaterlike, but somewhat

The

rest

is

Mead

of honie made, wherewith their lips they baste. * * »

" Their

Idoles have their hearts,
it

on God they never

call,

Unlesse

be {Nichola Bough) that hangs against the wall.
that hath no god, or painted saint, w ithin.
to,

The house
Is

not to be resorted

that roofe

is

full of

sinne."

Hakluyt's Voyages, pp. 384

5.

He then
their

proceeds to mention the dissolute
:

lives of

the

women, and

manner of painting their cheeks

and, at the close of his Letter

to Spenser, he says,

" The people
I

beastly bee.

write not
if I

all I

know,

I

touch but here and there
pinch, and eke offend
I

For
**

should,

my penne would
* *
gives

feare.

*

They

say the lion's

paw

judgement of the beast
least."

And

so

you may deeme of the great, by reading of the

Ibid. p. 387i
III

:

:

136
CHAr.
V.
-

MOSCOW.
prove that Russia, when they were wfitten,
'

v

appeared as

it

does at

this day,

but also as

curious examples of early English poetry.

The

work
rare,

in

which they are contained
authorised in

is

extremely

and bears an enormous

price.

Indeed
that

we

are

maintaining,

any

inquiry into the history of the people (whether
directed to writers

who

describe the brightest

In his Letter to Parker, the Tahtar dress and manner are thus strikingly introduced

" Their garments be

not gay, nor handsome to the eye

;

A cap

aloft their heads they have, that standeth very hie.

Which Colpack they do terme. They weare no ruflFes at all The best have collers set with pearle, which they Rubasca call.
Their shirts
in Russie long,

they worke them downe before.

And on the
" These

sleeves with coloured silks,

two inches good and more.

m
are the Russies robes.

*

*
richest use to ride

The

From place to place, The Cassacke beares

his servant runnes,

his felt, to force

and foUowes by away the raine
:

his side.

Their bridles are not very brave, their saddles are but piaine. « * «

" For when the Russie is pursued by cruel foe, He rides away, and suddenly betakes him to his boe. And bends me but about in saddle as he sits. And therewithal! amids his race his following foe he hits.
Their bowes are very short, like Turhie bowes outright.

Of sinowes made with birchen barke,
« • *

in

cunning maner dight.

" The maners are so Turkic like, the men so full of guile. The women wanton, temples stuft with idoles that defile
The
As
In
seats that sacred

ought to be, the customes are so quaint.
I

if I

would describe the whole,
I

feare

my pen

would

faint.

summe, Nor people
Wilde

say,

I

never saw a prince that so did raigne,

so beset with Saints, yet all but vile

and

vaine.

Irish are as civill as the Russies in their kinde.
is

Hard choice which

the best of both, ech bloody, rude, and blinde."
Jbid. pp.

387—389

'

MOSCOW.
or the

13/
will

most gloomy amials of Russia)

prove

chap.
'

the state of society in the country to exist
as
it

now

<—

always has been.

The

leading testimony
is

(even of authors decidedly partial)

by no
last

means favourable
tants.

to the character of its inhabi-

So long ago as the middle of the

century,

when

the Baron de Manstein wrote his
interesting sera that

Memoirs^ concerning the

elapsed between the beginning of the reign of

Peter the Second, and the marriage of the late Empress Catherine with the husband whose murder Voltaire found it impossible to methodize^, the insecurity of property, the total want of
public faith, the ignorance and the rudeness of

the people, were notorious \

De Manstein
;

stuattri-

diously avoided

all

opprobrious reflections

buting the depreciating accounts, usually given
of the natives, to the
little

information strangers,

unacquainted with the language, can procure*.
It will

therefore be curious to adduce the evi-

dence, which

may

nevertheless be derived from

his work, to validate the description

we have

(1)

Memoirs of

Rttssia

served in the Russian army.

by the Baron de Manstein, a German, who He afterwards became a general-officer

in the Prussian service. These Memoirs contain a history of Russia from the year 1727 to the year 1744.
(2) See the
(S) *'

Advertisement prefixed to this volume.
perfectly ignorant of all the rules of good breeding,

They were

even of the laws of nations, and of those prerogatives of foreign ministers

which are established
the

in the other

Courts of Europe."

Supplement

to

Memoirs,
Ibid.

i)'c.

p. 416. Second Edit. Lond. 1773.

(4)

V

138
^^^1'"^

MOSCOW.
given of the Russians; especially after the high
'

character given of the former
It

was during the

reign

by David Hume\ of the Empress Anxe,

that ValinshTjy a minister of the Crown, together

with his adherents,

fell

victims to the displeasure

of one of her favourites.

After relating their
their

undeserved
property,

fate,

and the confiscation of
observes
^
:

De

Manstein

" All the

estates of these unfortunate persons
to others,

were given
In this

who 'did not possess
it is,

them long.

manner," says he, "

that in Russia, not only

money, but even lands, houses, and moveables,
circulate quicker than in

any other country

in

Europe.

I

have seen lands change masters at

least thrice in the space of two years."

The same

author,

describing their barbarous finery and
half a century ago, actually

want of cleanliness

delineated a portraiture of the nobles as they

appear at the present day\

"The

richest coat

would be sometimes worn together with the
vilest
tiful

uncombed wig

;

or

piece of stuff spoiled

you might see a beauby some botcher of a

were nothing amiss in the dress, the equipage would be deficient. A man richly dressed would come to Court in a miserable coach, drawn by the wretchedest hacks."
tailor; or, if there
(1)

Hume

vouches for his having been an eye-witness to most of

the incidents he has related, and speaks of the avithor's candour, good
sense,

and impartiality.

— See

Advertisement

to

the

Memoirs sig-md

" David Hume."
(2)

Memoirs of Russia,

p. 256.

(3) Ibid. p. 34/.

MOSCOW.
The same want
of taste reigned in the furniture

139

and appearance of their houses.

On

one side
;

you might see gold and
other, " a shocking
**

silver in

heaps

on the

dirtiness.'"

And

then he adds*,

It

was enough

for a dealer in the

commodities

of luxury and fashion to remain two or three

years at Petersburg, to gain a competency for
the rest of his
life
;

even though he should have
credit."

begun the world there with goods upon

Instances of this kind, during the period of our

residence in Russia, might be cited, as having

happened both

in Petersburg

and

in Moscoiu.

(4)

Memoirs

of Russia, p..248.

,

PLAN of MOSCOW;

she uing (he .St^urtrion of the

KREMLIN, avd

the Course of the

TUven Moscva

Niglina,

and Yousa.

CHAP.
Sunday Market

VII.

—Promenades during Easter— Kremlin— Great Bell-^Great Gun—Antient Palace Holy Gate Tsars— Imperial Treasury —Manuscripts— Superb of Kremlin — Model — General appearance of — Church of
the

MOSCOW.

the

First

Christian

Festival

the Ascension.

CHAP.
VII.

Sunday
Market.

he market on a Sunday in Moscmv is a novel and entertaining spectacle. From five in the
Jl

morning

till

eight, the Place de Galitzin, a
is

spa-

cious area near the Kremlin^

filled

with a

concourse of peasants, and people of every
description,

coming

to buy, or to sell, white pea-

cocks, fan-tailed and other curious pigeons, dogs

MOSCOW.
of
all

141
singing-

sorts for the sofa or the chace,
pistols,

chap.
v.
.

birds, poultry, guns,

in short,

whatso-

y

^

ever chance or
saleable.

custom may have rendered
excepting in the market
is

The

sellers,

of singing-birds, which
large,

permanent and very
or they are seen

have no shops; they remain with their
stalls,

wares exposed upon

hawking them about

in their hands.

birds are the principal articles for

Dogs and sale. The
for

pigeon-feeders are distinguished in the midst of
the

mob by

long white wands, used

the

purpose of directing the pigeons

in their flight.

The

nobles of Moscow
:

take great
sell

delight in
five to

pigeons

a favourite pair will

from

ten roubles in the market.
to see the feeders,

We

were surprised

birds, let

pleasure.

them fly, The principal recommendation of these
spiral curve, all flying

by way of exhibiting their and then recover them again at

birds consists in their rising to a great height in

the

air,

by a

one way, and

following each other.

When

a pigeon has been
in the

launched,

if it

do not continue
at the
is

same
his

line of

curvature which the others observe, the feeder
whistles,

waving
its

same time

wand,

and then

course

immediately changed.

During these

exhibitions, the nobles stake their

money

in

wagers, betting upon the height to
will ascend,

which the birds

and the number

of curves they will

make

in

so doing.

Among

142

MOSCOW.

^y^^' the dogs for hunting,

we

observed a noble race,
with long fine hair,

which
like size

is

common

in Russia,

the Newfoundland breed, but of amazing and height; this kind of dog is used in

Russia to pursue the wolves.

German pug-dogs,

highly appreciated in London, here bear a low
price:

we were

offered a very fine one for a
shilhng.

sum

equivalent to an English

We
is

observed also Enghsh harriers and fox-hounds:
but the breed most valued
English terrier; this
of this kind will
roubles,
is

in Moscoiv

the

rare in Russia, and a

dog

sell at

so high a price as eighteen

or even higher, according to the caprice

of the buyer and seller.

Persian cats were

offered for sale, of a bluish-grey or slate colour,

and
to

much

admired.

Seeing

several

stalls

apparently covered with wheat,

we approached
in

examine

its

quality,

and were amused

finding that

what had the appearance of wheat
ants
stalls

consisted of large

Near the same
creeping
of those
ants are

eggs, heaped for sale. were tubs full of pismires,

among the eggs, and upon the clothes who sold them. Both the e^^^ and the
brought to Moscow as food
for nightin-

gales, the favourite, although

common, singing

birds in Russian houses

;

their notes being in

every respect as wild and pleasing, when confined in cages, as in their native woods.

We

often heard

them

in

the bird-shops, warbling

MOSCOW.
with
all

143
chap.
VII.
^
,

the fulness and variety of tone which
.

distinguishes the nightingale in

its

natural state'.
song,
is

y

/

The

price of a nightingale, in

full

about

fifteen roubles.

The

Russians,

by

rattling

beads
can

on one of their tables oi tangible

arithmetic'^,

make
day
:

these birds sing at pleasure during the

but nightingales are heard throughout the

night,

making the

streets of the city resound the

melodies of the forest.

The promenades at this season of the year are among the many sights in Moscow which are interesting to a stranger. The principal promenade is on the first of May (Russian style),
in a forest near the
city.
it is

Promenades during Eauer.

It

affords a very

curious spectacle, because
bourgeoisie as

frequented by the
nobles,

well as

by the

and the
its

national costume

may

then be observed in

greatest

splendour.

The procession

of car-

riages and persons on horseback is immense. Beneath the trees, and upon the greensward,

Russian peasants are seen seated in their gayest
dresses, expressing their joy

by shouting and by
balalaika,

tumultuous songs.

The music of the

(1)

I

have been since informed, that this method of keeping and
is

feeding nightingales
(2)

becoming prevalent

in our

own

country.

This kind of Counting-Table, universally used in Russia, and
iu the paintings of the Chinese,
is

which appears
Antients.

the Abacus of the

144

MOSCOW.
'

^vn^

^^^ shrill notes of rustic pipes, the clapping of

hands, and the wild dances of the gipsies,

all

mingle in one revelry.
in droskies,

The wives

of merchants,

and on

foot,

display head-dresses of
attire.

matted pearls, and other most expensive
In costliness of apparel, there
is

no difference
the

between a Moscow princess and the wife of a

Moscow shopkeeper;

except

that

first

copies the fashions of London and Paris, while the other preserves the habit of her ancestors.

During Easter, promenades take place every
evening, varying occasionally in the
cavalcade.
site

of

They are made in carriages and on horseback; the number of the former being
greater than any public festival assembles in

other cities in Europe.

The

intention of such
;

meeting

is

of course the

same everywhere
forming two

to

see and to be seen.

Equipages continue to
lines,

pass in a constant order,

which move parallel to each other. Beautiful women, attired in expensive but becoming dresses, fill the balconies and windows of the houses between which all this pageantry moves
towards
ofiicers
its

destination.

Hussars and policein

are

meanwhile stationed

different

parts, to preserve order.

When

arrived at the

place particularly set apart for the display of
the procession, the stranger with

amazement
singularly

beholds some

objects

which

are

MOSCOW.
contrasted with the splendour of the cavalcade;

145
chap.

and among

these, miserable hovels,

and wooden

huts, hardly discernible amidst clouds of dust.

On

Friday in the Easter-week, the place of
is

promenade
plain called

better selected:
Vallte,

it is

then on a

La

and the sight

surprising that can be conceived.

is the most Long before

reaching this plain, the throng of carriages
so great, that
it

is

At last the great scene opens, and the view which breaks all at once upon the spectator is indeed
can scarcely
striking.

move\

A

procession, as far as the eye can

reach,

is

seen passing and repassing a spacious

and beautiful lawn, terminated by the spires of
a convent.

Not

less than

two thousand car-

riages, generally

with six horses to each, but

(l)

It

may

be well to insert here an extract from Afr. Heber's
;

Journal, concerning the population of this remarkable city

as that

gentleman has made very particular inquiry upon the subject, and
zealous attention to accuracy appears in everj' statement.

his

The

circuit of

Moscow we have heard variously

stated

;

it

may,
It is

perhaps, be about thirty-six versts (twenty-six miles), but this includes

many

void spaces.

The population

is,

as usual, exaggerated.

decidedlj' greater than that of Petersburg ;

we

should think three or

four times as much, judging from the concourse in the streets.
extent, in comparison with that of Petersburg,
is

nearly, as

The may be

seen by the Plan, twelve to one; and yet, from the master of the
police, of all

men

the most likely to know, the population was esti-

mated

at

only 250,000 fixed inhabitants.

The

servants and

numerous

retainers of the nobles

may

be perhaps estimated at nearly 30,000,
Heber's

which are only here

in

winter."

MS.

Jouriud.

VOL.

I.

L

146
CHAP,
',

MOSCOW.
never less than four, are present
occasion.

upon

this

v

So much

for the general effect.

The

appearance, in detail, of the equipages, lackeys,

and drivers, beggars

all

description.

The pos-

tillions are generally old

men

of a woful aspect,

dressed in liveries of worsted lace, and wearing

cocked hats

:

these wretched bipeds hold their

whip and

reins as if they

had never before been
dirty,

so employed.

The

harness, consisting of ropes

and cords, frequently ragged, and always
is

very unlike the white traces used
if

in Poland,

which have a pleasing,
pearance.

not a magnificent ap-

The

carriages

themselves,

almost
are
It is

as filthy as the
ill-built,

night-coaches of London,

old-fashioned, heavy,

and ugly.
or

only the
affords

amazing number of equipages that
ideas
of

any

wealth

grandeur.

Examined
mean.

separately, every thing

is little

and

The procession extends upon
;

the plain

as far as the convent before mentioned
it

and then

returns back, observing

the order in

which

it

advanced.
space
their
glish
is

In the line between the carriages, a

reserved for the cavaliers,

who make
they
all

appearance upon the most beautifid Enand^ Turkish horses, riding, as
rAiis-lois.

maintain, a

but without the smallest

resemblance to

the

manner of Englishmen.

Their horses are taught the manege, and con-

MOSCOW.
tinue to pace and

147
bit,

champ

the

without ad-

CHAP.
VII.
^1
.-'

vancing a step

;

occasionally plunging, like those
;

exhibited in ampitheatres
in laced coats

while their riders,

and

ruffles,

with cocked hats,

and saddles sumptuously embroidered, imagine
they display surprising feats of horsemanship.
Several families preserve the old Russian cos-

tume,

in their

servants' habits;

others clothe

their attendants like the
Italy;

running footmen in

so that the variety formed
is

by such a

motley appearance

very amusing.

The numberless
ling

bells of Moscoiv continue to

ring during the whole of the Easter week, tink-

and

tolling,

without any kind of harmony
large bell near the cathedral
is
it

or order.

The

only used upon important occasions:
sounds, a deep and hollow

when

murmur

vibrates

all

over Moscow, like the fullest and lowest tones of
a vast organ, or the rolling of distant thunderi

This bell
Belfry

is

suspended
Ivan,

in a

tower called The
al-

of

St.

beneath others, which,

though of

less size, are also

enormous.
;

It is

forty feet nine inches in circumference

sixteen

inches and a half thick
fifty-seven tons'.

;

and

it

weighs more than

(l)

3551

Russian pouds.

Voyage de Deux

Franfciis,

tome

III.

p. 295.

148

MOSCOW.
fj^i-^Q

CHAR
•^

Kremlin

is,

above

all

other places, most
It

.^

'

worthy a

traveller's notice.

was our evening
from the
of the city

walk, whenever

we

could escape

engagements of society.
from
this place

The view

surpasses every other, both in sin-

gularity and splendour; especially from St. Ivans

Tower.

It is

surrounded on

all

sides

by

walls,

towers, and a rampart, and

is filled

with domes

and steeples.

Its

appearance

differs in

every

point of view, on account of the strange irregularity in the edifices
fortress
Holy Gate, is Called
it

contains.

Entering this

by an arched

portal, painted red,

which

the Hob/ Gate, persons of every descrip-

tion are

compelled to walk bare-headed, near a
This gate
is

hundred paces.
to
it is

on the south

side,

facing the quarter of the shops.

The approach

by a

bridge, across the fosse that surIt is

rounds the walls.

a vaulted Propylceum;
',

and over the entrance there is a picture before which a lamp is seen continually burning. Sentinels are here placed, as at all the entrances to

the Kremlin.

No

person ventures to pass this

(l)
fosse.

" You enter the Holy Gate by

a lon^ narrow hridg^e over the

On
d'ccil

the

left

hand

is

a noble view

down

to the river.

The whole
all

covp

miieh resembled Seringapatam, as represented in Kerr
In passing under the Holy Gate,
it,

Porter's Panorama.

hats are

taken

oflf,

in

reverence for a saint suspended over

who

delivered the

citadel, as tradition afiirms,

by striking a sudden panic into an army
Heher's

of Poles, which had possession of the town, and had almost succeeded
in-forcinsr this

gate of the Kremlin."

MS.

Journal.

; ;

MOSCOW.
gate without taking off his hat*.

149

wished

to see if this

absurd rule

The author was rigorously

enforced, and, feigning ignorance, entered be-

neath the arch with his hat on.
challenged him
;

A

sentinel

but, v/ithout taking

any notice
Next, a

of the sentinel, he walked forward.

bare-headed peasant met him, and, seeing his

head covered, summoned the sentinels and people with very loud expressions of anger who,
;

seizing
in

him by the arms, very soon taught hini what manner to pass the Holy Gate for the

future.

The Great Bell
largest ever found,

of Moscoiv,
is in

known

to

be the

Great BcH.

a deep pit in the midst
of
its fall is

of the Kremlin.

The history

a fable

and as writers have been induced to copy each
other, the story continues
to

be propagated.

The fact is, the bell remains in the place where It never was suspended it was originally cast.
the Russians might as well attempt to suspend

a first-rate line-of-battle ship, with

all

her guns

(2)

In

this description of the
its

Kremlin (the antient residence of the
the classical reader

Tsars oi Russia J, with
of Sophocles ( Elcctra,

Holy Gate,

vdW recognise the
Ico/ua. XliXo^iliJii

old Grecian custom of the Acropolis, answering to the
v.

10.);

and the Obraze, or Image, placed over the

Entrance, before which a liussian crosses himself, will reirund him of die

homage rendered by Orestes
\hc consecrated Propr/leca
;

to the tutelary
otroiTt^

Gods of

Mycen^ stationed over
Ibid.
i;.

voi-rvXx vaiovny raSs.

1391.

:

150
CHAP,

MOSCOW.
and
stores.

A

fire

took place in the Kremlin;

and the flames catchmg the buildmg erected
over the pit where the bell yet remained,
it

became hot
guish the

;

when some

water, thrown to extin-

fire, fell

upon the heated metal, and
in

caused the fracture that has taken place
lower part of
it.

the

The

bell reaches

from the
to

bottom of the

pit to the roof.
it lies, is

The entrance
;

the place where

by a trap

door, placed

even with the surface of the earth
the entrance are ladders.
of the ladders very dangerous

and beneath
the steps

We found
;

some being
fall

wanted, and others broken.
this the author

In consequence of

encountered a very severe
first flight
life,
;

down

the whole extent of the

and

narrowly escaped losing his
turing his scull upon the bell.
dent, a sentinel

in

not frac-

After this acci-

was

stationed at the trap-door, to

prevent people from becoming victims to their
curiosity.

The same

person,

it is

true,

might

have been as well employed
ladders, as in waiting
all

in

mending the
mountain of

day

to say that they

were broken.
metal.
It is

The

bell is truly a

said to contain a very large pro-

portion of gold and silver.
fusion, the nobles

While

it

was
in,

in

and the people cast
plate and their
in vain, to
it

as

votive offerings, their

money.

We

endeavoured,

assay a small part with superstitious

but the natives regarded

MOSCOW.
veneration, and they
grain to be
filed off.

151

be observed, that

would not allow even a At the same time, it maythe compound has a white
silvery

shining appearance, unlike bell-metal in general
;

and perhaps
if

its

aspect strength-

ened,

not caused, the conjecture respecting
of
its

the nature and value
tuents.

chemical consti

On
ing
all
it

festival days, the

peasants visit this bell
sanctuary; consider-

as they

would resort

to a

as an act of devotion; crossing themselves

the

way

as they descend and ascend the

steps.

We

found the bottom of the pit covered
the darkness
of the

with water, mud, and large pieces of timber;
which,

added
it

to

place,

render

always unpleasant and unwholesome,

independently of the danger arising from the
rotten ladders leading to the bottom.

We

went,

however, frequently thither,

in

order to ascertain

the dimensions of the bell with exactness.

To

our surprise, during one of those

visits,

half a
in the

dozen Russian ofncers,
pit,

whom we

found

agreed to assist us
It

in

making the admeasure-

ment.

so nearly agreed with the account

published by Jonas Haniuay, that the difference
is

not worth notice.

able, considering the

somewhat remarkdifficulty of exactly meaThis
is

suring what

is

partly buried in the earth, and

152

MOSCOW.
the circumference of which
is

^y^^'

not entire.

No

one has yet ascertained the circumference of the
base
;

this

would

aiford
;

still

greater dimensions
is

than those we obtained

but it

entirely buried.

About ten persons were present when we measured the part exposed to observation.

We

applied a strong cord, close to the metal, as

nearly as possible round the lower part where
it

touches the ground

;

taking care, at the same

time, not to stretch the cord.

From

the piece
that
lip,

of the bell broken

off,

it

was ascertained

we had

thus measured within two feet of the

or lower extremity.

The circumference thus
sixty-seven feet

obtained equalled
inches
;

and

four

allowing a diameter of twenty-two feet,

five inches,

and one third of an
to correspond
;

inch.

We

then

took the perpendicular height from the top;

and found
statement

it

exactly with the

made by Hamuay

namely, twentyIn the stoutest

one

feet, four

inches and a half.

which it should have received the blow of the hammer, its thickness equalled twenty-three inches. We were able to ascerpart, that in

tain this,

by placing our hands, under water,
:

where the fracture took place
seven feet high from the
lip

this is

above

of the bell.

The
if

weight of
valued at

this

enormous mass of metal has
to
;

been computed

which, be 443,772 lbs. three shillings a pound, amounts

to

:

MOSCOW.
^.66,565.
to
\6s. lying-

153
ch.ap.
'

unemployed, and of no use

any one'.

-

y

^

The Great Gun,
the Kremlin,

also

among

the

wonders of
facility
;

Great Gun.

we measured

with less

being always interrupted by the sentinels, one
of

whom

pointed his bayonet at us, and threatif

ened to stab us
yet,

by walking

its

we persisted in our intention length, we found it to be
its

about eighteen feet and a half; and

diameter

may be
Its lip,
is

guessed, because

it

will

admit a

man

of

middle stature

sitting upright within its
is

mouth.
never

moreover,

ten inches thick.

This gun
is

kept merely

for ostentation,

and

(1)

The Great Bell
and
it is

of

Moscow has

lone:

beon a theme of

wonder,
ject
is

mentioned
;

by almost every travpUer.

The sub-

of no importance
it

but

it

may be

well to add, that the accounts

given of

do not apply to the same thing.
in 163G.
It is the sanie

Olearius describes that
in p. 147 of
I.
/>.

which he saw

mentioned
(See

this
107.)

Volume, founded by Boris Gudenof.
Augustine, ambassador from Germany
here engaged our attention.
hira, bear reference to the in

Olear. torn.

1661, describes that which

Jonas Hanway, and those who succeeded
It

same.

was founded, according to Augustine,
(See Voyage de Moscou, p. 117-)
it

in 1653, during the reign of Alexis.

The Russians and people
the
reign
of their
;

of

Moscow maintain that

was cast during

figure represented

Empress Anne, probably from the female which may have been intended for the Virgin.

Augustine's account of the weight, and his

measurement of the

bell, arc

too near the truth to suppose any other was described by him.

They

employed, says he, in casting

it,

a weight of metal equal to 440,000/^5.
is

He

moreover states

its

thickness equal to two feet, which

within an

inch of what has been here said.

He

also proves that

it is

larger than

the famous

bell of

Erjurd, and even than that of Pekin.

154
^^_4^-

MOSCOW.
used '.
rienced,

Notwithstanding the neglect it has expeit

good order, without having sustained any damage. It was cast in 1694.
remains
in

Hard by, are placed some

artillery of less caliber,

but of very extraordinary length-.

There was nothing

at this

time prohibited

under more severe penalty than the making of

any drawing or sketch

within

the

Kremlin.

Owing

to this circumstance,

we

are prevented
torn.

(1) According; to the I'oyage de

Deux

Franrais,

W.p. 296.

its

weight

is

2400 ponds; and itsdimensiotis, sixteen French feet

in length,

and four

feet three inches in diameter, deducting sixteen inches for

the thickness of the piece.
(2)

A

curious notice of the brass cannon in the Kremlin occurs in
JVilles,
It is

Eden's History of Travayles, as augmented by Jugge, in the hluck letter, at London, in 1577.

and ])rintedby

gathered out of

Paulas

Javius,

and proves that they had the use of

artillery in

Moscow

so early as the reign of Basil Itanovieh,
instytute a

"

Basilius dyd furthermore

bande of hargabusiers ou horsebacke, and caused many

great brasen peeces to be
Italians
in the
:

made by the workemanshyp
Eden's Hist.
301.

of certayne

and the same

\vith

theyr stockes and wheeles to be placed
/>.

Castle of Mosca."

;

MOSCOW.
giving the superb view
it

155

affords of the city.
its

chap.
^

But as the objects within
wanting

walls are always

.-y.

'

interesting to strangers, artists of merit
for their representation.
It

were not was how-

ever with the greatest difficulty
in obtaining a

we succeeded

view of the
.

interior of the fortress,

containinof the antient ^halace of the Tsars.

A

window appears
(which
is

.

Antient Palace of
the Tsars.

in the

front of this building
edifice),
It is

an irregular Gothic
pillars.

distin-

guished by two Gothic

the

same

whence Demetrius,

in

his attempt to
fell,

escape,

during the conspiracy of Zusky,

and broke

his thigh, previous to his massacre.

He

low-

ered himself to a considerable distance by a rope

but the height was
safety.

still

too great for any hope of

Despair must have been great indeed,
it

when

induced any one to make the attempt.
also the place

That window was

where the
and to
re-

sovereigns of Russia were wont to
ceive petitions from their subjects.

sit,

The

petition
;

was placed upon a stone
if

in the court

below
it.

and

the Tsar thought proper, he sent for
is

The
:

Imperial treasure

now

in cases

around the walls
the
stone staircase,

of the upper apartments of this palace

approach to the Treasury

is

by a

memorable
the
sister

for

massacres committed there by

Strelitzes,

during the mutiny excited by the

of

reflection

Peter the Great. It is not a pleasing which some writers have urged, that

156
^vn^'

MOSCOW.
^^^ greatest atrocities, in times of anarchy or

despotism, have been perpetrated

by women.

History, they affirm, has not recorded, nor has

the severe pen of Tacitus ever described, such

monsters as were
hloody

Catherine de

Medicis,

the

Mary, and the females of France during the
In the revolt of the Strelitzes,

late Revolution.

the Princess Sophia has been accused of leading

them

to

the execution of the most shockinsr

enormities.

Later writers have undertaken her

defence
lected

;

and,

among

others,

Mr. Coxe has

col-

many ingenious arguments
view the characters of

to disprove the

aspersions of Foltaire.
are, to

Compelled, as

we

often

illustrious

persons

in the representation of their adversaries,

amidst the rancour and cabal of parties,

made we may
of the

suspect the justice of a reproach thus cast upon
the female sex.

The unreasonableness

obloquy to which the character of Richard the
Third was exposed, by writers during the reign
of Henry the Seventh,
is

now

pretty generally
is

admitted

:

yet long-established prejudice

not

easily removed.
Crusades,

Referring to the history of the

we

find the Saracens

always branded
although their

with the name of barbarians;
Christian invaders

borrowed from that people the first dawnings of civilization. A scene more
striking, as a subject for historical painting,

can

hardly be conceived, than was exhibited upon

MOSCOW.
this

157
^^,^^'

staircase,

when

the venerable Patriarch,

bearing in one hand an ohraze, or image of the ^

was supposed to work miracles, and leading young John Narishkin by the other, followed by his weeping sister and the
Virgin Mary, which
princesses, descended, calling on the infuriate

mob

to spare his

life.
;

The populace had been
and had threatened
to set

two days seeking him
the palace on
fire, if

he were not delivered to be

put to death.

No

sooner had these tigers seized

their victim, than, cutting his

body

in pieces,

they fixed his head,

feet,

and hands, on the iron

spikes of the balustrade.

We
to the

ascended by
notice.
it

this blood-stained
It

passage
little

impciai

Imperial Treasury.

contains very

worth
care of

The

old General

who had

the

was obliged
ill

to attend in person,
it

when-

ever permission for seeing

had been obtained.
visit,

He was very
sat

during our

and, being

placed in an arm-chair in one of the apartments,

grumbling the whole time with pain and

impatience.

The
in the

various

articles

have been

enumerated

anonymous Travels of Two
tiie

Frenchmen\ who complain of being hurried, as

we

were.

Habits of ceremony worn by

sove-

(l)

Voyage de Dexcx Francais, a work of ven' considerable merit,

prohibited at the time
referred to in this

we were

in Russia.

It

has been occasionally

Volume.

158
^y^^'

MOSCOW.
reigns of Russia at their coronation, and other
costly embroidered robes, thickly studded with

gems and pearls, occupied
and appeared
of the
Treasury.

the principal cabinets,

to constitute the chief

ornaments
of such

Among

a

number

worn was a vest, twelve yards by Catherine the Second. It was supported by twelve chamberlains at her coronation. The
dresses
in length,

practice

of exhibiting splendid

attire

characearliest

terized the Russians in times

of their

potentates.

From

the accounts afforded

by the
it

ambassadors of our own country, so long ago as
the reign of Philip and

Mary, we

find

was
and

the custom

at Moscoiu to clothe tradesmen,

otlier inhabitants, elders of the city, in rich gar-

ments, and to place them in the antechamber of
the sovereign on days of audience
;

but

when

the

ceremony ended, these costly vestments were
again replaced within the Treasury.
written
In a Letter

by Henry Lane

to Sanderson\ describing

his introduction, with ChanceUer, to the Tsar's

presence, in the year ]555, this circumstance is " They entred sundry particularly mentioned.

roomes, furnished
personages,
lours
;

in

shew with ancient grave
and
violet, as

all in

long garments of sundry co-

golde, tissue, baldekin,

our

vestments and copes have bene

in

England,

(l)

Hackluyt,

vol.

I.

p.

465.

MOSCOW.
sutable with caps, jewels, and chaines.

These

were found
cuvites,

to

be no courtiers, but ancient Musand
is,

inhabitants,

other

credite, as

the

maner

merchants of furnished thus from the
their

wardrobe and

treasurie,

waiting and wearing

this apparell for the time,

and so

to restore

it/'

Two

years
to

after.

Captain Jenkinson wSiS sent from
to

England
M0SC02U.

conduct the Russian ambassador
his

As he and
leave

companions were prethey received an

paring to

that

city,

invitation to see the Emperor's treasury and

wardrobe.

Having seen all his " goodly gownes," two of which are described " as heavie as a man
could easily carrie,
all

set with pearles over

and

over, and the borders garnished with saphires and other good stones abundantly," they were

particularly enjoined to procure such, or better,
in England'-,

and told " that the Emperour would gladly bestow his money upon such things."

kingdoms are exhibited in the Treasury. We saw those of Casan, of Siberia, of Astracan, and of the Crimea. The last, from its simplicity, and the circumof conquered

The crowns

stances connected with

its history,

excited the
destitute

most
the

interest.

It

was

totally

of

ornament; affording a remarkable contrast to
lavish
store
(iJJ

of

riches

seen on
p. 31J).

all

the

Hackluyl, vol.1,

160
CHAP,
VII.

MOSCOW.
objects around
-^
^

it,

and

beinsr ^

emblematical of the

simplicity
it

and

virtue of the people from

whom

had been plundered'. Its form was very antient, and resembled, that usually given by
Alfred.

painters to our English

The

part of

the Treamry containing the most valuable objects
is

a chamber

where the crowns of the
It is

Russian sovereigns are deposited.

said,

the rubies once adorning those of the

Empress

AxxE and
in their

of

Peter the Second have been

changed, and stones of less value substituted

placed
thino's

Some
formerly

were shewn

to us

that

were
such,

considered of great value, but are
;

now

curious only from their antiquity
as a long ivory comb, with
their flowing beards.

for instance,

which
Cup-

the Tsars

combed

boards,
walls,
vases,

below the glass-cases covering the were filled with a profusion of goblets, plates, cups of all sorts^ basons, gold and

silver candlesticks,

and other

articles

of value,

the gift of foreign princes and tributary states.

A
a

round box of gilded
scroll,

silver contains,

upon

the code of laws of the several pro-

(1)

The

writers of the Vnyage de Dettx Francois mention a very

antient crown of gold, which niav be that here noticed.

" Uue

autre

couronne, d'or, plus simple que toutes

les

autres, qui paroit fort

anvienne, mais dont on n'a pas pu nous dire I'origine."
(2)

Voyage de Deux Franeais,

torn. III. p. 291.

; :

MOSCOW.
vinces of the empire, collected
of Peter

161

by Alexis,

father

chap.

the Great, one of the best and wisest princes that ever sat upon the Russian There are also some pieces of methrone. chanism that would now be little esteemed

anywhere

:

a toilette entirely of amber

:

ser-

pentine vessels, supposed to possess the pro-

perty of disarming poison of

its

deadly quality

masquerade dresses worn by their sovereigns and among these, a few natural curiosities
;

the horn of a Narvhal,
length.

above eight feet in
is

This kind of whale

found near the
the Icy Sea,
or

mouths of rivers falling upon the shores of lakes

into

in the

same
in

latitude.

The horns and
state,

tusks of animals,

a fossile

form a considerable
of Russia.

article of the internal

commerce
up

Perhaps the ivory ma-

nufactured at Archangel
in the north

may have been dug
Professor Pallas

of Russia.

informed us, that such prodigious quantities
of elephants' teeth were discovered on an island

north of the Samoiede Land, that caravans come
annually laden with them to Petersburg.

The

most remarkable circumstance
in the

is,

that, instead

of being mineralized, like elephants' tusks found

South of Europe, they

may be wrought
in

with

all

the facility of the most perfect ivory

but

this only

happens when they are found
soil is

a latitude
VOL,
I.

where the

perpetually frozen

M

1C2
CHAP,
VII.

MOSCOW.
they have then been preserved, Uke the fishes

and other

articles of food

brought annually to

the winter markets of Petersburg.
in the southern parts of Siberia are
soft

Those dug
found either

and decayed, or mineralized by siliceous

infiltrations,

and metalline compounds.

What

a source of

wondrous reflection do these disIf frost alone have preserved coveries open them, they were frozen in the moment of their deposit; and thus it appears, that an animal peculiar to the warmest regions of the earth must, at some distant period, have been habituated to a temperature which it could not
!

now endure

for

an instant.

In the epistolary

mummery

bartered by the late Empress CaVoltaire,

therine with
and
it

these animal remains
:

are brought forward to gratify his infidelity'
is

difficult

to

say

who appears most
Catherine,

abject in the eyes of posterity;

condescending to gratify the scepticism of a

man

she inwardly despised

;

or the arch-infidel

himself,

having nearly completed his eighth

decade-, sometimes
(1)

by

insinuation,

and often
un

" Mais une chose qui d^montre,

je pense, que le uionde est

peu plus vieux que nos iiourrices ne nous le disent, c'est qu'on trouve dans le Nord de la SiWrie, k plusieurs toises sous terre, des osseineiis
d'tl^phans, qui depuis fort lon^-temps n'habitent plus ces contr^es."
J^tt.

de V Imperatrice a
//.

M.

de P^oUaii-e,

dans

les

CEuvres de

f^olt.

/omelxvii.
(2)

201.

Edit. 1785.

"

J'aurai k la v^rite soixante et dix-sept ans, et je n'ai pas la
;

vigueur d'uu Tiirc

mais je ue vols pas cc

(^ui

pourrait

m'empechcr
de

;

>

MOSCOW.
by
direct entreaty,

If33

meanly courting an

invitation
*

chap.

to Petersburg,

which neither

his drivelUng gal-

—y—

lantry, nor fulsome adulation could obtain.

In a very antient part of the palace, formerly

inhabited

by the

Patriarchs,

and adjoining to

their chapel, are

kept the dresses worn by them;

these are also exhibited in glass-cases.

They

requested us particularly to notice the habits of
Nicon and
St.

Nicholas; the tiaras sent to the Patri-

archs from the Emperors of Constantinople;
the crucifixes borne in their solemn processions
the patriarchal staves, and
relics.

Several of

the last were inserted in cavities cut within a

wooden
its

crucifix.

Among

other things adding to

prodigious sanctity and miraculous powers,

a part of one of the bones of

Mary Magdalene

was pointed out
antient,

to us.

The dresses were very

but

full

as magnificent as those

we had
;

seen at the ceremony of the Resurrection

gold

and

silver being:

the meanest ornaments lavished

de veDir dans
croissant.

les

beaux jours saluer Tetoile du Nord et maudire

le
;

N6tre

Madame
I'olt.

Geoffrin a bien fait

le

voyage dc Varsovie

pourquoi
d' Avril

n'entreprendrais-je
Lett, de

pas

celui

de

P^tersbourg

au

mois

?"

a V fvtperat.

Ibid. p. 49-

To which
pose

the Empress replied, that she admired his courage: but
delicate state of his health, she could not consent to ex-

knowing the

Mm

to the

dangers of

so long

a journey.

" Moreover," she added,
are, that tlw prosperity of

"

it

niif

may happen, if things continue as they affairs may demand my presence in the
Ibid. p. 50.

southern prorinces oj

my

empire."

M

2

164
CHAP,

MOSCOW.

-w—

V

'

upon them. Many were entirely covered with pearls, and otherwise adorned with emeralds,
rubies, diamonds, sapphires,

and precious gems

of Siberia.
stones

In smaller cabinets
in

we saw

onyx-

cameo work, exhibiting images of Jesus and of the Virgin ; these were not less than three inches and a half in length, and two in breadth. They shewed us, moreover, vessels
of massive silver,
oil
:

wrought

made

to contain consecrated

this is sent all

over Russia, from Moscow,

for the service of the

Greek churches.

Sixteen

of these vessels, of very considerable magnitude,

each capable of containing from three to four
gallons,

were presented by the Emperor Paul.

Manu-

In the chapel adjoining the chambers

where

the treasures are kept,
scripts in Greek

is

a collection of
;

and

Sclavonic

also

Manumore of the
the greater

bones of Mary Magdalene.

By much

number

of the manuscripts are in the Sclavonic

language.

The

priest

who had
in Latin;

the care of
affirming,

them
that

conversed with

us

among

the Sclavonic, or, as he termed them, the

Ruthenic manuscripts, there

works of

Virgil,

and one of

was a copy of the He was not, Livy.

however, able to find either of them, and

we
and

imputed the whole story
vanity.

to his ignorance
»

We
Plato

afterwards conversed with Arch-

bishop

upon the

same

subject;

who

:

^

MOSCOW.
assured us nothing of any importance existed

1

G.J

chap,
*>

among

those manuscripts.
to translate,

or pretended

The priest translated, some of their titles,
If the

—v-—

from, the Sclavonic language, into Latin.

account he gave us can be relied on, the collection contains the Travels of Pilgrims to Jerusalem
in

very remote periods.
In Russian characters, illuminated, and written

upon

antient vellum paper,

is

a

folio

copy of the

most beautifully transcribed by Anne, We were also shewn, as at Petersburg, some carving in wood by Peter the Great. This was a small
Gospels,

daughter of Michael Feodorovich.

box, containing a

letter,

dated

1

697, sent

by him,
Mos-

from Sardam
cow.

in Holland, to the Patriarchs at

The priest permitted us
:

to

make

?ii

facsimile

of his hand-writing

for this

purpose M^e copied
letter.
It

with great care the signature to his

was

simply his Christian name, and thus written

jI\
Having obtained the keys from the secretary's office, we were admitted to see the famous
Model of
its
^J'^j
*'"^

J^f

^''*"^-

un.

the Kremlin,

according to the plan for

erection under the auspices of the late
It is

Emit

press.

one of the most curious things in

Moscow.

If the

work had been completed,

166
CHAP,

MOSCOW.
would have been the wonder of the world.
architect
sian,

The

who

constructed the plan was a Rusin Paris
'

and had studied
fifty

.

This model

cost

thousand

roubles.

The expense neces-

sary for the accomplishment of the undertaking
(as the architect Camporesi,

who made

the estimillions

mate, assured us) would have been
of roubles.

fifty

The

calculation laid before the

Em-

press stated the amount only at twenty millions.

The work was begun
Empress against
state
its

;

but,

it is

said, the falling

in of a part of the foundation

determined the

prosecution.

From

the

of the roof of the building, where this
is

model

kept,

it

may be

expected that every
of decay already
it

trace of so magnificent an undertaking will soon

be annihilated.
appear
;

Symptoms
fall.

and the architect told us
to

might soon
his

be expected

When

he delivered

report of the dangerous condition of the edifice,

the Russians shrugged their shoulders, and said,
*'

Fall in!

And what

if it does

F''

The plan was,

to unite the

whole Kremlin,
form, and
offered

having a circumference of two miles, into one
magnificent palace.
Its

triangular
it

the

number

of churches

contains,

(1) According- to

the Voyage de

structed by a

German joiner

of the

Deux Frnn^ah, the model was conname of Andrew JVetman, after a
of Vailly.

design by the architect

Bajamf, pupil

See tome

111. p.

237.

MOSCOW.
some
difficulties;

167
C'^ap.
'

but the model wsls rendered
are

complete.

Its

fronts

ornamented

with

/"•-•'

ranges of beautiful

pillars,

accordmg- to different

orders of architecture.
finished in the

Every part of it was most beautiful manner, even to

the fresco painting on the ceilings of the rooms,

and the colouring of the various marble columns
intended to decorate the interior.
It incloses

a theatre, and magnificent apartments.

Had the

work been completed,
tlie

it

would have surpassed

Temple of Solomon, the Propylo'um of Amasis,

the Villa of Adrian, or the Forum of Trajan.
friend

Our

Camporesi spoke of
the

it

in

terms of equal

praise; but at

same time confessed, that
architect well
in Petersburg, entertained

Guarenghi, his countryman, an

known

for his

works

different sentiments.

Guarenghi allowed
be,

it

to

be

grand, as

it

must necessarily
;

from the magnitoo

tude of the design

but thought
in

it

much orna-

mented, and too heavy

many

of its parts.

The

architecture exhibited in different parts ^
its

g^"^*"^'

Appear^''^e of the

of the Kremlin, in

palaces and churches,

is

Kremlin.

unlike any thing seen in Europe.
to say

It is difficult

from what country

it

has been principally

derived.
lians^;

The
:

architects
is

were generally

Ita-

but the style

Tartarian, Indian Chinese,
!

and Gothic

—here

a pagoda, there an arcaae

(2) Solarius oi

Milan was principally employed.

V

:

168
CHAP,
^s

MOSCOW.
ii^

some parts
is

richness,

and even elegance

:

in

'

others, barbarism
it

and decay. Taken

altogether,

a mixed scene of magnificence and ruin

old buildings repaired, and

modern structures

not completed
walls,

;

half-open vaults, and mouldering

and empty caves, amidst white-washed
gilded,

brick buildings, and towers, and churches, with
glittering,

or

painted domes.

In the

midst of these crowded structures, some devotees are daily seen entering a
tuary,
little

mean

sancThis,

more

like a stable than a church.
is

they

tell

you,

the

first

place of Christian worIt

ship erected in Moscow.

was

originally con-

structed of the trunks of trees, felled upon the
spot, at the foundation of the city
;

but

now

it

consists of brick-work

which has been put

to-

gether in imitation of the original
Its antiquity

wooden church.
the whole

cannot be great.
in

According to ac-

counts published
city of

our

own country,

Moscow was burned by the Tahtars of the Crimea, on the 24th of May 1571 and the
;

old

wooden church was

probably then

de-

stroyed.

We

entered this building during the
service
:

celebration

of divine

a priest, with
selecis

true Stentorian lungs,
tion of the

was reading from a

Gospels to the people.

There

nothing within the structure worth notice.
Letter of Richard

(l)

Uscombe

to

Henry Lane.

Hakluyt,

vol.

L

p. 402.

;

MOSCOW.
The view
of Moscow, from a terrace
ii>

169
the
is
^

<^hap.
i.y

Kremlin, near the spot

where the
a fine

artillery

>

preserved, would

afford

subject for a

Panorama.
ings, the
all

The number

of magnificent buildspires, filling

domes, the towers, and

the prospect,

make

it,

perhaps, one of the
All the

most extraordinary

sights in Europe.

wretched hovels, and miserable wooden buildings, which appear in passing through the streets,
are lost in the vast assemblage of magnificent
edifices
:

among

these, the Foundling Hospital is

Below the walls of the Kremlin, the Moscva, already become a river
particularly conspicuous.

of importance,
Volga.

is

seen

flowing

towards the
its
is

The new promenade forming on

banks, immediately beneath the fortress,

a

superb work, and promises to rival the famous

quay
and

at Petersburg :
is

it is

paved with large

flags

continued from the
is

Sione Bridge,
;

to

another, which

called the Moscva Bridge

being

fenced with a light but strong iron palisade, and
stone pillars, executed in a very good taste.

A flight
river,
the

of stairs leads from this walk to

the

where the ceremony of the
Another
flight

Benediction of

Water takes place

at an earlier season of the

year.

of

wooden

steps

leads

through the walls of the Kremlin to an area
within the fortress.

170
'^vn^'
'

MOSCOW.
^^^ ^^^' ascending by this
churches
in

staircase,

we found
and a

V—^^ all the

the Kremlin open,

the jscen.
sion.

prodigious
the

concoursc of people assembled at
of the Great
Festival of the

celebration

Ascension.

It is difficult to

describe the scenes

exhibited within these buildings during festivals.

We

were carried

in

by a crowd which
lifted

rushed forward hke a torrent, and, being

by

it

from the ground, beheld, as

we

entered, a

throng of devotees, in which there was danger of
being pressed to death:
motion,
crossing
all

present were in
',

themselves

bowing

their

heads, and struggling

consecrated pictures.
as usual, exposed
;

who should first kiss the The bodies of Saints were,

and

we were
wood
of
*

shewn, by the
the true Cross.*

attending priests, some

Women,
lifted

with tears streaming from their eyes,

up their infants, and taught them to embrace the feet and hands of the images. Observing a crowd particularly eager to kiss the
scull of

an

incorruptible saint,

we asked

a priest,

in Latin,

whose body the sepulchre contained. *' Whence are you" said he, " that you know not the Tomb of St. Demetrius ?'"'
(l)
breast,

The Russians

cross themselves first ou the J'orc/iead, then on the
left
is

then on the right shoulder, then on the
cross.

shoulder; thereby

completing the figure of a
TriHity.

This ceremony

performed with the

thumb, the Jirst, and the middlefinger ; the three fingers signifying the

CHAP.

YIII.

MOSCOW.
Order of the Maltese Cross— Mineials of Count Golovkiit

—Antiquities— — Gallery of Galitzin — Botanic Garden— Philosophical hihrary of — Stupendous Instruments— Other of — English Horse-Dealers — Public Natural History
Pictures
Sliells

Botterline

Collections

objects

Baths :

their

— Foundling Hospital.
lOiNCE the Emperor Paul was made Grand

mode of

use,

and national importance

Master of Malta, the Order of the Cross became
one of the most fashionable
in

Russia.

It

was

Oi-dor of the Maltese

Cross.

172
CHAP,
<

MOSCOW.
not possible to mix in company, without seeing
'

»

many

persons adorned with the badge of the
of

The price of it, when purchased' the Crown, was three hundred peasants.
knights.
ments,

In

the changes befaUing Orders, as well as Governthat
is

which has happened

to

this

class

of society

worthy of admiration.

Formerly,

the oath taken, upon admission to the fraternity,

was a
dience.

declaration of poverty, chastity, and obe-

What

the nature of the oath
;

now

is,

we

did not learn

but the opposite qualifications

in candidates for the

Holy Cross were manifest.

The extravagance of the Russian nobility has no example. They talk of twenty and thirty
thousand
cash:
roubles as
;

other nations do

of their

meanest coin
in

but those sums are rarely paid
is

the disbursement

made

in

fur-

niture, horses, carriages, watches, snuff-boxes,
rings,

and wearing-apparel.
the

oJunr^^^^
Goiovkin.

Visiting

mineralogical cabinet

of Count

Golovkiu witli a dcalcr in minerals, he informed

us that the arts and sciences obtained true

(1)

As we were informed.

— Mr. Heber states
is

it

at twelve

hundred

rouhles,

" At
Persons

present, indeed, there

a new method of acquiring rank.
civil

who have not
hundred

served either in a

or military capacity,
;

may,
con-

for twelve

roubles,

purchase a Cross of Malta
Huberts

but this

is

sidered as uo very proud distinction."

MS. Journal.

;

MOSCOW.
patronage only in Moscow. " In England,'' said he, " it does not answer to offer fine specimens
of Natural History for sale;

173
chap.

we

get

more money,
than
illus-

even

for the minerals of Siberia, in Moscoiv

in London'''

We

found a very practical

tration of his remark, in the

contents of one
for us, con-

small drawer, which

was opened

sisting only of forty-three specimens,

and which pounds

had

cost

the

Count two

thousand

The substances were certainly rare, but by no means adequate to such an enormous price. Some of them had been purchased in
sterling.

London, at the sale of Monsieur de
Cabinet.

Calonne's

A

fine

mineral,

as

well as a fine

picture, will often

make

the tour of Europe;

and may be

seen in London, Paris, and Petersburg,

in the course of the

same year.

Among the rarest of Count Golovhins minerals,
were, a specimen of the black sulphuret of silver,
crystallized in cubes, for
fifteen

which alone he paid

hundred

roubles; auriferous native silver

the largest specimen which perhaps exists of

the red Siberian tourmaline-;

galena,

almost

(2)

Perhaps

it is

the same

now

exhibited in the Gardens of Natural
I

History at Paris.

Since this was written,

have seen a specimen
.

much

larger, in

Mr.

Greville's splendid Collection
is

It

was a present

from the King of Ava to Captain Symes, and
man's head.

nearly as h\% as a

; ;

174
CHAP,

MOSCOW.
malleable, a substance described

by Le

Sas:e

beautiful specimen of native gold from Peru;

muriate of silver
as walnuts
;

;

crystals of tin oxide, as big

a singular crystallization of car-

bonated lime, having assumed the shape of a
heart,

and therefore called
the

heart spar

;

very large

octahedral crystals, exhibiting the primary form
of fluat of lime
;

Siberian
;

emerald,

tra-

versing prisms of rock crystal
in its

Peruvian emerald

matrix

;

Chrysoprase

;

Pallas s native iron

beautiful crystals of chromate

and of phosphate

of lead

;

native antimony

;

a specimen of rock

crystal, so filled
in the

with water, that,

when turned
all

hand,

drops were seen moving in
stone called
;

directions;

—the

Venus' hairs,

or

titanium oxide in rock crystal
tiful

—and that beauspar.

mineral the red antimonial, or ruby silver, in

fine distinct prisms, lying

upon calcareous

The Museum
History.
It

of this nobleman contained other

objects of curiosity besides cabinets of Natural

was

rich in valuable pictures

;

in

many

of the

most

interesting relics

of antiit

quity, particularly

Grecian vases; and

con-

tained a library of books of the highest value.

Count Golovkin was one of the very few, among
the Russian connoisseurs,
taste.

who

really possessed

There was proof of this

in

every selection

he made; whether of books, antiquities, pictures.

'

MOSCOW.
minerals, or

\7o
art
;

works of modern

for

whatever
'

^"-^j^'-

he had collected, was,

in its kind, well chosen.

,

The

caprice, indeed, miglit be

lamented which

induced him to chanoe, so frequently as he did,

what he had once selected
his

;

instead of allowing

the acquisition to remain, as a
genius,
for the

monument

of

use and instruction of his

posterity.

Among

the pictures,

we

noticed a very cele-

Pictur.vj.

brated work of Fein der JVerf: this had been
formerly purchased by the author from Monsieur
cle

Calonnes Collection in London, for an English
It

nobleman.

was

that highly-finished

piece

which represents " the Daughters of Lot giving
wine to
Madrid.
their Father."
this

Other travellers

may

perhaps at

time find the same picture in

Douw,
an

in

That unrivalled painting of Gerhard which he has represented himself as
drawing by candle-light, was also
:

artist

in

this collection

it

cost the Count

two thousand

four hundred roubles.

The

rest

were the proSasso

ductions of Leonardo da Vinci,

Ferrate,

Lanfranc, Teniers, Vandyke, and other eminent

masters.

In the cabinet of antiquities

was an
parts,

antient lyre

Antiqui-

of bronze, complete in

all its

and perhaps

the only one ever found.

It

was modelled by

;

176
CHAP.
VIII.
V
,

MOSCOW.
Camhoresi. in wood.
.

A

vase of
in

lazulite

was

.l

y

•'

shewn, as having been found

Herculaneum,
in col-

which

is

very doubtful.

It

is

common,
Grcecia,

lections of this nature, to attribute the antiquities of other cities of

Magna
to
in

and even
al-

modern

alabaster vases,

Herculaneum ;

though every thing found
Sicilian Majesty.

the excavations

there be rigidly reserved for the

Museum

of his

Greek vases, from sepulchres

in

Italy,

are

very often called Herculanean

but no such

works

in

terra-cotta

have yet
in

been found there.

The

rarest

antiquities

Count Golovkins

Collection

were

vessels

of

antient glass, at least

twelve inches in diameter.

There was one of
filled

these, standing near a

window,
to

with

earth, in
;

which had been planted
it

a Dutch

tulip

of course,
instant.

was

liable

be

broken every

P'ases,

on which were
the
earliest

represented subjects

illustrating

ages of Grecian History,
floor, like

were seen lying on the

the neglected toys of children.

No

person had exceeded the liberality of Count
Golovkin, in
;

making any addition

to his

Collec-

tion but no one became sooner wearied by pos-

session.

These

zstf/y/jx/oc

were therefore rather
found their

objects of his caprice than of his study, and

have probably by

this time

way

to

other cities of Europe.

Enormous sums had

been lavished

to procure the black porcelain of


MOSCOW.
Japan; but when
vessels,

'

177

we

arrived,

many

beautiful
^

chap.

made

of this porcelain, were also filled

^

with earth and flowers.

Several fine busts ^ from

the celebrated cabinet of Count Caylusy adorned

which belonged to the famous Mengs, and had been brought from Rome to Moscow, by the Grandthe apartments
:

also a marble vase

do not pretend to the smallest knowledge of conchology : it might
chamberlain Suva/of.
therefore astonish us
single shell,

We

more than

others, to see a

called the Great

Hammer, of no

external beauty, but shaped like the instrument

of that name, for which the late Mr. Forster of

London received of the Count one thousand
roubles^.

After a particular description of Count Golovkins Museum,
it is

unnecessary to mention those

of less note in Moscoiv.
hastily over a

We

shall therefore pass

few of the principal Collections.
Oaiiery of
Oalitxin.
_

The

pictures of the Grand-chamberlain Q-allerv of ^ ^ J Galitzin was the most extensive: the palace

itself

being highly magnificent; and a set of

stately apartments, terminated

by a vast

gallery,

was

entirely filled
(l)

with paintings.

In so vast

" He furnishes his closet first, and fills The crouded shelves with rarities of
Adds Orient
pearls,

shells

:

which from the conchs he drew.

And

all

the sparkling stones of various hue."

Drvden.

VOL.

I.

N

; ;

178

MOSCOW.
an assemblage, there were doubtless
different productions; but,

CHAP.
VI II.

many

in-

among them, some
The subSebastian

paintings of unequalled merit, and especially one

of the finest works of Salvator Rosa.
ject represented the

martyrdom of
all

St.

and

it

had been executed with

his sublimity
filled

and energy.
pictures
Liiirary of

The gallery was chiefly by the Flemish Masters.
hotanic
s:arden,

with

^pj^g

libra?'!/,

and museum of
finest sights

Count
in

Botterline,

ranked among the

Europe.

That nobleman had not only
Virgil,

col-

lected the rarest copies of all the Classic Authors

but of some of them, particularly of

he

had so many

editions, that they

were

sufficient

alone to constitute a library.

His books were

not kept in one particular apartment, but they

occupied a number of different rooms.

They

were

bound beneath sufficient employment
all

his
for

own

roof; affording

several

workmen,
and

retained constantly in the house for this purpose.

He had

almost

all

the Editiones Principes

;

his collection of

books printed during

ihejifteendi

century amounted to near six thousand volumes.

According to Orlandi\ the number of works
(ij

Origine e Progressi delta Stampa, da Peregrin, ^nton. Orktndi.

Bononicr, 1723.
sigii_ature of his

The author found
name,

Orlandi's haud-writing, and tlw
(if

in a curious edition

Suetonius, in the Mosf.tpi
in

Library, North JVules.
IVldteJ'ord

See the account of
p. 83.

it

Pennant's History of

and Holyivdl,

:

MOSCOW.
printed

179

during that period amounted to one
It is

thousand three hundred and three.
fore

there-

probable,

that nearly

all

of

them were

contained in Count

B otter line s

Collection.
filled

The
two
the

catalogue of this part of his library
folio

volumes.

He procured from

Paris

celebrated

work

of Theodore de Bry, a collection
:

of voyages, with beautiful wood-cuts

and had
countries
;

been

at infinite pains to obtain

from

all

a complete series of Ecclesiastical annals

these
folio.

already amounted to forty volumes in

This immense
distinct
classes.
;

library

was divided into His pictures were not

six

so

numerous

but they were well chosen.

The

botanic

garden,

(botany being

his

fa-

vourite pursuit,) contained a green-house, per-

Botanic ^^"*"'-

haps unequalled
it

in the

world.

was a small

library

At one end of of botanical works
But the most
was,
that

here he had the advantage of studying with the
living

specimens before him.
circumstance

extraordinary

we

found the plants of the frigid zone, and of
the warmest
climates,
flourishing
in

greater

beauty than
state

we had

seen them possess in a
perfect,

of nature.

They were more
all

because they were preserved from
injury,

external
healthy.

and were

at

the

same time

We

asked him

how such

a variety of plants,

n2

180
^vin^
'v-v^^'

MOSCOW.
requiring such different culture, situation, and

temperature, could be thus nourished beneath
the
fault

same

roof.

He

said that

the principal

among- gardeners consisted in their
that, for his part,

mode

of watering;

he performed

almost

all

the

work with

his

own hands;
of his plants,

acknowledging, that, although botanists were

much

surprised

by the appearance
all

he was himself indebted, for

the knowledge

he had acquired, to our countryman Millery

whose works were always near him.
open
air.

In his

garden, the plants of Siberia flourished in the

The Spir^a
May.

crenata,

and the Rosa

Austriaca, or Fcestan Rose,

the twenty-fifth of
trees in

were in full bloom on Almost all the fruit-

winter.

Moscow had perished during the former The Count smiled when we spoke of
he might obtain the
"
I

the facility with which
Siberian plants.
*'

receive

them

all,"

said he,

from England: nobody here will be at the trouble to collect either seed or plants and I
;

am

compelled to send to your country for things

that

grow wild

in

my

own."

Phiiosostruraen"ts,

In addition

to

the extraordinary collection

already noticed,

belonging to this nobleman,
filled

we were shewn
with
all

another set of apartments

sorts oi philosophical instruments.

This

collection alone

appeared

sufficient to

have em-

MOSCOW.
ployed the time and fortune of a single individual.
J;t

181

consisted of electrical apparatus,

telescopes,

the

whole furniture of a chemical

laboratory, models,

pieces of mechanism, the most curious and ex-

pensive balances, and almost every instrument
of the useful Arts^

The

collection of minerals, shells, birds, Jishes,

quadrupeds,

and the cabmet

c oi medals oi

'7

Natural
History.

Paul

T^

Gregorovitz Demidof,
travellers

had been considered by more worth seeing than any other

Museum
sion.

in Moscoiu'.

We

did not obtain admisfive

His

library

contained

thousand

volumes, chiefly on subjects of Natural History.

The

minerals of Prince Urusof,

and of Prince Paul

Galitzin,

were of the highest beauty and mag-

nificence.

The former
roubles
for

of these princes gave five a single specimen.

thousand

But

among

all

the surprising articles in Natural Hisin Moscoiu, the

tory that

we saw

most worthy of

admiration were two mineralogical specimens,
the one of Malachite, and the other of Siberian
emerald,
in

the

audience-chamber of Prince

Cl)

"To

tell their costly

furniture were long

;

The summer's day would end before the song To purchase but the tenth of all their store, Would make the mighty Persian monarch poor.
;

Yet what
(2)

I

can,

I

will."
torn. III. p. 327.

Dryde.v.

Voyage de Deux Francais,

182
^Jf;\^V 1 1 1.
^

MOSCOW.
Alexander Galitzin.
^

These were placed
'

alone,

y-

independent of any cabinet, upon two pedestals,
opposite to a throne, whereon the Prince and
Princess
sat,

on days of ceremonyto

His Excelto
us.

lency condescended

exhibit

them
;

They were

far

beyond

all

estimation

because
a

the value of such things depends entirely upon the poAver and wealth which might enable

Prince or a Sovereign to obtain them.
first,

The

mass of green carbonated copper, commonly called Malacfiite, was not only the largest
or the

example of that substance ever discovered, but
it

was

also the

most
to

beautiful.

It

was found

in

the Siberian mines; and in every circumstance of

form and

colour,

interest a naturalist, or to
it

gratify the avarice of the lapidary,

had never
of the
all

been surpassed.

Its

delicate surface,

those most beautiful silky lustre, exhibited mammillary nodes and zones which denote the
stalactite origin

of the mineral.

Its interior, al-

though exquisitely variegated, was entire and compact and, for the mere purpose of cutting
;

into plates,

would have been inestimable in the hands of jewellers. The weight of this enormous mass must have been at least a ton. While we
remained in the
roubles for
it
;

city,

a dealer offered six thousand
sell
it.

but the prince refused to

The companion

of this extraordinary product of
size,

the mineral kingdom, of equal

was not

less

MOSCOW.
wonderful
:

18,1

it

was a mass
all

of numberless Siberian
;

emeralds, lying in their natural repository

this

they traversed in

directions

;

exhibiting the

most

beautiful crystallization that can be con-

ceived,

and every possible diversity of

size,

shape, and colour.

Prince Viazemshoys collection of the current
coin of the world

was

too remarkable to be

passed over without notice.
Scherhatof had
also

Prince Alexander

a magnificent cabinet of

Natural History.

The number
English grooms,

of

English

horse-dealers,

and

m

English HorsuDealers.

Moscow, was, at this time,

very great.
the nobles.

They were in high favour among The Governor of the city was conto hear the nobles repeat

sidered particularly skilful in choosing horses.
It

was not unusual

the pedigree of their favourites,

as

if

on an

English race-course
the son of Eclipse;

:

" This," said they, "

was
of

dam by

such a one

;

grandlist

dam by

another

;"

and so on, through a

names taught by their grooms, but having no more real reference to their cattle than to the
moon.
English saddles and bridles also sold at

very advanced prices.
Passing the public
a

I

streets

of

the

city,


184
CHAP,
viir.
-^

MOSCOW.

,

number of men and women are
'

often seen stark

naked, lounging about before the public baths,

Public Baths,

and talking together, without the smallest sense
of shame, or of the indecency of the exhibition.

In

many

parts of Russia,

as in Lapland, the
It is

males and females bathe promiscuously.
well
^

known

that a clergyman's daughter, with

unsuspecting simplicity, did the honours of the

\

bath for ^cerhi, at Kemi, in the north of the

As soon as the inhabitants Gulph of Bothnia^ of these northern nations have endured the
.

suffocating heat of their vapour haths^

which

is
it

so great that Englishmen

would not conceive

possible to exist an instant in such temperature,

they stand naked, covered with profuse perspiration, cooling

themselves in the open

air

;

in

summer
taining

they plunge into cold water; during
roll

winter they

about in snow; without suscold.

any injury, or ever catching

When

the Russians leave a bath of this kind, they

moreover drink copious draughts of mead, as cold as it can be procured. These practices,

which would
constitutions.

kill

men
and

of other nations, seemed
to

to delight them,

add strength

to their

(l) See Acerbi's

Travels,

vol. I. p. 338.

LoTid. 1802.

where
in

this

sceue
the

is

described.

The author

has often heard Signor Acerbi relate

same circumstance, during the time they were together

Sweden,

;

MOSCOW.
Being troubled with rheumatic pain, brought on by a sudden change of weather, (the thermometer falling, in one day, from 84'' of Fahrenheit,
nearly to the freezing point,) the author

185
^^f/*'

was

persuaded to try a Russian
be more
vermin.
filthy or

bath.

Nothing can
with

more

revolting than one of

these places, for they are

commonly

filled

He had been recommended, however,
:

to use the Georgian Bath, situate in the Sloboda,

or suburbs

this

being described as the best in

Moscow.

It

required more courage to enter this

den than many of our countrymen would exert
for a similar purpose.

The

building

was a small

wooden hut

:

at one

end of it there was a recess,
with long beards, conducted

black and fearful as the entrance to Tartarus.

Two naked
him
told

figures,

to this spot;

where pointing

to a plank

covered by a single sheet, with a pillow, they

him
if

to deposit his clothes there,

and to

upon the sheet, a number of cockroaches and crickets had usurped the only spot where a person might venture to sit down. As soon as he was unrepose,

he thought proper;

but,

dressed, they led him, through a gloomy passage,
into a

chamber called the

hath

;

the ceremonies

of which place will

now be particularly described.

hand were cisterns of water and upon the edges of those cisterns appeared
the
left

Upon

186

MOSCOW.
a row of polished brass vessels.
right

Towards

the

was a stove; and,

in the

middle of the

room, a step to a platform elevated above the
floor.

roof,
is

The hot vapour being collected near the the more the bather ascends, the greater
is

the degree of heat to which he of temperature
is

exposed.

A choice
him.

therefore offered to

On

each side of the platform

was a

stove,
in

in shape exactly resembling the

tombs

our

church-yards.

The upper

surface of each stove
;

was

covered with a bed of reeds

and over the

reeds was placed a sheet.
directed to

The author was
:

and

to

mount upon one of these stoves, extend himself upon the sheet having
he found himself nearly elevated and the heat of the

done

this,

to the roof of the bath,

ascending vapour threw him immediately into
a most profuse perspiration.

The

sensation

resembled what he had formerly experienced
in a

subterraneous cavern, called the Bath of He Nero, upon the coast of Baia, near Naples.

neglected to take a thermometer with him on
this occasion
;

but the ordinary temperature of
is

a Russian bath

well

known

:

it

varies (ac-

cording to Storch') from 104° to \11^ o^ Fahrenheit
;

and sometimes, upon the upper stages near

(l)

Tableau de

V Empire de

Russic, torn.

I.

p. 380.

The

degrees of

temperature arc estimated hyStorch according to the scale oi Ec'aumur.

MOSCOW.
the roof,
it is

187
f'H^'^i'-

twenty degrees above fever heat'.

Thus

situate, a

man began

to

rub his skin with
it

"

-

'

v

-^

a woollen cloth, until the exterior surface of

peeled

off.

As soon

as he had finished this

operation with the woollen cloth, he
to descend;

was desired

and then several vessels of warm water were poured upon his head, whence it fell
all

over his body.
floor,

He was
all

next placed upon
his hair,

tlie

and the assistant washed
parts.

scratching his head in

Afterwards,

he again made him ascend the stove;

where

once more being stretched at length, a copious lather of soap was prepared, and his body was
again rubbed
a
:

after this

he was made to descend

second time,

and was again

soused

witJi

vessels of water.

He was

then desired to ex-

tend himself on the stove for the third time, and

informed that the greatest degree of heat would

now be

given.
lie

To

prepare for

this,

they cau-

tioned him to

with his face downwards, and
Birch boughs were

not to raise his head.

now

brought, with their leaves on, and dipped in

soap and hot water
scrub him afresh
:

:

with these they began to

some hot water being cast upon red-hot cannon-balls and upon the principal stove, such a vapour passed
at the

same

time,

all

over him, that

it

came

like a

stream of fire.

(3)

Equal

to 132° of Fahrenheit.

188
CHAP.
VIII.
V

MOSCOW.
If
'

he ventured to raise his head but for an

y

instant,

and draw

in his breath,
It

it

seemed
to

like

inhaling flames.
this for

was impossible

endure

any length of time; therefore finding

himself unable to cry out, he forced his

way

down from

the stove, and
:

was conducted

to the

lower part of the room

here being seated upon

the floor, and the doors being opened, he soon

recovered sufficiently to walk out of the bath.

National

Importance of Public
Baths.

Eminent physicians have endeavoured "to draw the attention of the English Government to the
importance oi public
their use
baths,

and of countenancing

by every

aid of

example and of encou-

ragement.

While we wonder at their prevalence
the Eastern and Northern nations,

among

all

may

we not lament that they are so little known in our own country We might, perhaps, find reason
?

to allow, that erysipelas, surfeit, rheumatism,
colds,

and many other evils, especially cutaneous
alleviated, if

and nervous disorders, would be

not prevented, by a proper attention to bathing.

The

inhabitants of countries

where the
it,

bath is

constantly used, have recourse to

in the full

confidence of being able to remove such complaints
;

and they are rarely disappointed.
yet throughout the

In

England, baths are considered only as articles of

luxury;
Russia,

vast empire of
Lapland, Sweden,

through

all

Finland,

MOSCOW.
and Norway, there
so destitute, but
is
it

189
^"i\^'
'

no cottage so poor, no hut
possesses
its

vapour hath ;

»-

'

whither all the family resort every Saturday at the
least,

and every day
JVortley

in case of sickness.

Lady
all

Mary

Montague, in despite of

the

prejudices then prevalent in
inoculation,

England against
blessing

introduced
if

this

from

some other patriotic individual, of equal influence, would endeavour to establish throuo:hout Great Britain the use of luarm and
Turkey.

And

vapour baths, the inconveniences of our climate

might be done away.
riod,

Perhaps, at a future pe-

donations for public baths

may become

as

frequent as the voluntary subscriptions whereby
hospitals are

maintained

;

and a grateful people
for their

may commemorate
support.

the service they have ren-

dered to society by annual contributions

But when we recollect that the illustrious Bacon in vain lamented the disuse of i'a^A^ among Europeans, we have little reason to indulge the expectation. At the same time, an additional

testimony to their salutary

effects,

in

affording longe^^ty

and

vigorous health to a

people otherwise liable to mortal diseases from
their rigorous climate

and unwholesome

diet,

may conduce towards their introduction. Among
the Antients, baths were public
edifices,

under the
:

immediate inspection of the Government

they

were considered as

institutions

founded

in abso-

1^
CHAP,
VIII.
v*

MOSCOW.
lute necessity,

and

to

and unavoidably due to decency cleanliness. Rome, under her Emperors,
;

numbered nearly a thousand such buildings and these, besides their utiUty, were regarded as master-pieces of architectural skill and of sumptuous decoration.
In Russia,

they have only

vapour baths; and these are, for the most part,

wretched wooden hovels. If wood be deficient, they are formed of mud, or scooped in the
in

banks of rivers and lakes
the
nobles,

:

but

in the palaces of

however they may vary
is

in

the

splendour of their materials, the plan of their
construction

always the same.

This universal custom of the bath

may be
:

mentioned as an example of the resemblance be-

tween the Muscovites and more
but there are

Oriental people

many other
;

;

such, for instance, as

the ceremony of hoveling and tearing the hair at the death of relatives the practice

among
soles

the

nobles of employing slaves to rub the
feet,

of their

in order to induce sleep

;

and the custom
it is

of maintaining buffoons,
to
relate

whose occupation

strange and extravagant tales for a

similar purpose.

Foundling
Hospital.

^g ^ couclusiou

to

tliis

chapter, a few ^

words
in

may be added
ling Hospital
;

concerning the state of the Foundas the Institution of that

name

MOSCOW.
Petersburg excites the interest and attention of
all

191

foreigners; although

it

be but a branch of the

"^

^\\ii,'

^""^

more

magnificent establishment of the

same

nature in the east angle of the Kliitay Gorod at

Moscow.

Both the one and the other have been

sufficiently described

by preceding authors'.
only be necessary

Of the

latter, it will therefore

to add, that, in the space of

twenty years, prior to
less than thirty-

the year

1

786,

it

had received no

seven thousand six hundred and seven infants.

Of
left

this

number, one thousand and twenty had
;

the asylum

and there remained
In
in the

six thou-

sand and eighty at that time".

1792, the

number of children

house amounted to two

thousand; and about three thousand belonging

(1) Since the foundation of these

two establishments, similar

insti-

tutions

have taken place in other towns of Russia; such as Tula,
Ckcsan, &c.
i.

Kaluga, Jaroslaf,

(2) Starch's Tableau de Russie, torn.
tality

p. 321.

Upon

the great mor-

which

this

statement allows, the author makes the following
:

judicious remarks

"

Si cette note, adoptee d'apr^s

un

^c^i^'ain tres-

veridique sur d'autres points, est exacte, la perte que cet ^tablissement

a essuy^e par la mortalite des enfans, est sans doute tr^s-consid^rahle

:

mais

elle le paroitrait

beaucoup moins,

si

Ton examinait

le

nonibre do
ceux.
I'etat

ceux qui sont morts au
qui y ont porte
le

moment

d'y £tre reous, aussi bien

que de

{;erme de Icur destruction.

Pour determiner

exact de

la mortalit(5

de cette maison,

il

faudrait savoir le
;

nombre

d'enfans parfaitement sains qui y sont entres

car ceux que I'on portc

a

l'h6pital, aussit6t aprfes qu'ils ont

^tt^

baptisds,
:

ne peuvent ^tre regardes
il

que comme des victimes ddvouees k

la niort

y aurait done la plus

grande injustice a attribuer leur perte a un ('tablissement rcmpli
d'huniauite, qui cnrichitannuellement I'etat d'un

nombre toujours

plus-

considerable de ciloyens sains, actifs, et industrieux."

192
^vnf*
'

'

MOSCOW.
were
at nurse in the coun-

^° ^^^ establishment
'

"

i

Every peasant entrusted with the care of an infant had a monthly allowance of a rouble and a half Every month, such of the children as
try.

have been vaccinated are sent into the country,

where they remain
tality
is at

until the

age of

five years.

Before the introduction of vaccination, the mor-

was much greater among them than it present, although they were inoculated for

the small-pox'.

{\)Heber's

MS.

Journal.

CHAP.

IX.

MOSCOW.
Visit to the

— Conversation — —Funeral of Prince — for Fruit and Food— Sparrow Hill— Gulitzin Nobles— Barbarous Public Morals — Banquets of Russian Tables— Anecdote of two Etiquette observed used English Gentlemen — Precautions — Dealers Adventurers and Swindlers— Imtnense Wealth of Nobles — Condition of
Archbishop of Moscoiv
his

Convent of Nicoll na Perrera
Stalls

the

at

to be

in travel-

ling

in Virtu

the

the

Peasants.

CURIOUS contrast to the splendour in which
'-

chap.
TV IX.

we had
him

hitherto beheld

Plato,

archbishop of

Moscow, was offered, during a
at the
I.

visit

we made

to ArSbTshop
"^
^'•^'jcou-.

Convent of

Nicoll na Perrera, a semi-

VOL.

o

194 CHAP,
IX

MOSCOW.
nary for young priests near the
with this remarkable man.
to
city.

We

had

long wished for an opportunity of conversing

Emperor Paul world by his correspondence with Monsieur
the
;

He was preceptor and is known to the

^^

Ki^ITl
Ferrer a.

Upon our arrival at the convent, we wcrc told hc was thcn Walking in a small garDutens.

den, the care of which constituted his principal

pleasure

;

and the

employment characterized
life.

the simplicity and the innocence of his

As

we

entered the garden,

we

found him seated

upon a turf bank, beneath the windows of the
refectory, attended
vicar,

by a

bishop, an old

man

his

the abb^ of the

monastery,

and some

other of the monks.

We could

scarcely believe
:

when they told us it was Plato for although we had often seen him in his archiepiscopal vestments, his rural dress had made such an alteration, that we did not know him. He was habited in a striped silk bed-gown, with a
our eyes,
night-cap upon his head like the silk nets com-

monly worn by
feet of

Italian postillions

;

having also
fastened on

a pair of woollen stockings upon his legs, the

which were of coarse

linen,

with twine in a most uncouth manner.

He was

without shoes, but a pair of yellow slippers lay

some distance. By his side, upon the bank, was placed his broad-brimmed straw hat, offering a correct model of the Athenian pileits, and such
at

;

MOSCOW.
as the Pati'iarchs of the

195
^!l^^IX.
v

Greek Church have
Alps
In the hat-l:)and

always worn

:

the shepherdesses of the

'^

'

now wear

the

same kind of hat.

he had placed a bunch of withered flowers.

His

white beard, added to the mildness of his ani-

mated countenance, gave
pleasing- expression.

to his features a

most

He

desired to

know who
I

we were

;

and being answered.

Englishmen

*'What!" said

he, " r\\ Englishmen P

wonder

what your

countrymen

can find sufficiently

interesting in Russia, to bring

home made

;

and

in such times as

you so far from these f But having

this observation in the Fi-ench language,

he looked cautiously around him, and began to
ask the monks, severally, whether they understood French.

Finding them perfectly ignorant
sit

of that language, he bade us to
-while,

by him;
in

the rest forming a circle near him, he

entertained us with a conversation,
there

which
free-

was enough of

science, of wit,

and of

dom, to astonish any traveller, in such a country, and at such a period. Memory has scarcely
retained even that part of
it

which concerned

the manners of his countrymen.

"Well," said he, "you thought
curiosity;

me

perhaps a

and you

find

me

as naturally disposed

for observation as
his

you could wish" (pointing to woollen stockings and his strange dress),
o
'i

V


;

196
''

MOSCOW.
^'^

'

^?x^*
'

^^^ ^^^^^ bending with years and infirmi-

ties."

We

replied, that,

on the night of the

Ceremony of
to see

dral

the Resurrection, we had the honour him in his greatest splendour, in the catheof the Kremlin. " And what did you think

of that ceremony?"
that "

said he.

We
;

answered,
the most

solemn

we considered it as one of we had ever witnessed not
at

even that of the Benediction
interesting?"

Rome
as

,-"

excepting " and

added the archbishop.
considered
it

We assured
highly inter-

him

that

we

esting: at this he burst into a fit of laughter, holding his sides, and saying, " had lost a

We

night's rest to attend the

ceremony of a
it

religion

we

did not profess, and called

interesting"

We

accompanied him round
**

his

garden,

admiring the beauty of the situation, and the
serenity of the climate.
he,
''

But do you," said

prefer our climate

to your's ?"

We

told

him, that

we had

found the Russian climate
winter not
as in England

severe, but

the cold weather in

attended with so
that the

much humidity

"
in

atmosphere was clear and dry O yes," said he, " very dry indeed! and it has,
consequence, dried up
all

our fruit-trees."

Afterwards, he inquired whither

we were
to

going

:

and being told to Kuban Tartary and

T

MOSCOW.
Constantinople,

197
^^x^'

claimed,
difficult

God preserve you!" he ex" what a journey! But nothing is
Englishmen;

—"

to

they traverse

all

the

My brother," continued " was a traveller, and educated in your he,
regions of the earth.

country, at Oxford; but

I

have never been anyI

where, except at Petershurg and Moscow.

should

have been delighted

in travelling, if I
;

had en-

joyed the opportunity

for books of Travels are

my

favourite reading.

the significant smile

/ have lately read,'' and by which the words were
''the

accompanied could not be misunderstood',
Voyage of Lord Macartney
**

— He laughed, howhim
to

ever, at the result of his brother's education.

The

English;' said he, " taught

de-

claim, in their
fine flourishing fine

way: he used
but they were

to

preach his
translated

sermons to us Russians; very
all

sermons

!

from the English.
beautifully,

Some

of your divines write
It

but with inconceivable freedom.

was once discussed in an English sermon. Whether a people had power to dethrone their King." " Your Eminence may say more," said one of our party; " we had once a prelate,
who, preaching before his Sovereign,
(1)
Tiey's

felt

himself

The Russians

exulted very
.-

much

in

the failure of Lord Macart-

embassy to China

aud

I

believe

it is

now generally known,

that

our want of success was owing to the prompt manoeuvres of the Cmirt
of Petersburg, with regard to that country.

198
^^j^^'

MOSCOW.
at liberty to discuss his

conduct

to

his face."

" /

ivish,''

said he, "

lue

had such a

felloiu

heref'

but,

aware of the interpretation which might
his

be put upon
to

words, and perhaps not daring
after a pause,

end with them, he added,

''we

would send him,

to enjoy the full liber hj of preach-

ing in the free air of Siberia."

He was much

amused by a reply he had once received from
an English clergyman, of the factory at Petersburg,

whom

he had asked
" If
I

if it

was

his intention
to

ever to marry.

be fortunate enough
''

become a bishop," marry some rich
at

said the clergyman,
citizen's

I

shall
live

daughter,

and

my

ease\"

He complained much

of Dutens, for having

published his correspondence, without his permission; saying, he had therein endeavoured to

prove that the Pope was Antichrist ; of which he

was
him,

fully

convinced

:

but that he much feared
o/'ito?we.

the resentment of the Coz^r^

We

told

we

thought his fears might

now

subside,

as that Court was no longer formidable to any " Oh," said he, " you do not knojv its one.
intrigues and artilices: its character resembles

that of the antient Romans; patient in conceal-

ing malice
(1)

;

prompt

to execute

it,

when opporto

The

Priests in the

Greek Church are allowed

marry

;

but not

the likhops.

MOSCOW.
tunity offers; and always obtaining
its

199
point in
^j^^^-

the end."

He

then spoke of Voltaire, and of liis
late
'

correspondence with the
rine.
" There

Empress Cathe-

was

nothing,

said he, " of which

she was so vain, as of that correspondence. I never saw her so gay, and in such high spirits,
as

when she had
from

to tell

me

of having received a

letter

Voltaire.''

He conducted
antient Patriarch,

us to the apartments of

tlie

who founded
;

the convent and

who built the church

these he had endeavoured

to preserve in their pristine state.

They

con-

sisted of several small vaulted Gothic chambers;

now

containing the library.
if

We took this opporClassics

tunity to ask,

any

translation of the

existed in the Sclavonic language,

among

the

manuscripts dispersed in different libraries of
the Russian monasteries.

He answered us

in

the negative, and said they had nothing worth
notice until the time of the Patriarch Nicon^.

As he was
Russian.

well versed in the Sclavonic,
its

we ques-

tioned him concerning

relationship to the

He

assured
;

us the two languages
that the difference

were almost the same

was

only a distinction of dialect; and that neither of
(2)

The Patriarch Nicon,

so illustrious in the Russian History,

was

born of obscure parents

in 1613,

and died
d^-

in l(i8l.

See Lcvesqua Hut.

de Russie, tome IV. p. 69- 81.

Hamb.

Brunswick, 1800.

200
CHAP,
IX.
y

MOSCOW.
them bore the
slightest °

resemblance to the lan-

« guage of Finland.
In this convent, one hundred and
fifty

students

are instructed in the Greek and Latin languages,

and

in rhetoric.

After a certain time, they are

sent to complete their education in other seminaries at Moscow.

The church

is

lofty

and
all

spacious

:

the table for the Sacrament, as in
is

other Russian and Greek churches,
tlie

kept in

Sanctuary, behind the

altar,

where women
archbishop,

are not permitted to enter.

The

who had visited our
when

English church at Petersburg,

observed that our table was uncovered, except

was administered a degree of economy which he said he was unable to
the Sacrament
;

explain consistently
liberality

with

the piety

and the

of the English nation.
if

What would
some of our
is

have been his sentiments,
country churches

he had beheld the

condition of the Communion tables in
!

In Russia, the altar

always

covered with the richest cloth, and generally
with embroidered velvet.

Funeral of
i*rincG

On

tlic

Gaiiizin.

Plato in
Galitzin,

saw great pomp, at the burial of Prmce in Moscow. This ceremony was pertwenty-cighth of May,
again
, .

we

formed
Bridge.

in

a small church near the Mareschal
laid in a

The body was

superb crimson

!

!

::

MOSCOW.
coffin, richly

201
silver,

embossed with

and placed

^^Z^^IX.

beneath the dome of the church. Upon a throne,
raised at the head of the coffin, stood the arch-

bishop,

who read

the service.

On

each side were

ranged the inferior clergy, clothed, as usual, in the

most costly robes, bearing in
pers,
at ten in the morning.
to the church,

their

hands wax

ta-

and burning incense. This ceremony began

Having obtained admission

we

placed ourselves

among the
effect

spectators, immediately behind his Eminence.

The chaunting had a solemn and sublime
it

seemed as

if

choristers

were placed
this

in the

upper part of the dome; and
really the case.

perhaps was

The words uttered were only

a constant repetition of "
us
" or, in

Lord have mercy upon Russian \ " Ghospodi pomilui " When

the archbishop turned to give his benediction to
all

the people, he observed us, and added, in

Latin,

"Paxvohiscumr

to the

astonishment of

the Russians ; who, not comprehending the new words introduced into the service, muttered
(l)

These Russian words are written,

in

books of good authority,

Ghospodi. pomilui !"

See Lord TVliitwortlis kccount oi Russia, p. 43.

Also Univers. Hist.

nounced Rosepndi pomila rived from the Heathen

vol.XXXV. p. 134. But they seem generally pro! The supplication itself was originally deritual, and, like other

parts of our Liturgy,

retains a proof of indulgence granted to the prejudices of the Fathers

some
teries.

of

whom

were attached to the forms used

in the

Pagan Mys-

Thus

the Priest, before prayer, said

^ux'^'/^'-irSa,

" Lf.t us pray !"

And the Kv^n Ixitivov, ** Lord have mercy upon the Pagan lAtany. See Arrian. Epict. I. ii. c. 7.

us !" was a part of

202

MOSCOW.
among themselves.
to the pictures

Incense was then offered
:

and

to the people

and, this cere-

mony

ended, the archbishop read aloud a decla-

ration, purporting that the

deceased had died in

the true faith; that he had repented of his errors,

and that
said

his sins

were absolved.
in
is

Then turning
the coffin, he

to us, as the

paper was placed
Latin, " This

again in

what

all

you
in

foreigners call the Passport;

and you

relate,

your books of Travels, that
can go to heaven without

we
;

believe no soul

it.

Now

I

wish you
to
is

and to explain to understand what it really is your countrymen, upon my authority, that it
concerning the death of the deceased."
laughing, he added, "
this to paper:
I

nothing more than a declaration or certificate

Then
all
I

suppose you commit

and some future day, perhaps,

shall see an engraving of this

ceremony, with

an old archbishop giving a dead
port to
St. Peter'."

man

his pass-

(1)

There

is

a passag'e in

this extraordinary

man.

Mr. Heber's Jnurnnl very characteristic of Mr. Heber, with his friend Mr. Thornton,

paid to

him a

visit in

the Convent of Befania; and, in his description

of the monaster^-, I find the following account of the Archbishop.

" The
little

space beneath the rocks

is

occupied by a small chapel, fur;

nished with a stove for winter devotion

and on the right-hand
is

is

a

narrow

cell,

containing two coffins; one of which

empty, and

destined for the present archbishop; the otiier contains the bones of the Founder of the Monastery,
ijoffia

who

is

regarded as a Saint,
afflicted

The oak
with the
tooth-

was almost

bit to pieces

by different persons

MOSCOW.
'

203

The lid of the coffin beinof now removed, the chap. * IX. body of the Prince was exposed to view and y
;
^

'

all

the relatives, the servants, the slaves, and

the other attendants, began the ululation, according to the custom of the comitry.

Each person,

walking
before
it,

round the corpse, made prostration

and kissed the

lips

of the deceased.

The venerable
a

figure of an old slave presented

most

affecting spectacle.

He threw

himself

flat

upon the pavement, with a desperate degree
is

tooth-ache; for which a rub on this board
as he told us this
;

a specific. Platolaughed
not

but said, "

A<i they do

it

de BON ccecr, / would

undeceive them."
as a

This prelate has been long very famous
His piety has been questioned
a very favourable idea of him.
;

in Russia,

man

of ability.

but from his
of his ex;

'•onversation

we drew

Some

pressions would have rather surprised a very strict religionist

but the

frankness and openness of his manners, and the liberality of his sentiments, pleased us highly.

His frankness on subjects of politics was
I

remarkable.
their

The

Clergy throughout Russia are,

believe, inimical to

Government; they are more connected with the peasants than most other classes of men, and are strongly interested in their sufFcrings and oppressions
;

to

many

of which they themselves are likewise
sisters of

exposed.
their

They marry very much among the daughters and
order, and form almost a Cast.
I

own

think Buonaparte rather
success

popular

among them.

Plato seemed to contemplate his

as an inevitable,

and not very alarming prospect.
penitent

He

refused to draw

up a Form
he,

of Prayer for the success of the Russian arms.

"

If," said

"

thet/ be really

and

contrite, let

them shut up

their places

prayers."

of public amusement J'or a month, and I will then celebrate public His expressions of dislike to the nobles and wealthy classes

were strong and singular;
the power of an

and the
better,"

as also the manner in which he described Emperor of Russia, the dangers which surround him, improbability of any rapid improvement. " It would be much said he, " had we a Constitution like that of England." Yet I

suspect he does not wish particularly well to us, in our war with

France."

Heber's

MS.

Journal.

204
CHAP,
V

MOSCOW.
of violence, and, being quite stunned
I
,

by the
:

»»

blow, remained a few seconds insensible

after-

wards, his loud lamentations were heard;

and

we saw him hairs. He
the Prince
;

tearing off and scattering his white

had, according to

the

custom

in

Russia, received his liberty

upon the death of

but choosing rather to consign himremainder of his days to a convent,

self for the

he retired for ever from the world, saying, " Since his dear old master was dead, there was

no one living who cared

for him."

was handed about, containing boiled rice and raisins a ceremony we are unable to explain. The face of the deceased was then
;

A plate

covered with
consecrated

linen,
oil,

and the archbishop poured
pronounc;

and threw a white powder,
it,

probably lime, several times upon

ing some words in the Russian language

these

he afterwards repeated aloud in Latin: "Dust
thou art;
lid

and unto

dust thou art returned!''''
;

The

of the coffin

was then replaced

and, after a

requiem, " sweet as from blest voices," a procession began from the church to a convent in

the vicinity of the city, where the

body was

to

be

interred.

There was nothing solemn
It

in this

part of the ceremony.

began by the slaves
all

of the deceased on foot,

of

whom

were

in

mourning.

After the slaves, followed the priests.

MOSCOW.
bearing tapers
;

205
^^x^'
^ '

then was borne the body, on a

whip of the driver being bound with crape; afterwards proceeded a hne
droshy, the

common

of carriages, of the miserable order before described.

But, instead of the slow

movement
they could,

usually characteristic of funeral processions, the
priests

and the people ran as

fast as
in

and the body was jolted along
rous manner.
vehicle

a very indecolast

Far behind the

rumbling

were seen persons, running, quite out of breath, and unable to keep up with their companions '.

(1)

To

this

account of a Russian Funeral,
it

it

may be proper

to add a
to the

description of a Russian Christening, as

was communicated

author by a gentleman long resident in Moscow.

The ceremony

of

Baptism

is

as follows
it

:

—As soon as a child
;

is

born, or a few days aftercarried to church

wards (unless

be too weak), the child

is

by the

godfathers and godmothers
Priest,

where, being met at the door by the
in the forehead,

he signs the child with the sign of the cross
it

and gives
out,

the benediction, saying,
in /"

" The Lord

preserve thy going
to the font,

and thy coming

They then walk up together
priest fastens four lighted

round the edge" of which the
delivered to

wax

candles,

him by

the sponsors,

whom
it

he

incenses,

and consecrates
:

the water by dipping the cross into

with a great deal of ceremony

then begins a procession round the font, being followed by the sponsors
with wax candles in their hands
times.
:

thus they go about the font three

name of the name upon an image, which he holds upon the child's breast, and asks, " JVticther the child Relieve in God the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost?" The sponsors having
The
procession being over, the sponsors give the
child to the ^ricsi, inwriting: the priest puts the

answered

yes, three times, they all turn their

backs

to the font, as

a

sign of their aversion to the three next questions to be asked by the
priest, viz.
*'

Wltether the child renounce the Devil / Whether he re-

nounce

his angels f

Whether he renounce

his viorksf

The sponsors
answer,

;

206

MOSCOW.
The
stalls

of fruit and food in the streets of
beneficial to the health

Moscow prove, perhaps,
Stallr;

for

Fruit and

of tlio people; especially to the children,
are ill-fed at home.
copeeks,

who
few

Food.

At these

places, for a

which they contrive

to collect, they get

answer,

" /
p.

renounce," distinctly, to each question, and
(See Part
II.

spit

three

times upon the ground, in token of maledictio)i.
ch.
vii.

Sect. III.

295. Note

1.

of these Travels, for further observations

upon

this antient

Eastern mode of cursing.)

Tlien they turn their faces to

the font again: and being- asked by the priest,
mise
to

" IVhether

they pro-

bring up the child in the true Greek Religion,"

the exorcism

begins:

the priest puts his hand upon the child, and blows three

times, saying these words,

"

Get out of the child, thou unclean
."

spirit,

and make win/ for
child's hair,

the

Holy Ghost
in

he then cuts

off a lock of the
it

wraps

it

up
is

apiece of wax, and throws

into the font
it

after

which the child

stripped quite naked, and
it

the priest takes

in his

arms and plunges

into the

water three times, pronouncing the
in the

words of the Sacrament, " / baptize thee
of the Son, and of the Holy Gluost."

name of the Father, and
it

Immediately after the immersion, he signs

with the sign of the

cross, (using for that purpose an oil consecrated by a Bishop,)

forehead, upon the breast,

upon the upon the shoulders, upon the palms of the
This
is

hands, and upon the back.

anotlier sacrament, and
this,
it is

it is

called

the Baptismal Unction
ceives the
its

;

by virtue of

supposed the child resalt in

Holy Ghost.

The
shirt

priest
it,

having then put a grain of

mouth, puts a clean

upon

and

says,

" Thou art as

clean
its

and

as clear from original sin as thy a
little cross,

shi)-t."

He

then hangs about
is

neck

of gold, silver, or lead,

which

strictly preserved

by the

Russians,

who deny

Christian burial to such as have not one of these

crosses about

child are looked

them when they die. upon as so nearly

Those who are sponsors for the
related,

that they are not permit-

ted to intermarry.

In cases of necessity, the

midwife, or any other

person exf ept the parents,

may administer baptism.

Baptism

is

es-

teemed the most essential point of
of original sin
;

religion, for they hold the doctrine

re-admitted as

members

and persons, who have been notorious reprobates, are of the Church, by repeating their baptism.
in this

There being no Confirmation

Church, baptism, and baptismal

unction (above mentioned), are administered at the

same time.

MOSCO^V.
a

207
at the
'

wholesome dinner.
little

I

saw them served
rice,

^^}^^'

stalls

with plates of boiled

over which was

y

-^

poured a

honey; and

for

each of these they
In the spring-,

paid about a penny English.

apples are exposed for sale (which the Russians

have a remarkable method of preserving through
the winter, though
tion

we

could not gain informa-

how

this

was

done),

baked pears,

salad,

salted

cucumbers (which are antiscorbutic, and
berries,

esteemed delicious by persons of every rank),
wild
boiled
rice,
giiass,

honey, and
receives a
it is

mead.

As almost every
fit

eatable

formal benediction from the priest, before

considered

for use,

no Russian
that

will

touch any

article of food

until

ceremony has taken

place.

A
is

particular church, near the Mareschal
set apart for the benediction of apples;

Bridge,

and
first

this

ceremony does not take place until the apple drops from the tree, which is brought
form to the
priest.

in great

A Mohammedan would

sooner eat pork, than a Russian would eat unconseer ated fruit.

Having observed a very rare Siberian
the

plant,

" purple-flowered

Henbane" (Hyoscyavms
in the

Plnjsalo'ides),

growing wild

garden of our

.

and banker, Mr. Doughty, we thought the season sufficiently advanced to go, on the twentyfriend

ninth of Mayy upon a botanical excursion to

208
*^?x^'
'
,

MOSCOW.

^P'^^'^'O'i^

H^lh

^1"^

eminence near the
it

city,

much

^

celebrated for the view
its

affords of

Moscow and
it

HUL°^

environs.

The

sight is not so pleasing as
is

the scene beheld from the Kremlin;

too

much
it
.

of a bird's-eye prospect;

and, although

comprehend the whole extent of the city, with the rivers, and all its vast suburbs, the
magnificejice of the edifices
is

lost in the dis-

tance to which they appear removed.
this hill

Upon

one of the former Sovereigns began to
the foundations of this, with
are

build a palace:

vaults and cellars of brick-work,
ruins.

now

in

From

the eminence

we

perceived the

land round Moscoiv to be low and swampy,

abounding with pools of stagnant water, and of
course unhealthy.
ous, from

The

climate

is

also danger-

sudden

vegetation

was here very

" Pilewort," or

The rapidity of The English Ranunculus Jicaria, was already
transitions.
striking.

losing its blossom.

Many

other later flowers,

by their forward state, gave us notice that it was time to bid adieu to cities and the " busy haunts of men," if we wished to behold Nature in more southern latitudes, before she became divested of her smiling counteuance.

The manner

in

which the Russian peasants

clothe their legs and feet, throughout the whole

empire, seems, from its simplicity and the mate-

MOSCOW.
rials used, to

209
It

denote a very antient custom.

^^^^•
IX.

prevails, also, all over Lapland,
territories of

and the northern

Sweden and of Norway.

The shoes
;

are

made

of the matted bark of trees

the legs
cloth,

being covered by bandages of woollen

bound with thongs of the same materials as the These thongs, passing through the sandals. loose texture of the sandal, and afterwards entwined about the
tosrether. O'
leg,

keep the whole apparatus

We
title

have already mentioned the

filthy esta-

Public

blishment called an Inn, and dignified by the
of

V Hotel

de Constantinople,

where we
in

re-

sided '.

The master
employed

of

it

had not

less than five

hundred persons, as servants, and
pacities,

other calist

to assist him.

In this

were included a number of hired

prostitutes,

constantly kept, in open stews belonging to the

house, for the use of the numerous guests

by

whom

it

was

inhabited.

A swarm
teristic

of slaves, attendants, hirelines, and °
'

Banquets
of the
bies.

No

dependent sycophants,

is

remarkably charac-

of the great houses in Moscow.

The

nobles consider the honour of their families as

being so materially implicated in maintaining a
(1)

During the reign of the Emperor Paul,

this

was the only inn

to which foreigners were allowed to resort.

VOL.

I.

P

210
CHAP,
IX.

MOSCOW.
numerous
tellites

table, that

should any one of the sa-^

usually suirounding- them

forsake his

post at dinner, to swell the train of any other
person, the offence
is

rarely forgiven

;

they will

afterwards persecute the deserter,

means of revenge within their power.
with persons
affability,

who were

victims of

by every We met their own
their lord.

in

having accepted invitations which

decoyed them from the banquets of
hospitality described

Similar motives have given rise to the prodigious

by

travellers.

Before the

reign of Paul, a stranger
in Moscow,

than the
for his

was no sooner arrived most earnest solicitations
If his visits

were made

regular attendance at the

table of this or that nobleman.

were indiscriminate, jealousy and quarrels were During the reign the inevitable consequence.
of Paul, Englishmen were guests likely to in-

volve the host in difficulty and danger;

but,

notwithstanding the risk incurred,
tice to

it is

but jus-

acknowledge, that the nobles
highl}^
;

felt

them-

selves

gratified

by

the presence of a

stranger

and, having requested his attendance,

they would close their gates upon his equipage,
lest
it

should be discerned by the officers of the

police.

The

curious spectacle exhibited at their din-

ners has not a parallel in the rest of Europe.

MOSCOW.
The
dishes aiid the wines correspond in grada-

211
^l]^^'

tion with the rank

and condition of the guests.

^—

y

'

Those who
tlie

sit

near the master of the house are

ETiquenT
''^

suffered to have no connection with the fare or um-IL

tenants at the lower end of the table.

In

^''^'''''

barbarous times
nature in

same England; and perhaps the custom is
of the
Wales, or in English

we had something

not even

now quite extinct in
where
all

farm-houses,

the family, from the master

to the lowest menial, sit

down

together.

The

choicest viands at a Russian table are carefully

placed at the upper end, and are handed to those
guests stationed near the owner of the mansion,

according to the order in which they

sit

;

after-

wards,

if

any thing remain,

it is

taken gradually

to the rest.
all

Thus a degree

in

precedency makes

the difference between something and nothing

to eat; for persons at the

bottom of the table
to the

are often compelled to rest satisfied with an

empty
wines
table;
:

dish.

It is

the

same with regard

the best are placed near the top of the
but,
in

proportion as the

guests are

removed from the post of honour, the wine becomes of a worse quality, until at last it degenerates into simple quass.

Few

things can offer

more repugnance

to the feelings of an Englishman,

than the example of a wealthy glutton boasting
of the choice wines he has set before a foreigner

merely out

of

ostentation,
p

while

a

number

1

;

212
of brave
officers

MOSCOW.
and dependents are
he
is

sitting

by him,
glass.
this

to

whom

miable to offer a single

We

sometimes essayed a violation of
the glasses of those

barbarous custom, by taking the bottles
filling

placed before us, and

below; but the
through fear

was generally refused, of giving offence by acceptance
offer

was a mode of conduct which we found could not be tolerated, even by the most liberal Two tureens of soup usually make their host. appearance, as we often see them in England;
and
it

but

if

a stranger should ask for that which

is

at

the bottom of the table, the master of the house

regards him with dismay

;

the rest

all

gaze at

him

witli

wonder

;

and when he tastes what he
it

has obtained, he finds

to

be a mess of dirty

and abominable broth, stationed for persons who never venture to ask for soup from the upper

end of the
waiting
is

table.

The number

of attendants in

prodigious.

In the

house of the

young Count Orlof
;

w^ere not less than five hun-

dred servants many being sumptuously clothed,

and many others
sight
to

in rags.

It

was no unusual

observe behind a chair a fellow in
lace, like a Neapolitan runningr

plumes and gold
beggar from the

footman, and another

by

his side looking like a

streets.

A droll

accident befel two English gentlemen.

MOSCOW.
of considerable property,
tor

213
travelling
''

who were
.

^";!^^*
"

amusement in the South of Russia. Thev ^" •" Anecdote were at Nkholaef; and bemg mvited by the of two Chief Admiral to dinner, they were placed, as men. where they usual, at the head of the table were addressed by the well-known title of
.
.

'

;

Milords Anglais.
tion,

Tired of this ill-placed distinc-

they assured the Admiral that they were

not Lords.
host,
*'

" Allow me
is

then to

ask,'''

said their

luhat

the

rank ivhich you possess ?"

The

lowest Russian admitted to an AdmiraVs table has a certain degree of rank
service of the
;

all

who
is

are in the
as nolle

Crown being considered
:

by

their profession

and, as there

no middle

class of society in the country, but every

mem-

ber of
is

it is

either a Nobleman or a Slave, there

no such distinction as that of an independent
is

Gentleman^ neither
less there

the term understood, untitle

be some specific

annexed

to

it

The

Englishmen, however, replied, that they had

no other rank than that of English Gentlemen.
" But your
titles

? You must have some
title,

title

/"

*'

No,

(said they)
Gentlemen.''

we have no

but that of English

A

general silence, and

many

saga-

cious looks, followed this last declaration.

On

the following day they presented themselves

again at the hour of dinner, and were taking
their station as before.

To

their surprise, they

found that each person present, one after the

;

214
^?x ^^—V

MOSCOW.

^'

^^^^^^''
'

pl^^ced himself
^.notlieY
'd

above them.
a

One was

a

General;

Lieutenant ; a third an jEw^/g-n
fifth

a fourth a

Police-officer ;
;

an

Army

Surgeon;

a sixth a Secretary

and so

on.

All this

was very

well; they consoled themselves with the pro-

spect of a snug party at the bottom of the table,

where they would be the farther removed from ceremony but, lo when the dishes came round,
: !

was empty a second contained the sauce without the meat a third, the rejected offals of the whole company; and at length they were compelled to make a scanty meal, upon the slice
a
first
;
;

of black bread before them, and a

little

dirty

broth from the humble tureen, behind whose

compassionate

veil

they were happy to hide

their confusion; at the

same time being more
at

amused than
selves

mortified,

an adventure into

which they now saw they had brought them-

by their unassuming frankness. Had either of them said, as was really the case, that they were in the service of his Britannic Majesty's
Militia, or

Members of the Associated Volunteers

of London, they would never have encountered
so unfavourable a reception.

But more serious

difficulties

frequently follow
visit-

a want of attention to these prejudices, in
t^'bruseT
in Travel-

When a poderosnoy, "^o ^^ interior of Russia. or ordcr for post-horses, is made out, it will

MOSCOW.
often be

21o

recommended

to foreigners, to

and

partito

CHAP.
IX.

cularly to Englishmen,

annex some

title

the simple statement of their names.
this,

Without
to frequent

they

may

be considered, during their jour-

ney, as
insult,
is

mere

slaves,

and

will

be liable

delay,

and imposition.

The precaution

of such importance, that experienced travellers

have introduced the most ludicrous distinctions

upon these occasions
Professors;
in

;

and have represented
Inspectors,

themselves as Barons, Brigadiers,
short,

and

as any thing

which may
:

enable them to pass as freedmen.

For example
le

" Monsieur
K. L. M."

le

Capitaine a. b. c. avec
i.

Directeur

D. E. F. et le President g. h.

et Icurs

domestiques

So necessary

is

a due regard to these

particulars, that an officer of

very high rank

in

the service assured us, previous to our leaving

Moscow, that we should find ourselves frequently

embarrassed

in

our route, because
calling

we would

not

abandon the pride of
moners of England
;

ourselves

Com-

and

regret the neglect with
advice,

we had which we

reason to
treated his

during the whole of our subsequent

travels in the country.

It is at their

dinners that strangers have an

Deaiws

m

opportunity of learning what becomes of the

immense wealth of the Russian

nobility.

He

21p
^^^^^
'

MOSCOW.
will see
'

it

lavished

among

foreigners in their

V

service,

upon
balls,

their tables

and equipages, their
private
theatres,

dresses, toys, trinkets, jewels, watches, snuff-

boxes,

masquerades, This

dancers, singers, trading antiquaries, and travelling picture-dealers.
last office is fre-

quently filled by hair-dressers and Italian lackeys.

There is no place in the world where adventurers reap such harvests as in Moscow. Friaeurs from
Italy or

Germany, having bought up any rubbish

they are able to procure, get some friend to
give them a letter and a name, with which they

The news is soon buzzed new comer sought for and he must abroad the be indeed a fool if he do not make his journey answer. We saw a man of this description, a
arrive in the city.
; ;

barber of Vienna, as a picture-dealer in Moscoiv,
caressed by the nobles, and invited to
tables, until his stock of pictures
all

their

was gone, and

then he was no more noticed.

He complained
them had given and snuffrings, in

with bitterness to us of the dishonourable chicanery of the nobility.

Some

of

him

Pinchbeck instead of gold watches

boxes,

and paste instead of diamond
for his pictures.
;

exchange

In fact, they

had

mutually cheated each other

the pictures being

of less value than the worst commodities given
for

them.

Of the two parties, however, the

seller

MOSCOW.
and the buyers, the barber had ultimately the
losing part of the business.

2!7
chap.

Flushed by his

^—

y

'

newly-acquired wealth, he set up for an amateur
himself;

bought minerals, and gave dinners;
to Vienna without a sous

and ended by returning and shaving.
Moscoiu

in his pocket, to revive his old trade of frizzing

is,

of

all

places in Europe, the most

^Jj^^g'^^j

advantageous rendezvous of adventurers and
swindlers
;

Swindlers

consequently,

many

are found there.

The

credulity, the extravagance,
nobles,

and the ignotempting

rance of the Russian
harvest to such men.
to

offer a

The

notorious Semple rose

great celebrity in

Russia;

sometimes

in-

fluencing, if not altogether governing, Potemhin.

He introduced an
is still

uniform for the hussars, which
alterations, truly judi-

worn, and made

cious, in their military discipline.

The wealth

of the nobles
in

is

really enormous.
-'

5,T'",'^r'°i. ealtli of

U

We

have not

England individuals possess-

theA'oWa.

ing equal property, whatsoever

may be

their

rank or
peasants

situation.

Some

of the Russian nobles

have seventy and even an hundred thousand
;

their fortunes being estimated
peasants, as

by the
Condition cf the Feasants.

number of their

our IVest-India mer-

chants reckon their income by the
their hogsheads.

number of These peasants pay them,

218
^'

MOSCOW.
"P^^
^^^^

*^?x

average, ten roubles annually, in spede '.

If the

peasant have been required by his lord

(l)

Mr. Heber's Journal contains so much interesting information
tiie

concerning the state of
will here be subjoined.

Peasants in Russia, that a copious extract
it

While

accompanies the Author's Text,

it

may

make atonement, by
for
is

greater accuracy and more favourable statement,

any error

in his representation,

whether

statistical or moral.

He

bound, consistently with the promise he made, in the beginning of

this

Woik,

to give his Narrative as nearly as possible in the state in

which it was written upon the spot. " We observed a striking difference between the peasants of the Crown and those of individuals. The former are almost all in comparatively
easy circumstances.

Their Jbrock, or rent,
:

is

fixed at five roubles a
it

year, all charges included
raised, they are

and

as

they are sure that

will never

be

more

industrious.

The

peasants belonging to the
;

nobles have their abrock regulated

by their means of getting money
It

at an average, throughout the empire, of eight or ten roubles.

then

becomes not a rent

for land,

but a downright tax on their industry.
to labour three days in each
efiect

Each male peasant is obliged, by law, week for his proprietor. This law takes
age of
fifteen.

on

his arriving at the

If the proprietor chooses to
as, for

employ him the other

days, he

may;

example,

in a

manufactory; but he then finds
re-

him

in food

and clothing.
;

Mutual advantage, however, generally

laxes this law

and, excepting such as are selected for domestic ser-

vants, or, as above, are employed in manufactories, the slave pays a
certain abrock, or rent, to be allowed to

own account.

The master

is

bound

to furnish

work all the week on his him with a house and
is

a certain portion of land.

The allotment
village)

of land

generally settled

by the Starosta (Elder of the
rent, be sends to the Starosta,

and a meeting of the peasants

themselves. In the same manner,

when a master wants an increase of who convenes the peasants; and by this
If

assembly

it is

decided what proportion each individual must pay.

a slave exercise any trade which brings him in more money than agricultural labour, he pays a higher alrock.
If

by journeys to Petersburg,

or other cities, he can

still
:

earn more, his master permits his absence,

but

his abiock

is

raised

the smallest earnings are subject to his op-

pression.

The

peasants employed as drivers, at the post-houses, pay

an abrock out

of the drink-money they receive, for Leing permitted to drive
;

;

MOSCOW.
him three days of labour during each week, the annual tax is said to be proportionally
to give
the master mi^ht employ them in other

219

drive

;

as, otherwise,

less

pro-

fitable labour,

on

his

own account.

The aged and

infirm are provided

with food, and raiment, and lodging, at their owner's expense.
as prefer casual charity to tlie miserable pittance they receive

Such from

their master, are frequently furnished with passports, and allowed to

seek their fortune; but they sometimes pay an uLrock even for this

permission to beg.
as

The number of beggars
is

m Petersburg
;

is

very small

when one
in

is

found, he

immediately sent back to his owner.

In

Moscow, and other towns, they are numerous
than
London.

though

I

think

less so

They beg with

great modesty, in a low and humble

tone of voice, frequently crossing themselves, and are

much

less cla-

morous and importunate than a London beggar.
*'

The master has
;

the po.ver of correcting his slaves, by blows or

confinement
to the laws
;

but

if

he be guilty of any great cruelty, he

is

amenable

which

are,

we

are told, executed in this point with im-

partiality.

In one of the towers of Khitaigorod, at Moscow, there was

a Countess Sollihof confined for
severity,

many

years with a most unrelenting

which she merited,

for cruelty to her slaves.

Instances of
sister

barbarity are, however, by no

means

rare.

At Kostroma, the

of

Mr. Kotchetof, the governor, gave
had NAILED
(if

me

an instance of a nobleman who

I

understood her right) his servant to a cross.

The

master was sent to a monaster^', and the business hushed up. Domestic servants,

and those employed

in

manufactories, as they are more
in a terrible

exposed to cruelty, so they sometimes revenge themselves

manner.
distillery,

The brother

of a lady of our acquaintance,

who had

a great

disappeared suddenly, and was pretty easily guessed to have
slaves.

been thrown into a boiling copper by his

We

heard another

instance, though not from equally good authority, of a lady,

now

in

Moscow, who had been poisoned three several times by her servants.

No

slave can quit his village, or his master's family, without a

passport.

Any person
;

arriving in a

town or

village,

must produce
is

his
If

to the Starosta

and no one can harl)our a stranger without one.

a person be found dead without a passport, his body
pital for dissection
;

sent to the hos-

of
is

which we saw an instance.

The punishment

of living runaways,

imprisonment, and hard labour in the Govern-

ment works

;

and a master may =cnd to the public workhouse any
peasant

;

220
CHAP,
IX

MOSCOW.
diminished.
regulations

But, in despite of

all

the pretended

made
The

in favour of the peasant, the

peasant he chooses.
filled

prisons oi

with such runaway slaves,

who were,
;

Moscow and Kostroma were chiefly for the most part, in irons.
but
in the interior it
is

On

the frontier, they often escape
:

almost

impossible

yet, during the

summer, desertions are very common
for

and they sometimes lurk about
the woods.
soldiers.

many months,

living miserably in
is

This particularly happens when there
soldiers are levied,

a

new

levy of

The

one from every certain number of

peasants, at the

same time

all

over the empire.

But

if

a

man

be dis-

pleased with his slave, he
pleases,

may send him

for a soldier at
;

any time he

and take a receipt from Government
the next levy.
;

so that he send

one

man

less

He

also selects the recruits he sends to

Go-

vernment

with this restriction, that they are young men, free from

disease, have sound teeth,

and are

five feet

two inches high.
is is

" The
an
chosen,

Starosta, of

whom

mention has been so frequently made,
bailiff of

olficer

resembling the antient

an English

village.

He

we

are told, (at least generally,) hy the peasants ; sometimes
life.

annually, and sometimes for

the lord ; decides small disputes

He is answerable for the alrocks to among the peasants ; gives billets for
&c.
Stai'osta.

quarters to soldiers, or to Government officers, on a journey,

Sometimes the proprietor claims the right of appointing the

"A

slave can

on no pretence be sold out of Russia, nor in Russia,
if

to any but a jjcrson born noble, or,

not noble, having the rank of
it

Lieutenant- Colonel.

This rank

is

not confined to the military;

may

be obtained by them
of Brigadic7\)

in civil situations.
is,

(Professor P«//a5 had the rank
:

This law

however, eluded

as roturiers (plebeians)

frequently purchase slaves for hire, by

making use of the name of

some

privileged person

;

and

all nobles

have the privilege of letting out

their slaves.

" Such
deficient.

is

the political situation of the peasant.
I

With regard

to his

comforts, or means of supporting existence,

do not think they are

Their houses are

in tolerable rejiair,

moderately roomy, and
air of

well adapted to the habits of the people.
sufficiently fed,

They ha\e the
cheap

being
Fuel,
is

and their clothing

is

warm and

substantial.
;

food, dear.

and the materials
In

for building, are very

but clothing

summer they

generally wear Nantkin caftans, one of which

costs thirteen roubles.

Their labkas (linden-bark sandals) cost nothing,
excej)t

1

MOSCOW.
tax he
is
is

22
^^\^^}^-

called

upon

to pay, or the labour he

IX.

compelled to bestow, depends only on the

caprice or the wants of his tyrant.

Labour

is

except

in

great towns.

They wear

a blue Nantkin

sliirt,

trimmed with
and linen or
but

red, which costs

two or three

roubles;

linen drawers;
legs, over

hempen
sort
lasts a

rags

wrapped round

their feet

and

which the richer
it

draw their boots. The sheep-skin schauh
long time
;

costs eight roubles,

as does a lamb-skin cap,

which
For a

costs three roubles.

The common

red cap costs about the same.

common

cloth caf-

tan, such as the peasants sometimes wear,

we were asked
is

thirty roubles.

To

clothe a Russian peasant or a soldier

is, I

apprehend, three times as
strong, and,

chargeable as in England.

Their clothing, however,
lasts longer.

being made loose and wide,
quite in rags.
of which

It

is

rare to see a Russian

With regard to the idleness of the lower classes here, we had heard great complaints, it appears, that, where they have an interest in exertion, they by no means want industry', and have
just the

same wish

for luxuries as other people.

Great proprietors,

who

never raise their abrocks, such as Count Shei-emetof, have very rich

and prosperous peasants.
tioned.

The

difference

we

noticed between peasants

belonging to the Crovm and those of the

nobility

has been already

men-

The Crown peasants,
;

indeed,

it is

reasonable to suppose, are

more happy

living at their ease, paying a

moderate quit-rent, and
to vexa-

choosing their own Starosta.

They are, however, more exposed
Crown.
is

tion and oppression from the petty officers of the

" This account of

the condition of the peasa?its in Russia

an alr^gc

of the different statements

Prince Theodore Nlkolaiovitz

we procured iu Moscow, and chiefly from Galitzin. The levies for the army are conBaron Bode
till

sidered by the peasants as times of great terror.

told

me,

they generally keep the \e\y

as secret as possible,

they have fixed

on and secured a proper number of men.
till

They

are generally chained
is

they are sworn in

:

the fore part of the head

then shaved, and
After this,

they are thus easily distinguished from other peasants.
desertion
is

very rare, and very

difficult.

The

distress of

one of their

popular Dramas, which we saw acted at Yarcslof, in the private theatre
of the Governor Prince Galitzin, consisted in a young
for a soldier.

man
it is

being pressed
well

In the short reign of Peter

II.

who,

known,

transferred the seat of

pressed for a soldier

;

Government again to Moscow, no man was the army was recruited by volunteers ; and slaves
Heber's

were permitted to enter."

MS.

Journal.

222
CHAP,
IX.

MOSCOW.
not exacted from males only
'' :

women, and

child-

ren from the age of ten years and

upwards,
Tithes

are obliged to perform their equal share.
are,

moreover, demanded of w hatever may remain

in their
pigs,

hands

;

of linen, poultry, eggs, butter,

sheep, lambs,

and every product of the

land, or of domestic
peasant,

manual labour.

Should a

by any
steal, to

misfortune, be deprived of the

tribute expected

row, or

by his Jorcl^ he must beg, bormake up the deficiency. Some
their slaves
;

of the nobles choose to converse with foreigners

upon the condition of
this is the case,

and,

when

not the smallest reliance can

be placed upon the statement they may make. The observations of one of their Princes, at his

own

table, concerning the superiority of Russian

to English liberty, will

be found

in

a former
it

Chapter.

The same person deemed

to be

decorous, upon another occasion, and before an

immense assembly,

to contrast the situation of

what he termed the hap" There is," said piness of the Russian slaves.
English peasants with
he,

addressing

himself to us with an air of

triumph, " more of the reality of slavery in

England than

in Russia."

When w^e requested his

Excellency to explain what he implied by the " reality of slavery" he expatiated upon the
miseries of press-gangs
rishing condition of his
;

and pictured the
peasants,

flou-

own

whom

he

MOSCOW.
described as having relief
calamity, and
in their
in sickness,

223
refuge in
ciiap.
IX.

old

age a comfortable
if

asylum.
one,

We

asked the Prince,

there existed

amongst the happiest of

his slaves,

who

for

would not rejoice to exchange his Russian liherti/ what he was pleased to term English slavery. We had seen the peasants of this very man,

according to his

own

pathetic discourse, " in

sickness, in calamity,

and

in old

age

;"

and

it

was well known
their
their "

to every person present, that
in

" relief and refuge" was

death, and

asylum" the grave.
us, that the greatest

Another nobleman assured

punishment he
tisement)

inflicted

upon

his slaves (for

he

professed to have banished

all

corporeal chas-

was to give them their liberty, and then turn them from his door. Upon further
inquiry,

we

discovered that his slaves fled from

their fetters,

even

if

there were a certainty of
rather than

death before their eyes,

remain

beneath his tyranny.

Great indeed must be

the degree of oppression which a Russian will

not endure,

who from

his cradle

crouches to his

oppressor, and has been accustomed to receive
the

rod without daring to murmur.

nations speak of Russian indolence;

Other which is

remarkable, as no people are naturally more
lively, or

more disposed

to

employment.

We

224
CHAP,
*«—,,,
'

MOSCOW.

may

perhaps assign a cause for their inactivity,

in necessity.

Can there
it

exist

any inducement
hard earn-

to labour,

when

is

certain that a ruthless
its

tyrant will deprive industry of
ings
?

The only property a

Russian nobleman
is

allows his peasant to possess,

the food

he
of

cannot or will not eat himself;
trees', chaff,

the bark
quass,

and other refuse;
If the slave

water,

and

fish oil.

have
his

sufficient inge-

nuity to gain

money without
it falls

knowledge,
and,

it

becomes a dangerous possession;
once discovered,
of his
lord.

when

instantly into the hands

A

peasant

in the village of Celo

Molody, near

Moscow,

who had been
little

fortunate

enough

to

scrape together a

wealth, wished to

marry

his daughter to a tradesman of the city, and

offered fifteen thousand roubles for her freedom

—a
sum

most unusual

price,

and a much greater

than persons of his class, situate as he

was, will be generally found to possess ^

The

(l)

" A few thousands

of their fellows eat wheaten bread, because

thirty miilious of slaves browse

on herbs and gnaw birch bark, on which

they feed, like the beavers, who surpass them in understanding."
Secret
(2)

Mem.

of Court of Petersburg, p. 268.

This anecdote of a peasant's wealth, and the example mentioned

in p. 109,

seem

to

prove an incorrectness in the description given of

the hardships sustained by the lower order of people in Russia; unless the

MOSCOW.
tyrant took the ransom
ther, that
;

225
told the fa-

and then

both the

girl

and the money belonged
still

to him,

and therefore she must

continue
a pic!

among
It is

the

number of

his slaves.

What

ture do these facts afford of the state of Russia

thus that

we

behold the subjects of a vast
all

empire stripped of

they possess, and existvictims of
to a

ing in the most abject servitude;

tyranny, and of wickedness

;

exposed

more

imprincipled dominion, and to severer privations,

than the most wretched vassals of any

other system of despotism upon earth.

Traversing the provinces south of Moscow,
the land
is

as the garden of

Eden

;

a fine

soil,

covered with corn, and apparently smiling in
plenty
:

but enter into the cottage of the poor

labourer,

who
find

is

surrounded by

all

these riches,

and you

him dying of hunger, or pining

the Reader be further informed, that the term Peasant, as ajiplied to
the population of Russia, does not necessarily imply that
are /wo;-.
jjart

of

it

who

A peasant may

be very

rich.

He may

be found in the
in

eixer-

cise of a lucrative trade, or

engaged, as a merchant,

commerce;

yet, as he belongs to the class oi slaves, both his vealth and his person

belong to some particular

lord.

Sometimes the

lo7ds content themselves
;

in receiving a moiety of the earnings obtained by their slaves

but very

frequently they seize

all

within their power, and hence arises the

necessity a rich peasant feels of concealing

what he may

possess.

It is

the agricultural peasant
of apparent wealth.

who

sustains constant privation, in the midst

VOL.

I.

Q

226
CH^p.
'
I

MOSCOW.
from bad food, and
'

in

want of the common
to him.

'

V

'

necessaries of

life.

Extensive pastures, covered

with

cattle, afford

no milk

In autumn,

the harvest yields no bread for his children.

A

selfish

and misdoinar lord claims

all

the Dro-

duce.

At

the end of summer, every road in
is filled

the southern provinces

with caravans,
to supply

bearing corn and

all

sorts of provisions, every

produce of labour and of the land,

the nobles of Moscow and Petershurg with the

means of wealth, and the markets
capitals, which, like whirlpools,

of those
all

two
that

swallow

approaches
voracity \

their

vortex,

with

never-ending

(l)

"

A

few

cities

enjoy the pleasures of
lie

life,

and

exhiliit palaces,

because whole provinces
in

desolate, or contain only wrttched hovels,

which you would expect to find bears, rather than men."
of the Court of Petcrshurgy p. 268.

Secret

Mem.

CHAP.

X.

FROM MOSCOW TO WORONETZ.
Departure from Moscow

— Celo Molody — Serpvchof— Insolence and Extortion — River Oka— Celo Zavody — Antient Games— Vast Oriental Plain — State of Tra— Tula — Manufactures—Imperial Fabric of Arms — Present State of Tula— Economy of Fuel — Iron Mines — Road from Tula JVoronetz — Dedilof— — Boghoroditz— Celo Nikitzkoy— Change of Climate Bolshoy Platy — Effremof— Nikolaijevka — Celo PaPain — Eletz — Ezvoly — Zadonetz — Celo Chlehnoy — Bestuzevka — Celo Staroy Ivotinskoy —
velling
its

to

ir o vskia

ia

Woronelz.

Xt

is

now necessary
w^e

to take leave of Moscoiv,

CHAP.
X.

where

passed some pleasant hours, and
of painful
anxiety, exposed to
to oppression,

many
insult,

others

and

from the creatures,

u 2

228
CHAP,
««i—s

FROM MOSCOW

— who
'

spies,

and agents, of the contemptible tyrant
throne.

was then upon the Russian was not

Our
in the

situation,

and that of every Englishman

empire,

better than the condition of

prisoners on their parole.

We
is

had been

al-

lowed

to

move

about,

it

true,

but always

under the vigilant eye of a troublesome and
capricious police.
time, before

We

were detained a long

we

could learn

when we might

go,

Dqjarture

by what route we should be allowed to An escape by the Livonian frontier was pass. At last, without any Utterly impracticable.
or
pg^ggpQj.^ fQj.

i^ijfos-

leaving the country, but

encouof

raged by the

advice and exertions

our

excellent and friendly ambassador,

who

secretly

conveyed to us

letters

from the Governor of

Petersburg to the Governor of Moscow, and to

General Michelson, Commander-in-chief in the
Crimea,
insula,

we determined
Don
Cossacks;

to set out for that Pen-

by a circuitous

route, through the country

of the

and,

if

possible, to visit

Kuban Tartary and the more of Circassia. Having, by means of these letters, procured the long-wished-for poderosnoy, and placed our carriage again upon its wheels, we
distant regions of
left

the city on the evening of the
visiting our

thirty-Jlrst

of

May,

banker at his country-seat

near Moscow, and proceeding that night only

twenty-seven versts, to a place called Molodtzy,

TO WORONETZ.
the
first station.

229
chap.
'^

The next

day, June ih^Jirsty
Its inhabitants

we

arrived at Celo Molocly.
in

had

-»-

'

been once

good circumstances, but since
lord.

completely ruined by their

The

tyrant
is

has a fine house, near the church, which
the left hand in quitting the village.

upon
is

He

the

miscreant, before mentioned,

who

refused to a

poor

girl

her liberty, after accepting the price

of her ransom,

when

she wished to marry in
Celo

Moscow.

Between Molodtzy and

Molody
situate,

we

passed through Podolsk, pleasingly

between two hills, upon the river Mockra. The late Empress conferred upon this place the name and distinction of a town but Paul (in
;

his determination to

do every thing that she
to

would not have done, and
did)

undo

all

that she

made

it

again a village.

From

Celo Molody oiir journey

was performed
this last place

with very great expedition, and over good roads,
to Grischinka,

and

to Serpuchof:

resembles Newmarket, in situation, appearance,

and surrounding scenery: and that nothing might be wanting to awaken the recollection of
our beloved country, the
*'

Mouse-ear Scorpion
with other British

Grass" {Myosotis
herbs, appeared

Scorpio'ides),

among

the plants then in flower.

Exactly

in the spot

which, with reference to the

town, corresponds with that of the Race Course

230

FROM MOSCOW
at Neiumarket, before descending into SerpuchoK

there

is

a church-yard

:

here,

among

the graves of the

and tombs, we saw several of the

women
is

country practising a custom which

purely

Oriental; namely, that of visiting the sepulchres

of friends long buried, bowing their heads to the

ground, touching the graves with their foreheads,

weeping aloud, and uttering short prayers.
this road

In

the dress

of the peasants

changes

more frequently than
and
it is

in other parts of Russia;

remarkable, that, although the habits
so various in the different pro-

of the

women be

vinces, those of the

men

are the

same through-

out the empire.

iSerpuchof.

Serpuchof'is a

handsome

little

town, upon the

river Nara.

It

contains a citadel, inclosed
;

by a

strong rampart
Chancery.

and has a Weywode, with his In the market we observed some
lahkas,

shops solely appropriated to the sale of
as constructed of birch or linden-bark'.
(l)

or Russian sandals : these were before descrioed,

Some

See p. 209.

According

to

Mr. Heher, the Linden, or /Jme-lrce,

affords the

bark used
is

for these saiidals.

shoes of linden-bark

very destructive to the trees, as a

" This practice of making man will wear

put twenty or thirty pairs of sandals in a year.

The

LAme-tree, of

which these shoes are made,
construction of mats from
article of exportation.
its

is

a very valuable plant, owing to the

bark, which form a very considerr.^jle

It is scarce in the
j

western provinces

;

but La

the eastern very pleatilul

and

it

flourishes as high as

Archangel."

Heher' s

MS. Journal.

TO WORONETZ.
authors have asserted that each peasant
his

231

made

chap.

own.
;

Formerly

this

might have been the
it is

v—

^

'

so now. Such shops, however, prove that the rudest and

case

and perhaps

in the interior

the most antient kind of sandal in the world,

which

is

common
his

to

man

in

a state of nature,
is

and roaming
an article of

primeval forests,

even now

commerce ".
station
is

At every
oliicer,

who

called

upon the route there is an Fotcketilione, to supermtend

insolence
tion.

the post, and to see that travellers are regularly

supplied with horses.

Some

of these

men,

however, will not furnish horses without a bribe,

even when the Imperial order has been produced.

We
that

experienced some delay at Serpuchof, from

a person of this description.
if

Our order directed,

horses were not found at the post-house,

the officer on duty should procure others from the peasants.
the author
order.

Being told there were no horses,
into the office, to enforce this

went

As he entered, the Potchetilione commanded him to take off his hat and having asked for what reason he was to remain bare:

headed

in that place

;

" What, are you

blind,"'

exclaimed the superintendant,
insolence, " that

in a tone of great

you do not

see the

Emperor s

(2)

See the Vignette to this Chapter.

232
CHAF.

FROM MOSCOW

*—-V

portrait'
'

upon the wall?

It is

a face to

make

The author endeavoured to answer him in his own way, saying, " The Emperor, truly! If he knew how shamefully you have slandered his countenance by that vile representation, your head would come off sooner
Englishmen tremble." than

my

hat."

Finding his gasconade had not
it

succeeded, he caused

to be intimated, that he

wanted a

rouble.

We

could hardly credit what

we

heard; and should have been ashamed to
it,

offer

if

he had not afterwards told us so

himself.

Horses

now came

quick enough, and

half-a-dozen fine speeches into the bargain.

River Oka.

About a vcrst from this town we crossed the Oka, by a ferry. This river falls into the Folga
at Kolomna.
It is

a noble piece of water, almost

as broad as the Thames, and well stocked with
fish.

We had been detained so long at Serpuchofy

that evening

was coming on when we arrived upon its banks. Peasants were seated in groupes
around different
fires, singing,

and boiling
frogs,

their

fish

upon the

shore.

Innumerable
to

whose

croaking
(l)

may be heard

a

great

distance

Copies of the Emperok's Portrait, for which see the Vignette to
all

the First Chapter, were sent, by order of Paul, to
his empire.

public offices of

Some

of those pictures were executed in a most wretched

manner.

All persons,
if in

however, were ordered to stand bareheaded

before them, as
trate,

the despot's presence.

The

peasants

fell

pros-

and offered their adoration,

as before their

BOGH.

TO WORONETZ.
during the night, overpowering the melody of
nightingales in Russia as well as in Denmarky
'

233
ciiap.

v

'

joined the loud chorus; while the moon,

full

and splendid, rose over

this fine scene.

Upon the
wooden hut
this

south side of the river stood a small
:

at this our driver desired to stop

for a little quass.

Having acquired a

relish for

Scythian beverage,

we

followed him into
find,

the hut;

but were astonished to
full

instead

o{ quass, five or six hogsheads

of brandy;
off,

and

this

they were retailing and drawing

as

our tapsters draw beer.

We

could not learn

where they found customers
from the
trafiic

for so great a con-

sumption, but supposed they might be derived

upon the
all

river

:

yet they assured

us that such brandy-huts were found in every
village,

and that

of

them were equally well

stocked.

We

arrived late the

same night

at Celo Zavodyy ^^^°

^*"

and waited there
villages

until

sun-rise.
to

In

all

the

and towns, from Moscoiu

JVoronetz,

as in other parts of Russia, are seen boys, girls,

and sometimes even old men, playing with the
small joint-bones of a sheep.
called dihhs

This same
It is

is

Amient

by our Enghsh
;

peasants.
it

of

very remote antiquity

and

may be

observed
terra-

beautifully represented

upon the Grecian

234
CHAP,
'
, '

FROM MOSCOW
cotta vases; particularly

upon a

fine

one be-

longing to the Collection of the late Sir William
Hamilton,

where a female

figure appears

most

gracefully delineated, kneeling

upon one knee,

with her right arm extended, the palm downwards, and such small bones ranged along the

back of her hand and arm.
this

She seems in the act
In

of throwing them up, in order to catch them.

manner the

Russians play the game.

But

they have another method, corresponding with

our game oi marbles, and which probably afforded
the origin both of marbles and of nine-pins
:

it

consists in placing several larger bones, in a

row, upon the ground
shall beat

;

a contest ensuing,

who

from a

down with another bone given distance, in the smallest number
them
all

of throws.

It is

a pleasing sight to see the young

vil-

laoers return in the evenins^ from their labour.

They move slowly up
carols,

the village, with flowers

in their hats, singing a kind of

hymn.

In these
;

each person bears a separate part

and

by

the exactness of the Russians in observing
is

time and tune, the effect
tation

very

fine.

Vege-

had been

rapid, in the short interval of
;

our journey from Moscow
of the peasants, and

but in the garlands
the plants found

among

near the road,

we

observed only the earliest

^

TO WORONETZ.
flowers,
ticular

235

and there were none worthy of a par- chap. The whole territory, whether /-— notice.
^

to the south of Moscow, or in
tion, is flat. '

any other direc'

oreat Oriental plain extends ^ Siberia, and from that city even to Tobolsky

The

^'^'"ij^'l'

m

ental Plain.

throughout

all

the southern provinces; appearing

generally destitute of wood, and being* always

without inclosures.
In a narrative of travels through Russia, there
IS

state of

no reason to tear any account

P

oi

^

Travelling.

adventures

at inns.

Except
;

in large

towns, such houses

are never seen

and even there they are abo-

minable.
in the

Better accommodation

may be had

farm-houses of Lapland peasants, than in
In the latter, the rooms consist

Russian inns.

of bare walls, filthy
tute

beyond

description, desti-

of any article

of furniture.

Sometimes
;

these houses are kept by foreigners
this case,

and, in

the

evil

is

not

mended; because,

althouoh a httle old furniture be then intro-

duced,

it is

always

dirty,

and affords a recep-

tacle for every kind of vermin.

A

person

who
it

wishes to traverse Russia^ must consider
Antient Scytliia
;

as

being provided with every
If

thing-

he

may

require.

he can endure fatigue, with
constantly covered with

little

sleep,

and

live

dust,
frost,

exposed

to a scorching

sun

;

or to severe

with a couch of snow to he upon, beneath

;

236
CHAP,
^-' V
'

TULA.
the
'

canopy of heaven; he may travel

in a

khabitka,

which

is

the best of

all

means of conhave

veyance.

If not,

he must, according to the
in the First Chapter,

method recommended
low,

a dormeuse in his carriage, which should be

made

and with very wide

axle-trees.

In this

manner

his journey will not

be quite so expebut he will

ditious as in a lighter machine;

always be able to proceed at the rate of a hundred versts
in a day.
it,

If

he can smoke tobacco,

the fumes of

used moderately,

may

preserve

himfrom dangerous

infection; repel vermin; and,

by

their narcotic

power, acting as a stimulant,

may promote
practice also,

the digestion of

bad

food.

This

during long fasting, upon chilling
air,

lakes and marshes, and amidst

unwholesome has been found both solacing and salutary.

Tula.

The ucxt
through

day,

June the
Celo

third,

we
to

passed

Vaszany and

Volotia,

Tula,

capital of the

government of the same name,

and the

Near the town we found the Lathrcea squamariciy a plant which the peasants boil in milk, as a remedy for disordered
Sheffield of Russia.

bowels, and a disease called

sickness

of heart

but the specimens were

diificult

to preserve,

owing

to their succulent nature.

For some time before

we

reached Tula,

it

TULA.
exhibited a considerable appearance.

237

A

very
v,

chap.
.y
<

handsome church, with white cokimns, appeared above the town, which occupies an extensive The vale, and is filled with spires and domes. entrance, both on its northern and southern
side,
is

through triumphal
to imitate

arches,

made
;

of

wood, painted
times, Tula

marble.

In former
to visit

was a dangerous place

the

inhabitants frequently pillaging travellers in the

public streets.

Now,

it

is

the great mart of
;

JJ^^"f^'
^«^«-

hardware

for the

whole empire
all

containing a

manufactory of arms,
arrive at the inn,

sorts of cutlery,

and

other works in polished steel.

you a number of persons crowd
as

As soon

the room, each bearing a sack filled with trinkets, knives, inkstands, incense-pots, silk-reels,
scissars,

and corkscrews.

Their work

is

showy,
a

but very bad, and will not bear the smallest

comparison with our English wares
sufficient

:

it

is

proof of the superiority of English
all their

workmanship, that they stamp
artificers,

goods
of

with the names of English towns and English
imitating even

the

marks

the
their

Sheffield manufacturers, and adopting

all

models.

The wares hawked about
;

are

made

during holidays and hours of leisure

these the

workmen are permitted to sell to their own perquisites. They are

strangers, as

able to fabri-

cate any thing, but they finish nothing.

Some

238
CHAP,
of the
'

TULA.
by the

^—

.^

workmen were purposely sent to England late Empress, who neglected no measure

conducive to the improvement of the manufactory.

We

asked those

who had worked
finish

in

our country,
finished.

why

their

wares were so badly
they could

They
;

replied,

them

better,

but were not able to bestow the necesfor as

sary time

every

article is the

produce of

the labour of a single person, the high price

such additional labour must require would never

be obtained.

The

best

work we saw was

in

a

manufactory of barometers, thermometers, and
mathematical instruments but here the
;

artificer

was

a German,

who had been
in Petersburg.
all

instructed under

English masters

The

late

Empress
she

bought up almost

the

work which her English

workm.en completed.
distributed

To encourage them,

ordered spectacles by the gross, and afterwards

them in presents. In her palaces, thermometers were placed in every window: and, as they were perpetually broken by the servants, her workmen, in providing a fresh supply, had sufficient demands to keep them
constantly at work.

Imperial I'abric of

^
of of
it.

Icttcr to

oue of thc principal persons i i i

in the

Anns.

Imperial manufactory enabled us to see the whole

They

exhibited to us a splendid collection
pistols,

guns,

swords,

&c.

designed

as

.

TULA.
presents from the inhabitants of Tula to each

239
chap.
.y„/

member

of the Royal family, upon Paul's ac- ^-

cession to the throne.

These

offerings were,
i

however, refused by the Emperor, upon some
pretext of dissatisfaction experienced by him

{

from the people of the place.
however, was known
to

The

true cause,
^

i

be his steady determipatronized by
cast

nation of oppressing and insulting every individual,
his

}
f
|

or class of individuals,

mother.

Whatsoever
;

mis^ht

odium

upon her memory
lustre of her

whatsoever might sully the

by interrupting the progress of her plans for public improvement; by disby missing her statesmen and her officers poisoning the sources whence she dispensed happiness amongst her people by overthrowing her establishments by blighting the tender but thriving shoots of science and of the arts, which she had planted; by converting good to evil, and
fame
; ; ;

;

joy to grief; was the hourly occupation of her
unnatural son.
In the few years of his frantic

tyranny

(for

every one saw, that of his govern-

ment there would be a speedy termination) he
proved a greater scourge to Russia than can be counterbalanced by another long and glorious
career, like that of

Catherine, distinguished by
'

wisdom and power and conquest and beneficence
(l)

Such was, at

least,

the character of her public administration.

Her

private vices were those of the people over

whom

she reigneil.

The

V

240

TULA.
trace of her brilliant reign

*^

^^^' Already every
'

had

disappeared.
sion

The
fell

Russians,

on
the

the

acces-

of ^Paul,

back

into

barbarism

which characterized the empire before the age
of their First Peter.

The

polished nations of
learn, that

Europe
as the

will

be surprised to

immortal

name of Catherine appears in their annals, it was almost forgotten in Russia within four years after her death it remained among the number of privations enjoined by the long list of public proscriptions, and was heard only
:

in

the howling of the
of

wind that

drifted

the

snows
jected

favourites
;

Siberia. At the same time, her were displaced; her ministers re;

her officers dismissed
:

her monuments

overthrown

even the

verst-posts,

which bore

some marks of her
and near
Harlequinades,

taste,

were demolished;

to their ruins stood a series of

wooden
foolish

chequered

to

suit

the

fancy of the Imperial ideot upon the throne.

The Reader

will find

them

strikingly pourtrayed in the

"

Secret

Memoirs of the Court of Petersburg," a work attributed to the Count De Segur. Yet, who shall relate the butcheries of the Orlofs,
the Passicfts, and Baratinskies, of Russia
?

All that

Shakspeare has

fabled of the cruelties of Richard the Thiud seem to have been
realized under the reign of

Catherine

;

whether with or without her

connivance, has not been ascertained.

The "quick conveyance"

of

her husband, of the Holstein Guards, of Prince Ivan, might be the

work

of her favourites:

but can we believe that Alexius Orlof was

alone implicated in the fate of the innocent daughter of the Empress

Elizabeth

?

'

TULA.
Tuhy
in its

'241
is

present condition,
1
-,

not likely to
;

prove of any advantage to the empire

because

'

the inhabitants are unable to raise a

m suthcient

Present state of

—r—

chap.

quantity of water for the works.
is ill-constructed,

The machinery

and

it

is

worse preserved.

Every thing seemed to be out of order. Workmen, with long beards, stood staring at each other, not knowing what to do; while their intendants and directors were either intoxicated
or asleep.

Notwithstanding

all this,

they boasted

of being able to send out of the manufactory,
in the

common

course of business, without any

particular

order

from
in a

Government,

thirteen

hundred muskets
musket
is

week.

But then the
It is
:

almost

all

that connects the

name sham
wonfive

appearance with the real weapon.
derful

how any

troops can use them

besides
fire

being clumsy and heavy, they miss
times out of
six,

and are

also liable to burst

whenever they are discharged.

The

streets of TularzxQ

paved

:

its

shops and

public places cause an appearance of activity

and of industry,

in despite of the neglect

shewn
four
rich.

to the public works.

The number of merchants,
is

including shopkeepers,

estimated

at

thousand: and of this number some are very

Its commerce, independently of the hardware

manufactory, consists in

European merchandize,
K

VOL.

I.

242
CHAP,
X.
ill

TULA.
Greek
wines,

and

in

other

productions

of Turkey.

The
six

Imperial manufactory of
;

arms

employed

thousand workmen

and the num-

ber of inhabitants was stated at thirty thousand.

The town
in the

stands in a pleasing valley, on the

borders of the river Upa.

There are few woods
suffi-

neighbourhood, yet they produce
the

cient fuel for
EcoiuHny

consumption of the place.
to the

^\{i^ niay

be attributed

very great ecostoves;

nomy
in the

introduced by the use of

for the

heating of which, a few billets, kindled early

morning,

suffice;

an equal warmth being

afterwards diffused, during the

whole of the day
apart-

and following

night.

If

they be properly con-

structed, there is no

method of heating
little

ments attended with so

expense and so

many

conveniences.

In England, stoves are
;

generally

made

of cast iron
in

these are not merely

unwholesome, but,
very dangerous.
stoves

small rooms,

they are

Why the

Russian and Su^disk
in our country,

have not become common
article

where every
expensive,
prefer

of fuel

is

so

amazingly

may be
costly,

explained by those

who

more

and perhaps more cheerful,
of dwellings built

hearths.

The
is

generality of houses in Tula are

of

wood; but the number
considerable,

with stone
daily.

and

it

increases

Many new

buildings afforded proof of

an increasing population.

We

observed

women

TULA.
employed in repairing the pavement of the streets, which is kept in good order. The dress of the young females displays their persons to
advantage.

243
chap.
v

,-

.*

A

w^hite shift covers the
is

arms and

body
It is

in front,

and

fastened behind with tape.

drawn

tight over the breast,

and there

held

by

a small button.

The

iron mines in the

neighbourhood of
:

this

iron Mines.

place are very considerable

they occupy an

extent of more than ten miles, in a country

somewhat
with
iron,

hilly,

covered by thick woods.

The

whole of the
the west.

soil

around them
is

is

impregnated

but the richest ore
It

found towards

lies

scarcely

concealed

by a

superincumbent surface, not more than fourteen
inches
thick,

consisting

of sand

mixed with

mould, and sometimes of sand alone.
miles

From

these mines the celebrated forges of Demidofy
distant
thirty-eight

from Tula, derive

their ore.

As soon

as

we

left

Tula,

we

quitted the main Road

from

road from Moscow to Cherson, and turned off due
south, towards JVoronetz.

woronet-..

After ascending the
carried into a wide

heights above Tula,

we were
cattle

and desolate

plain,

covered only by a thin sod,

on which herds of

were

grazing.

This

deviation was not made, on our part, without

R 2

244
apprehension.

TULA.

We

had reason

to

fear

that

known roads might not

suit a carriage ill-con;

structed for an adventurous journey

being

lofty,

with narrow axle-trees, and more calculated for
cities

than deserts.
for the

To

our great satisfaction,

however, and

comfort and assurance of
to follow our

other travellers
route, the

who may choose

whole distance to
like

JVorojietz

may be
and the

passed

over

a bowling-green,

lightest vehicle
injury.

would be exposed to no hazard of
even those oi Siueden,

This vast plain afforded us the finest road

in the world, not excepting

being

all

the

way

a firm hard turf, exactly re-

sembling that which covers the South
Sussex,

Downs

in

and with the additional advantage of

being for the most part level, extending like an
ocean, in which the eye discerns no object to
interrupt the uniformity of the view.
first

Over the
in these

part of the journey from Tida, small copses,

in patches,

might be distinguished

;

and

we we

noticed some dwarf oaks, the

first

seen since

entered Russia from the Sivedish frontier;

excepting a single tree in a garden at Moscow,

shewn there as a
barbarous
form,

rare plant, and cut into a

like

the

yew-trees
'.

in

old-

fashioned English shrubberies

Among

those

(1)

The
is

practice of cutting evergreens so as to resemble the shape
as old as the

of animals

time of

tlie

Younger Pliny, and probably
niuch

TULA.
copses

245
ciiap.

we

found the PotcnliUa Anserina, which

we had

also seen at Tula; the Asperu la odoraia;

and a species of

Geum

that appeared

new

to us.

The view
above
it,

of Tula from the elevated plain

over which the road passes towards

fVoronetz, is

very

fine.

There

is

not a more
itself,

pleasing prospect in Russia.
its

The town

with

numerous white buildings, domes, towers, and
Trees appeared
spreading
the suburban downs, and

rising spires, is a noble object.

skirting

here and there into the valley, while cattle were
grazing in the surrounding pastures.

At the

same
ful

time, our ears

were greeted with the cheerthe -

sounds of industry issuing from different
;

manufactures

with the ringing of bells
;

;

lowing of the herds

and a loud chorus of pea-

sants, singing their national airs,who accompanied

their voices, either with the clapping of hands,

or with the wild notes of rustic pipes, constructed

same materials as the sandals on their feet'. Numerous caravans were moreover passing from the Ukraine and from the Don; and the whole of
of the
this lively

scene exhibited so striking a contrast
to witness

to

what we had long been accustomed

much

older.

In one of his Letters to

JpoUinaris

(lib. 5. ep.

G) be

mentions such ornaments of
(2) See the l^ignette to

his Villa in Tusca?ii/.

Chapter IX.

246

FROM TULA
in the frigid regions of the North, that

we seemed

suddenly transported to a different zone.

Dediiof.

The rapture, however, was not of long duration. It is impossible to imagine a place more miserable than the
first

town or

village of Dediiof, the
'

place of relay, distant only twenty
It

miles

from Tula.

consisted of several timber huts,

coarsely thatched with straw.

The

interstices

of the trunks of trees, which, lying horizontally,

formed the walls of the huts, were

filled

with

mud.

jDec/?7o/" stands in a wide and open district;
it

one half of

being upon the top, and the other
hill.

half near the bottom, of a

At

first sight, it

appears like a number of dunghills, or heaps
of straw
;

and

it is

only

by a very near approach
beings
;

that the traveller can be convinced of its being

the residence of

much less that it should figure in the Russian maps as a toivn. It is from seeing such places that we may conhuman
ceive

what sort of cities and towns afford the names which we find in the Russian Atlas, so
profusely scattered over the eastern provinces
of the empire-.

The wretched

state of Dediiof

(1) Thirty versts. (2)

"

Several of these towns are even nothing

more than

so

many

stakes driven into

the ground, containing their name, and delineating

their «Ve; yet they figure in the

map

as

if

they were the capitals of so

many

provinces."

Secret

Mem.

of the Court of Petersburg, p. 83.

TO WORONETZ.
must, perhaps, be attributed to causes which

247
chap.
y

may

desolate the fairest cities of the world.
calamities,

It

-V- .'

has experienced

both of

fire

and

water; and has been so often reduced to ashes,
that its inhabitants dread even the sight of a

tobacco-pipe.

Seeing the author kindling his

pipe, the Starosta of the place

came
it,

to him, to

request that he would not use
the open
air,

especially in

as a casual spark might again in-

volve the inhabitants in flames.

upper part of the village
filled

is

Near to the an immense pool
formerly land,

with water, which was

and covered with houses.

Suddenly, subterrasoil,

neous waters, penetrating the
in

rendered

it

so loose, that the ground, with

all

the houses,

one night gave way, and the place was trans-

formed into a small lake.
is

As
is is

the whole district
naturally loose

swampy, rendering the

soil

and spungy, and water

found immediately

below the surface, there
sooner or
later,

reason to apprehend,
it

that

all

the land about

will

experience the same alteration.
the

This is rendered

more probable by an event which occurred a few years ago. At a small distance from this
pool, or lake, is another, caused

by a

similar

catastrophe.

The

inhabitants of Dedilof are pea-

sants, living in the greatest poverty: their sole

occupation

is tillage.

248

FROM TULA

We were now traversing the
c!an-e"^ of
ctin.ate.

southern latitude
in

our beloved country, and

a direct line

towards the south. As

we drew nigh to WoronetZy
the kilk-weed, dandelion,

we

observed

many

of our English indigenous

plants; the large
white
clover,

thistle,

v;ood-straiuherry , plantain,

and the

dock-iueed.

Sudden and loud thunder-storms,
and
rain, majestic rolling clouds, pass-

with

hail

ing gusts of wind, and transitory sun-beams,

reminded us of an English spring.
dental resemblances are

Such

acci-

by no means, however,

the necessary accompaniments of a similarity in
latitude.

Naples and Constantinople are nearly
;

on the same parallel of latitude
of the latter
is

but the climate
of the

by many degrees the colder
want of

two.

The mild aspect
in

of the Plain of fVoronetz
forests
;

may be

attributed to the
all

the

removal of which,
passage

countries, raises the

temperature of the climate.
in

A

well-known
mountain

Horace

describes

the

SoRACTE as being white with deep snow"; but
the climate of Italy
is

now

so altered, that such

a sight

is

perhaps never observed.

Eoghoro-

Tjie next day, June iliejifih, we passed through

(ij

" Vidcs, ut
SoRACTE."

aita stet iiive caiiditiiun

Horat. Lib.

I.

0(/e9.

?'.

1.

TO WORONETZ.
the town of Bo^horoditz.

249
chap.
X.

On

an eminence above
Empress, by
with an estate of

this place, Bobrinsky, son of the late Orlofy has a magnificent seat,

the finest corn land in Russia, covering an extent

of sixteen square miles, and containing, as
reported, seventy thousand peasants.

it is

Here,
is

over an extensive tract of land, nothing

seen

but corn.
pire.

It is

the richest country in the are
so excellent,

em-

The roads

that the

waggons of the peasants, although laden with stones, pass and repass upon wooden wheels
without any iron
tires.
»

It is uncertain

roditz

was

built.

when the little town of BoghoThe inhabitants began to hold
the"

their archives

under

Tsar Feodor Alexothe
Streltzi,

a.d. issi.

viTz.

The shopkeepers,

and the
solits

Puschari, with about one
diers,

hundred invalid
is

have composed, since that time,

inha-

bitants.

The

culture of the land

their sole

resource, and the fertility of the soil has rendered
it

remarkably productive.

It is

said,

that the

peasants here have even a small superfluity of
the produce for sale, which they carry to Kaluga

and

to Tula.

This place also aftbrds plenty of

honey to those towns.

From Bos:horoditz we crossed boundless plains, ^ ° without a single inclosure, until we came to

Ceio nikitzkoy.

;

250
CHAP.
X.

FROM TULA
Celo Nikitskoy.

has, of late

The country around this years, been much cultivated.
call steppes, so
soil here,

place

For-

merly

it

resembled the rest of those deserts
frequent south
its

which the Russians
of Woronetz.

The

notwithstanding

recent desolate condition, consisted of nearly

two feet of good black vegetable earth, lying upon marl. The plants we observed in flower on this day (June Jiftli) are all known in England
the BirdCs-foot Trefoil, the Purple Mountain Milk
Vetch, the Germcmder, the Globe Floiver,

and the
in a

TVood Anemone.

Nikitskoy was once

low

and swampy

spot, and exceedingly unwhole-

some
to

;

but the inhabitants moved their village

the

more elevated
to

situation

it

now

holds;

and being too lazy
ment,
fire.

use the materials of the
settle-

houses they had abandoned for their new
it

was deemed The flames, communicating
is

expedient to set

them on

to the peat,

whereof there

abundance hear the place,

continued burning for six months with great

vehemence, in despite of all the efforts made to extinguish them. The inhabitants now suffer

owing to a scarcity of fuel; yet they make no endeavour to collect the peat, and to dry it for their hearths. We saw here a curious
greatly,

funeral ceremony.

The lid of the coffin, formed of one entire piece of wood scooped like a canoe, was not put on till the deceased was laid in his

TO WORONETZ.
grave.

251
all

They buried him

in

his

wearing
(which
^

chap.

apparel; even with the

lahha,^

on

his feet

y

'

were before described). Mead was carried to the grave, to be drunk there, in a bowl with a

number of small wax bougies stuck around the The women kept up a kind of musical rim.
ululation;

howling their loud lamentations

in

strains truly dolorous'.

The

rest of the atten-

dants, instead of joining in the dirge, or in the

other ceremonial

rites,

were occupied

in

crossing
east,

themselves, and in prostrations towards the

bowing

their

heads

until they

touched with their

foreheads the other graves near to the place
of interment.
first,

The

lid

of the coffin

was borne
fol-

covered with linen cloth; after this
part, containing the
coffins

lowed the lower
that
it

body; so
to

seemed as if two

were carried

one grave.

We

journeyed hence to Bolshoy Platy.
this
last village,

Soon

Roish(vy

after passing

we

observed,

towards our
ance of a
ful plant

left,

the novel and pleasing appear:

fine

wood here we found

that beautifull

the Convallaria mulujiora in

bloom,

near six feet in height, and flourishing luxuriantly.

Afterwards we came to Effremof; written

EflVemof.

(1)

Homer's account of the dirges sung by women at the funeral of

Hector proves the antiquity of this custom.

252
CHAP,
X.

FROM TULA
improperly leremow, in the Berlin edition of the
great

Map

of Russia.

It is
hill
;

a small insignificant

town, upon a high

at the foot of

which

flows a river falling into the Don, written Metscha,

and Mecza, but pronounced Mecha; or Meha, to

mark

more strongly. In a country so uniform as that we were now traversing, much
the aspirate

interesting

information
of the
soil, its

cannot

be expected.

The nature

produce, the manners

and the dresses of the people, afford but few
remarks, and these are unimportant.

Sterne

has humorously observed, that nothing puts a
writer of Travels to so

much

difficulty as the

sending

him over

an

extensive

plain.

To

journey

many

leagues and say nothing, might

seem

like inattention;
is

but to write observations
pardonable
than

of no moment,
omission.

less

any

Nicolaijevka.

We
to

came

to a place

which it would be

difficult

express by any rule of orthography that

might convey an idea of Uie Russian mode of
pronunciation ^ Afterwards, leaving the govern-

ment of Tula, we entered were informed but in the
;

that of Orlof, as
Berlin

we
laid

Map

it is

(1)

It

may be

written Nicolaijewka: then,
it

if

the

>j

be pronounced as
this
is

our y, and the w as an/, near the mark.

becomes Nkoiayejlta, and

perhaps

TO WORONETZ. down
as the government of Orel.
is

953

The female
of the

costume here

very singular.

The caps

women
triangle

are triangular, having the vertex of the
in

front

;

so

that the

base extends

behind, like two horns, which gives them a droll

appearance

:

they wear also a frock

w^hich

barely reaches to their knees.

In their ears

they have large
lately

hoop
ladies

rings,
in

not unlike those

worn by

London and Paris.

They had

also pendants of pieces of metal at-

tached to a handkerchief or cap, which covered
the back part of their head.

Proceeding towards Celo Petrovskia Palnia,

we

Ceio Petrovskia

were much surprised by a spectacle similar to one that Bruce witnessed in Africa. We observed,
at

raima.

a considerable

distance,
it

vertical

columns

of sand, reaching, as
to the clouds,

appeared, from the earth

and moving with amazing rapidity

along the horizon.

Our

servant, a Greek, and

a native of Constantinople, related an instance of a child in the
Ukraine,

who was

taken up by

one of such tornadoes, and, after being whirled

by

it,

had every limb broken

in its

fall.

He
we
r.ietz.

affirmed that he w^as an eye-witness of this extra-

ordinary accident.

Passing this village,
leletz,

afterwards arrived at Eletz, or

a large

paved town of considerable extent, situate between the river whence its name has been

V

254
CHAP,

FROM TULA
derived, and the Sossiia.
'

This place was enin

^—

tirely
rebuilt.

destroyed by
It

fire

1745, and

since
hill,

stands upon a lofty and steep
a

and
cattle

maintains

considerable

commerce
is in

in

and in corn.
state,

Agriculture here

a very

flourishing

and

the

environs

abound
Its

with wood.
chants,

The
is

inhabitants consist of mer-

artisans,

Fuschari

and

Streltzi.

merchandize
the Ukraine
;

derived from Moscow and from
it

and

carries

on a great internal

trade, in the sale of honei/

and

leather

to the

people of the town and neighbourhood.

The

number

of persons belonging to the Croivn, payto

ing tribute, amounts

two thousand three

hundred and twenty- three.
ral ybr^e,s at

We

observed seve-

work; and found that the number

of smiths,

and other
its

artificers in

iron

alone,
for
is

equalled two hundred.
the celebrity of

Eletz

is

renowned

forges.

Part of the iron

derived from a mine near the village of Fisnistdenez; the whole district around

which place,
z.

for several versts in extent, exhibits
soil.

ferruginous

Peasants raise the surface with spades,

until

they reach the ore; but as the superficies

forming the roof of the mine consists of clay and
sand, the sides of the apertures they

make

are

very

liable

to

fall:

therefore

they form
is

the

opening so narrow, that the work
with difficulty
;

carried on

the operation being entirely in

TO WORONETZ.
shafts,

255
chap.

without any level, or even inclined plane,
also in the vicinity of Udgino,

There are
are

upon

the eastern banks of the

Don,

mines of iron which

now worked; but

as they have hitherto
ores,

neglected the analysis of their
of making any selection,

and, instead

mix the whole together
brittle,

without the smallest attention to quality, the

metal turns out to be
altogether bad.

defective,

and

In the forges of Tulay

where

more caution

is

used

in this respect, the iron is

of a very superior nature.

In the

streets of Eletz

we

observed large

heaps of stone, for the purpose of building, whereof the substance was porous, and perforated in
animals.
all

directions

by a deposit

of marine
limestone

It

resembled the kind of

found on the banks of the Moscva, but was more

marked by impressions of organized
town,
lying

bodies.

Visiting the high banks of the river near the

we found large masses of a similar deposit, m regular strata*. Hereafter we shall
observed in
all

take occasion to shew, that such appearances

may be

the great Oriental Plain, the Caspian, and the Sea

mclined from the

J^ral,

(l)

We

believed to he the Sibirica

found here the Veronica SerpylUfolia, a Cineraria, which «c of Gypsophda, grow; and a new species
Rivale and Ranunculus /iuricomus.

ing with

Geum

256

FROM TULA
, of Azof towards the Black Sea; authentic monu'

^

CHAR

^—

nients of a vast ocean, once covering the

whole

of

effecting a further retreat,
Constantinople

Taut ART, whose diminished waters are still by the channels of
and the Dardanelles.

A

musical instrument, more

common among
in the

antient than

modern
:

nations,

amused us

streets of Eletz

it

consisted of two reeds, put

together into the mouth.
'

The performer was
several

a

blacksmith's boy,

who played
quill.

tunes.

The
used

reeds

were each about

six inches in length,

and not.thicker than a
bas-reliefs, in

in processions, as

Such were the tihice represented upon antient

the fresco paintings of Herculaneum

and Pompeii, and upon terra-cotta vases found
in Grecian

tombs.

From
Zadonetz.

Eletz

we continued
continually

our journey, through
In
all

tlic

villagc of Ezvoly, to Zadonetz.

this

route

we were

met by caravans from

the Don, the Crimea, and other parts of the South of Russia. These caravans formed a train of waggons, thirty or forty in number, laden with
driedfsh, brandy, wool, corn, &c.

Sometimes they
of an ash colour,

consisted of

cattle

only;

coivs

horses, goats, sheep,

and hogs, all moving in the same promiscuous herd, accompanied by MaloRicssians, Cossach, and by other inhabitants of

TO WORONETZ.
Malo-Russia and the Ukraine.
distance from Zadonetz,

257

At a short we crossed the Don by

a ferry. This river exhibited a broad, clear, and rapid current. The town stands upon a hill above it, and originally formed one of a line of
forts,

erected from this place to Zaritzin, to pre-

vent the incursions of the Tahtars and Cossacks.
It

has

now

a superintendant, or Gorodnilch; and

appears, like the other towns through which

we
of

passed, to be in a thriving condition.

In

all

them new houses were building, and the appearance of activity promised improvement.

From

Zadonetz,

our journey conducted us

through the sweetest country imaginable, co-

vered with woods

full

of flowers, fruit-trees,

and a number of plants, plainly indicating an approach to warmer climates. Apple and other fruit trees sprouted wild, among young oaks, and
other vegetable productions not found nearer
to the

North Pole.

The modern name

of the

Tandis will perhaps not meet the Reader's atten-

compound word ZadonetZy as if written Zadonsk ; in which manner it appears in the best maps. We have imitated the mode
tion so readily, in the

of pronunciation as nearly as possible.

Donetz

and Donsk are both names of the Don. Farther to the south, and nearer to the mouths of the
river,

an appellation given to a tributary stream
I.

VOL.

s

258
CHAP,
\

FROM TULA
is

sometimes

Z)<2wae^z or Danaets,
is

and Tdanaets;
not very equientertained

,-.—/

hence the transition to Tandis
vocal;

nor can

much doubt be
river.

concerning the origin of the appellation bestowed

by the Antients upon the
A^ariety of
its

In

what a

languages has this word Don, with
the mouths of

roots

and ramifications, been used to signify

a river, a lake, or cities near
rivers
!

Don, Donets, Dun, Den, Dan, Danau, Tan,
Tarns, a
hwlch,

Tane, Ain, An, En, &c. &c.

Jordan

;

Tan y
Ain,
"Eiden,

in

Thus we have name of Sais, on the Nile Wales Dannhe Thames,
; ;
;

;

and Coler«m,
in

in the

north of Ireland;

the

same country; Tyne; and many

others.

Ceio

As we advanced through
noj.

Celo

Chlebnoy,

we

be

j^gjjg]^^

^^ ^ distance

upon our

right hand, the

Don,
its
Bestuzevka.

rolling in a

very majestic and devious
full

course, while the

moon

cast her light

upon

waters.

We halted
;

for the night at a place

Called Bestuzevka, almost a solitary hut in the

midst of wide plains
struck

and

we were somewhat
in

by
to

the singular

manner

which a pea-

sant cautioned us not to sleep there, but

by

all

means

proceed

another

stage.

Trifling

circumstances of this kind
suspicious fear of travellers
situation
;

often

excite the

and

in this lonely

we were

puzzled

by

conjectures.

TO WORONETZ.

*

259
into,
^

whether an attempt were made to lead us
or out
of,

chap.
yl
.^

a snare

:

it

ended, however, like

many

such adventures,

in nothing.

The next morning, June the seventh, we travelled
very expeditiously through Celo Staroy
to the
Ivotinshoyy
Woronetz.

town of Woronetz, situate upon a river of the same name, near to the spot where it falls into the Don.

s

1

CHAP. XL
FROM WORONETZ, TO THE TERRITORY OF THE DON COSSACKS.
Present state of Woronetz

— Climate and productions— —Inundation and Pro— duct of Rivers of Buildings— Arsenal— and external— IVinc of Don Commerce, Manners, and of Features — Neglect of Change of Persons — Tumuli — Malo Russians — Plains Drou South of IVbronetz — Celo Usmany — Podulok Moscov— Locova Sloskoy — Mojocks, Ekorizy, and — Paulovskoy — Plants — im — Trade — Rash loda conduct of a young Peasant — Kazinskoy Chutor— Nlzney Momon — Dohrinkn — Mctscha — Kasankaia,
Garden of Peter the Great
the

Increase

internal

the

nied

-

lestakovo
a Is

jin

first

Stanitza of the

Don

Cossacks.

CHAP.
XI.

In

tlie

reign of

Peter the Great, when
to

that

monarch came

IVuronetz to build his first

WORONETZ.
ship of war, there were scarcely an liundred

2r)l
^'^' |''-

wooden huts in handsome town
to

the place.
;

It is

now

a very

^

v

-.^

commerce entitles it considerable distinction. By means of the
and
its
it

sra^e of

Don^

possesses an easy intercourse with the

Black Sea.

Every year, vessels go laden
;

to

Tchercliash with corn

accomplishing- their voyIn winter they re-

age in about two months.
ceive merchandize,

by

sledges, from the Crimea

and from Turkey.
Siberia for furs,

Its

merchants travel

into

and then carry them even to

the fairs of Framfort.
is

The Russian

Isvostchick

seen at a German fair, and the same person

may be

found in the remotest parts of

Siberia.

Sometimes they pursue their course to the coasts opposite to England, and buy English hardware,
cottons,

Japan ware, &c. with which they travel
remarkable situation,
cumate
and Productions.

to all parts of Russia.

WoRONETZ, from
It is

its

is

par ticularly qualified to become a great capital,

placed so as to enjoy the advantages both
of cold climates, and
all
it

of

warm and

holds an

intercourse Avith
is

parts of the empire.

Nature

so bountiful here in the

summer, that plants

found in very southern latitudes grow almost
spontaneously.
fection

The

IFater-Melon, rarely in peras

anywhere,

is

common
it

at IForonetz

as the cucumber in England, and
the open
air,

flourishes in

with spicy and aromatic herbs.

;

262
^xi^^'

WORONETZ.
^^^ ^^^ inhabitants experience very great extremes of temperature
;

having sometimes, ac-

cording to the thermometer of Reaumur, thirty

degrees of cold in the winter, and twenty-eight

degrees of heat in the summer.
'

They use

the

precaution of double casements to their win-

dows, as at Moscow and Petersburg, and have

very large stoves in
at Berne in 1792,

all their

apartments.

In

the " Journal des Savans Voyageurs^'' published

a commentator attempts to

explain the cause of the extraordinary difference

observed
soil

in the

productions of the climate and

of Woronetz,

when compared with
;

those of

other countries in the same latitude

by saying
af-

that the nature of the soil necessarily supplies

that

which the climate would not otherwise

ford^.
nitrat

The

earth

is

strongly impregnated with the environs of Woronetz

of potass in

all

and

it is

to the presence of this mineral that the
fertility

extraordinary
attributed.

of the Ukraine has been

The whole country south
it;

of Tula

abounds with
effloresces

insomuch that
;

it

sometimes
for ex-

on the

soil

and several fabrics
sand

tracting
soil

it

have been established. The immediate
is
;

below the town of JVoronetz

upon

(1) (2)

Equal to ninety-five
See Note to
p. 116.

of Fahrenheil.

Votiagcs chez

les

Pevples Kalmouks

ct Ics

Tartares.

WORONETZ.
a steep
built.

203
it

mound

or bank of which

has been

chap.

It

Hes in the fifty-fourth degree of north-

ern latitude.
nate

The vineyards

of Europe termi-

many degrees
neglect

nearer to the equator, and

yet the wild vine flourishes at Woronetz.
inhabitants
its

The

cultivation;

importing

their wine, at a great expense,

from the country

of the

Don
It

Cossacks,

from Greece, and from the

Crimea.

frequently happens in the province

of Champagne, in France, that the grapes do not
attain their maturity; sugar is then

used as a

substitute in the preparation of the Champagne
ivine^.

At Woronetz, where every

facility for

(3) The Champagne 7wwehas been imitated in England, with succes?, by using gooseberries before they ripen, and by supplying the want of

the saccharine acid with loaf-sugar.

If

the process be properly atartificial

tended

to, there is very little difference.

Both are

compounds.

The common Champagne whie drunk in this country is made with green grapes and sugar. The imitation of it, with green gooseberries and
S2tgar,
is

full

as salutary,

and frequently

as palatable.

(Note

to

the

First Edition.)

Since this Note appeared, a French translation of these

Travels has been published at Para, with Additional Notes

" par

le

Traducteur."

Alluding to these observations respecting the Chamsays,

pagne wine, he

"

C'est sans doute par un sentiment de patriot-

isme, et pour d^goftter ses compatriotes du vin de Champagne, que

leDocteur Clarhe
il

se

permet de

liasarder de pareilles assertions.

Croit-

que

le

vin de

Champagne

se fasse avec

du

siicre et des raisi?is verts

ou
en

des groseilles, et qu'un semblable melange

puisse passer,

meme

Angleterre, pour un analogue des vins d'^'i et d'Epernai ?"
It so

happens, that the author's information respecting the Chamnot at
all

pagne

ivine does
:

depend upon any conjectures he may have

formed

it is

the result of inquiries which he

made upon

the spot, and

of positive communication, (relative to the chemical constituents

"

des

vnis

264
CHAP,
s

WORONETZ.
establishing extensive vineyards has
!

been offered

,,.

by Nature, the

cultivation of the vine has

been
to

entirely neglected.

Gmelin

endeavoured

make

the inhabitants sensible of the importance

and advantage the town might derive from the

vins d'A'i et d'JEpernai,")

from Messrs. Moett and Company, the princiIt

pal persons concerned in their fabrication.

was

in the

town of

Epernai, whither the author repaired for information upon this subject, that, in

answer to some written questions proposed to Mons. Moett,

the following- statement was given by that gentleman touching the admission of sugar into the composition of their wine
:

Reponse a la 3""^ question " sur les Corps etrangers, suae que peuvent entrer dans la fabrication du viri?
:

tels

que

le

Peut-etre regarderoit-on en
la r6ponse
a,

Champagne comme une

indiscretion,

cette question, puisque la revelation de ce qu'on appelle
la reputation des vins

LE SECRET DU rROPRiETAiRE pouH'oit nuirc a
(liampagne ; mais
les

de

hommes

instruits et ^clair^s doivent connojtre

les faits et les causes, parcequ'ils

savent apprecier et en tira

les justes

consequences.

"
du

II est tr&s vrai

que dans

les

ann^es froides ou pluvieuses

le raisin

n'avrtint pas

acquis assez de maturity, ou ayant et^ prive de la chaleur

soleil, les vins
:

n'ont plus cette litjueur douce et aimable qui les

characterise

dans ce cas quelques proprietaires y ont supplee par
trfes

I'introduction dans leur vins d'une liqueur

eclaire

dont la base

EST NECESSAinEMENT DU SUCRE; sa fabrication est un secret; cette liqueur mesKe en trSs petits quantity aux vins verts, corrige le vice do Vannee et leur donne absolument la mtme douceur que celle que procure
le soleil

dans

les

annces chaudes.

II s'est (^lev^

en

Champagne meme

des frc^quentes qucjrelles entre des connoisseurs qui pretendoient pouvoir
dislinguer au goitt, la liqueur artificielle de celle qui est naturelle, mais
c'est

une chimhe.

Le

sucre produit dans le raisin,

comme

dans toute

espSce de fruit par
celui
les

le travail

de

la

nature, est toujours du sucre,

comme

que

I'art

pourroity introduire, lorsque I'intemperance des saisons

en a priv^.

Nous nous somtnes plus
ces

tres souvent
il

a mettre en defaut
si

r experience de

pretcndus connoisseurs, et

est
le

rare de les voir

rencontrer juste, que I'ou pent croire que c'est
IJoCit

hazard pluscjue leur

qui les a guide."

:

WORONETZ.
growth of vines
been paid
;

265
chap.

but hitherto no attention has

to his advice.

The deUcious wine

of ^

y

.>

the territory of the

Don

Cossacks is sold here,

but at very high prices.
plate of ice, a piece of
glass

They
is

serve

it

with a
eacli

which
drunk.

put into
It is light

when

the wine

is

and

pleasant,

effervescing like the wine of Cham-

pagne, but having more the flavour of Burgundy,

Peter the Great endeavoured
a Botanic Garden
netz,

to establish

^7''*^','/°^

I eler tnc

in the

neighbourhood of IVoroscale.

^'^'"•

upon a very grand

This

we

visited;

and found a complete wilderness of oaks and
other forest-trees, the underwood growing so
thick under the larger trees
as to

render a

passage through

it

impracticable.
for the

This garden

was expressly formed
ful

growth of use-

plants,

fruit-trees,

vegetables,

and whatto

soever else might be found likely
the purposes
of culture
in

answer

such a climate
its insti-

but

after all the pains
it fell

bestowed upon
;

tution,

into neglect

like

many

other de-

signs calculated by that wise monarch for the benefit of his people, when his power ceased of

enforcing the care of them.
that,

Gmelin relates',

in his
all

time,

the Governor of JVoronetz

exerted

possible

means

to restore this

garden

(l) Journal dcs

Suvuns FuyugeurSy

p.

1

14.

266

,

WORONETZ.
;

*

——
V

^^\'

^^ ^^^ original order

and the consequence was,
particularly the

'

that a variety of fruit-trees,
vine, the chesnut,

and the filbert, produced abunto

dant crops.

Saffron flourished in great plenty,

and many other plants peculiar

warmer

cli-

The cherry, the apple, grew wild in the forests around
mates.

and the pear
the town
;

tree,

but

was entirely neglected by the people. We found two plants, very rare in England, thriving among the weeds of the place the " Spreading Belltheir better cultivation, as at present,
;

flower' {Campanula patula), which grows in South

Wales and

ne2iV Marlborough ;

and also the " Moun-

tain Bugle"

{Ajuga

pyramidalis).

The

other

plants which
Inundation and Product of the
Eivers.

we

collected in the neighbourhood
_

Stagnant gf Woronelz arc ^ 2fiven in a Note'. ^^ waters, left bv the annual inundation of the river,
_

''

render the place very unwholesome during certain seasons of the year.
in spring

The

inhabitants, both

and autumn, are subject to
:

quartan fevers

these

tack hundreds at

tertian and become epidemic, and atthe same time. The want of

proper remedies

for

such disorders, and the con-

stant use of salted provisions, frequently cause

the ague to degenerate into a continual fever, a

— Adonis — Cucuhalus Belien — Salvia nutans— Verbascum Phoenicium — Chelidonium minus — Ranunculus Illyricus— Viola
{\h

A new

Polygonum Fagopyrvim species of Euphorbia

3?stivalis

tricolor.

;

WORONETZ.
dropsy, or a consumption.

267

Both the Woronetz
all this

and the Don supply the inhabitants of
carp being the
also
tench,

country with an astonishing quantity of fishes

most abundant

:

but they have

sterlet,

bream, bleak, trout, lamprey,
last absolutely

perch,

and

pike.

The

swarm
size
;

in

their rivers,
it is

and grow to a prodigious
Nature

but
it

only the poorer class of people

who use

for food.

When

is

profuse in her offer-

ings, the love of novelty induces us to

contemn,

and even

to reject, her bounty.

The change

of season, as at Moscow, does not

t^ke place at Woronetz with that uncertainty

which characterizes our climate.
larly begins in December,

Winter reguin the

and ends

middle

of March.

According to Gmelin, the autumn
Vegetation
is

resembles a moderate summer.
so rapid during spring, that

upon the ninth of June we saw a pear-tree which had put forth a strong scion above a yard in length. We found
the climate so different from that to which we had

been lately accustomed, that

we were
;

compelled
of

to alter our clothing altogether ^

The beams

the sun were to us intolerable

and a south-east

(2) It
in the

is

not necessary to mention the precise height of the mercury
it

thermometer, because the Reader will find

stated in the appen-

dix, according to the

most accurate

daily observation throughout the

journey.

268
CHAP,
XI.

WORONETZ.
wind, like a Sirocco, blew frequently and even

^

tempestuously
ing the time

;

causing insufferable heat, dur-

we

remained.

we had
them.

of cooling

The only method our apartments was, by shut-

ting the

windows, and drawing curtains over

Perhaps the sudden transition

we had

made from

colder countries might have rendered

us more peculiarly sensible of the oppressive
heat of the atmosphere.
Increase of
Buildiiiic^.

New buildings
ronetz
;

were

rising in all parts of IVo-

and the suburbs appeared so extensive,

that

it

was very

difficult to

form any correct

idea of the probable future extent of the place.

would soon take place between the town and its suburbs and we were informed that a village or two would also be included. It stands upon the very lofty, steep, and sloping bank before mentioned, havIt

was evident

that a junction

;

ing the appearance of a rampart

;

so that,

when

viewed from the
less

river below, this

like a prodigious artificial
it

bank looks fortification. Doubt-

might be rendered a place of very great
the works on

strength, as there are no eminences that could

command
light the
Arsenal,

its

weakest

side.

Small

lanterns, dispersed about

upon

posts, serve to

town.

The
still

streets are

very wide.

witliout being pavcd.

The

arsenal erected

by

Peter the Great

remains, although in a

:

WORONETZ.
ruinous condition.
island

269
little

We

visited the

sandy
'

chap.
\-^

below the town whereon he

built his first

ship of war,

when he
It is

projected the conquest of

the Black Sea.

now covered with

store-

houses, caldrons, and tubs, for the preparation
of taUo2u
it is
:

this is a great article of trade

here

sent to England,

and

to America,

in vast

quantities.

The

principal merchant, happening

to be upon the spot, asked us, to what use the

English could possibly appropriate

all

the grease

he sent

to their country.

The stench from

the

bones and horns of animals, slaughtered

for the

purpose
bited a

of

preparing the tallow,
It

made

this

place exceedingly offensive.

formerly exhi-

more pleasing

spectacle,

when Peter,
this

acting in the double capacity of a king and a
carpenter,

superintended
built a

his

works upon
hut,

island.

He

small

wooden

and a and the

church, opposite to the arsenal, on the side of
the river, immediately below the town
greatest
;

monarch

in the

world, surrounded

by

a few hovels, in a land of savage people ac-

customed only
a
little

to their rafts

and canoes, was

daily seen in the midst of his

workmen, upon

mound

of sand, building his first ship

of war.

Iron
in the

is

one of the ' principal *

articles of trade commerce
internal
i\;

town, and occupies the chief commerce

extenwi.

270
CHAP,
of the shops.
the

WORONETZ.
They
Large
also

manufacture

cloth for

army

;

and have a building

for the prepara-

tion of vitriol.

balls of whiting are piled

up before their doors, as in Moscoiu, Tula, and
other places.

The

cloth factor]/

by Peter the Great, and is derable in Russia. Peter resided here in the and at the same time was also year 1705
;

was established the most consi-

engaged

in building Petersburg.
talloiu,

In the pre-

paration of

they consume the cattle of

the country, and, boiling
sorts.

them down, make two
exported to England;

The

^r^^ sort

is

the second used in Russia, in

making

soap.

Ten The

pouds of the best quality

sells

sometimes in

Petersburg as high as sixty-three roubles.

carriage from JVoronetz to Petersburg costs about

eighty copeeks per poud.

If the

merchants con-

tract with English dealers in Petersburg to the

amount of one hundred thousand roubles, they receive from them fifty thousand in advance, to enable them to buy cattle. This practice of
purchasing
cattle to boil into tallow

has, of late

years, enormously advanced the price of meat.

Fourteen years ago, a poud of beef sold in
PVoronetz for twenty-six copeeks
for thirty
:

;

a poud of mutton

now the poud of

beef costs
copeeks.

two

roubles,

and the poud of mutton sixty
for the corn carried

In return

annually to Tcherkask and
raisins. Jigs,

to Azof they bring

back

Greek wines.

;

WORONETZ.
and the wine of the Doji
Cossacks.

271

The

salt

chap.

XL

consumed
markable

in
salt

JVoronetz
lake
in

is

supplied from a

re-

the

neighbourhood of

Saratof, so impregnated with the muriate of soda,

that fine crystals of

it

form upon any substance
Sugar
is

placed in the water.

very dear

;

it is

brought only from Petersburg.
of
life,

The

necessaries

however,

are, generally speaking, cheap.

The
vous

carriers of Woronetz go every three years

to Toholshy in Siberia,
for all

where there is a rendezcaravans bound to Kiatka, on the

frontier of China.

From

Tobolsky they form one

immense caravan
several routes.

to Kiatka.

Afterwards, return-

ing to Tobolsky, they disperse, according to their

From

Siberia they bring furs
all sorts,

from Kiatka, Chinese merchandize of

tea, raw and manufactured silk, porcelain, and The Chinese, upon their arrival precious stones. at Kiatka, also furnish them with the produc-

tions of Kamchatka, brought from St. Peter and
St.

Paul.

Thus

laden,

many

of the caravans set

out for Francfort, and return with muslin, cambric,
silks,

the porcelain of Saxony, and other goods

from the manufactures of England.

Four men, with
fifty roubles,

their captain, offered to take
for

us by water to Tcherchask

two hundred and But the
river

including the necessary purchase of

boats, anchors, sails, oars, &c.

;

272
CHAP,
«

WORONETZ.

,


of

is
'

so shallow

durin<2f

summer, that we should
in getting thither; the
versts.

have been two months

distance being fifteen hundred
Wine

The best

wine of the Don
from Woronetz.
one rouble and

is

made upon

the river, about

the Don.

three hundred versts before arriving at Tcherchask

Fourteen bottles
fifty

sell

there for

copeeks.

They
;

are apt to

make
this

it

before the grape ripens
the case with
all

and perhaps
proves better

may be
red,

wine exhibiting

effervescence'.

Their white
the fruit

ivine

than the

when

is

suffered to ripen

but

this

very rarely happens.

Change of

Approacliiug

tlic

Southcm part

of the empire,

the strong characteristics of the Russian people
are less frequently observed.
traveller,
in

Happily for the
is

proportion as his distance

in-

creased from that which has been erroneously

considered the civilized part of the country, he

has less to complain of
dissimulation ^
In the

he

is

cautioned to

theft, of fratid, and of more Northern provinces, beware of the inhabitants of

(1) See the

Note upon Champagne wine

in a

former page of this

Chapter.
(2)

" The Russian
and brave

peasant, without propertj', without religion, withis

out morals, without honour,
faithful,
:

hospitable,

humane,

obliging, gay,

the farther you penetrate nito the country remote
;

from

cities,

the better you find him

the most savage

always the

best."

Secret

Mem.

of the Court of Petersh. p. 266.

WORONETZ.
the Ukraine, and the Cossacks,

273
^^^^'
^

by an unprincipled
the
Cossack

race

of

men,

with

whom

and

-v -

^

the Tahtar are degraded in comparison.

The

chambers of our inn were immediately over the

town jail and it is quite unnecessary to add of what nation its tenants were composed. The
;

Russian finds

it

dangerous to travel in the Ukraine,
is

and along the Don, because he
inhabitants of these countries

conscious the

with

whom

they have to deal.
in war,

know too well The Cossack,

when engaged
native land,
is

and remote from his a robber, because plunder is a

part of the military discipline in

which he has

been educated
district

;

but when a stranger enters the

where he resides with his family and connections, and confides property to his care,
the inhabitant of no country
is

found either

/

more

hospitable, or

more honourable. Concern.

ing the inhabitants of the country called MaloRussia, a

French gentleman, who had long resided
neither locks

\

among them, assured us he used
to his doors nor to his coffers
Cossacks, as in Sweden, a
;

and among the
be sent un-

trunk

may

locked,

for a distance

equal to five hundred

miles, without risking the loss of
its contents.

any part of

Mr. Roivan, banker of Moscoiv, was
midst of the territory of the
it

compelled, by the breaking of his carriage, to

abandon

it

in the

Don

Cossacks;
I.

and

VOL.

was afterwards brought T

:

2/4
CHAP,
y

FROM WORONETZ
him at Taganrog, with all its appurtenances, by the unsolicited and disinterested
safe to

\^

>

labour of that people'.

Who

would venture

to

leave a carriage, or even a trunk, although encased, doubly locked, and duly directed,

among

the Russians f

Change of
Features.

From tlic time we left Tula, a remarkable „ change was visible m the features of the people this we were unable to explain. The peasants
. . .

had frequently the straight yellow hair of the inhabitants of Finland, and the same light complexion
;

neither resembling Russiajis, Poles, nor

Cossacks.

At

JVoronetz the

Gipsey tribe

was

very prevalent; and a mixed race, resulting

from their mtermarriage with Russians.
Neglect of

The

horrid practice of burying persons alive
in Russia,

Persons/

somctimcs takcs place
animation, occasioned
stoves, or

from the igno-

rance of the inhabitants. Instances of suspended

by the vapour of
and the unhappy

their

by

accidents in water, are always
;

considered lost cases
I
is

sufferer

immediately committed to the grave, without

any attempt towards recovery.

They send

(l) Of this fact we were assured by Mr. Rowan himself, to whom we were iudebted for many instances of politeness and attention during the time we resided in Moscow.

TO PAULOVSKOY.
only for a police-officer, to note do^vn the
ciimstances of the disaster
smallest effort
;

275
cirv-

chap.
XI.

and, without the

towards restoring respiration,

proceed

in the

ceremony of interment.

woman
netz,

in bathing,

A poor during our stay at Woro-

fell beyond her depth. She struggled some time with the stream, and, being carried by it about three hundred yards, was taken out by some peasants before she had either sunk or lost her power of motion. When laid on the earth, she groaned and moved but the water
;

which had been swallowed rendered her face black, and she became apparently lifeless. She was therefore immediately pronounced to be
really dead.

No endeavour

on our part, acoffers

companied

by persuasion and by

of

money, could induce the spectators either to touch the body, or to suffer any remedy to be attempted towards her recovery. They seemed

what they considered as a corpse. In vain we explained to them the process by which persons, so circumstanced,
afraid to approach

are restored to

life in

England.

They

stood at

a distance, crossing themselves, and shaking

manner the poor woman was left upon the shore, until it would have been too late to have made use of any means for her recovery. If she were not aftertheir
;

heads

and

in this

wards buried

alive,

her death was certainly

T 2

276
^xl^'
'•

FROM VVORONETZ
<^^i^^o

*^ ^ shameful

and an obstinate neglect
promised every
in

-y —' of remedies, which, in her case,
success.

The

pohce-officer gave

his

me-

morial, and

her body was committed to the

grave.

We

left

fforonetz, June I'Zth;

crossing the

river at the

bottom of the town, and entering

plains as before.

The swamps below Woronetz
:

at once explain the cause of the annual fevers
to

which

its

inhabitants are liable
seasons,

they exhale,

during

warm

vapours as
arise

unwhole-

some
Italy.

as those which

from the fens of

There are few

finer

prospects than that of

Woronetz, viewed a few versts from the town,

on the road to Paulovskoy.

Throughout the

whole of

this

country are seen, dispersed over

immense
a

plains,

mounds

of earth covered with

fine turf; the sepulchres of the antient

world,
If

common

to

almost every habitable country.

there exist any thing of former times, which

may
'fmm

monuments of primeval manners, it is this mode of burial. They seem to mark the progress of mankind in the first ages after
afford
rising

the dispersion;

wherever the posterity
the form of a
in

of Noak came.

Whether under

Mound

in

Scandinavia, in Russia, or

JSortk

TO PAULOVSKOY.
j^merica^
;

277
a Cairn in
or of those

a Barrow in England;
or in Ireland;

Wales, in Scotland,
heaps which the

modern Greeks and Turks call Tepe; or, lastly, in the more artificial shape of a Pyramid in Egypt; they had universally the same origin. They present the simplest and sublimest monument that any generation of

men

could raise over the bodies of their forebeing calculated for almost endless

fathers;

duration,

and speaking a language more im-

pressive than the most studied epitaph upon

Parian

marble.

When
it

beheld in a

distant
set-

evening horizon, skirted by the rays of the
ting sun,

and, as

were, touching the clouds

which hover over them, imagination represents
the spirits of departed heroes as descending to
irradiate a warrior's

graved

Some

of those

mounds appeared with forms
so
artificial, in

so simple, and yet

a plain otherwise level, that no

doubt whatsoever could be entertained concerning their origin.
Others,

more

antient,
left

have at

last

sunk into the earth, and

a

hollow place, encircled by a kind of fosse, which

(l) See the Journal of a Tour into the Territory North-wast of the Alleghany Mountains, hy Thaddeus Mason Harris; Boston, 1805; for

a very curious account of the Sepulchral Mounds in America; the history of which is lost, as the author expresseth it, " m the oblivion of
a^es."
^2) See

the I't^nettc to this Chapter.

^78

FROM WORONETZ
still

^^^v"-

marks

their situation.

Again, others, by

v-

-'

the passage of the plough annually
surface,

upon

their

have

been considerably diminished.

These Tumuli are the Sepulchres referred to by Herodotus, in the earliest accounts which
history has recorded of this

mode

of burial'.

The tombs

of the Scythian kings are said,

by

him, to exist in the remotest parts of Scythia,

where the Borysthenes is first known to be navigable and they are further described as being;

constructed precisely according to the appear-

ance they

now

exhibit.

Maio-

We

frequently

met with caravans of the
differ altogethei"

Malo- Russians,

who

from the
Their fea-

inhabitants of the rest of Russia.

tures

are
are

those of the Polonese,
a

or

Cossacks.

They
to

more noble race

;

stouter

and

better looking than the Russians, and superior

them

in

every thing that can exalt one class
another.

more industrious, more honest, more generous, more polite, more courageous, more hospitable, more
of are cleaner, truly pious, and, of course, less superstitious.

men above

They

Their language only

differs

from the Russian,

as the dialect of the southern provinces of France

does from the dialect spoken near Paris.

They

(1) Herodot.

Rlelpom.

c.

71.

;

TO PAULOVSKOY.
have in many instances converted the desolate
steppe^ into fields of corn.

279
^hap.
^

Their caravans are

/—-^

drawn by oxen, which proceed about thirty Towards evening, they halt in versts in a day. the middle of a plain, near some pool of water when their little waggons are all drawn up into
a
circle,

and
;

their cattle are suffered to graze

around them

while the drivers, stretched out
turf,

upon the smooth
day.
their
If

take their repose,
toil

or

enjoy their pipes, after the

and heat of the
all

they meet a carriage, they

take

oflp

caps and bow.
to

The meanest Russimu

bow

each other, but never to a stranger.

South of Woronetz
perfectly
level,

we

found the country
(if

soutli

Plains of

and the roads

a fine turf
finest,

wormeix,

lawn may be so denominated) the
this season,

at

perhaps in the whole world.

The

turf
firm,

upon which we travelled was smooth and
without a stone or a pebble, or even the
of wheels, and

mark
dust.

we

experienced

little

or no

Nothing could be more delightful than
our journey.

this part of

The whole

of these

(2) Steppe

is

the

name

given, in the South of Russia, to those pUtins,
tilled.

which, though capable of cultivation, have never heen
are covered with wild plants
called deserts.
;

They

and sometimes, perhaps improperly,

In America, similar plains are called Prairies.

280
^^|P'
^

FROM WORONETZ
immense
list

plains

were

enamelled

with

the

V

-' greatest

variety of flowers
plants

imaginable.
is

The
too

of

we

collected

much

numerous
blossoms,

for the

text'.

The

earth

seemed

covered with the richest and most beautiful
fragrant,

aromatic,
to the

and,

in

many

instances, entirely
traveller.

new

eye of a British
of the day,

Even during the heat

refreshing breezes wafted a thousand odours,

and

all

the air

was perfumed.
filled

The skylark
with painted
or

was

in full song; various insects,

wings,

either

the

air,

were

seen

couched within the blossoms.
to the Don, turtle-doves, as

Advancing near

tame as domestic

pigeons, flew around our carriage.

The pools

were

filled

with wild-fowl; dogs, like those of

the Ahruzzo Mountains, guarded the numerous

herds and flocks passing or grazing.

Melons

of difierent sorts flourished in the cultivated

(l)

nala

— Centauria myriocephala—Stipa penAndrosace — Cerastium— Lithrum Plrgatum—Asctcpifis Vincetoxicum—LarkSepfentrionalis

spur, Delphinium Ajacis

known

dioicum

— Gnaphnliutn — Wood Crane's-bill, Geranium sj/lvaticum— Geum Urhanum — — Cucubalus Otitcs Mouse-ear Scorpion Grass, Myosotis
in

— Vicia

Pannonica.

Also the following, well

England:

Meadow

Clary, Salvia pratensis

Scorpio'ides

(grows on

Newmarket Heath)

Sisymbrium atjiphibium (along the

banks of the
harbaria.

Cam)— Yellow

Rocket, Bitter Winter Grass, Erysimum

TO PAULOVSKOY.
although uninclosed grounds near the villages,
covering several acres of land.

281
chap.

\'

_•

At

Celo

Usmany

we were employed

in col- ceh us"'""^

The Echium rubrum, falsely called Italicimi by Gmelin, we first noticed about this place, and it was afterwards very common. It grows chiefly among corn. The women of the Don use it in painting their cheeks the root, when fresh, yielding a beautiful vermilion tint. The peasants also extract
lecting
plants.
;

from

it

a gum.

It is

engraven

in the

"Journal

des Savans Voyageurs."
its

Gmelin recommended
its

transplantation,

and the application of
to

colouring properties
portance.
dula,

objects

of

more imHills

We
is

observed also the Splrtea fiUpenfound

which
the

upon

the

near

Cambridge, and some varieties of the Ceiitaiirea;
also

Onosma

echidides,

Veronica Austriaca,
It
is

Pedicidaris tuberosa,

and

Salvia pratensis.

from the

root, of the

Onosma that the Tahtar

women

obtain their rouge.

Usmany

is

entirely

inhabited
case,

by Russians:
towards the

and whenever
thing

this is the

south of the empire, a village resembles no-

more than a number of stacks of straw or of dried weeds. The female peasants were seated upon the turf, before their huts, spinning.

282

FROM WORONETZ
Their machines are not quite so simple as those

used
of

in

many

parts of Italy.

They

consisted

wooden combs, placed upon a
knee

stick driven

into the ground, to contain the flax,
rising higher than the
:

and not

while the right

hand

is

employed

in spinning, the left

manages
that op-

the spindle.

This manner of living affords a

striking contrast to the

Government
ill

presses them
in these

;

for

we observed an
before

air of liberty

wild and wide plains,

suited to the

reflections

we had
is

condition of the peasants.

made on the general The severity of the
in plants
:

winter here

hardly reconcileable with the

appearance of a country abounding

which are found

in

warm

climates

yet the

snow annually

affords a sledge-road, the

whole

way from
Azof
Podulok Moscovskoy.

the Gulph of Finland to the Sea of

From

Celo

Usmany we

travelled, over similar

plains, to Podulok Moscovskoy,

where we passed
to light

the night in a wretched village, the miserable
inhabitants of which

were not even able

a candle.

Nothing could be more revolting
all

than the sight of their hovels, open to
inclemencies
of of
of the
or

the

weather,

and

destitute

every
life.

comfort

common

convenience

They were

said to be settlers from

Tver.

TO PAULOVSKOY.

283

The next morning, (June 13th), we passed the ciiap. village of Mojocks, and came to Ekortzy here v—-' we halted to take some refreshment mider a Sw~y,
.'

pent-house, upon a khabitka;

the heat of the Zt!'^^"' sun being almost insupportable. The people

were kind

;

and a coarse meal became, on that
W'e perceived, as
it

account, agreeable.

has
ad-

been before remarked, that the farther

we

vanced from the ordinary hordes of the Russians, the more politeness and hospitality we experienced
;

this being,

however, exactly the reverse
as

of the information given to us of Moscow.

The

deserts,

by the inhabitants they were described,
and sandy waste,

instead of proving a bare

presented verdant lawns, covered with herbage,

though sometimes dry, and scorched by the
rays of a very pov^erful sun.

Near
and

to

Ekortty

we added
:

the

Ferhascum

Phcenicium to our herbary
lestakovo,

and between Ekortzy
soil,

upon a

high, bleak, chalky

we

found the rarest plants which

occurred

during our whole route;
Po/ygala
Sihirica.

Drain

jllpina,

and

Professor Pallas could hardlj^

credit the evidence of his senses,

when he

after-

wards saw them among our
Crimea.
that beautiful
plant,

collection in the
also observed

Near the same spot we
the
colours
of

Clematis integrifolia,

exhibiting

blue

and gold;

with

284
CHAP,
^

FROM WORONETZ
others, which, being less remarkable, are given
'

»

in the subjoined Note'.

L(*cova

The
Russians

first

regular

establishment

of

MaloIt

occurred after leaving lestakovo.
Locova Slohoda.

was
all

called

The houses were
of the cottages in

white-washed, like
this

many
is

Wales:

operation

performed annually,
cleanliness

with great care.

Such distinguished

appeared within the dwellings, that a traveller

might fancy himself transported,

in the

course

of a few miles, from Russia to Holland.

Their

apartments, even the ceilings and the beams in
the roof, are regularly washed.

Their tables

and benches shine with washing and rubbing,

and reminded us of the
Norway.
houses,

interior of cottages in

Their court-yard, stables, and out-

with every thing belonging to them,
In
kitchens, instead of the

exhibited neatness, and proofs of industry.
the furniture of their
little

darkness and smoky hue of the Russian houses,

we

observed everywhere brightness and cleanTheir utensils and domestic vessels

liness.

were

all

scoured and well polished.
;

They had

poultry, and plenty of cattle

and

their gardens

were

filled

with

fruit-trees.

(1)

Other \&T\et\tsoiVerhascum.

—^lyssum ineanuni

,

and montanum.

—Sideritis montana.

Varieties of CenUta,

and Vicia Cassubica,

TO PAULOVSKOY.

285

The

inhabitants, in their features, resemble

Cossacks;

and both these people bear a similitude
;

to the Poles

being, doubtless,

all

derived from

one

common stock. The dress of women is much the same among
RiLssians

unmarried
the Malo-

and the Don

Cossacks.

They both wear

a

kelt,

or petticoat, of one piece of cloth fastened

Sometimes, particularly among more aged females, this petticoat consists of two pieces, like two aprons the one fastened in front, and the other behind. The necks of the ^\t:\^

round the waist.

;

are laden with large red beads, falling in several

rows over the breast. and women, are set
glass gems.

The
off

fingers,

both of

men
is

with rings, containing

A

simple landeau, or gilded cap,
;

sometimes seen on female heads
sold to

and from be-

hind hang rows of antique coins, or false pieces

them

for

that purpose, imitating the

antient coin of their

own and

of other countries.
is

The

hair of unmarried

women

suffered to

fall

in a long braid

down

the back, terminated by a

ribbon with a knot.

Their language

is

pleasing,

and

full

of diminutives.

But the resemblance
very

of this people, in certain circumstances of dress

and manners,
remarkable.
tioned,
is

to the Scotch Highlanders, is

The

cloth petticoat, before

menand

chequered

like the Scotch plaid,
is
still worn

answers

to the keh

which

in Scotland.

Tliey have also,

among

their musical instru-

:

286
CHAP,
^

PAULOVSKOY.
ments, the hag-pipe, and the Jeivs-harp:
'

the

-

V

former, like that used
Finland, is

m

North Britain and in

common
found

to the Cossacks as well as

to the Malo- Russians.

Another point of resemin the

blance

may be

love of spirituous

The Malo-Russians are truly a merry race, and much given to drinking but this habit prevails among all barbarous nations.
liquors.
:

pauiov-

From hence we proceeded
situate

to

Paulovskoy,

upon a high sandy bank, on the eastern side of the Don. It is a small town, and at a but distance makes a pleasing appearance consists of little more than a church and a few
;

wooden houses. The river, broad and rapid, here makes a noble appearance barges, laden with corn, were moving with its
scattered

current towards the Sea of Azof.
Rants,

Close to

its

banks we found a variety of beautiful plants.

The Stipa pennata, celebrated in Russian songs, waved its feathery locks, as in almost all
the steppes.
campestris,

In the branches of the Artemisia
insects

had

caused excrescences,
in kindling

which are used by Tahtar nations
their tobacco-pipes.
{Aristolochia
Clematitis),

The Climbing Birthwort
a
rare
British

plant,

although found at
shire

Whittlesford in

Cambridge-

and

at Stanton in Suffolk,

appeared among

Southernwood,

Woody

Nightshade,

Water Crow-

:

PAULOVSKOY.
foot,

287
rest

and

Flea-bane.

The

were

all

^\\}^XI.

strangers'.
sive

— On
are

the eastern banks are exten-

low woods, hardly rising above the head these are so filled with nightingales, that
their

songs

heard, even

in
is,

the

town,

during the whole night.
a kind of toad, or frog,

There
to
is

moreover,

which the Empress
the marshes

Elizabeth transported
Moscow.
toned, and
Its

near

croaking

loud

and
;

deepfilling

may
full

be also termed musical

the air with

hollow sounds, very like the

cry of the old English harrier.
reptile is not

This kind of

known

in the

north of Europe,

The

noise

it

makes

is in

general loud enough to

be heard
gales.

for miles, joining with,

and sometimes

overpowering, the sweeter melody of nightin-

This circumstance gives quite a

new
and

character to the evening

and

to

the

night.

Poets in Russia cannot describe

silence

solemnity as characteristics of the midnight

hour^ but rather a loud and busy clamour,
totally inconsistent with the

opening of Gray's

Elegy, and the I^ight Thoughts of Young.

Peter the First founded named it in honour of St. Paul.

Paulovskoy,
It

and

was designed

(l)

simplicissiraa

Campanula Sibirica Dracocephalum Ruyschiana Anthemis tinctoria.

— Onosma

V

;

288
CHAP,
V

PAULOVSKOY.
as a frontier
'

town against the

Tafitars

and Turks,

The

territory of the former then extended to

Bachmut, on the southern side of the Donetz

and that of the Turks, to the place where now
stands the fortress of Dimitri, upon the Don.

There was here a Botanic garden, as
but of
this

at JVoronetz

not a trace

now

remains.
in

underwood about the place was,
time, a forest:
Animals,
it

The Gmelms
but
it

is

daily diminishing,

contaius

mduy

animals

common
squirrels.

in

the

sur-

rounding steppes; as

hears, luolves, Jbxes, martensy

hares, zveasels, ermines,
birds,

and

not frequent elsewhere,
:

Among the may be mentioned
by

the pelican

vast flights arrive annually from the

Black Sea and the Sea of ^zof, accompanied
swans, cranes, storks,

and

geese.

They

alight at

the mouths of the Don,
river: route.
in

and proceed up the

autumn they return by the same
any
soft herb.

Pelicans construct their nests of rushes,

lining the interior with moss, or

Such nests are found only upon the small islets of the river, and in places where moss may be procured. They lay two w^hite eggs, about the size of those of the sivan, and employ the same
time in hatching.
If disturbed
;

while

sitting,

they hide their eggs in the water
out afterwards with their
the danger removed.
fish,
bill,

taking

them
upon

when they

believe

They

live altogether

and consume a prodigious quantity.

The

,

PAULOVSKOY.
Russian naturalists give a curious account of this
bird's

289
^^}^^'

mode
;

of fishing, assisted
its

by the

cormorant.

The

pelican extends

wings, and troubles the

water while the cormorant, diving to the bottom,
drives the fish to the surface.

Then
wings,

the pelican,

continuing the motion of

its

advances

towards the shore, where the fish are taken

among

the shallows.

Afterwards, the cormorant

without further ceremony, helps himself out of
the pelicans beak'.

The
tallow

principal

trade

carried

on here

is

in

Trade.

and

fruit

:

the latter article, particularly
is

the Water-Melon,
Petersburg.

carried to Moscow and to
it

They

plant

in the

open

fields,

where
steppes

it

covers whole acres of land.

In the

near the town,

we

observed about thirty

women hoeing
plant, rarely

a piece of uninclosed ground, for

the culture of this delicious vegetable.
in

That a
should

perfection any^vhere,

thrive
in
its

upon the

rivers in this part of Russia,
is

and

such a latitude,

very remarkable.

Perhaps

flavour does not

depend upon
In

latitude.

At
even

Naples, although so highly esteemed, the Water-

Melon seldom ripens.
worse.
Indeed,
the

Egypt
place

it

is

only

where we
its

have

seen

the

JVater-Melon

attain

full

(l) Journal dcs

Sarans Voyageurs,

p. 144.

VOL.

T.

U

290
CHAP,
v.,

PAULOVSKOY.
colour,
/

size,

and maturity,

is

at

Jaffa,

upon

,.

the coast of Syria.

Rash Con-

"s^q fouiicl
*^

ourselvcs

amon^
"-^
,

Russians at Paulov_

duct of a young Pea- skoii,

aiid

sant

uarrowlv escaped ^
,

with our
.

hves.

,

The author, benig asleep withm the carriage, was awakened by some person gently opening
the door; and could discern, although in the
night, a

man extending

his

arm

in a

menacing
seize

manner.

Making a sudden

effort to

him

by

the hair, the fellow eluded the attempt, and
:

escaped

an alarm was immediately given, but

he could not then be discovered.
this,

Soon

after

the author, putting his head out of the

carriage window^ to call the servant, a large
stone,

thrown with great violence, struck the
it

frame of

close to his

head

;

sounding so like
first

the report of a pistol, that at
.

he believed a

pistol
this a

had been discharged close

to him.

second search was made, and a
to

Upon man in
sleep in

consequence detected, pretending
one of the
inn. hhahitkas, in

the court-yard of the

This fellow, whether guilty or not,

we
of

compelled to
sit

mount

the barouche-box, and to

there as sentinel.

Soon afterwards,

all

the party

who were

in the

house came running

into the yard, saying that the front of the

mn

was beset by some persons from without, v/ho
had hurled stones through the windows, and

;

PAULOVSKOY.
broken every pane of
sell

291

glass.

Determined to

chap.
',
/

our lives as dearly as possible,
in

we drew

our sabres, and proceeded

a

body towards
and set

the residence of the Governor, a very worthy

man, who instantly rose from
on foot an inquiry
after the

his bed,

offenders,

which

continued the whole of the night.
time, soldiers

At the same
carriage,

were stationed with the
of
the

was doubled. Towards morning, they brought in a young man,
and the patrole

town

whom
inn.

they stated to have detected in the act

of making his escape from the out-houses of our

During

his examination, the cause of all

this disorder

was made known.
girls of the

He proved
house
;

to

be a lover of one of the

and as
that he

she had refused to come out to him

when he had
him

sent for her, his jealousy convinced

was

upon our account. In a fit of desperate fury, he had therefore resolved to wreak his vengeance upon some of the party,
slighted
if

not upon

all

:

and

in this

undertaking he had

been aided by certain of his comrades.
resentment, and

The

poor fellow was more an object of pity than

we

interceded for his pardon

but the Governor insisted upon making an ex-

ample of him.
to

The.

police-officers

led

him
loth,

away, sulky, and, as
be flogged.
;

it

seemed, nothing'

revenge

As he went, he still vowed declaring, that he was not alone in

292

FROM PAULOVSKOY, TO THE
the business
'

——
XL
.

CHAP,

; '

for that fifteen

of his confede-

rates

had made an oath,
girl,

to

be revenged, not
all

only upon the

but upon

her family, for

her inconstancy to him.

The Governor provided us with a powerful
escort
;

and early

in the

morning we continued
all

our journey.
since Gmelin,

The roads have been
and other

changed,

travellers, visited this

part of Rmsia.
Ka-jnskoy

We

proceeded from Paulovskoy
a
village

^o

Kazlnskoy

Chutor,

inhabited

by

Malo- Russians and Russians mingled together.

The distinction between the two people might be made without the smallest inquiry, from the
striking contrast
cleanliness.

they exhibited of

filth

and

In the stable of the post-house

we
>

found about twenty horses, kept with a degree
of order and neatness which
credit to

would have done
in Britain.

any nobleman's stud

The

house of the poor superintendant villager was
equally admirable
:

every thing appeared clean
litter;

and decent: there was no
thing out of
its

nor was any
quite a

place.

It

was

new

thing to

us,

to

hesitate

whether

we

should

clean our boots before walking into an apart-

ment, on the floor of which

we would

rather

have placed our dinner than upon the table of any Russian prince.

COUNTRY OF THE DON COSSACKS.
This
villao^e
is

29n
chap.
XI.
v

situate in the

most wild and

open

steppes.

Amongst
as
it

the short herbage
Its flesh is
is

we

y

<

noticed the land-tortoise.
a great delicacy;

esteemed

in

the Archipelago^

and

in

all

Turkish cities.

Boat-loads of them

are carried from the Gi-eek Isles to the markets

of Const aritinople.

After leaving Kazinshoy,

we

passed through several

very

large

villages,

scattered over valleys, each of which appeared
to consist rather of several hamlets than of one,

and arrived
lected'.

at Nizney ^

Momon. Nothing occurred
col-

-'^'-"''y

Momon.

worth observation, except the plants we

The heat was
that before

intense.

The country

similar to

described.

We
solace,

found

our vinegar a pleasing and salutary ingredient
in

bad water, and a most delicious
and mouths and

when
was

exposed to the scorching rays of the sun, with
parched
lips, full

of dust.

It

impossible to resist the temptation of drinking
it

without water

;

to the practice of doing

so

may be

attributed, perhaps, the

weak

state
fell.

of health into which the author afterwards

We

considered

it,

at this time, the
;

most valuin

able part of our baggage

and afterwards,

(0 Of
the

these,

some are known incur country;

viz. Goat's-beard,

Trngopogon pratense, and Potentilla aigentea.
Gladiolus
/Astragalus Onolrychis, Hesperis matronalis,

Others, more rare, are,
;

imbricatus, not found even in our botanic gardens

and Campanula

Sibirica.

We observed

also a

new

species of Lychnis.

;

294
CHAP.
V,
^.
'

DON COSSACKS.
Kuban Tahtary, derived from it the only means of sustaining the fatigue and languor caused by the heat of the climate and by bad air.

Dobrinka.

Thc Dcxt
and
here,

place
for

wc came
first

to

was Dohrinka

the

time,

we

found

an

establishment

of Cossacks; although but few

appeared,

and even these were mixed with

Malo-Russians.

The church was new

;

a large

and handsome white building, erected by the
Others of the same nature Emperor Paul. in most of the neighbouring villages. appeared That of Dobrinka makes a conspicuous appearance, several miles before the traveller reaches
it.

If

happiness could be found under the
it

Russian Government,
its

might be said
a

to

have

residence

in
full

Dobrinka;
of neat

peaceable and

pleasant spot,

little

white cottages,

tenanted by a healthy,
tented,
society,

and apparently conlive
all

greatest tranquillity,

whose members removed from

in

the

the spies,

tax-gatherers, police-officers, and

other petty

despots of the country.
into

We

were received

one of their court-yards, with a hearty
dif-

welcome and smiling countenances, very
ferent from the lowering brows,

and contracted
so often

suspicious eyes, to which

we had been

accustomed.
to

At

sun-set, all the

cows belonging

the

inhabitants

came, in one large troop.

; ;

DON
sary
for,

COSSACKS.

295

lowing, into the village.
;

No

driver

was necesaccord to

as the herd entered, they separated

into parties,

and retired of

their

own

their respective owners, in order to

be milked.
families,

The Ma lo- Russians, with

their

numerous

were seated upon the ground,
and, being
all

in circles before

their neat little habitations, eating their

supper

merry together, offered a picture of contentment and of peace not often found
within Russian territories
'.

About
Metscha,

four in the afternoon of the next day,

2fetscha.

having been detained for want of horses at

we

arrived at Kasaxkaia, one of the

Kasankaia,
nitza of the
sac'L^'"''

largest stanitzas of the
first

Don

Cossacks, and the

within their territory.

As we

are

now

entering upon the description of a very interesting part of our journey,
careful
to

we

shall

be particularly

note every

observation that

may

occur, relating to a country rarely visited, and,

upon that account, very
every thing
is

little

known; where

interesting,

because every thing

presents what travellers from other countries

have not seen before.
of
life

of the people
activity in

;

The independent mode their indolence at home

their

war; their remote situation

(l)

We

observed

here a plant which
Onolri/chis.

grows

on the Hilh near

Cambridge, the Hcdysarum

2P()
(^11

DON COSSACKS.
AP.

^—

V

v.ith

regard to the rest of Europe; the rank they
;

'

hold in the great scale of society
their origin
;

the history of

their domestic manners,

and cha-

racter

;

all

these require consideration.

ModeofTraifU;

llie

T<:rritor> of the IJoh

Cunacks.

CHAP.

XII.

TERRITORY OF THE DON COSSACKS.
Appearance of the Cossacks at Kasankaia House of the Ataman Ideal Dangers of the Coiintry Voyage hij
IVater
ture

—Arts^ Arinour, and JVeapons — Recreations and Condition of Life — Suroke, Acenovskaia— Of Bolac, of Steppes—
— Personal
Appearance of Calmvcks
or
the the

—Amusements and Dances of —Steppes River Lazovai— Brandy Calmucks— Of
their

— —
a

the People
to

— Depar-

Visit

Camp of

distilledfrom

Mare's Milk

The Biroke and
Russia?i

Suslic

Maps

— Stragglersfrom

Nature of Villages named
the Army

in

Distinction

helween Cossacks of the Steppes and <f the Don Kamenskaia Iron Foundries ofLugan Etymology of

word Tanais Numeroiis Camps of Calmucks Approach to Axay.
the

1 HERE

is

something extremely martial, and
in the first

chap,

even intimidating,

appearance of a

;

296
CHAP.
V.

DON COSSACKS.
Cossack.
'

His

dignified

and majestic look
;

;

his

»y-

elevated brows, and dark mustachoes
of black wool, terminated

his tall

ancrof'the heliTiet ance
ro4.s«c/s at CoiS(

by a crimson
the ease and
air of

Kusankuia.

g^(^j^^ ^yi^jj j^g

plume, laced festoon, and white
;

cockade

;

his upright posture
;

elegance of his gait

give

him an

great

importance.

We found
Kasankaia,

Cossacks in considerable

number
it

at

lounging before

their

houses, and conversing in such large parties, that

seemed as

if

Their dresses

we were entering their capital. were much richer than any thing

we had observed
uniform.

in Russia, although all were Each person's habit consisted of a blue jacket, edged with gold and lined with silk, fastened by hooks across the chest. Beneath

the jacket appeared a silk waistcoat, the lower

part of which

was concealed by the

sash.

Large

and long trowsers, either of the same material
as the jacket, or of white dimity, kept remark-

ably clean, were fastened high above the waist,

and covered
war.
In

their boots.

The sabre is not worn,
in

except on horseback, upon a journey, or
its

stead

is

substituted a switch, or
:

cane, with an ivory head

this

every Cossack

bears in his hand, as an appendage of his dress

being at
at a

all

times prepared to mount his horse
notice.

moment's

Their cap or helmet
;

is

the most beautiful part of the costume
it is

because
It

becoming

to

every set of features.

adds

DON COSSACKS.
considerably to the height,

299
gives,

and

with
y

chap.

the addition of whiskers, a mihtary air to the

,-

j

most

insignificant figure.

They wear

their hair

short round the head, but not thin

upon the
soft

crown

:

it

is

generally dark, thick, and quite
is

straight.

The cap

covered by a very

and
civil

shining black wool.

Some

of

them have
;

and military distinctions of habit
without buttons.

wearing

in

time of peace, instead of the jacket, a long frock

The sash is sometimes

yellow,
;

green, or red, although generally black

and

'

they wear large military gloves.
nation in the world
;

There is no more neat with regard to dress and, whether young or old, it appears to become them all. A quiet life seems quite unsuited to their disposition
:

they

loiter

about,

having then no employment to interest them;

and being devoted

to war,

seem distressed by

the indolence of peace.

The Ataman, or Chief of the stanitza, approached
us with very great respect and complaisance,
as soon as

House of
"'

man.

we

arrived.

Notice at the same time

was given to all the inhabitants, not to quit the town without his knowledge, until every thing
the travellers might require should tained and provided.

be ascerconduct us

He begged
it
;

to

to " quarters,'' as he expressed
us, for that purpose, to his

and brought

own

house, which he

:

300
^}}^\^^'

DON COSSACKS.
gave up entirely to our use.
situate,
It

was pleasantly

above the Don, with an open covered

arcade, or

wooden

gallery

:

in this gallery

we
His

breakfasted and dined, while

we remained.
court-yard
it
;

cave of provisions was

in the

and
our
this

he made his wife and daughters open
use.
place.

for

We
It

had the curiosity

to

descend into
;

upon which we saw sterlet from the Don, game, and other luxuries. The house was perfectly clean and

was

floored with ice

comfortable
resist the

;

so

much

so,

that

we

could not
to

pressing invitation

made

us of

staying a short time, to study the manners of

the Cossacks, in a town nearly as large as their
capital.

It

was amusing

to observe the

temporary

re-

spect they paid to the Ataman. If he convened any
of the inhabitants on business, however
trivial,

they made their obeisance before him, standing

bareheaded, as in the presence of a Sovereign

but the moment the assembly was dissolved, he passed unheeded among them, receiving no
greater

mark of respect than any
It is

of the other
election is

Cossacks.

an

office to

which the

annual; but

i^ mi. Ataman

be particularly popular,

he

may retain many years. happen. Our

his station,

by

re-election, during

This however does not often
host was in his Jirst year, and his


DON COSSACKS.
predecessors had generally changed
time arrived.

'

301

when
that

the
the
^^

chap.
,

We

soon

perceived

Cossacks are characterized

by great
little

livehness and

animation; that they are

disposed to a

sedentary
violent

life,

but fond of amusement,
their passions

and
In

when

are roused.

their dances, drinking-songs, and discussions,

they

betray

great

vehemence.

abundance of excellent food, and as
as they

They have much brandy
It is

may

think proper to drink.

there-

fore surprising that order is so well maintained
in their stanitzas.

However indisposed a
Usten to those false alarms

traveller may be to which the inhabitants

ideal

Dan-

coTmtry.^

of every country raise in the minds of strangers

who wish
territory,

to explore
it is

any remote part of
all

their

not possible at

times to disre-

gard such relations, especially

from persons of the highest
attempt to substantiate.

when they come authority, and who
was

pretend to accurate knowledge of the facts they
In Russia, there

not an individual, of any respectability, with

whom we
journey,

conversed upon the subject of our
did not endeavour to dissuade us

who

from the danger of traversing what was termed " the deserts of the Don Cossacks" The event, however, served to convince us of the misrepresentation,

and absurdity of such

statements.

302
CHAP.

DON COSSACKS.

Among the
exposed
to

Russians, indeed,

we were

constantly

danger

;

either from imposition that

it was hazardous to detect, or from insult that it was fearful to resent; and in both cases the

consequences affected
first

our security.

In the

view of the

Cossacks,

we

beheld a brave,
If

generous, and hospitable people.

we

ques-

tioned them concerning the dangers of the country, w^e were referred to districts tenanted by wandering Calmucks ; yet we afterwards

found no cause of reasonable alarm, even

in the

very camps of that singular race of men.
Paulovshxoy,

At

they told us that the ExMpekor's

courier had been stopped with the mail.

We
;

doubted the
concluded,

fact

in

the

first

instance

but

if the mail had been really was committed by the Russians, who raised the clamour, and not by the Cossacks, to whom the robbery had been imputed. In

that

stolen, the theft

times of hostility the Russians found in
Cossacks

the

a desperate
bitter

and dangerous enemy;
to

and many a

remembrance of chastisement
vilify

and defeat induces them

a

people

whom

they

fear.

The
is

Cossacks are therefore

justified in acting

towards them as they have
to say, in

uniformly done
as

;

that

withdrawing

much as possible from all communion with men whose association might corrupt, but
could

never

promote,

the

welfare

of their


DON COSSACKS.
society.
less
3(>'

After these remarks,

be confessed, that

must neverthe- char we were compelled to v
it

take an escort with us throughout the Cossack
territory,

and

to place a

guard over our cardoubtless, often

riage

at

night;

precautions,

calculated to excite the ridicule of the people

among whom we
doing,

travelled ; yet even the Cossacks

themselves sometimes urged the necessity of so

"on accom? ^," they said,
evil

''of the Calmiicks.^'

One

consequence arising from attention
is

paid to tales of danger,

the habit

it

occasions

of putting a false construction upon the most

harmless and most

trivial incidents.

The

first

among the Cossacks we were full of idle fancies. The Ataman was intoxicated, and set off, accompanied by his
night of our residence
wife, into the country; leaving us in possession

of his

house.

altercation

As we had heard a violent without doors, and saw our host,
whispering

in a corner of the court, frequently

to other Cossacks,

and pointing

to our carriage,

the effect of the silly stories
to operate,

we had

heard began
preparation

and

we imagined some
;

was making to rob us for which purpose it was necessary to get rid of the Ataman and his wife, as they might otherwise be made responsible for our safety. The apprehension of our
servants
did not diminish the suspicion thus

304

DON COSSACKS.
excited;
'

''

——
XII.
,

CHAP,

and

we

considered the plot as the
that they
1

'

more probable, because we knew
never before seen an
Since this happened,
believe that the

J had
1

equipage so attended.

we had

every reason to

good old Ataman was only
and, like

giving directions for our advantage,
all

was making an important concern of the most trifling business, such as the cording and repairing our wheels, and a few other commissions which we wished to
intoxicated persons,

have executed.
often

Travellers, so circumstanced,

raise an alarm about nothing;
stir to

make a
injury;

great

defend themselves against ideal

danger; offend those

who intended no

by congratulating themselves upon an escape, where there was no ground even for
and
finish,

apprehension.

Voyage by
Water.

\^q rcccivcd a
arrival,

visit,

on the evening of our

from the Ataman of one of the neighstanitzas,

bouring
place.

who chanced

to

be

in

the
the

He

represented the voyage

down

Don to Tcherkask as a pleasant, but a tedious
undertaking
at
least a
;

saying,
for

that
its

it

would

require

month
also

performance.

The
to im-

mosquitoes
the water;

are

very troublesome upon
is

and the passage

liable

pediments, from the frequent shallows of the
river.

:

DON

COSSACKS.

305

Below the town, which stands upon the western bank of the Don, we beheld this river, augmented to a most magnificent piece of water,
rolling in a full
its

and copious

tide,

and marking

progress, through a country otherwise sterile,

by clumps
but
all

of trees

and flowers, and by an
to its sloping sides

abundant vegetation near

beyond

is

bare and desolate.

We bathed

frequently, and found the current very rapid.

The

fine sterlets

caught here were often brought

to regale us during our stay.

We

preserved

one of them tolerably well
often engraved; and,

;

but they have been
this

were

not the case,

a young sturgeon will give a very good representation of their appearance.

Another sort of
but quite equal to

fish, of large size, is also taken in this river;
it is

lik« the

bream

in shape,

the
at

sterlet in

flavour.

We

had one

served

our table, weighing half a poud (eighteen

pounds).

The women of this place are very beautiful. The shops are supplied with several articles of
luxury, such as loaf-sugar, ribbands, costly silks,

and other wares of large towns.

Among

the

more numerous articles oflfered for sale were sabres. The Cossacks call this weapon Sabla the Poles and Malo- Russians, Sabel. We ob;

served the bag-pipe frequently in use.
VOL.
I.

A

kind

X

V

306
^xii^'

DON COSSACKS.
of puppets, common in Calabria, which are carried
'

<—
Amusementsand

by the

inhabitants of that part of Italy over

all

Euvope, wcrc

much

,

.

ui

vo^c

hcre, consistmg oi
:

r

the People,

two Small
fingers

figurcs

suspcndcd by a string

this

the piper fastens to his knee, or to one of his
;

while the other end
into a

is

held by a gimlet
and,

screwed
dance

table or

floor;

by the

motion of the knee, the figures are made to

manage them with great dexterity, and often collect a crowd We saw in the streets of London and Paris.
to the tune.

The

Calahrians

also the Cossack dance,
I

which much resembles

the dance of the Gipsies in Russia, and our English

\

hornpipe.
j is

Like every other national dance,

it

licentious.

As

the female recedes or

ap-

proaches, the male dancer expresses his desire
or his disappointment; yet so adapted
figure of this
is

the

dance

to the small

rooms of

their

houses, that the performers hardly

move from
arms

one

spot.

The

expression

is

conveyed by

movements of the body,
shrieks,

especially of the

and head, accompanied by short and sudden and by whistling.
of
to

The method they
head
from
one

exhibited

moving
the other,

the

shoulder

while the hands are
is

held

up near the
all

ears,

common
in

to

the

dances of
the

the Tahtars, Chinese, and even to
islands

inhabitants of the

the

Pacijic

Ocean.

:

DON COSSACKS.
In the evening of June l6th, table stanitza, crossing the

307
hospi-

we left this
raft.

chap.
Departure.

Don upon a

The
so

people of the house, where

we had been

comfortably lodged, positively refused to accept
of any payment for the trouble

we had
do not

given

them.

" Cossacks" said they,

*'

sell their

hospi taliti/'.''*

The view

of Kasankaia,
is

from the southern
Its large

side of the river,

very

fine.

church,

with numerous domes, stands in the center
to the

right

and

left

are

numerous and neat
flows below,
raft,

wooden houses.
stantly

The Don
busy

ex-

hibiting, in front, the

which
river

is

con-

employed conveying caravans across
In
it

the ferry.
Kasankaia,
chalk;

all

parts of
to

the

above

seems
rise

flow

over a bed of

and

its

banks, gently swelling upwards
like the

from the water,

South

Sussex, often disclosing the chalk

Downs of whereof they

consist.

Farther down, and near to the water's^

edge, low copses of

wood almost always accompany its course; but these diminish as it draws nearer to Tcherkask, the inhabitants of

(1)

"

L'hospitarit^ est en usaje par toute la Petite Russie

;

et uii

etranger qui y voyag-e n'a jamais be«oin de faire de la d^^pense pour Scherer Annaks de la Petite Russie, son logenieiit et sa nourriture."

tomel. p. 103.

Paris, 1788.

X 1

308
CHAP,
XII.
V

DON COSSACKS.
which town derive
'

all

their

wood from

the

I

V

Volga.

As soon
Steppes,

as

we had

left

Kasankaia,

we

entered

the steppes in

good earnest, with a view to
not cultivated
but,

traverse them, in their whole extent, to Tcherkash.

They

are

;

bleak

and desolate as

their

appearance during winter

may
of a

be, they have during

summer the aspect wild continued meadow. The herbage,
the knee,
is

rising as high as

full

of flowers,

and exhibits a very interesting
plants.

collection of
this

No

one collects or cuts
is

herbage.

The

soil,

although neglected,
oaks, in

very

fine.

We
The

passed some

the

first

part of our journey,

with the largest leaves
Cossacks

we had
;

ever seen.

composing our escort galloped before
and were of great
miofht

us, bearing their long lances

use

in clearing

the

road of caravans, and in

tracing^ the best track

where a carriage

expeditiously pass.

veying our

speed
if

;

We were pleased in surarmed band, going at full but thought it would avail us little,
little

the stories

we had
really

heard of handiui in the

steppes

were

true.

For ourselves,

we

were destitute of any defensive weapons, excepting our sabres and these were under lock and key, in the sword-case. We relied there;

fore solely on the

Cossacks,

who seemed

quite

DON COSSACKS.
delighted even with the thought of a skirmish:

309

proud of
plains,

their

employment, they scoured the
pistols,

armed with

sabres, and lances

twelve feet

in length.

Thus escorted and
and passed the night
stinking fens, and

accoutred',

we proceeded
of swamps,

to the distance of thirty versts before the evening;
in

a spot

full

pools. Near to these number of caravans had stagnant waters, a Mosquitoes were here in great also halted. number, and very troublesome. Our Cossacks passed the whole night upon the damp ground,

muddy

and

in the

open

air,

almost naked, around our

carriage.

must
the

in

The atmosphere of such a country summer be pestilential. It resembled
Marshes in
Italy
;

Pontine

being
in

full

of

reeds, bulrushes, and

tall flags,

which was

heard the constant clamour of frogs and toads,

whose croaking overpowered every other sound during the night. But in the morning, the
chorus of a great variety of birds, with the

humming of innumerable insects, and the pleasing
appearance of a flowery wilderness, gave a
liveliness to the flat

and wide prospect.
Tichaia
;

The
s^ver Lozovay.

name

of this place

was

and hereabouts

the river Lazovay has

its

source.

We

followed

(l)

See the I^ignette

to this

Chapter.

310
its

CxVLMUCKS.
tardy and almost stagnant waters through

the steppes, to a place

named from

it,

Verchnia

Lazovaia.
nip-a and

On its banks we

observed the Sinapis

Convolvulus arvensis, plants

common

in Eno'land.

Visit to

a

Camp

We
of
.

afterwards
.

saw a camp of Calmucksy
,
.

,

caijnucks.

lu

tlic

plaui towards the right
to visit

oi

our route.
people,
it

As we much wished
w^as

this

thought prudent to send a part of our

Cossack escort before, in order to apprize

them

of our inclination, and to ask their permission.

The

sight of our carriage,
it,

and of the party
to

approaching with

seemed

throw them

into oreat confusion.
nins:

We

observed them run-

to

backwards and forwards from one tent another, and moving several of their goods.
near, on foot, about half-a-dozen

As we drew

came towards us, stark naked, excepting a cloth bound about the waist, with
gigantic figures

greasy, shining, and almost black

skins,

and

black hair braided into a long queue behind.

They began
and
a
in
little

talking very fast, in so loud a tone,

sa uncouth a language, that
intimidated.

we were
to

We

shook hands however
pacify

with the

foremost,

which seemed

them, and

we were

invited into a large tent.

N^ar
flesh,

to its entrance

hung a quantity of horsedosfs, cats,

with the limbs of

marmots.

CALMUCKS.
rats,

311
chap.

&c. drying in the sun, and quite black,

Within the tent
it

we found some women,

althousfh

were difficult to distinguish the sexes, so horrid and inhuman was their appearance. Two of them, covered with grease, were lousing
each other
;

and

it

surprised us, that they did

not discontinue their work, nor even look up

Through a grated lattice, in the side of the tent, we saw some younger women peeping, of more handsome features,
as
entered.

we

but truly Calmuck, with long black
in thick

hair,

hanging

braids on each side of the face, and
tin.

fastened at the end with bits of lead or
In their ears they

wore

shells,

and large pearls

of a very irregular shape,

or

some substance
old

much
eating

resembling pearl.

The

women were
from large
Others,

raw

horse-flesh, tearing
in their

it off"

bones which they held

hands.

squatted on the ground within their tents, were

smoking tobacco, with pipes not two inches in length, much after the manner of Laplanders.
In other respects,
the

two people, although

both of Eastern origin, and both iimnade tribes,
bear Uttle resemblance.

among
better

the Calmucks

is

The manner of living much superior to that
tents of the former are

of the Laplanders.

The

constructed,

stronger,

more

spacious,
life
;

and contain many of the luxuries of
as very

such

warm and good

beds,

handsome

carpets

312
CHAP,
XII.

CALMUCKS;
and mats, domestic
utensils,

and many instru-

ments of

art

and science, painting and writing ^
is

The
more
in
all

Calmuck

a giant, the Laplander a dwarf: persons; bat the Calmuck

both are

filthy in their

so,

perhaps, than the inhabitant of any

other nation.

We

are not otherwise authorized

comparing together tribes so remote from
connection with each other, than

by asserting,

from our own observation, that both are Oriental,

and that both are characterized by some

habits and appearances in
at the

common;

deferring,

same

time,

all

further illustration of the

subject until a

more appropriate opportunity.

We

shall

have occasion to speak at large of the

Laplanders, in another part of our Travels".

Of Brandy
distilled

Evcrv ouc
the brandy,
dlstil

lias

heard

of the houmis.% and
to

from the
Mares!

which the Calmucks are said

from the milk of mares.

The manner

of preparing these liquors has been differently
related,

and perhaps

is

not always the same.

(1)

Those

tents are of a circular form, with a hole at the top

:

they

are constructed of

camel's hair.

and covered with a thick felt made of Iq the Calmuck language they are called Khalitku;
canes,
their migrations, have gi\en

and being placed upon waggons during
their

name to the summer vehicles of Russia, (2) The Esquimaux Indians of /Imerica, the

Greenhinders, and the

Laplanders, speak the same lan2;uage, and have the same swarthy complexion.

When

the Moravians effected their settlement in

La-

brador, the Greenland language was used, by their iuterpBcter, with

the natives.

;

CALMUCKS.

:U3
chap.

They assured us
distilled

that the

brandy was merely

from butter-milk.
overnight
butter;
fire
is

The milk which
churned
in

they

collect
into

the
is

morning
distilled
cattle,

and the butter-milk

over a

made with
of the
clear
fire,

the duno- of their

particularly

dromedary, which
like peat.

makes a steady and
koumiss

But

other accounts have been given, both of the

and of the brandy.

It

has been usual

to confound them, and to consider the koumiss

as their appellation for the brandy so obtained.

By

every information

we

could obtain, not only

here, but in

many

other camps, which

we

after-

wards

visited, they are different modifications

of the same thing, although different liquors
the koumiss being a kind of sour milk, like the
Yoivrt of the Turks,

and the beverage so much
;

used by the Laplanders, called Pima
brandy, an ardent
spirit

and the

obtained from koumiss

making the koumiss, tliey sometimes employ the milk of cows but never, if mare's milk can be had as the koumiss from

by

distillation.

In

;

;

the latter yields three times as
that

made from cow's

milk.
is,

much brandy The manner

as of

preparing the koumiss
sixth

by combining onepart of warm water with any given quan-

tity of

warm
till

mare's milk.
little

To

this

they further

add, as a leaven, a
the

old koumiss, and agitate

mass

fermentation ensues.

To produce

314

CALMUCKS.
the vinous fermentation, artificial heat
agitation is

and more

sometimes necessary.

This aftbrds

what

is

called koumiss.

A

subsequent process

of distillation afterwards obtains an ardent spirit

from the koumiss.
verage
their
in

They gave us this last a wooden bowl, calling it vina.
it

beIn

own language
to the

bears the very remarkable

appellation of rack, and racky, doubtless nearly
allied
racky

names

of our East-India

spirit,

and

arrack.

We

brought away a quart
it

bottle of

it,

and considered

as very

weak bad

brandy, not unlike the
)jy

common

spirit distilled

the Swedes and other Northern nations.

Some
in

of their

women were
The

busied making

it

an

adjoining tent.

simplicity of the operation,

and of their machiner}^, was very characteristic
of the antiquity of this chemical process.
still

Their

was constructed of mud,
;

or of very coarse

clay

and

for the

neck of the retort they emreceiver of the
still

ployed a cane.
entirely

The covered by a

coating of wet clay.

was The

brandy had already passed over.
vv^ho

The woman
distillery,

had the management of the
with a small

wishing to give us a taste of the
stick,

spirit,

thrust a

tuft of camel's hair at its

extremity,

through

the

external

covering of

clay; and thus collecting a small quantity of

the brandy, she

drew out

the stick, dropped a

portion upon the retort, and, waving the instru-

CALMUCKS.
ment above her head, scattered
liquor in the
this
air.

315
the remainins:

chap.
XII.
-^

We

asked the meaning ^f
it is

ceremony, and were answered, that

a

rehgious custom, to give always the

first

drop

of the brandy from the receiver to their God.

The
the

second time

was then phmged into the receiver a when more brandy adhering to camel's hair, she squeezed it into the palm
stick
;

of her dirty and greasy hand, and, having tasted
the liquor, presented
it

to

our

lips.

^

The covering
;

of their tents consists of neat

and well-made mats, such as we see brought from I?idia and also of felt, or coarse woollen cloths. Whenever a Calmuck marries, he must
build one of these tents, and one also for every
child he has
die,

by

that marriage.

If

a husband

his

widow becomes

the property of his

brother, provided the latter choose to accept of
her.

A distinction between married and

unmar-

ried

women is exhibited in the manner of dressing their hair. A married woman wears her hair
braided, falling over her shoulders, and on each
side of her face
;

but a virgin has only a single
the middle of her back.

braid hanging

down
all

Their tents were
these

of a circular form.

Near

to

we observed
Grecian

a party of their children,
to fourteen, playing at the

from the age of five
antient

eame

(before

mentioned

as

316
CHAP,
V.

CALMUCKS.

common
^

in

XII. ..,—

Russia) with knucklerbones'. ^
1
1

We
r

delighted
copeeks.

them by making a scramble with a tew They were quite naked, and perfectly
off,

1

black.

Farther

a herd of their dromedaries

were grazing.
Personal

Appearance of Calmucks.

Qf ^H

the inhabitants of the Russian empire,

the Calmucks are the
cuharit}^ of feature

most distinguished by peIn personal
^

and manners.

appearance,

they are athletic and revolting.
coarse and black
;

Their hair

is

their language
y

harsh and guttural.

Tiiey inhabit Thibet

Bu-

charia, and the countries lying to the north of

Persia, India,

and China ; but, from

their vagrant

habits, they

may be found

in all the

southern

parts of Russia, even to the banks of the Dnieper.

The

Cossacks alone

esteem them, and intermarry

with them".

This union sometimes produces

(1)

The Astr as: alismus
&c.

;

in

which game we find the origin of

dice,

chess, nine-pins,
(2)

lu opposition to this remark,

it is

stated in Mr. Hcber's Journal,
all

that

" Calmuck

servants are greatly esteemed

over Russia, for

iheir intelligence
in that capacity

and

fidelity ;"

and we

recollect seeing

some

among English remarkable instance ever known

families in Petersburg.

of them The most

of an expatriated Calmuek, was that

of an artist employed by the Earl nf Elgin,

whom we saw

(a

second

Anacharsis, from the plains of Scythia) executing most beautiful designs

among

the Ruins of Athens.

Some Russian
in

family had

pre-

viously sent

him

to finish his studies

Rome, where he acquired
the peculiar features, and

the highest perfection in design.

He had

many

of the maoners, of the

nomade Calmucks.

;

CALMUCKS.

317
although nothhig
High, promilittle

women
is

of very great beauty

ciiAr.
XII.

;

more hideous than a Calmuch.
;

nent, and broad cheek-bones

very

eyes,

widely separated from each other; a

flat

and

broad nose
nent ears

;

coarse,

greasy,
;

jet

black hair

scarcely any eye-brows
;

and enormous promiinviting countestrive to

compose no very

nance

:

however,

we may

do

it

justice.

Their

women
The

are

uncommonly hardy

;

and on
in the

horseback outstrip their male companions
race.

stories related of their placing pieces

of horse-flesh under the

saddle,

in

order to

prepare them for food,

are true.

knowledged that this practice among them during a journey, and that a stako
so dressed
their large

They acwas common
In

became tender and
camps, they have

palatable.

cutlers,

and other

Arts.

;

'MS
CHAP,
V

CALMUCKS.
artificers In copper, brass,
'

and iron; sometimes

-y-

goldsmiths,

who make
and
persons

trinkets for their

women,
for their

idols of gold
altars
;

silver,

and vessels

also

expert at inlaid work,
arts vainly believed pe-

enamelling, and

many
fact,

culiar to nations in a state of refinement.

One

very remarkable
namely,

confirming the observa-

tions of other travellers',
that,

may

bear repetition;

from time immemorial, the more

Oriental tribes of Calmuchs have possessed the
art of

making gunpowder. They boil the
it

efflores-

cence of nitrate of potass in a strong lye of poplar

and birch ashes, and leave
after this they

to

crystallize

pound the crystals with two parts of sulphur, and as much charcoal then,
;

wetting the mixture, they place

it

in a caldron

over a charcoal
Armour, &
Wiiapou->

fire,

until the

powder begins

to

grauulatc.

The

generality of Calmuchs,

when

equipped

for war, protect the
:

head by a helmet
to this is fixed a

of steel with a gilded crest

net-work of iron

rings,

falling

over the neck

and shoulders, and hanging as low as the eye-

brows

in front.

They wear upon

their body,

after the

Eastern manner, a tissue of similar

work, formed of iron or steel rings matted
together: this adapts itself to the shape, and
yields readily to
all

positions of the

body

;

and

(l)

Journal des Savans Voyageurs,

p. 434.

CALMUCKS.
ought therefore rather to be called a
a
coat,
shirt,

r^lO

than

of mail.

The most
in Persia,

beautiful of these are
at the price

manufactured
of
fifty

and valued
only for
are

horses.
tin,

The cheaper
and
but
sell

sort are
six

made of
or eight

scales of

horses

each;

these

more common

among

the Chinese, and in the Mogul territory.

Their other arms are lances, bows and arrows,
poignards, and sabres.

Only the richer Cabnucks
therefore

carry fire-arms

:

these are

always

regarded as marks of distinction,
with the utmost care,
skins.
in

and kept,
of badgers'

cases

made

Their most valuable bows are constructed
;

of the wild-goat's horn, or of whalebone

the

ordinary
fir,

sort,

of maple, or thin slips of elm or

fastened together, and bound with a covering

of linden or birch bark.

Their amusements are, hunting, wrestling,
archery,

Recreations

and

horse-racing.

They

are

not

anl Condji^n

addicted to drunkenness, although they hold
drinking parties, continuing for half-a-day at a
time,

without interruption.

Upon such
is

oc-

casions, every one brings his share of

brandy

and

koumiss ;

and the whole stock
;

placed upon

the ground, in the open air

the guests forming

a circle,

seated

around

it.

One

of

them,

squatted by the vessels containing the liquor,

performs the

office of

cup-bearer.

The young

;

320
CHAP,

'

CALMUCKS.
by the men, and begin
is

women

place themselves

songs of love or war, of fabulous adventure, or
heroic achievement.

Thus the file
the

kept up

the guests passing the cup round, and singing
the whole
time,
until

stock of liquor

is is

expended.

During

all this

ceremony, no one

seen to rise from the party; nor does any one
interrupt the

harmony

of the assembly,

by

riot

or intoxication.

In the long nights of winter,

the

young people of both sexes amuse themTheir
is

selves with music, dancing, and singing.

most common musical instrument
laika,

the hala-

or two-stringed lyre;
paintings.

often represented

in their

These paintings preserve
exhibiting objects of

very curious memorials of the antient superstition of Eastern nations
;

Pagan v/orship which were common to the earliest mythology of Egypt and of Greece. The arts of Painting and Music may be supposed
to

have

continued

little

liable

to

alteration

among
consist

the Calmuchs, from the remotest periods

of their history.

more

in

As for their dances, these movements of the hands and
feet.

arms, than of the
cards, draughts,

In winter they play at
chess.

backgammon, and
is

Their

love

of gambling

so great, that they will
in a single

spend entire nights at play; and lose
sitting the

whole of what they possess, even to

the clothes

upon

their body.

In short,

it

may

CALMUCKS.
be said of the Calmuch, that the greatest part
of their Hfe is spent in amusement. Wretched and revolting as they seem, they would be indeed miserable, if compelled to change their

321
chap.

mode
people.

of living

for

that

of a

more

civilized

Both Gmelin and Pallas
be shut up

relate,

that

they

deem

a residence in houses so insupportin the confined air of

able, that to

a close apartment, even for a short time,

when
is

under the necessity of going into towns, and

making

visits

of embassy

or

commerce,

considered by them with a degree of horror.

Among
the
itch
:

the

diseases

caused

by

their

diet

and want of

cleanliness,

may be mentioned
very subject.

to this they are

Ma-

lignant fevers are often fatal to

them during the
disease causes
prevail
chiefly reside,

heat of summer.
great
in

The venereal
it

ravages

:

is

said

to

those

camps where
to

their

princes

and not
orders.

be often found among the lower
give to
this

They

disorder a
in
it

name

very expressive of the estimation
hold their
disease^."

which they
*'

mode

of

life,

by

calling

The house

Having occasion hereafter to notice

this people,

we

shall only

now add

the obser-

vations of one of the celebrated travellers before

mentioned

;

who,
"

after considering the privations

(l)

Or, rather,
I.

derived ft-om those

who

live in

hmses."

VOL.

Y

322
CHAP,
to

CALMUCKS.
which they are exposed, places
their situ-

ation in a point of

view more favourable, perdone.

haps, than
he,
*'

we have

" For the rest," says

to

whatsoever degree of wretchedness

the poorest of the Calmuchs
it

may be

reduced,

is

very rare to behold them dejected by

sorrow,
despair.

and

they

are

never

subdued

by

The
life

generality,

notwithstanding a

mode

of

apparently so adverse to health,

attain to a robust

and very old age.

Their

disorders are neither very frequent, nor very

dangerous.
or
fifty.

Few become grey-headed

at forty

Persons from eighty to a hundred

years of age are by no means

uncommon among
life

them
still

;

and

at that

advanced period of

they

sustain with great ease the fatigue of horse-

manship.

A simple and uniform diet
;

* ;

the free air

they uninterruptedly respire

inured, vigorous,

and healthy bodies
the natural causes

;

continual exercise, without

care, without laborious

employment

;

such are

of these felicitous eifects."

Leaving

this

encampment,

we

continued to

traverse the steppes in a south-westerly direction.

(1) It

is

difficult to reconcile this

statement with the real diet of the
simple,

Cuhnucks.

Can that properly be deemed
all

which

consists of

the grossest animal food of
diet, without bread, or

kinds, without admixture of vegetable
fruits of

any of the

the earth

?

; ;

DON COSSACKS.
and passed a very neat
village belonging to a

323
chap.
A. 11.

wealthy Greek, who, to our great surprise, had
established a residence in the midst of these

desolate plains.

As we advanced, we
villages,

per-

ceived that wheresoever rivers intersect the
steppes,

there

are

and

a

numerous

population.

A

manuscript

map

of Tcherkask

confirmed the truth of this observation.

No

maps have been

hitherto published in Europe

giving an accurate notion

of the country.
territory

A

stranger crossing the

Cossack
in

might

suppose himself to be

a desert, although
the road,
it

surrounded by

villages.

From

is

true, he will not often see these settlements

but frequently, when

we were we

crossing a river,
in the

after believing ourselves to

be

midst of

an uninhabited country,
the right and
left

beheld villages to

of us, that had been conriver
;

cealed

by the banks of the

not a single

house nor church of which would have been
otherwise discerned*.
in

We

were approaching,

an oblique direction, the Lazovai,
"

now

aug-

(2)

Erected, or rather concealed," says Gibbon, accurately de-

scribing the dwellings of their forefathers,

"

in the depth of forests,

oq

the banks of rivers, or the edge of morasses,

we may not

perhaps,

without

flattery, compare them which they resembled in a double

to

the architecture of the beaver
to the land

issue,

and water,

for the

escape of the savage inhabitant, an animal less cleanly,

less diligent,

and

less

social,

than that marvellous
chap.
xlii.

quadruped."

Historij

of the

Roman Empire,

Y 2

324

DON COSSACKS.
merited to a considerable river.

As we drew

near, its opposite banks rose considerably higher

than the ordinary appearance of the country

with

fine clusters of trees.
tlie

Before

we

arrived

at u4ce7iovskaia,

country was even moun-

tainous.
village,

On

its

western side
with a

we beheld

a neat
situate

called Jernvchaia,
hills,

pleasingly

beneath the
church.

new and handsome
what we
find in our

Indeed, the churches are everywhere

good, and

much

superior to

country villages in England, both as to architecture and interior decoration.

At the top of

the mountainous elevation on the western side
of the river, stood one of the largest of those
tumuli

which abound over

all

this

country.

They become more numerous, and appear of greater magnitude, nearer to the Don and to the
Sea of Azof.
current rapid,

Finding the water clear, and the

we had the

opportunity of bathing;
to all travellers,

and recommend the practice

as essential to the preservation of health'.

Acenovs/caia,

From
tation.

Acenovskaici,

we

continued our route

over steppes apparently destitute of any habi-

Dromedaries were

feeding,

the

sole

(l) Acerhi

informed us, that by constant bathing he escaped the
travellers

fever to

which

are liable

from the bad

air

and heat of

Lapland during summer.

;

DON COSSACKS.
tenants of these wide pastures.

325

Mr. Cripps got

CHAP.
XII.

upon the back of one of them, as the animal was kneeUng: it rose immediately, and, with a very majestic pace, bore him towards the carriage. Our horses were so terrified at the
sight, that

they broke the ropes, and
in

we had
The

great

difficulty

tranquillizing

them.

dromedary, having passed, made
plain,

off into the

with his head erect, prepared, no doubt,
to

to

undertake an expedition
;

very distant
his curiosity,

regions

when, having

satisfied

Mr. Cripps descended from
violence

his lofty back,
fell

as

from the roof of a house, and

with some

upon the ground; leaving the dromeas far
as

dary to prosecute his voluntary journey, which

he continued

our

eyes could

fol-

low him.
Innumerable inhabitants, of a smaller race,
people
these
ofUie
Bobac' of
'^
'^'^'"''

immense
is

plains.

Among

the

number
It

of them,
;

an animal which the natives

call Suroke

the Arctomys Bobac of zo5logists'.
to the size of a large

grows here

badger

(2)

See Shaw's Zoology,

vol. III.

p. )20.

PI. 144.

— In

the

first

edition

we had described

this

animal as the Alpine Marmot, with

tacles, of the

which naturalists have sometimes confounded it. The holes, or recepBohac are lined with the finest hay ; and it is said that
is

the quantity found in one nest a horse.

sufficient for a night's provender for

—The Bohac

is

the

Mus

Aictoiuys of Pallas,

326
^xn^'

DON COSSACKS.
^^^ ^° much resembles the hear in its manner and appearance, that, until we became acquainted with
it

its

real history,

we

considered
it

as a non-descript animal,
subterranea.

and called
mistakes

Ursa
not

minima

Such

are

uncommon
add
to the

in zoology.

Naturalists frequently

nomenclature of animals by super-

fluous appellations

A

beautiful

little

quadru-

ped, called Jerboa in Egypt, has been described
in other countries as a distinct animal,

under

the various names of

Mus

jaailus. Subterraneous
it

Hare, Faulting Rat, Leaper, &c. &c. but

is

the same creature everywhere, and bears to the
kangaroo the same degree of relationship that

a lizard has to the
it

crocodile.

We

shall describe

more

minutely
is

hereafter.

Our
is

present
all
its

business

with the Suroke ; this

seen in

parts of the steppes;

sitting erect,

near to

burrow, whistling very loud upon the slightest
alarm, and

observing

all

around.

It

makes
and
has

such extensive subterraneous chambers, that
the ground
the land
is
is is

perforated in

all

directions,

destroyed wheresoever this animal
Its colour is

found.

a greyish brown
its

:

it

five fingers

upon each of

paws; these very
are
teeth,

much

resemble

after the

human hands, and same manner. The mouth,
;

used and

head, are like those of the squirrel
are shorter.
Its fine

but the ears
full,

eyes are round,

dark,

DON COSSACKS.
and bright: the
every thing
tail is

327
"\^^'

short; the belly generally
It

protuberant, and very large.
it

devours almost
time of

^—

y

'

finds,

with the greatest voracity;
peasants

and remains
its

in a state of torpor half the

existence.

Many
four:

of

the

keep

surokes

tame
us
in

in their houses.

We

purchased
travelled

no less than
with
us to study

they lived and
carriage,

our

thereby

enabling

their habits.

They were always
pug-dog'.

playing, or sleeping, beneath our feet, to the

great annoyance of our

little

The

(1)

Having mentioned

this little
its

animal,

it

may

be well to say

somethinjj of the importance of
of other travellers.

presence with us, for the advantage

Tolish traveller in

the better,

The precaution was first recommended to us by a Denmark. Any small do^ (the more diminutive because the more portable, and generally the more petuwhere the
traveller

lant) will ])rove a valuable guardian, in countries
is

liable to attacks

from midnight robbers, and especially from pirates

by water,

as in the Archipelago.
shrill

They

generally sleep during the day,
of

and sound their

alarum upon the most distant approach

danger, during the night.

The author remembers an

instance of one

that enabled a party of mariners to steer clear of some shallows, by barking at a buoy, which, in the darkness of the night, they had not perceived. The instances in which our little dog was useful, it is
needless to relate.

But

it

may

gratify curiosity to

be informed, that,
it,

being naturally afraid of water, and always averse from entering
crossed
all

he

the rivers and lakes of Lapland, Sweden, and Norway, after
;

his masters

accompanied

them, during three years,
;

in

different

climates, although detesting bodily exercise

and ultimately performed

a journey on foot, keeping up with horses, from Athens, through all Greece, Macedonia, and Thrace; making the tour of the Archipelago,
to Constantinople ; and thence, in the

same manner, through

Jiulgaria,

and Wallachia, to Bucharest.

328

DON COSSACKS.
peasants universally

Washj.

.

They

told us, that

Sepiemher their

them the name of in the month of tame surokes retire to some
give

hiding-place, and do not

make

their

appearance

again before the
either

beginning of

jipril.

They

descend into some burrow, or conceal

themselves where they
liable
vv^hole

may remain
and
sleep

the least

to

observation,

during

the

winter.

To awaken

them, during the

season of their somnolency, materially injures
their health,

and sometimes
they find

kills

them.

are most destructive animals; for they will

They gnaw
shoes,

every thing

in

their
all

way;

books, wooden planks, and
fruit,

kinds

of roots,

They made havoc with the lining of our carriage; which was of morocco leather. As soon as they have done eating, they become so drowsy, that they even fall
or vegetables.

asleep in yom: hands, in any posture or situation,
or under any circumstances of jolting noise or

When awake, they are very active; and they surpass every other animal in the rapidity with which they burrow in the earth.
motion.

They resemble guinea-pigs in making a grunting noise; and when surprised, or much pleased,
or in any degree frightened, they utter loud

and short squeaks, resembling the ^ound of a
person whistling.

DON
wolves

COSSACKS.'
in

329
steppes

Other animals common

the

are
^

^^{\^'
-y-'

and bears;

also a

quadruped
to

called

Biroke, of a grey colour, something like a wolf,

TheBirpkc.

very ferocious, and daring enough

attack
their

men.

The

Cossack peasants,

armed with

lances, sally forth, on horseback, in pursuit of
this animal.
It

has a long

full tail,

reaching to
it

the ground. the peasants,

From

the accounts given of
it

by

we

suspected

to

be the same

animal described by Professor Pallas, as found
in the environs of ^strachan,

under the appel-

lation Chakal,

and said

to

be between a wolf

and a dog; but whether it be the same kind of Jackal which is found in Syria and in
Egypt, or not,

we

did not learn.

The most numerous
the steppes, the whole

of

all

the quadrupeds of The sudk.
JVoronetz to

way from
by
this

Tcherkask, are the Suslics:

name they
Near the

are called throughout the country.

course of the Don, they absolutely swarm, and

may be
little

taken in any number.
is

This interesting
Citillus

animal
;

supposed

to

be the Mus
it

of Buffon

and a description of
this

will

now

prove whether
It
it

be really the case or not.
noise, like the suroke; but

makes a whistling
is

much

smaller,
It

not being larger than
its

a

small weazel.

constructs

habitation under

330
CHAP,

DON COSSACKS.
ground with incredible quickness; excavating,
first

of

all,

a small cylindrical hole or well,
to the

perpendicularly,
thence, like a
level,

depth of three feet;
it

correct miner,

shoots

out a

although rather in an ascending direction,

to prevent being

incommoded by water.
little

At
a

the extremity of this

gallery

it

forms a
as to

very spacious chamber; and to
granary,
all it
(if it
it

this,

brings, every

morning and evening,

can collect of favourite herbage, of corn

can be found), of roots, and of other food.
is

Nothing
habits.

If

more amusing than any one approach, it

to observe its
is

seen

sitting,

at the entrance of its little dwelling, erect,
its

upon

hinder

feet, like
is

the suroke, carefully noticing
it.

whatsoever

going on around

In the be-

ginning of winter, previously to retiring for the
season,
to its
it

carefully closes with sand the entrance

subterraneous abode, to keep out the snow;
it

as nothing annoys
is all

more than water, which
water
is

the Calmucks and Cossacks use in taking
;

them

for the instant

poured

into their

burrows, they run out, and are easily caught.

The Cahnuch
article of food;

are very fond of

them as an
is

but they are rarely eaten by
Their
greatest

the

Cossacks.
this

enemy

the

falcon:

bird

and supper of

makes a constant breakfast They have from two to suslics.

DON COSSACKS.
ten young ones at a time;

331
it

and

is

supposed,
suslic

chap.
^.

from the hoard prepared, that the
the upper part of

does
All

w

'

not sleep, like the suroke, during winter.
its

body
Its

is

of a deep yellow,
is

spotted with white.
white,

neck

beautifully

the breast yellowish, and

the

belly a
it

mixed

colour

of yellow

and grey:
reddish
rest

has,

moreover,

a

black

forehead,

white
of
its

temples, and a white chin.

The
;

head
race

is

of an ash-coloured yellow

and the ears
noticed,

are remarkably small.
in

Among

the feathered

the

steppes,

we

particularly

during this part of our journey, certain birds
called
flocks:
Staritchi,

or

Elders,

which appear
is

in

they are held by the people in super-

stitious veneration.

One
its

of these birds

about
but

the size of a snipe:

colour
its

is

brown;
is

the breast
elegant.

is

wliite;

and

shape

very

Such are the observations which we made during the second day of our journey across
the steppes.
Suchovskaia,
chinskaia,

We

halted

at

a

place

called

Nature of
in

and proceeded afterwards

to Rosso- named
Maps.

a single hut in the middle of the

waste.

Yet such are often the villages, not to say towns and cities, which figure in the
This place consisted of a single

Russian maps.

332
^
*

DON COSSACKS.
^^^^^"^8"' ^^i^t of a
>

xtf* ,-

thatched

heaped.

by The

few pieces of wood, and weeds and sedge, carelesslysurrounding hovels
are
out-

houses for the post-horses.
its

Cossack

inhabitants

sleep

During summer, upon the roof,

among

the thatch.

grew dark, a tremendous thunder-storm on, and a very interesting spectacle was disclosed by the vivid flashes of lightning. The

As came

it

Cossack
place,

guard, as well as the

people of the
different

had collected themselves upon
to pass

parts of the thatched
adjoining hovels,

covering of the hut and
the night.

Every

flash of lightning served to exhibit their martial
figures, standing upright, in groupes,

roof of the buildings, bowing their

upon the heads, and

crossing themselves, beneath the awful canopy
the sky then presented.
solate

All around

was demore
to

and
to

silent.

Perhaps no association could
scene
of

sene

render a
It
is

devotion

striking.

customary among the

Cossacks,

before they consign themselves to

sleep,

make

the sign of the cross, facing respectively
of

the four quarters

the

globe.

A

similar

superstition, respecting four cardinal points of

worship, exists
in

among ignorant people, even our own country. The author, when a child.

:

DON COSSACKS.
was

333
chap.
XII.

by an old woman to offer the fol^ lowing singular prayer
taiio^ht
-^

" Four

corners to

my bed.
:

Four angels over head
Bless the bed that

Matthew, Mark, Luke,
I lie

antl

John,

ou."

A

party of
.

Cossacks
^

arrived

as

pilg-rims,
.

stragglers

^

from the

homeward from the war in Italy. We afterwards met numbers, who had traversed on foot the whole of the immense terrireturning
tory from the Alps to the Don, and

Army.

who

arrived

with scarcely a rag to their backs.

They were

loud in complaints against their unprincipled

commanders.
little
it

Some

of the Italian

them had learned a and made use of language
of
;

in telling us that the

Russian

officers,

having

them of every thing they had, turned them adrift upon the frontier of Itali/y One of them to find their way home on foot. assured us, that he had begged during the
first

stripped

whole journey;

and that before he

left

the

Russian army, they had taken away his watch,

and even his clothes. We gave them a little brandy and the poor people of the hut brought
;

them some
herbs.
all

broth,
sat

made with
it

fish

and wild
their

They

around

in a circle, eating

out of one bowl;

and having ended

!

334
CHAP,

DON COSSACKS.
supper, began to sing.

—So
i

relative is

human

r-~j happiness

Distinction

We
June.

left
ii
i

Rossochuisliaia
zo

on the

eighteenth

of

between
Cossacks o?

All the Cossack mhabitants of the steppes,
light browii

and of the
'^'

from Kasmikaia to Tcherhask, have
hair,

and are a
along

different race
capital,

from the genuine
dvv^elling in

Cossacks of the
stanitzas

and those

the

Don.

Lieutenant-Colonel

Papof, a Cossack officer of the highest merit

and
told

talent, of

whom we

shall hereafter speak,

us that the people of the steppes were

emigrants, of recent date, from Poland.

upon every occasion, the extraordinary number of tumuli, seen during the whole route but the Reader
It

would be tedious

to notice,

;

is

requested to bear in mind the curious fact
Close to
first

of their being everywhere in view.
the post-house at Pichovskaia,
the

place

where we halted

this

day,

there
;

were two
one on each

mounds

of a very remarkable size

The horses here were without shoes, and the road was as excellent as it is possible to imagine. The whole comitry reside of the road.
'

sembled one vast verdant lawn. Stories of danger were renewed the lances of our Cossack
:

escort were

twelve feet in length;

and an

;

DON COSSACKS.
unusual

335

degree

of

caution prevailed

them, as to

their

means

of defence.
:

among chap. They

>

provided themselves with fire-arms
said

these they

were now necessary;

and a very sharp
increasing
into

look-out
in

was made, the Calmucks number as we advanced more

the

interior.

We
the

arrived at Kamenskaia, a stanitza upon Kamenskaia.

Danaetz,

generally

written

Donetz

:

we

crossed this river by means of a floating bridge,
as the post-house

was upon

"

the opposite side.

The town made a
owing
to
:

great figure, as
it

we descended
its

towards the valley wherein
its

fine

church, and
itself,

was situate numerous
exhibiting a
trees,

gardens

the

river

also,

broad stream winding among the
noble appearance.

had a

We

observed in the streets
sale,
it

a kind of gingerbread for
in our English fairs,

which
is

is

common
into the

and

made

same form. The Ataman was at his countryseat and we were told, that all the principal Cossacks had their houses for summer residence
;

in the country.

Just before entering the town,

a young Calmuck woman met us, sitting astride upon a horse laden with raw horse-flesh, which hung like carrion before her on either side. She was grinning for joy at the treasure she

:

336

DON COSSACKS.
had obtained
really
:

this

we

afterwards found to be

dead horse, lying in the ditch surrounding the town on the land side, had attracted about thirteen dogs, which we
carrion.

A

found greedily devouring what remained; the
Calmuck having contested the prize with them
a few minutes before, and helped herself to as

much

of the

carry away.

mangled carcase as she could The post-master kept a tame
a

suroke, as large as

common

terrier, perfectly

domesticated.

This animal, he told us, only
;

remained with him one half of the year
it

that

constantly retired, for the other six months,
a hole in the ground, near the house, and
itself.

to

there buried
spring,
it

Upon

the
to

approach of
its

regularly
its

returned

patron;

resuming
begging

former habits, sitting upright, and

for

bread and herbs

as before.

It

would always come to him, during the summer, when called by the name of Washy ; but all the bawling he could use, at the mouth of its
burrow,
season.

never

drew

it

forth

in

the winter

ironFounLugan.
it

Higher up the Dcmaetz, near the spot where
receives the Lugan, are the Liigan iron-ivorks
,

and cannon-foundry
these, at the time

belonging to the Crown
travelled in the Cossack

we

;

DON COSSACKS.
territory,

337
Sir Charles
^

were under the direction of

chap.

Gascoigne\
lery

From thence passes by water to

the Emperor's artilthe Black Sea.
Sir
:

»

>

Charles found very excellent coal at Lugan
in

consequence of

this discovery,

and the con-

venience of situation for water-carriage, the

foundry was there established.

The remarkable
logical notice.

appellation of the river at

Kamenskaia has perhaps already excited philoIn our

maps

it is

written Dnnnez;

and

in those of

Germany, Donetz.

We

paid the

greatest attention to the pronunciation of the natives;
particularly of those
their education,

Cossack officers

who, by
to the

were capable of despoken
fre01 the

termining the

mode
in
it

of orthography best suited
is

manner
''

which the word
to
if

and always found

be Danaetz, althouoh ~
a

Etymology word
Tanais.

quently pronounced, as
TdanaetZy or Tcmaets.
or nearly so,
that

T was before the
this
is

D,

But

the

name,

was given by

the Antient

(1)

The author

is

desirous to correct here an error of the former
in the

edition.

There was nothing

manner

of Sir Charles Gd.scnigne's

leaving his country, to warrant the notion entertained by some persons
in Russia of his being

exempted from the benefit of the
in

British laws.

He was

and was Empress Catherine, through the medium of Admiral Greig, her First Lord of the Admiralty, to enter into her
formerly Director of the Carron IVorhs
Scotlnvd ;
solicited

by the

late

service

:

to this he agreed, and left

Great Britain for Russia in

1786.

VOL.

I.

Z

338
^xn^'

DON COSSACKS.
^^^^^^
*^ ^^^ 1^0^'

Tandis.

may now be

explained.

The reason of this When the word Tanais
it

was introduced

into their language,

had

re-

ference to another river, and not to the Don.

The

subject

is

curious

;

but

it

requires a better

knowledge of the geography of the country, and better documents concerning the course of
the rivers,
afford.

than any

map

yet published can

We

shall therefore

accompany our own
faithfully in the

observations

by an

outline,

copied

from the latest surveys deposited
cery at Tcherhash.

Chan-

Had

it

not been for the

jealousy of the Russian police,

we might have
;

pubHshed another more extensive view of the
whole territory of the Don Cossacks
the courses
of the
all

calculated

to manifest the prevaihng ignorance concerning
rivers,

and the general
for

geography of
of Azof.
It

the country bordering the Sea
us,
in

was prepared

conse-

quence of an order from the Governor of the
district,

by a party

of officers belonging to the

army: but some agents of the police, apprized of the circumstance, endeavoured to
Cossack

excite a suspicion that

we were
by

spies,

and we

were not permitted
liberality.

to profit

their intended

In the

first

place,

the Reader

is

requested,

before he examines this

Map,

to

suppose him-

DON COSSACKS.
self enterinof the

339
chap.
XII.

mouth
.

of the Don, and pro.

ceeding up the
ninety-nine
rather

riv^er,
'

to the distance of
its

about

miles

from

embouchure,

and

more than forty-six^ above the town of Tcherkmk. Here he would find the Danaetz, falling into the Don by two mouths separated from each other by a distance of ten or
twelve miles.

But the people have,

for

time

immemorial, entertained a notion,
the Danaetz reaches the sea,
again, and,
falls
it

that,

before

leaves the

Don

taking a north-westerly direction,

into the Palus M^eotis, to the north of all

the other mouths of the Don.

This northern-

most mouth of the Don (represented in the annexed Map^), owing to the river whose waters its channel is supposed peculiarly to contain, is
called Danaetz, and, to express either
its

sluggish

current or

its

lapse into the sea.

Dead Danaetz.

The Greeks,

steering from the Crimea towards

the mouths of the Don, and, as their custom

was, keeping close to the shore", entered
this

first

northernmost mouth of the
as
it

river.

It

bore

then,

does now, the name of Danaetz,
;

Tdanaetz, or Tanaets

it

matters not which of

(1)

One hundred and

forty versts.

(2) Seventy versts.
(3)

See Fig. S3, in the
is still

Map

of the

Mouths

of the Don.

(4) It

a

mode

of navigation in the Black

Sea and the Sea

0/ Azof.

Z 1

;

340
CHAP,
XII

DON COSSACKS.
these
;

for

it

will readily

be admitted, that from

emy one of these appellations the word Tandis

would be derived'. Even in the present day, the analogy between the words is so striking, that, in hearing Tahtars and Cossacks name
this

branch of the Don, particularly
it

if

uttered
fre-

with quickness and volubihty,
quently

seemed as

pronounced Tandis as Tanaetz. To distinguish this branch of the Don from the
Danaetz, properly so called, they add to each an
epithet;

the latter being called the Northern,

and the former the Dead Danaetz.
Camps of

We
skaia.

traversed continued

steppes,

from Kamenbut obtained

Camps

of Calmucks

were

often stationed

near the road.
little

We visited several;

information worth adding to the description
In one of those
tents,

before given of this people.

camps, containing not more than four
found

we

women

only, busied in the distillation of

brandy from milk.

The men were

all

absent
Tlie

perhaps upon some predatory excursion.

women
having
stilling

confirmed what

we had

heard before,
distillation
:

concerning the materials used for

made

butter, they said, they

were

di-

the butter-milk for

brandy.

We

could

(l)

The change from

D into

T, and vice versa,
is

is

one of the most

coumon

modifications to which language

exposed.

1

DON COSSACKS.
hardly conceive that brandy might be so obtained
;

34
ciiap.
XII.'

but to prove

it,

they tapped the

still,

as upon a former occasion, presenting- a tuft of camel's hair soaked in brandy, that
taste,

we might
latter

and be convinced.

During the

part of this day's journey,

we

observed many

dromedaries, grazing.
Dubovskaia.

We

halted for horses at

towards the

Immense caravans were passing Ukraine. The very sight of their
to prove the importance of

burden

is sufficient

cultivating the steppes,

where Nature only

re-

quires solicitation, in order to pour forth her
choicest treasures.

We

noticed trains of from

sixty to a hundred waggons, laden entirely with

dried

fish, to

feed the inhabitants of the South of

Russia,

from

their

who might be supplied with better food own land than from all the rivers of

the Cossacks.

We proceeded to Grivinskaia,
the night
;

and here passed
'^

having travelled sixty-eight miles this
In the morning of June

day, notwithstanding the delays curiosity had
occasioned.
1

Qth,

we

came

to Tchestihaloshnia, meeting frequent par-

ties of

Calmucks

;

and through Tuslovskaia, to

the town oi Axay, upon the Don, a settlement

(2)

One hundred and two

versts.

342
•CHAP,

DON COSSACKS.
belonging to the Cossacks of Teller hash.

As we
entirely

drew nearer the river, the alive with swarms of the
Suslic:

steppes

were

beautiful

little

qua-

druped before described under the name of

some of these were white. Approaching Axay, numerous camps of Calmucks appeared in
every direction, over
town.
all

the country around the

Some

of their tents

to the place.

were pitched close Others, more distant, covered

the lofty eminences above the Don,

CHAP.
CAPITAL OF THE
Arrival at Axay

XIII.

DON COSSACKS,
the

— Puhlic Entry— Reception ly Don Cossacks — Population of Territory — View of Don — Celelration of a Court Festival— Mode of Fasting —Analogy between Don and Nile — Natural and Antiquities — Fishes — Extraordinary
their

the

the

the

Curiosities

Appearance ofTcherkask
ings the

— Origin of Cossacks— Causes of — Emigrations—Foundation of Capital— — Commerce of Tcherkask —Polished Manners of People— Reniarkable IVager— Survey of Town —Entire People— Greek moved— Diseases of Impostor— Departure from Tcherkask.
their Increase
their

— Inhabitants and Public BuildCircas-

sians

the

the

Hojises

the

Ihe Postmaster we drew near to

of

Tnslovshaia

met

us,

as

chap.
XJII.

Axaij,

He

had, without our

344
^^j^-

DON COSSACKS.

^—^v
Axay.

Arrival at

knowledge, passed us upon the road, and given
very absurd notice
to
tlie

inhabitants,

that a

great General from England
to the

was upon

the road

Public

town.

A

party of Cossack cavalry, armed

with very long lances, came out to meet us,
and, joining our escort, took their station in the

The Postmaster, with his drawn sabre, rode bare-headed by the carriage-side and in this conspicuous manner we made our entry. As the annual inundation of the Don
van.
;

had
its

laid the streets

of Tcherhask under water,
to this place,

Chancery had been removed
all

and almost
Axay.
arrival,

the principal families

were

in

We
it.
;

found the inhabitants waiting our

and the Cossack

witness

mediately
Reception

drawn out to The Ataman of Axay came to us imand we took care to undeceive him
officers
It

with regard to our supposed generalship.
by the Don
Cossacks,

seemed

to

make no

alteration,

either in the

respect paid to us, or the welcome they were

disposed to give.
politeness

Every possible

attention

and

were manifested.

We

expressed an
Tcherkask the

inclination to proceed as far as

same evening. The Ataman observed, that the day was far advanced that the current of the Don, swoln by the inundation, was extremely
;

rapid and turbulent;

and that he could not
for

undertake to be responsible

our safety,

if

we

persisted in

our determination.

He had

;

DON COSSACKS.
already provided excellent quarters, in a spacious

345

and clean apartment, with numerous windows,
a balcony commanding a view of the Don, and

every protection that an host of

saints, virgins,

and bishops,
could afford.
seat,

whose pictures covered the walls, Their General was at his countrythe town'
:

ten miles from

an express

was

therefore sent to him, for his instructions
in the

concerning our future reception,
time, sentinels

mean

were stationed

at our carriage

and an
time

officer,

with Cossack soldiers, paraded

constantly before our door.

During the whole

we remained

in their country, the
;

same

honours were paid to us

and although
officers,

we

frequently remonstrated against the confinement

thus occasioned to the young

we

never

went out without finding the and the officer at his post.

sentinels in waiting,

The Ataman came
;

frequently to offer his services

and the constant
to be,

endeavour of the people seemed

who

(1)

" Most

of the richer (hssacks have houses in
;

Tcherkask, which

they

make

their metropolis

but pass the greater part of their time in

their farms, on the northern
said he kept there

bank of the

river.

Platof, the.

Ataman,
the east

two hundred brood mares.

He

had, however, no
little

land iu tillage, though he possessed a vineyard a
ol

to

Ary

Of the wine produced from

these vineyards, they vaunted
as

greatly.
raisins.

The The

best always struck

me

mixed with Greek wine, or
Spirits are

ordinary wines are very poor, and tasteless.

very cheap, and

much drunk.
salt in
it ;

with a spoonful of

Platof himself took a glass of brandy, as if brandy was hardly strong; enough."
Heher's

MS.

Journal.

;

346
CHAP,

DON

COSSACKS.

should shew us the greatest degree of kindness.

Hearing us complain of the inaccuracy of the
Russian maps, they brought from their Chancery
(without any of those degrading suspicions which

had so often insulted us)
access, at
all

their

own

accurate

surveys of the country, and allowed us free

most authentic documents. The secretaries of the Chancery were ultimately ordered by their General to copy for us a survey of the whole territory of the Don That we were instigated to accept Cossacks.
times, to their

of the offer

by any other motive than a

desire

of adding to the public stock of geographical

knowledge,

may

perhaps require no proof. The

Procurator' employed

by the Russian Govern;

ment, however, thought otherwise

it

being a

maxim

in the policy of that country, that
betray.''''

" to

enlighten, is to

This

liberal intention of

the hospitable Cossacks

was

therefore thwarted

although no menace of the Russian police can

now
to

prevent an acknowledgment, which would

equally have been

made

if

we had been

enabled

communicate more interesting and valuable

(I)
visitor
;

" The Procureur

(Procurator)

is

a kind of comptroller, or
;

appointed to watch over the execution of the laws
;

to

examine

the decision of courts of justice
cutions, &e.

to visit the prisons

;

attend the exe-

He
is

is

generally a native of a different province from that

wherein he
least

stationed.

At

Tclierhask, he

is

always a Russian, at
Heber's Journal.

not a Cossack."

DON COSSACKS.
information to the geographers of Europe.
is

347
It
^^j^^^-

some

consolation that
the
its

we were

allowed to

^— —-^
y

delineate

different

channels of the Don,

towards

embouchure: this will be found a

faithful representation.

For the

rest, it

may be

said, the course of the

rately
rivers

Don itself is not accugiven in our best maps and of the other falling into it, not even the names are
;

noticed.

Those

steppes

which are described as
like

being so desolate, and which appear
geographical blank in every atlas, are
inhabitants.

a vast

filled

with

Stanitzas are stationed along the

numerous

rivers traversing

them

;

although the

by not following the course of common any of those rivers, afford no knowledge of the
route,

number
dred

of the people.

They

contain one hun-

Popniati(m
Territory,

stanitzas, or settlements,

and two hundred

thousand Cossack inhabitants ^
thirty-five

Of

this

number,

thousand are

in

arms.

There are

also, in the territory of the

Don

Cossacks, thirty

thousand Calmucks
as persons

:

five

thousand bearing arms,

who are ready at all times for actual service. The last are not permitted to leave the country, although it be extraordinary how
persons of their vagrant inclination and habits

(2)

For a further account of their population, see the Note, extracted

fronn

Mr. Heber's MS. Journal,

in

a subsequent page, containing

much

valuable information.

348

DON
restrained.
Cossacks, that

COSSACKS.
It

CHAR can be
' y
'

was before

said of the

they are attached to the Calmucks,
;

and even intermarry with them
If

but a Calmuck
hfe.

can never be taught to endure a domestic
of the spleen

compelled to hve within walls, he would die
;

and always exhibits uneasiness

if

there be any disposition towards confining him
in a house.

View of
the Don.

"We had never beheld an acre of Asiatic territory therefore the land upon the south side of
;

the Don, although

it

consisted of

flat

and dreary

marshes, afforded to us an interesting prospect.

From our balcony we had
of the river
:

a commanding view

it

appeared broad and rapid, ex-

tending towards those marshes.

At a

distance*
its

eastward,

we

beheld Tcherkask, with
rising,

nu-

merous
water.

spires,

as

it

were, out of the

Upon

the European side

we observed
lofty

a neighbouring stanitza of considerable magni"
tude, stationed, like Axay,

upon a

eminence

above the water.
word, signifying
part of
to
its
it

The name Axay is a Tahtar The Don, in this ivhite water.
two
colours.
it

course, exhibits

Near
here

Axny

appears white, because

is

shallow.

A similar
falls

appearance
in

may be observed
Geimany, where
for

from the Castle of Cohlentz
the
Moselle
into

the

Rhine:

some

distance after the junction, the two rivers appear

<

h

b>

r.
I'lau of tlie

Islaml mul T.nvu of

T S CHERCHASKOY
ot' tfte

Mr
j}:>

Cit^tittii

OS

i"

o

.5"

s^-u
fhr

rMs^
tJit

Sh'-tvuuf

Mr

i'ours,-

of

Doa.and

Rnt-r Axav

tvith the

Sitvation of' the

Tmvii "( ^\xav, mui thr imu\thy Territorv
/'ftwff/i

thr iuo

Ehrrs. amauihy
hv the Doll.

iniubinttd

KV l((*l'EA S

S

I l)i:

.\'i.

Thf Et^vmohuiv nfj.niy
uniy pofsihly he toiuul hi
thi"

DON COSSACKS.
flowing parallel
distinct
to

349
exhibiting
is

each other;

a

chap.
XIII.

and

different colour

which

peculiar to In the

the respective water of each current.

shallows of the Don, the Typha palustris flourishes luxuriantly.

We

found the inhabitants
with as

of Axay,

and afterwards those of Tcherkasky
this plant raw,

devouring
as
if this

much
The

avidity

article

of diet had been connected
stalks

with some religious observance.

appeared

in all the streets,
little

and

in

every house,

bound

into

fascines about three feet in
:

length, as our gardeners bind asparagus

these
the

bundles were hawked about,
shops.

or sold in

The season had just commenced.

for

eating this vegetable
Cossacks, peeling off

The

the outer cuticle,

select near the root of the
;

plant a tender white part of the stem
for

which,

about the length of eighteen inches, affords

a crisp, cooling, and very pleasant article of
food.

We ate of
as
rich

it

heartily,

and became as fond
with whom, young
a most favourite
insipid
;

of or

it

were the

Cossacks
it

;

old,

or poor,
taste is

is

repast.

The

somewhat

but in

hot climates, this cool

and pleasant vegetable
Cossack officers,

would be highly esteemed. The however, who had been in other
that
it

countries, said
it

is

only

fit

for food

when

grows

in the

marshes of the Don.

350
CHAP.
XIII.
'

DON COSSACKS.
General,
all

The mornino: after our arrival, the ^ ,^— who was Commander-in-chief over
'

the

ion o/I
roilthai.

district,

including the town of TcherIio.sk, as the

metropolis,

came

to ^xm/.

The day was

to be

celebrated as a festival, in honour of the recovery

of one of the

Emperors

children from the small;

pox

inoculation.

in the

forenoon

He invited us to dinner and we accompanied him, with all
ceremony in the we were much

the staff-officers, to a public

church.
surprised

Entering this building,

by

its

internal

magnificence.

The

screen of the altar was painted of a green colour,

and adorned with gold
a very large chandelier,

:

before
filled
all

it

was suspended

with tapers of green
the interior of the

wax.

This screen, and

church, were covered with pictures; some of

them being tolerably well executed, and all of them curious, owing to their singularity, and
to

the

extraordinary figures

they

served

to

represent.

Here were no

seats,

as in

other

Russian churches.
against a wall

The General placed himself
upon a step covered with a
floor.

on the right hand facing the

sacristy, standing

carpet,

which was raised about four inches

from the level of the
to place ourselves
Cossacks,

We were

directed

by

his right hand.

The

other

whether

in military or civil dresses,

stood promiscuously in the body of the church.

;

DON COSSACKS.
The
priest, in

351

very rich robes, with his back

towards the people, was elevated upon a kind
of throne, placed beneath the chandelier, and
raised three steps from the platform, facing the

great doors of the sacristy, which were shut. Over these doors there was a picture of the F^irgin; and before it, suspended by a string, were two wooden angels, joined back to back,
like the figures

of Janus,

bearing candles in
the

their

hands.

Whenever

doors

of

the

sacristy

were thrown open, the wooden angels
:

were lowered before the centre of the entrance here they were whirled about in a most
ludicrous manner.

As soon
priest,

girdle,

ceremony commenced, the standing upon the throne, loosened a bound across his breast and shoulders,
as the

whereon was an embroidered representation of the cross. This he held between his forefinger

and thumb, repeating the service aloud,
his forehead with it;

and touching

while the

people chaunted responses,
in crossing themselves.

and v/ere busied
vocal part of the

The

The clear shrill voices of children placed among the choristers, reaching to the dome of the church, and seeming to die away in the air, had a most pleasing
ceremony was very solemn.
effect. It is the

same

in all the Russian

churches

;;

352
CHAP,
XIII.

DON COSSACKS.
and perhaps there
is

nothing with which

it

compared than the somids produced by an JEolmn harp. The words they use are Russian; and these are everywhere the

may be more

aptly

same, " Lord have mercy upon us!"^

We

did

not find them altered even among the Cossacks it was still " Ghospodi pomilui!'' but trilled
"
In notes with

many

a winding bout

Of linked sweetness long drawn out."

At

last there

was an

interval of silence

:

after

this,

other voices, chaunting solemn

airs,

were

heard within the sacristy.

The doors were then
bearing upon his
consecontaining the

thrown open
head a

;

and a

priest,

silver

chalice,

crated bread,

covered with a white napkin,

made
others,

his

appearance.

He was preceded by
sacristy,

who

advanced with censers, dispersing
doors of the
the

incense

over the

pictures, the priests, the General, the officers,

and the people.
bread was
tion
:

After some other ceremonies,
the

among then those who came out
distributed
its

congrega-

of the sacristy

having retired,

doors were again closed,
for all the

and prayers were read

Royal family

(1) It

is

auantient Heathen prayer.
of prayer

^oi«2« says that Kug«

Ixinirei

was a usual form
So Arrian,

among

the Gentiles as well as the Jews.
Kv^ii
Ixitiirov'

To» 0£o» tTixaXoii/^ivo;, hofiiga avTou,

"

Calling

upon

God,

we pray, Lord have mercy upon

us.'"

Arrian. Epict,

Ub.xi. c, 7.

'

DON COSSACKS.
names being enumerated in a tone of voice and manner resembling that of a corporal or a Serjeant at a roll-call. Passages were also read from the Psalms; but the method of
their
"

353
^^^^^'

.—

reading, in Russian churches, cannot easily be

described.

The young

priests

who
it

officiate,

pride themselves upon mouthing
all

over with

possible expedition,

so as to be unintelli;

gible,

even

to the Russians

striving to give to

a whole lesson the appearance of a single
of numberless syllables.
this bruiting,

word

formed of

Some notion may be by hearing the crier in one of our courts of justice, when he administers

the oath to a jury.

The dinner given by
ceremony, served
as elsewhere, religious

the General, after this Mode
>o
7

of

Fasting.

to prove, that

among Cossacks, abstinence by no means'

-implies privation as to eating and drinking.

We
we

were taught

to

expect a meagre diet
all

;

but

found the table covered with

sorts of fish,

with tureens of sterlet soup, with the rich wines
of the Don, and with copious goblets of delicious hydromel or mead, flavoured
different fruits.

by

juices of

We
in

took this opportunity to

request the General's permission to open one
of the
tumuli

the

ncidibourhood.

It

was

granted, and an order v.as given for thirty of

the Cossack soldiers to assist us
voL.
r.

in the

under-

2 A

354

DON COSSACKS.
^^^"''o
'

'

^^uf'
,

^^^ afterwards, when
an

we had assembled

our

workmen,

speedily increased, ignorant physician,

alarm was spread, and by the observations of an that the plague might be
:

communicated to the people quence of which we were forced
thus
the design.
theless,

in

conse-

to

abandon
never-

Several of

the

Cossacks,

assured

us that they had formerly

opened several mounds;

and affirmed that they

them bones of men and of horses. said, (and this, if true, would be indeed remarkable,) that gun-barrels were
had found
in

Sometimes, they

discovered

in

these

tombs,

exhibiting

very

antient workmanship.
to

A

Cossack officer

shewed

us a very extraordinary weapon of this

nature, which he declared had been discovered
in

one of the mounds in the
all

steppes.

But, not-

withstanding

that

may
to

be urged concerning

any knowledge which the Chinese and Oriental
hordes are

supposed
its

have possessed of gunit

powder before

use in Europe,

must appear

evident that such weapons were derived from
the inhabitants of Poland,

who employed them
from
truth.

with matchlocks

;

yet the officer alluded to had

no motive

for

deviating

Other

things, (such as vessels of terra-cotta,

and instru-

ments of war, common
to

to antient nations,) said

have been found in these heaps, are more

consistent with probability.

s

DON COSSACKS.
In the eveninsf of this day °
*'

355

we embarked
by
Papof.

^J\^,^XIII.
'
,

upon the Don

for

Tcherkask, accompanied
y^lexi

Lieutenant-Colonel

Gregorivitch

To

this officer

we were
and

indebted for instances
attention,

of hospitality

polite

such as
enlight-

strangers might vainly expect in

more

ened

cities

of Europe.

His education had been

liberal,

although received in the marshes of the
his

Don; and
quired

accomplishments might have

graced the most refined society, although ac-

among
almost

the natives oiTcherkask\

In

all

its

characteristics,
It

the

Don
a

Analogy
between
the

bears resemblance to the Nile.
regular

has the same covers

Don

annual

inundation,

which

W.

(l) Colonel
(Jossacks, in

Papof has

since

published an account of the

Doyi

a work which was printed at Charkof in 1814.
offered a

Mr. Heber,

in

his

observations on Axay^ has

genuine tribute to the

enlightened minds of the Cossacks of the Don.

" There

is

here a very

decent Kalak, with a billiard-table, and a room adorned with

many

German engravings
Chevalier Bayard.
sans reproche, called

;

and one English print, that of Tiie Death of

The Cossacks, having never heard of the Chevalier it The Death of Darius. Ou my asking if Bourbon

was Alexandra Macedonsky, they answered, to my surprise, that he was not present at the death of Darius, and shewed themselves
well skilled in
Jiis

history,

which one would hardly expect."
Cossacks

Heber'

MS.

Journal.

" Education among
thought, and
it

the

is

not so low as

is

generally

improves daily.

All the children of officers are sent

to the academj' of Tcherkask, and learn French,

German, &c.

It

was

holiday-time
of."
Ibid.

when we were

there

;

but their jirogress was well fjpoken

2 A 2

V

;

356

DON COSSACKS.
g^^^t extent of territory.
'

^^

^xui'

Over

this

we now

passed
retires

by water to Tcherkask. The water in the month of Ju/i/ or August. The

same aquatic plants are found in both rivers tall flags, reeds, and bulrushes, sometimes rising to the height of twenty feet. The manner of their entrance into the sea, by several mouths, is also the same forming small islands, as m Both one the Delta, with fens and morasses. and the other serve as boundaries to two prin;

cipal quarters of the globe.
retire,

When

the waters

the astonishing variety of insects might
visit the

induce a zealous entomologist to
if it

Don,
the

were only on

their account.

During the

inundation,
highest,

when

the

waters

were
thirty

at

we
flies,

observed above
at the

different

kinds of

same

instant,

upon the

tables of our apartment.
collected, but they

Many of these we were too much injured in
The
is

the subsequent journey to be delineated.

whole course of the Don
and sixty-six
JForonetz,

about six hundred
near Tula, in a
Sea.

miles'.

It rises
St.

lake called Ivan Ozero, or
it

Johns

Below
for

is

from three hundred to six hun;

dred fathoms broad

and of

sufficient

depth

ships of burthen, from the middle oi ^ipril to

(1)

One thousand

versls.

;

DON COSSACKS.
the end of June the water
is
:

357
"^^^j^'

during the rest of the year,

so low, that

shallows

it is

upon several of the not above eighteen inches deep^
it

'

,

In the Spring floods

rises

from sixteen to
is

eighteen

feet,

and the current
rivers
falling

very rapid.
it

The

principal

into

are,

the

Danaetz,
veditz,

the IVoronetz,
Ilavla^;

the

Clioper,

the Med-

and the

but there are others,

unnoticed hitherto by geographers, not perhaps
of equal place
in

importance,

although

entitled

to

a

maps

of the country,

owing

to

tlie

number of inhabitants found upon their shores.
About twenty miles below IVoronetz, close to the river, near a town called Kast'mskoy Gmelin
,

Natural
jj„j

Ami-

observed

one

of

those

deposits there
at

of
exist

fossil

'i"''""^*

elephants' bones,

of which
in

such

wonderful remains

Siberia,

the

mouths

of rivers falling into the Icy Sea.

These bones

are described as lying in the greatest disorder
teeth, jaw-bones, ribs, vertebra, not mineralized,

but

in their natural state,

having only sustained

a partial decomposition ^

The

antiquities of the

(2)
edit.

Lord
1788.

JVhitii.'ortlis

Account of Russia,

p. 120.

Strawberry Hill,

(3)

Tableau

ahri'g(5

de I'Empire de

la

Russic, par Plcschfjekf, p.2;3.

Moscou, I79G.
(4)

Journal des Savans Voyagcurs,

p. 84.

;

358
CHAR.
J)qji

DON COSSACKS.
are also worthy of a

more

particular de-

scription than can

now be

afforded.

A tradition
or a citadel,

exists in the country, that Alexander the Great

passed the Don, and built a

city,

upon the

river, at a place

called Zimlanskaia,

two hundred miles above the town of Tcherhashj where the best Don wine is now made. Some
insignificant traces of

such a work are
Orlof's

still

said

to be visible.

At General

house were

two
in

StelcE

of marble,

actually brought

from
kind;

thence.

The

Cossacks are too little interested
this

such matters to invent tales of
so

and they would do
inquiry

the

less

where no

was made

to instigate them.

The

infor-

mation, such as

it is,

was given spontaneously

and, indeed, the circumstances of their tradition are

somewhat corroborated by reference

to antient history.

The 2TH A AI

or Pillars of
'

Alexander were, according to Ptolemy, in Asiatic
Sarmatia, and
in the vicinity of the

Tanais-.

The

Altars or BflMOI of Alexander

were on the

(l)

The Reader

will

pardon the author's reference to his account of

the Cambridge Marbles, for a more particular description of the

Monu-

mental

Pillar called Stele: for this

word having been almost always

improperly translated, has given
antient history.
(2; 'E-rixevirt Ti kcu
u'i ftiv

rise to

much

error in our notions of

'AXs^ayJ^au

2THAA!.

Ptolomcci Ccogr.

lib. V.

7^.264.

Edit. /»ar. 1546.

DON COSSACKS.
European side of the river ^: of these

359

we

shall

CHAP.
XIII.

have occasion to speak hereafter. We heard, moreover, of coins oi j4lexander; but none were
to

be seen.

Perhaps,

among

the

numerous

Greeks

who

reside in Tcherhask, both spurious

and gentiine coins of Alexander may have been
found, and thus have given foundation to the
report.

Of
is

the marble

Stelce,

however,

the

history
himself,

unequivocal; because General Orlof

who

possessed them, and

who

issued

orders for their removal from Zimlanskaia, gave
to

us the intelligence.
exhibit the

The boats upon

the

Don
used

most antient form of vessel
;

for navigation

that of a canoe, scooped

from a single
timber
:

tree, consisting of

one piece of

in this

they move about with a single
in the South Seas,

paddle.
join
laid

Sometimes, as

they

two of those canoes by transverse planks across, and so form a kind of deck, capable
conveying
considerable

of

burthens \

The

breadth of the river at Axay, at this season of
the year, appeared to be at least half a mile.

The

current

is

rapid,
it

and even turbulent.

The
to

fishes caught in

are

much

too
is

numerous
no river

be

mentioned, as perhaps there

in the

(3)

PtolemaEi Geogr.

ibid. p. 142.

(4) See the Vignette to this

Chapter, from a drawing by Mr. Hcher.

mo
^^j^^' XIII
Fii,hes

DON COSSACKS.
world affording a greater variety, or
perfection.
in greater

the

Among the principal are, the beluga, common sturgeon, the sterlet, sudah, trout,
of an

Prussian carp, tench, pike, perch, water-tortoises, and
craiirfish

enormous

size.

Some

of the

last,

equal in size to our

lobsters,

are caught in great

abundance, by sinking small cylindrical nets,
about six inches
of salted
fish.

in diameter, baited v/ith pieces

They

sold at the rate of two;

pence (English) per hundred
seasons of the year the same

and

in certain

number may be
is

had

for half that

sum.

The

beluga

the largest

eatable fish known.

In the kidneys
calculi,

of very
as large

old belugas are sometimes found
as

a

man's

list.

Professor Pallas

gave us a

concretion of this nature, which Doctor Tennant

has since analyzed
of plwsphat of lime.

:

it

consists almost wholly
sort of people
for the cure of

The lower

keep these

calculi as talismans,

certain disorders.

Strahlenberg relates, that he

saw

a beluga fifty-six feet long, and near eighteen In

feet thick.

the

Don they seldom exceed
This
iish,

twelve feet in length.

in its shape,

resembles the sturgeon.

One

of the oldest fisher-

men upon
him
to

the

Don possessed

a secret, enabling

ensnare the largest belugas ; but he would

not communicate to any one his valuable discovery.

We

saw him

fishing at a considerable

distance from our boat,

and could

distinctly

'

DON COSSACKS.
perceive that he

361
chap.

plunged a hollow cylmder

vertically into the river, causing a noise

under
:

^—v

water, like the bursting of an air-bubble

this

might be heard from the shore, on either

side.

The appearance
the
river,

of Tcherkask, viewed from

Extraonii-

affords

a

most novel

spectacle,
it

pcarancfof

Although not so grand as

Venice, yet

someto
it

what resembles
is

that city.

The entrance
it

by broad

canals, intersecting

in all parts.
piles,

On

each side, wooden houses, built on
to float

appear

upon the water

:

to

these the

inhabitants pass in boats, or

by narrow bridges
rails,

only two planks wide,

with posts and

forming a causeway to every quarter of the
town.

As we

sailed into this city,
its

we

beheld
inhahi-

the younger part of

inhabitants

upon the
of
the

house-tops,

sitting

upon

the

ridges

sloping roofs, while their dogs w^ere actually

running about and barking
situation.

in that

extraordinary

During our approach, children leaped
like so

from the windov/s and doors,

many

frogs,

into the water, and in an instant were seen swimming about our boat. Every thing seemed

to

announce an amphibious race

:

not a square
in the

inch of dry land could be seen

:

midst

of a very populous metropolis, at least one half
of
its citizens
air.

w^ere in the water, and the other

half in the

Colonel Papof covAv.ciz^ us to

:

362
CHAP,

DON COSSACKS.
the house of a Gener
'1,
'.

the principal officer and

Ataman of Tcherkask This person was a merchant, and very rich. His house, Uke all those we saw afterwards, was extremely neat,
and elegantly furnished.

Upon

the walls of the

apartments were French and English prints

among

others,

we

noticed one, a very fine en-

graving,

taken from a picture of more than
interest.
It

common
his last

represented Rousseau, in

moments, desiring his housekeeper to open the window, that he might once more
behold the face of Nature.
requested that
while
officer
tinels,

The

General, having

we would
in

accept of his services

we remained
to attend us,

the city, appointed an

to provide

us with sen-

and whatsoever

else

might be deemed

necessary.

The
eleven

town
stanitzas,

of

Tcherkask

is

divided

into

and contains
allowing,

fifteen

thousand

inhabitants.

The number

of houses

amounts to

three thousand;
five

upon the average,
all

persons to each.

This, from

we

could

learn, is the true state of the population.

Here

" The internal government of TcJierhask is exercised, under the (1) Ataman, by a Master of Police, and a Chancery of four persons. The Police Master, and, on some solemn occasions, the Ataman, is distinguished by a large
staff,

with a silver

filigree

head, resembling that of

a drum-major."

Heber's

MS.

Journal.

DON COSSACKS.
are seven churches;
four built of stone, and

'^Q'A

^,^/'*

three of wood.
is

One

of the latter description

v -'

for

Tahtar worship,
in

the

Talitars

having a
their

Buildings.

stanitza

Tcherkask

peculiar
is

to

own
their

people.

Their religion

Mahomedan; and

church perfectly unadorned, being
the
little

built with

utmost simplicity, and containing only a
recess, with a pulpit for the priest,

and
this

a gallery for boys and young men.

The

elders
:

only enter the lower part of the building
is

covered with carpets
is

;

and, as in Turkey, no

one

permitted to
Nevertheless,

enter wearing

boots or

shoes.

upon

this
;

sacred floor
for

they transact their commerce
a

we

found

Tahtar squatted, casting up his accounts,
all

and writing, with
around him.

his

commercial papers

The

first

church erected in Tcherkask was
but
has suffered
all

founded by Peter the Great as an inscription
placed in the wall implies
frequently from
other churches.
tains
fire,
;

it

as

indeed have
of stone
;

the

It is

now

and cona
bright

a

handsome

screen,

painted

green colour, and richly gilded, as at Axay.

They
this

burn, moreover, green

wax

candles.
call

In
their
Regalia.

church

are

kept what

they

regalia; applying this

term to

republican, rather

than to regal,

ensigns of distinction.

These

364
CHAP,
XIII.

DON COSSACKS.
were exhibited
for

our inspection, and consisted ^

chiefly of presents

from different sovereigns,
donations,

standards, and embroidered flags bearing the

Imperial arms

;

pohtic

serving as

memorials, lest the

Cossacks

might forget to

what empire they belonged.
tufts of fine

Here

w^e

saw

lances, fashioned after the yJsiatic

manner, with

camefs hair hanging from the point.

Perhaps the origin of such an appendage

may
when

be referred
mies.

to

those barbarous periods

Oriental nations drank the blood of their ene-

An

instrument of the same form has
it

been already described;
small lance with a
stills

is

used by the
they thrust a

Calmucks, for drinking brandy;

tuft of camel's hair into the

containing the spirit they procure from

mare's milk, and squeeze the tuft into the palm
of the hand, in

order

to

drink what

it

has
also

thus absorbed'.

With these lances were

preserved silver-headed staves of their Atamans;
illuminated and beautiful manuscripts,
certificates of the
in

chiefly

brave conduct of their people

war, sent as testimonials by various sove-

reigns

whom

they had served; and a

map

of

their territory,

by the hand of the

late

Empress

Catherine.

The standards

she presented to

(1)

See

p.

314 of this Volume.

;

DON
regalia

C0SSACKJ5.

305
tlicii"

tliem are exceedingly costly.

Great part of

^^J.V*'

was burned

in

one of the terrible confla-

grations to which their

town has been exposed and among the things then lost, were some presents from Peter the Great. There still
gifts,

remained one of his
ebony,

very characteristic of
the rich staves

that extraordinary man.

Among
and

of

silver-headed,

magnificently

adorned, which different sovereigns have sent
to

be borne by the Ataman, there appeared

one which was destitute of any other ornament
than what Nature had bestowed.

Of

this
It

they

were more proud than of
like the club

all

the rest.

was

we

see usually represented with
;

the Figure of Hercules

that

is

to

say, of plain

unadorned wood, although covered with sturdy
knots, and calculated for the hands of a giant.

same church was also suspended the singular picture of " The Virgin luitli the Bleeding
In the
Cheek,'"

but with a remarkable addition to the

usual representation.
Virgin, a hand
size,

Below the
off

figure of the

appeared painted of the natural

as

if it

had been cut
that a

and fastened to

the picture: a knife also

was placed by the hand.
priest

They

related,

having struck a
the cheek,

picture of the Virgin,

wounded her in

which ever afterwards continued

to bleed;

but
ot

immediately the blow was made, the hand

366
^i^/^f-

DON COSSACKS.
the priest
knife,

came

off,

and remained, with the

adhering to the picture.
another stone church in Tckerkask,
fire.

There

is

which suffered more recently from
reparation,

About

four years ago, the inhabitants undertook its

and erected a screen of great mag-

nificence, an astonishing piece of
for this part of the world.

workmanship
the

It is built in

Grecian taste, and consists of fourteen Corinthian columns, covered entirely with burnished

gold.

There

are, besides, Corinthian pilasters;

also paintings in a

more modern
stiff

style,

and more

pleasing than the
bited

appearance usually exhiin the

by such pictures
all

Russian churches.

Almost
kask are of
I.

the other public edifices in Tcher:

They are as follow The Chancery, where the administration
wood.
all

of justice, and
ried on.

other public business,

is

car-

—This building

contains their papers,

records, and other documents.

One room
our

is

appropriated to their assembly for public debates
:

this

much resembles

House of

Commons. It contained the Emperor's portrait; and it was more like him than any we had seen.

When
sists

a general assembly
of a
President,

is

convened,
all

it

coi-

with

the

Generals,

DON COSSACKS.
Colonels,
relate not

367
Their
Councils

and

Staff-officers.

chap.
^

only to military

affairs,

but to

all

'

business which concerns the public welfare.
ir.

Another Court of Justice, called Sclaves-

NESUT, signifying " Justice by IVord"

— The

as-

semblies here answer to our quarter-sessions.
Parties
their

who have any disagreement come with
and
state

witnesses,

their

grievances.

Each receives a hearing, and afterwards justice
is

decided.
III.

The Public Academy
instruction
in

:

here their youth

receive

geometry,

mechanics,
Sec.

physics, geography, history, arithmetic.
IV.

&c.

V.

The Apothecaries' Hall. The Town Hall of the eleven
is

stanitzas

into

which the town
for females.

divided.
for males,

VI.

Six Prisons: four of these are

and two
begging.

—The prisoners are suffered

to go about in their chains, for the purpos/i of

The Shops are very numerous; they are kept chiefly by Greeks, and contain the produce
of Turkey;
fruit,

as pearls, cloth, shawls, tobacco,

&c.

There are
stanitza

also
its

two Public Baths;
respective
tavern,
its

and each
for

has

liquors,

brandy,
cook's

wine,

&c.;

likewise

trakeury

or

shop, for victuals.

Every
in all

Saturday evening a ceremony tahes place

3G8
CHAP,

DON COSSACKS.
the churches, called "
.

The

benediction
,

of bread
loaves
;
,

"

V—V—^'

XIII.

upon

these

occasions,

Jive

ivliite

are

placed in the middle of each church

symbols

of those with which Christ fed the multitude. The people then pray, that, " as with five leaves

he fed

five

thousand,

he would vouchsafe a

sufficiency of corn in the country for the

bread

of

its

inhabitants,

and bless

it

for their use."

origin,fef

It

is

uncertain

whence a notion

originated,
;

iucA-i.

I

that the
it

Cossacks are of Polish origin

but, as

has become prevalent, a seasonable oppor-

tunity
error.

now offers to prove that it is founded in The Cossacks have been acknowledged,
hundred years.

as a distinct people, nearly nine

According to Constantine Porphyrogenetes, they

were called Casachs
This name
is

in the

age of that writer.
the Pa-

found in the appellation of a tribe
"

residing near Caucasus.

And beyond

pagian
called

country,"
Casachia;

says

he',

"is the country

but beyond the Casachs are

the

summits of Caucasus''

Our countryman,
Cossacks " a spe-

Jonas Kanway, calls the
cies of Tahtars-."

Don

Storch,

v/ho

has

written

avaht

Ss

Ty,;

KA2&XIAS
\\t fin.

og'/j

ra Kavy-daix
x!ii.

tiffin.

ConstanihlVS dc Aduii-

nhtrand. Imper.
(2)

cap.

p. 133.
p. 97.

Lugd. Bat. 1611.

Hamvaij' s Trnvch, vol.1,

DON COSSACKS.
and learnedly on the subject, although he admits the resemblance they bear to Tahtars, in
fully

369
chap.
'

their

mode

of

life,

constitution,

and features,
Scherer,

insists that they are of Russian origin ^

who

has appropriated a work entirely to the

investigation of their history, and continually

inculcates

the

notion

of

their

Polish

origin,

nevertheless opens his

work with an extract of
it

a diiferent nature
fable \
It is

;

but

has

all

the air of a

taken from Nestor s Russian Annals.
Cossack
Chief, at the

A

Russian Prince, and a

head of their respective armies, agree to deter-

mine

their

differences
in the

by a wrestling-match,
is

which ends

assassination of the Cossack

by the

Russian.

This event

followed by the

subjugation of the Cossack territory*.

To have

seen the Cossacks,

and

to

have resided among
of

them,

is sufficient

to establish a conviction that

they have nothing in

common with the Russians
to

the present day, except the language they use.

Let us pay some attention at least
(2)

what they

Tableau Historique et Statistique de TEmpire de Russie, par
Edit. Francaise, torn
1.

Storch.

p. 55.

See particularly p. 24 of the

Notes of that volume.
(3)

in

Tbey are often described as a branch of the Poles, who migrated modern times to the marshes of the Don. The observation of Scherer,
also, strens;thens the notion
i,i

^
\

concerning their lansua^e
origin
*'
:

ihe'w Polish

/•« langve dcs Cosaques est tin dialccte de la Polonaise, cmntiie

celle-ci rest

dc

l'

Eschtvon."
1788.

Annales de

la Petite Russie,

par Scherer,

torn. I. p. 17.

Pam,

(4) 5fAejer,

Tableau de

la Petite Russie, torn.

I.

p. 9.

VOL.

I.

2 B

2^0
^!^^JP'

DON COSSACKS.
say of themselves.
"^

XIII.

The

Cossacks of the

Don

relate, that

a party of their countrymen being
usual occupation of hunting,

engaged
p
I

in their

near the range oi Mount Caucasus, met a number
of people, with

whom

they were unacquainted,
;

\
I

going towards the East

and having inquired

who

they were, the strangers answered, that

f they were emigrants from Poland, who had fled from the oppression of their nobles, and were I
proceeding to Persia, to join the troops of that
country against the Turks.

The

Cossacks told

them, they might spare themselves the trouble
of so long a

march

in
;

order to exercise hostili-

ties against the

Turks

and persuaded the Poles

them to the town of Tcherkask, where they would find an asylum, and whence,
to return with
in

concert with their

own

forces,

they might

attack the fortress of Azof.
auxiliaries,
all

Assisted

by these

and with only four pieces of cannon,
into the

the artillery they possessed at that time,
fell

they laid siege to Azof, which
of the allied

hands

army.

From

the circumstances of

this alliance, first enabling the Cossacks to

make

a figure

among

the nations at

war with Turkey,

may have been

derived the erroneous notion of

their having migrated

from Poland. The Cossacks

of the Don, according to the account the best
instructed give of their

much

better qualified

own people, (and they are to write their own history

y

DON COSSACKS.
than any of the Russian Academicians,) are a mixtiire

371
^^ j^/*'
^

of various nations, principally of Circassians,

^y
"']
'

'

Malo-Russians, and Russians, but also of Tahtarsy
Poles,

Greeks,

Turks,

Calmucks, and Armenians.

In the to^^^l of Tcherhask alone, and in the
street,

same

may be

seen

all

these different people at

the

same

time, each in the habit peculiar to his

own

nation.

A

considerable proportion of the

inhabitants have ever been refugees from Turkey,
Greece, or from other countries.

Concerning the

original establishment of Tcherkask, they relate,

was founded by refugees from Greece to whom the people of Azof denied admission, and who, in consequence, proceeding farther up the river, came to this island, where they made a settlement giving to the place a name derived from the people upon whose frontier it was situate, and with whom they afterwards wera intermingled. The name of the town, although pronounced Tcherkasky, is written Tcherthat
it
;

KASK,

implying " The

sjnall

village

of

the
or,

Tcherkas,"

pronounced generally Tcherkess,
it,

as

we

write

Circassians.

Thus, from a small

settlement of rovers, augmented principally by
intercourse with the neighbouring Circassians,

has since accumulated, like a vast

avalanclie, the

immense horde

of the

Cossacks.

Before the

middle of the tenth century, they had already reached the frontier of Poland, and had comB B 2

:

372
cj^^PXTII.

DON COSSACKS.
menced an intercourse with the people of that country this was often attended with an augmentation of their horde by the settlement of PoUsk emigrants among them. Their first notable armament is said to have been in the year 948', when the Greek Emperor employed them as
:

mercenaries

in his

war against

the Turks.

From

their address in archery, their neighbours had

given them the

name

of Chomtrs, and Chaiars

under

this latter appellation

they are frequently

mentioned by Constantine Porphyrogenetes, and The Greek their country called Chazaria'^.

Emperor,

for the services

they rendered, sent

them, with assurances of protection, and recom-

mendatory
might be

letters,

to

the Polish
their

Sovereign,
appellation

requesting that,
Cossacks,

in

future,

and not Chozars\
will

As
it

to the to

origin of that

name, some

have

be

derived from a Tahtar word signifying An armed

man* ; others, from the sort of sabre they use
others, from a word which

;

signifies a i^orer; others

again pretend, that the Poles called them Cossacks

from a word

in the Polish

language implying

a Goat, because they formerly

wore the skins

of that animal \
(1) Scherer,

Scherer, objecting to this last
la Petite Russie, torn. I. p. 67.

Tableau de

(2) See Const. Porphyrogenetes, cap. 10, 12, 13, 39,
(3)

&c.

Scherer, ibid. p. 71.

(4) Storch,
(.5)

Tableau de
Lond. 1G72.

la Russie, torn.

I.

p. 65.

See

" A Discourse

of the Origiual of the Cosaatks," by

Edward

Brown,

p. 1.

DON COSSACKS.
derivation, substitutes another
lous,
still

.3;.->

more

frivo-

chap.
XIII.

and maintains

it

to

have been taken from
In this wild puralso affirm, that
sort

Kossa, a small promontory ^
suit of etymology,

we might

Casaca,

in Spanish,

signifies precisely the

of coat they w^ear,

answering

to

our English

word Cassock\ did not Peyssonnel much more
rationally,

and perhaps incontestably, explain
"

the origin of their appellation.
the Chazacks" says

The land of
that

he^ " formed a part of
Circassia,

country
called.

now denominated

properly so

In this district of Chazakia, according opinion,

to

my

we ought

to seek the origin of

the Cossacks of the present day." vation
is

ThU
facts

obser-

actually confirmed

by

already

related,

and by the extract from Constantine
:

cited in a former page

although so general
this people, that their

became the migrations of
colonies

now extend from
to

the banks of the
Siberia.

Dnieper

the
to

remotest confines of
different

According

their

emigrations and

settlements, they are at present distinguished

by the various names oi Malo- Russian Cossacks,

Don Cossacks, Cossacks

of the Black Sea, of the

(6) Scherer,

Tableau He

la Russie, torn.

I.

p. 67.

(7) See Letters concerning the

Spanish Nation, by the Rev. E. Clarke

fthe iiuthor's father), p. 338.
(8)

Observations Historiques, &c.
Paris, 1765.

sur les Peuples Barbares,

par

Pei/ssomiel, p. 125.

374

DON COSSACKS.
Volga, of Grehenskoy
,

of Orenburg, of the Ural

where they have received yet other appellations, and reach even to the mountains of China, and to the Eastern Ocean.
Alps,
Siberia
;

and of

It is

necessary to confine our attention to the

principal hive,
all

whence, with

little

exception,

those

swarms have migrated.
iiiV/XV. more

Causes of
their in

NothiuQ' has V.WXXl,Xi,^«l,V.VI. XXI^.^ contributed g,

to ausfment tv^ "^"5'

crease.

the uatiou of the

Don

Cossacks, than the

freedom

they enjoy.

Surromided by systems of slavery,
an increasing

they

offer the singular spectacle of
;

republic

like a nucleus, putting forth its roots

and ramifications
despotic empire,

to

all

parts of an
it

immense
a wise

which considers

policy to promote their increase, and to gua-

rantee their privileges.
Russians, a

As they
they will

detest the

day may come, when, conscious of
importance,

their

own

make

their

masters more fully sensible of their power \

A
all

sage regulation in their military constitution,
to grant

from a very early period, induced them
the privileges they enjoy to
all

prisoners

of

war who were

willing to settle

among them.
revolts

(1) After slightly noticing their

most important

under Razin

and Boulavin, towards the end of the seventeenth, and
ning of the eighteenth century, Storch observes,
rebellions est assez interessante

in the begin-

"

L'hisloire de ccs
Jiistoriens niola

pour occuper un de nos
to Storch's

dernes."
torn. I.

—See

p.

26 of the Notes

Tableau de

Eussie,

^

DON COSSACKS.
Thus, from the success attending their incursions,

^75
^J|^^'

their

numbers have rapidly increased.

In the year 1579, they
for the first time,
J

made

their appearance,

in the Russian armies*.

In

734, their earhest colonies were estabhshed

upon the Folga. About the same time, another colony marched towards the Terek, and settled
there.

Towards the middle

of the last century,

a detachment fixed their residence along the

banks of the Samara, the

Ui,

and the

Ural, as

far as the Kirgisian frontier.

But by much the

most powerful detachment from the original hive is established upon the shores of the
Caspian, at the

mouth

of the Ural river:

it

left

the

Don

in the

beginning of the fifteenth cen-

tury,

and has since been augmented by subfrom
the

sequent emigrations

parent stock.
in the

This branch of the Don Cossacks joined
rebeUion under Pugatchef.
late

In order to annihi-

the

memory

of their revolt,

the Russian
their

Government prudently changed
(which had hitherto been,
together with the

name,

Cossacks of the Jaik,)

name

of their capital, and of

the river upon which they resided

The most remarkable branch
Cossacks

of

the

Don
It

has been established in
(2) Storcli, torn.
(3) Ibid. p. 73.
1.

Siberia.

p. 68.

376
CHAP,
3^111.

DON COSSACKS.
bearan its °

march towards the East in the sixteenth century. A troop of between six and
seven thousand,

under the conduct of their Ataman, Jermah, penetrated into Permia, and made the discovery of the country to which

we commonly
Their

apply the appellation of

Siberia.

adventures,

and those of their Chief,
despair of seeing
con-

might lay the foundation of a very interesting

romance

;

but

we may

it

stitute a portion of history.

the heights of the Ural Alps,

ance of vast deserts,

They had gained when the appeartenanted by an unknown
full

and savage people, somewhat intimidated the
enterprising rovers.

Jermah,

of zeal, ha-

rangues

his
;

little

army.

They descend the
drive

mountains

defeat and

before them

a

host of Tahtars; pursue their conquests even
to the Tohol, the Irtysch,

and the Ob

;

and termi-

nate their surprising march by the subjugation
of
all

the tribes dwelling between the Ural and

jiltaic Chain.

Unable, from the losses they had

sustained, and the obstacles they had yet to

surmount, to maintain possession of such extensive territory, they

were compelled

to

humble

themselves before the Russians. In 1581, Jermak

made

the cession of his conquests,
to the Tsar Joan,

by formal
in consi-

capitulation,

who,

deration

of

the

important

services

he had

rendered to the empire, not only pardoned him,

-

DON COSSACKS.
but even recompensed his extraordinary talents

377
^",^,^-

and courage'.
the

Thus was

Siberia

added

to the 'w-v

extensive possessions of Russia,

by a

Cossack of
less

Don

;

whose achievements were only
than
the

illustrious

boasted victories

of

an

Alexander, because no historian was found to

record them.

We

have carried the history of the Don

Cossacks

back

to

the period

when they
their

first

formed an establishment upon the Don. A
foundation of Tcherkask,
count,
is

The
ac-

^o^^^ftion of

from
the

own
of

Capi^^f^'^ tal.

attributed

to

settling

some

rovers, probably exiles from Greece.
,

The shores

of the Sea of Azof and of the Black Sea, were,
in

very early ages, what America, and more

recently

New

Holland, has been to Great Britain.

The

Greeks sent thither

many

of their exiles;

and the custom was continued among the Romans, The as appears by the banishment of Ovid.
opinion, therefore,

of the Cossacks, concerning
is

the foundation of Tcherkask,

not without

support, even in antient history.
to their

With regard
every
Cir-

own

origin, as a nation, there is
it,

reason to consider
cassian
;

for the

most

part,

and, as such, the analogy with Poles or

Russians, instead of leading us to

deduce the

(1)

Storch, torn.

1.

p. 16.

378

DON COSSACKS.
^^'^W^ of the Cossacks

^xm

from them, should rather

guide us to the parent stock, whence the Sclavovian,

the Polish,

the Prussian, the Muscovitishy
lan-

Bohemian,

and Transylvanian people and

guages were severally derived.
historians
its

All the antient

and geographers confirm the truth of

march from Media, through the Straits of Caucasus, towards the Tanciis, and round the Its first colonies were called SarmaEuxine. iians : the earliest account of whom is given by Herodotus; who places them between Caucasus and the Tandis\ The defile of Caucasus has
been celebrated
barrier.
in all ages, offering the only

passage through that otherwise impenetrable
It

bore the appellation of the

Pyl^
first

Sarmatic.e,

from
it
:

the

Sarmat^, who
being,

passed through
Bochart,

Sar the Eastern mark
;

according to

of descent; as Sarto say,
'

madai, Sar-mat^
of
the

that

is

Children

Medes".'

" Diodorus Siculus," observes
*'

the revered author cited below,

who knew

(1) Hcrodot.
(2)

lib. iv.

c.

117.

2APMATA!, 2ATPOMATAI, MAinTA!, were the same people. See Bochart ; and the ohservations of the author's Paternal Ancestor, in his valuable Dissertation on ihe " Connection of the Roman, Saxon,
and
E?iglish Coins," p. 47.
It is

very grateful to

make

this tribute to

the acknowledged learning- of an ancestor, to whose
is

Work

the Reader

referred, not only for

some

of the authorities here noticed, but also
writer, respecting

for the

most iioportant information collected by any

the original inhabitants of the countries bordering on the Black Sea,

and of their intercourse with the people of Antient Greece.

DON COSSACKS.
nothing of the etymology,
asserts

37D
the
fact:
^JJf/"

speaking of the several clans of the Scythians,

^—

v

he says, that one came out of Media, settled

upon the banks of the Tandisy and were called
SauromatcE ^."

The

Circassians

of

the

present day are

a

circas-

horde of banditti, mhabiting the region whence
the Cossacks originally descended.

Continually

repelled from their antient boundary, the Tanciis

and Lake

Mceotis,

and ultimately driven beyond

the Kuban and the Terek, they hang, as it were, upon the northern sides of Caucasus, or carry

on predatory incursions from the swampy plains
at
its

feet,

above two hundred
are ever at

miles

from

Tcherkask.

These mountaineers, as well as the

war with the Cossacks. They pretended to make peace with them at the end of the last Turkish war but, whenever occasion offers, they seize the persons
Tahtars of Kuban,
;

of the Cossacks y or any strangers

who may be
for slaves to

found among them, and
the Persians.

sell

them

Their manner of fighting, as deCossacks, is this
;

scribed

by the Don

they hide
grass,

themselves in the long

reeds,

or

of

marshes, lying even in the water, until they
reconnoitre the strength of their adversary.
If

(3)

Diod. Sic.

lib.

ii.

p. 155.

Ed.

ff^tstdin.

380

DON COSSACKS.
^^® ^^
'

'

——
^xui'
i

^^^

armed

Cossacks appear, they remain

in

ambush: if only two or three, they attack these by surprise but even then they will run
;

away

if

the Cossacks have time to

fire.

If dis-

covered in their concealment, and interrogated

who they

are,

they assume an humble aspect,

and declare themselves friends. Some of the Circassians were prisoners at Axay, when we

were

there.

The

Cossacks,

and

all

the inhabi-

tants of the Asiatic coasts of the Black Sea, call

the Circassians Tckerkess, and Tcherkessi, a fur-

ther confirmation of remarks before

made

con-

cerning the etymology of the word Tcherkask.
If it

were necessary

to

make any

addition to

what has been already

written, with regard to

the relation they bear to the Cossacks and to the

other inhabitants of the Ukraine,

many

curious

circumstances might be alleged
ample, as the
is

;

such, for ex-

mode

of accounting money, which

the

same

wociong the

Maio- Russians and CirAfalo- Russians living in

cassians.

There are now

the Caucasian mountains.
over, left their
built

The

Circassians,

more-

name

in the appellation of

a town

upon the Dnieper.
of the Cossacks, and other inis

Commerce
<if

fhe commcrce

Tcher-

h<nk.

habitants of Tcherkask,

very various.

The

principal articles of their exports are, Jish, iron,
caviare,

and a

little

wine; although, generally,

DON COSSACKS.
they consume
•'

381
cii a p, V IIT XIII.

all

their icine.

This wine resembles
has acquired

the wines of Burgundy and Champagne, in exhibiting effervescence.

When
in

it

a certain age,

it

sells

Tcherkask at a price

equivalent to three shillings and sixpence the
bottle.
If the

The Don wine
Cossacks

is

both red and white.
their

would allow

grapes to

ripen,

and were made acquainted

with

the
it

French

mode

of

preparing this
all
is

beverage,

would certainly surpass
it

the wines of the
the fruit affording

world; so rich and generous
'.

The

Cossacks

seldom use tobacco, and they

live to

very advanced age.

The merchants,
rest,

in

their turn,

go to war with the

and have

their rank in the

army^

In

fact,

there are few

(1) "

The Don wine
I tasted

is

sometimes very pleasant
that

;

but

it is,

I suspect, a I could

fabrication.

some
:

was warranted genuine, which

easily believe to
*

be so

it

was, indeed,

As wicked dew as Sycorax
With
raven's feathef from

could brush

unwholesome

fen."

"
Journal.
differs
in

Heber's
(2) "
respects,

MS.

The government of

the armies of the

Don

many

from the antient ^lalo- Russian, and has
Their
territory,

lately suffered repeated

encroachments.
is

which
;

is

almost entirely pasture land,
contain

divided into stanitzas, or cantons
village.

for

many stanitzas now

more

than a single
fishery
is

To

each of these, a certain portion of land and

allotted

by Government, and an annual allowance of corn from

Voronetz, and northwards, according to the returned number of Cossack*.

They

are free from all taxes; even from those of salt

and

distilleries.
is

ITie

distribution of the land to the individuals in each stanitza

settled

by

tlic

inhabitants and their

Ataman.

Tliis

Ataman was

chosen. -by the people,

and

382
ciiAP. XIII

DON COSSACKS.
generals or colonels, in the
Cossacks,

army of

the.

Don

who

are not merchants.

In Tcherkask

and was

botli civil

and military commander of the
this right,

place.

Paul had

laid

some

restrictions

on

which I could not understand.

He had

also ennobled the children of all

who had

the military rank of Colonel,

which was complained

of,

as introducing
lies

an unconstitutional aristocracy.

From

these Atamans,

an appeal

to the

Chancery

at

Tcherkask.

They used

to elect their

Ataman

there,

and

to appeal to
;

him only;
is

assembling occasionally, as a check on his conduct

but he

now
allot-

appointed by the Crown, and greatly diminished in power.

The

ment of land and

fishery

which each Cossack possesses may be
is

let

out

by him to farm, and often

so

;

and

it is

a frequent abuse to insert the
to entitle

names of children in the return of Cossacks,
seniority in

them

to

their

becoming

officers.

I

met with a

child thus favoured.

This

has taken place since the Cossacks,

when

called out, have

been formed

into regular regiments, which has depressed entirely the
village

power of the
Formerly,

Ataman, by the introduction of
at the

colonels, captains, &c.
stanitza.

the

Ataman himself marched

head of his
is

Now

he merely
the

sends the required contingent, which

put under

officers

named by

Crown.

The

Cossack, in consequence of his allowance,

may be

called

on

to serve for any term, not exceeding three years, in any

part of the

world, mounted, armed, and clothed at his

own

expense, and

making

good any

deficiencies

which may occur.
or at least

Food, pay, and camp equi-

page, are furnished by Government.
years are not liable,

Those who have served three
to serve

not usually called upon,

abroad, except on

particular emergencies.

They

serve, however, in

the cordon along the Caucasus, and in the duties of the post and police.

After twenty years, they become free from
duties of police,

all

service,

except

the

home

and

assisting in the

passage of the corn

barks over the shallows in the Do7i. they are free entirely.

After twenty-five years' service

" The Procurator

declared the whole

be called on for one or more of these services,

number of Cossacks, liable to amounted to 200,000.

He acknowledged,

that as they would allow no examination into their numbers, hespoke only from conjecture, and from the different al-

lowances of corn, &c. occasionally made.
population he reckoned at half a million.

The whole number The situation of a

of male
Cossack

DON COSSACKS.
they live an amicable and pleasant
life.

383

Some-

chap.
XIII

times they have public amusements, such as
balls,

and other assemblies of the same nature.

Once they had a theatre, but it was prohibited. In some of their apartments we observed mahogany bookcases, with glass doors
taining
;

each con-

a small library.

They

are in every

respect entitled to praise for cleanliness, whether

with reference to
houses.

their

persons or

to

their
in its

There

is

no nation more cleanly

apparel than that of the Cossacks.

The dress

of

is

considered as comfortable

;

and

tlieir

obligations to service are
' Free as The number

deemed

well repaid by their privileges
is

and their freedom.

A Consack'

a proverb we have often heard in Rtissia.

of Cossack guards,
of 1000 each.
not learn.

who are all Dnnsky, amounts to three regiments, The number employed in Persia and Caucasus I could
of
the

In the year 1805, a corps of seventy-two regiments,

560

men

each, .marched under Plato/,
it

Ataman

of Tcherkask; but

received counter orders, as
/iusterlitz.

did not arrive in time for the battle of
.

At AusteilUz,

only sir hundred Cossacks were present

The

peasants near Austerlitz spoke of

them
;

as objects

of considerable ap-

prehension to the ivencA cavalry
horses were

particularly the cuirassiers,
Cossacks, Platof said,

whose

more unwieldy.

These

had suffered

dreadfully, as they were for
sian ZiTmy, and, before the
all their

some time the only cavalry with the RusEmperor iom^A Kotuznf, had lost almost
During the quarrel of Paul with Engit was believed at TcUerkask,
at all

horses with fatigue.

land, he assembled 45,000 Cossacks, as
to

march

to

India,

I

saw the plan was not

unpopular with Platof

and

his officers.

/'/a^rt/'*j

predecessor -was the last y^/a»MaM

in possession of all his autient privileges.

He had

often,

by

who was his own

authority,

bound men hand and foot, and thrown them into the Z>o»?. was unexpectedly seized and carried oflf by the orders of the Empress {Catherine) , and succeeded, as General of the Armies of the

He

Don, hy Maffei Tvanovitck
cordon of St. Anne."

Platof) a fine civil old soldier, with the great

Hcber's

MS,

Journal.

384
the

DON COSSACKS.
women
is

singular:

it

differs
its

from

all

the
is

costumes of Russia; and

magnificence

displayed in the ornaments of a cap, some-

what resembling the mitre of a Greek bishop.

The
or

hair of married
is

women

is

concealed under

the cap, which
it

covered with pearls and gold,
with flowers.
is

is

adorned

The dress
silver,

of a Cossack girl

elegant

;

a silk tunic, with

trowsers fastened by a girdle of solid

yellow boots, and an Indian handkerchief worn
as a turban

upon the head.
in

A

proof of Cossack
instance of
the

wealth was afforded

the

mistress of the house where

we

lodged.

This

woman walked

about the apartments without
;

shoes or stockings

but being asked

for

some

needles to secure the insects

we had

collected,

she opened a box, wherein she shewed us pearh

valued at ten thousand

roubles.
filled

Her cupboard
with plate and
of

was, at the same time,
costly porcelain.

The common dress
;

men

in

Tcherkask

is

a blue jacket, with a waistcoat and
the latter so white

trowsers of white dimity

and

spotless, that they

tattered state
fitted

seem always new. The of a traveller's wardrobe but ill
never saw a Cossack
in

us to do credit to our country in this

respect.

We

a dirty

suit of clothes.

Their hands, moreover, are

always clean, their hair free from vermin, their
teeth white, and their skin has a healthy and

DON COSSACKS.
cleanly appearance.

385
chap.

Polished in their manners,

instructed in their minds, hospitable, generous.
disinterested,

humane and tender
fathers,

to the poor,

Ti^nncrlof
^^^ ^^^v^^-

good wives, good mothers, virtuous daughters, valiant and dutiful
good husbands, good
sons;

such are the natives of Tcherknsk.
is

In

conversation, the Cossack
is

a gentleman

;

for

he

well-informed,

free

from

prejudice,

open,

sincere,

and honourable.

Place him by the side

of a Russian,

—what a contrast!'

Yet the author

Avould not be understood, in the eulogy he has

bestowed upon the one, or the censure he has perhaps too indiscriminately lavished upon the
other, as having

used observations without ex-

ception on either side.
entirely excepted
;

The
it

Russian

women

are

and

is

very remarkable.
from

(l)
to the

" The manners

of the

people struck
dignity.

u?,^

their superiority

Russians, in honesty

and

A Lieutenant

at Petej'shurg,

who once begged alms from
knocked
his

us,

bowed himself

to the

ground, and

head on

the

floor.

A

Lieutenant here (TcJierkask),

who was

imprisoned, and also bes^i^ed, made the request in a manly and dignified manner, and thanked us as if we had been his comrades.

Both men and women are hand«ome, and
rites.

taller

than the Musco-

This name they hold

in great

contempt, as we had several opPhysician,

portunities of observing.

The

Procurator, the

the Apo-

thecary, and the Master of the Academy, being distinguished by their
dresi and nation from the Cossacks,
their

seemed

to

have formed a

coterie

of

own, and to

dislike,

and

to

be disliked by, the w hole town.
(mii'

The

Postmaster said they were
kind, except that,

much improved since he

there; that

then they would have pelted any stranger.

We
."

saw nothing of thi?
has become a
Journal.

when we
'

first

landed, mistaking us for Russians,

some boys cried out,

Moscoffshy Canaille

— Canaille
MS,

naturalized word in Russ;ia."

Heber's

YOL.

r.

2C

386
S^^f^^-

DON COSSACKS.
that
little

of the lamentable characteristics of
'

the Russian people can be applied to them.
is

It

only in proportion as they recede from their

natural effeminacy, that any traits have appeared

them to the men of their country an instance or two of this kind may have been
to liken
:

mentioned; but, speaking generally of them,
tl>ey

have

this only fault, if it

be not rather a

misfortune, that of servility to the most abject
slaves.

(l)
lish

At the time of makiii»
filled

this extract

from

my Journal,

our Eng-

papers are

with the atrocities committed, not merely by their

common

soldiers,
is

but by their general-officers in Finland.

An

ac-

count of them

published by the Lord-lieutenant of the county of

Vasa, to which his respectable

name

is

affixed.

Posterity

may

there

be informed what Russians were in the beginning of the present century,

when a Major-general, Demidof, gave up the town
five days, to
;

of Vasa,
its

during

plunder,

merely because he could not retain

possession

and, assisted by another monster in a humcin form, the
streets, to give vigour
;

Governor Emine, galloped through the
tivity to

and accrying

a scene of murder, horrible cruelty, and devastation
.'

out to his troops, Dobra

dolra

!

(Bravo

!

bravo

!)

as

they were

bayonetting the weeping and kneeling inhabitants, mothers with their
infants, aged

and venerable men,

ladies of distinction, children,

and

persons of whatever sex, age, or situation.
observes the Lord-lieutenant,
as
it

"It

instructs the world,"
;

" to

describe their conduct
;

inasmuch
his-

determines their national character

and determines, with

toric truth,

that with barbarian slaves the character remains un-

changed, notwithstanding the varnish put on by a sort of external

humanizing, produced by intercourse with
parish of Nerjns,

civilized nations."

In the

Major-general Orlof Denesof caused three of the
:

peasants to be bound together

and

this being done,

to

prolong the

pain and agony of
thighs, arms, belly,

the poor sufferers,

the Russians pierced their

and other parts, with bayonets, before they killed

them.

'

DON

COSSACKS.

387
^J^f/''
'

Perhaps an anecdote, which
related, will render the contrast

may now be between Cossacks

and Russians more striking. The truth of it, owing to its notoriety, will not be disputed by
either party.

When a quarrel among the Cossacks
fight,
fists,

causes them to combat each other, they
as in England, with their

and never with
weapon.
This

knives, daggers, or

any

similar

practice

is

so established a characteristic of the
it

people, that

gave rise to a very remarkable
Gelagin,

wager.

Teplof and

two of the

late Remarkable

Empress Catherines privy-counsellors, chanced to be in her presence, when it was told her
that a Cossack priest, then a

Wager.

monk

in the

Convent

of

St.

Alexander Nevsky, had been arrested for

young woman, whom he had made pregnant, and with whom he had quarrelled upon this Teplof offered to wager with Gelagin that the monk was not a Cossack. The bet was made, and won by Teplof; the
cutting the throat of a
:

monk proving to be a Russian. Being questioned how he could possibly divine the probable
success of his wager
Cossack
;

" Because," said he, " no

would

strike a
;

woman:

if

he did, he

would use
It

his cane

not his knife."

was during one Sunday ^

tenant-colonel

Papof conducted us over the

JO

evenino- that Lieu- Surv^

"^ the lown.

whole of Tcherkask.

We

walked a distance

;

338
CHAP,
XIII.

DON
bridge.

CO;-SACKS.

equal to four miles without once beinj: off a "

The people were

all in

...
off,

their best attire

and the sight on that account was the more
interesting.

From

the high and narrow bridges,
as the only

single planks frequently lead

mode of approaching
bitants
:

the houses of the inha-

these have covered galleries around
In those galleries,

where the deal, of which they are constructed, was as white as water and the sun's rays could make it, sat the old and respectable Cossacks; almost all of
them.

whom,
their

as

we

passed, pressed us to walk into

houses and to regale ourselves.

The water
;

flows beneath

many

of the buildings

and

all

of

them are upon piles, in the midst of the flood'. The prodigious quantity of timber consumed in

(l) ** 7\herltash stands

on some marshy
pillars,

islantls in

the river.

The
saw
it,

houses are

all

raised on

wooden

and connected by foot bridges.

The

foot-paths run like galleries before the houses.

When we

every part was flooded, except the principal street, the great church,

and the market-place.

The

antic

domes of churches, tops
pi)ison the air

of trees,

and Calmuck

wooden cabins, mixed with the tents, had an interest-

ing effect, just rising from the water.
;

The sudah

still

continued to
all

but the houses, notwithst-anding the people are

fiahers, are neat.

The

Cossacks are

much

cleaner than the Nussiavx.

There

is

a spacious and antient cathedral, nearly on the same plan as

the Casan Church in Mosco.

Detached from the

rest of the building

is

a

large tower, which, at a distance, gives a faint recollection of St. Mary's
spire at Oxford.

There are many other churches,

full of

very costly

ornaments.

I

never saw so

many

pearls at once, as on the head of a

Madonna in
Toland."

the cathedral. These treasures are the spoils of Turkey and

IMei's MS. Journal.

TCHERKASK.
the town, for houses, causeways, and bridges,
is

389
riiAP. XII r.

brought from the Volga, the

Don being

inade-

quate to such a supply.
walls to their

Formerly they had watery settlement, but the inun-

dations of the river have swept these entirely

away.

The
this

principal part of the inhabitants are

exceedingly desirous to remove their capital to

Axay ;

would increase its commerce, and thereby add to its importance the rest, who,
:

from attachment to the place of their nativity,
are
tion,
still

anxious to preserve the original situait

propose to surround
to

again with walls,

and

form channels,

after a plan

which would
it

make
is

its

resemblance to Venice greater than

at present;

but the level of the water not
in the Adriatic^
feet,

remaining constant, as
times varying
full

and some-

fifteen

prevents the

adoption of this plan.

They

neglect, however,
it

no opportunity
as

to

improve the town, forming

much

as possible into streets

when fires have

taken place and destroyed the old buildings,

and insulating the houses where they were too closely situate. If any attempt should be

made
They upon

to

remove the town,

little difficulty

would

occur in transplanting the houses almost entire.
are chiefly of wood,
rafts,

and, being placed
to

miglit

be floated

the place of

their destination".
The
capital has

(2)

been since removed; and now occupies a situaside of the

tion

upon the Euvofcan

Don, higher up the

river.


390
CHAP.
xiir.
' ,

DON COSSACKS.
They speak
of moving a house in this part of
the world as a very trifling undertaking.

When

Houses moved entire.

Sir Charles Gascoigne v^ent from Petersburg, to

preside over the foundry at Lugan, he paid a
visit to

a gentleman about twenty- seven miles
establishment.

distant from the

Finding him

excellently lodged, in a well-furnished, hand-

some, and very convenient house,
said he,
for
*'

''

I

wish,'*

I

could have such a building erected

me

at

Lugan"
house,
;

His host replied,
it is

*'

If

you

admire
as

my

at

your service, exactly

you see it and I engage to place it for you at Lugan in the course of the week." A bargain was concluded between them the house was
;

moved

;

and Sir

Charles,
it

the fact, resided in
country.

who informed us of when we were in that

of

The inhabitants want of room.
;

of Tcherkask complain

much
to-

Not a

single
all

house has a

court-yard
gether, as

the inhabitants are

huddled

if

they had dropped from the clouds

during a shower into the river, and only waited
the retiring of the waters to

make

their escape.

They

are

much
all

troubled with mosquitoes, which
the neighbourhood of the

abound

in

Don \

(1)

Edward Brown, who

published, in the seventeenth century,
flies

"A

Discourse upon the Cossacks," mentions the swarms of
;

and

locusts infesting their country

which

is

the only faithful account of

their history contained in his work.

Seep. 22.

Land, 1672.


TCHERKASK.
391
chap.
'

'

When stung by these insects,
careful to bathe
alcohol.
it,

they observe great

caution in not scratching the

wound

;

but are

,

as soon as possible, with

We found Goulard''s lotion to
;

be the best
not a single

remedy

and, wanting that, salt mixed with an

equal portion of vinegar.

There

is

spot in the whole town free from the annual
inundation.

We

found one dry place, near the
but
this

principal church;

was traversed by
that the usual pre-

wooden causeways, proving

caution had been also there required, although
the spot were not actually then covered

by

water.

where most of the shops are situate is floored with planks; and must necessarily be very unwholesome, as all the
street
dirt, falling

The

through, remains
•^

when

the waters
'the of their

retire.

They are often troubled with although, when we inquired for a list
diseases, they said they seldom

fevers

;

diseases of People.

had any.
the

The

greatest ravage

is

made by

small-pox.

Inoculation for that disorder had not yet been

introduced.

The complaint they seem to dread more than any other is called the disorder of
HAIRS.
is

Gmelin mentions this malady".

Hair

said to be generated in

wounds

of the bodies

of those
(2)

whom

it afflicts.

We

expressed our
Brown

This

is

not the Plica Polonica, or Goschest, mentioned by

(p. 24.

Lond. 1672).

Gmelin says

it is

known

in Russia

and the

Ukraine, under the name Volosez; and he attended a case of abscess in Paulovsk which afforded him proof of the existence of such a disorder.

See Journal des Savans Voyageurs, p. 146.


392
CHAP.
XIII.
<

DON COSSACKS.

,

Incredulity ^

to

the wife of Lieutenant-colonel
in asserting that she
finger,

'

Papof; but she persisted
presence of

had taken them from her own

in the this

many
:

witnesses.

To cure

malady,

tliey

apply the leaves of a plant somethis

what
hairs.

like plantain

they say extracts the
susbut,

We

pended, as

saw those leaves dried, and a remedy for this complaint;

in their desiccated state,

we

could not exactly
Biliary obstruction

determine what they were.
is

a

common

disorder

among

the Cossachs.

As

a cure for the jaundice, they drink an infusion
of the yellow flowers of a Gnaphalium, found
in all the steppes.

Situate as they are, either

in

mud

yielding

water

full

of frogs,

unwholesome exhalation, or in filth, and substances putrewere
not for their great
of the

fying as the flood retires, nothing could preserve

them
is

frorp pestilence,

it

attention to cleanliness.

The water

Don

unwholesome, and
;

it

particularly disagrees

with strangers

causing flatulency, with violent

pain of the bowels, and dysentery.
the Russian rivers have the
cially the

Many
;

of

same quality

espe-

Neva

at Petersburg.

Greek imposter.

^

Greek brouafht to o
Constantine,

us some coins of the

Emperor
all

procured in Turkey.

He

kept them, he
kinds;

said, for the cure of diseases of
in
all

and,

proof of their miraculous
his Saints, that if

power, swore, by

any one

'

TCHERKASK.
them were placed in a sieve, not a drop of water would pass through it. As we laughed
of
at his folly, he

?.9?>

^^/l?'
'

,

was very desirous
it

to

make

the

experiment; but
to merit so

we thought much attention.

too ridiculous

He seemed

to

be the very Prince of impostors, and probably
sold his trash at high prices.

He shewed

to us

a piece of the true Cross

:

this

he said he had

brought from Jei-usaJem

;

and, having

worn
life

it

upon

his breast,

had thereby saved

his

in

battle, as

a bullet striking the pretended

relic

had

fallen

harmless to the ground.

Havinar
*-"

now
this

satisfied

our curiosity
*'

in

the

p^partiire

from
Tchcr-

survey of
leave of

extraordinary place,

we

took

its

inhabitants,

and again embarked,

accompanied by the
attended us,

officer

who had

so politely

and whose hospitality we had

often experienced, during the visit
to the Cossack capital.

we had

paid

We

left

Tcherkask on

Monday

the twenty-third of June, in the after-

noon, and sailed

down

the Don, to Axay.
is

About
Convent,

four miles* from TcherJcask

an island called
of the

Nunnery hie,
times, derived

or

The

Island

whence, as they

relate,

the Turks, in former

women

for the seraglio of the

Grand

Signior.

(I)

^tven

verats.

CHAP. XIV.
VOYAGE DOWN THE DON, TO AZOF AND TAGANROG.
Visit
to

the

General-in-chief of the

Cossack

Army

Emharkation for the Sea of Azof
the

CHAP.
XIV.

To
Fortress
the

South of Russia— De Rubruquis — Tahtars—ArDemetry menian Colony of Nakhtshivan — of and Don— Tumuli— Rastof— Division of
St.

— General

View of

Fortress

Village of Azof

— City
of

tion

— Condition

of Tanais—its prolahle Situa-

the Garrison

entertained of

— MiEOTis — Remarkable
Taganrog.

the

Cossacks

— Departure from Azof Phcenomenoh — Arrival
at

of Azof

— Opinion

HE morning

after

our return to Axay,

we

received a message from General Vassily Petrovich Orlofj

Commander-in-chief of the Cossack

'

DON COSSACKS.
army,
stating, that

395

he expected us to dine with

him
out,

at his country-seat

upon the Don.

We

set

'

——
^

chap.

accompanied by our friend Colonel
officer in the

^

Pcipof, Generalti^Colsack
^'''"-''

and by a Greek

Cossack service,

whose name was Mamonof.
and several
escort us.
Cossacks,

The General had

sent his carriage, with six fine Cossack horses,

mounted, with lances, to
vineyards,

We

passed along the steppes; and
planted with

occasionally through

cucumbers, cabbages, Indian wheat, apple, pear,
peach, plum trees, and melons, for about ten
miles,
till

we

arrived

at his house,

standing

upon the European side of the river, opposite to the town of Tclierkask, and distant from it about five miles. Here we found some elegant and accomplished women amusing themselves
with a piano-forte
;

and afterwards we

all

sat

down

to

as magnificent a dinner as any English
;

gentleman could have afibrded
served upon plate.

the whole being

The company consisted of about twenty persons. The General presented
us with

mead

thirty

years old, tasting like

Madeira wine.

He wished very much for English
drunk
it

beer, having often

in Poland.

A number

of very expensive wines were brought round,

many of them foreign but the best wine of As we the Don seemed superior to any other. sat banquetting in this sumptuous manner, we called to mind the erroneous notions we had once
;

;

39G

DON COSSACKS.
entertained of the inhabitants of this country
notions
still

joropagated

by the

Russians

conin

cerning the

Cossack people.

Perhaps few

England, casting their eyes upon a

map

of this
in their

remote corner of Europe, have pictured
imagina,tion a wealthy

and enlightened society^

enjoying not only the refinements, but even the
luxuries, of the

most civilized nations. Their conversation had that polished and agreeable cast which characterizes well-educated military

men.

Some
and

peculiarities,
still

common
in

to our an-

cestors,

retained

the ceremonial

feasts of antient

corporate bodies,

might be

observed.

Among

these, the practice of drink-

ing toasts, and of rising to pledge the security of the cupbearer,
instances.

may be adduced

as remarkable
still

Another very antient custom,

more prevalent, is that of bowing to and congratulating any person who happens to sneeze. The Cossacks of the Don always do this. When

we

took leave of the General, he said,

if

we

preferred returning
variety,

by water,

for the sake of

we might
it,

use his barge, already pre-

pared, and waiting to convey us.

Being conten rowers,
It

ducted to

we

found

it

manned by

and decorated
covered with

in a
fine

most costly manner.
scarlet cloth;

was
silk.

and Persian

carpets were spread beneath a canopy of

The current being

in

our favour,

we embarked,

'

VOYAGE DOWN THE DON.
and were speedily reconducted
in

:',C)'/

to our quarters

chap.

Axay.

^—v-—
Embarkation for
tJie

The next morning we bade farewell to the Don Cossacks; and, having placed our carriage on board a barge, sailed delightfully down the
back at the fine view of the o town o^j4xay and Tcherkask), to Nakhtshivan, an
river (often looking

seao/jzoj:

jlrmenian colony, established about twenty years ^
-^

-

_

^

_

before our arrival

:

this

had attained a very

flou-

^f^^enian Colony of Kakiushivan.

rishing state, even in that short period'.

Its

(l)

"A

verst (by land) from the fort of Ro'tof,
JVakitcJtivrin,

is

a

larg^c

Armenian

town, oalicd

after the antient
it.

town of that name.
affirmed that
it

We

spent the evening in looking over

They

contains

1500 families.
are very

It has four churches,

and two very large bazars, which

much crowded, and have

great appearance of industry.

We

had a

letter to

one of the principal inhabitants, who had the rank of

Colonel, and whose son was one of Mr. Andre's pupils (of Ilostof), and our interpreter. His name was Abraamof. I found that Armenians usually expressed their names in this manner, from the Christian names
of their parents, yet with the termination in nf, which
gentility.
is

a

mark

of

This

man had two

sons in the Russian navy

;

and possessed
sold Orlof

the reputation of great wealth.

He knew
while
it

Lazarof,

who

the great diamond; and described in strong terms the misery and
anxiety the

Armenian had
all

felt

remained

in

his possession.

His house was well furnisiied, and had a

billiard-talile,

and many other

European luxuries

:

however

sat cross-legged, except the master,
after the

whose dress also was something
bited with
fellow

several curious sabres and poignards richly ornamented,

European mode. He had which he exhihis

much
;

pride.

He

said, himself

and the greater part of

townsmen had emigrated from the Crimea during the
privileges as their

distur-

bances there

that they had this situation given them, and a charter,

by which they had the same

countrymen at Astrachan.

The

principal trade of the

town

is

in leather.

The women

are almost
all

398
c^A.^^

VOYAGE DOWN THE DON,
inhabitants
'

'y-

were derived from the Crimea. They had about four hundred shops these were all
:

placed in one great covered building, after the

manner observed in Moscoiv. The towns near the mouths of the Don present the traveller with a novel and varied picture of society. He encounters half-a-dozen different nations and languages in the same number of minutes and
;

each nation

in its peculiar dress.

As we

ap-

proached the Armenian settlement,
all veiled,
/

we

beheld

but those we caught a glimpse of were extremely beautiful.
were very carelessly disposed, and they betrayed no timidity.
are also

Their

veils

The men
pleasant
greatly
;

handsome

;

but they have a Jewish expression in
natural undislike
;

their coutenance.

The Russians declare they have all a odour, like that we attribute to the Jews. They
and have a proverb,
;
*

Two Jews
sect
a-

equal one Armenian

them two
it is

Armenians one Greek
well

two Greeks, one

Devil.'

The Armenians,
;

known, are a very favoured

by the Russian Government
title of

and

many

of the noblest families have

mixture of their blood.

Of these

are Dolgorucky and Bagration.
to great

Joan the First gave the

Knas
and
their

numbers of Armenians, and permitted

to all a free trade

settlement, with full liberty of worship, and even of

making

processions openly.

They have a magnificent church
of Petersburg told

in Petersburg,

and many
well

in

Astrachan and Casan.

Their enterprize and activity are

known.

Mr. Anderson
to Bassora,

me
if

he

knew one who
I

had been twice

and once to Sarmacand and Tibet.

asked

Abraamof

if

such journeys were

common

;

and

they could take an

European with them, as their servant, or in any other disguise. He answered both these questions in the affirmative. He himself had been in Georgia, and many parts of Turkey, but never farther. We observed several Mahometans, at least persons in green turbans, which
no Armenian would wear." As the green turban
is

Hcler's

MS.

Journal.

a

mark

of high distinction in Turket/, and the

Armenians of Nakhtshivan are under no fear of ci^eu6\n^ Mohammedans,
perhaps they are worn merely in consequence of the freedom they
here enjoy.

TO AZOF AND TAGANROG.
TahtarSj Turks, Greeks, Cossacks, Russians, Italians,

399

Calmucks, and Armenians

;

these, together with

our English party, formed a representation of
the costume of nine different nations within the

compass of a quarter of an English
cattle

mile.

The

Tahtars were fishing in the river, or driving

towards the town; the Turks were smoking
coffee-houses
;

in their

the Greeks, a busthng
telling lies,

race,

were walking about,
;

and barter-

ing merchandize
in all directions

the Cossacks were scampering
;

on horseback

the Russians, as
their

police-officers,
Italians

were scratching

heads

;

the

appeared as Venetian
;

and Neapolitan
airing in

sailors

the Calmucks jabbering with each other;

the Armenians, both
droskies
;

men and women,
at

and the English staring
especially

them

all.

Towards the Don, and
bers

towards

its

embouchure, Tahtars are found
;

in great

numthe

and

this race of

men

appears in journeying

hence, westward, the w^liole
Dnieper, in aU the towns

way towards

by

the Sea of Azof,

and

in the Crimea,

and throughout the dreary

plains lying to the north of that Peninsula.

All the South of Russia, from the Dnieper to

General
^

the Fblga, and even to the territories of the
Kirgissian

south of

and Thibet Tahtars, with
is

all

the North

of the Crimea,

one
it

flat

uncultivated desolate

waste, forming, as

were, a series of those

400
^^^"^^^^^

VOYAGE DOWN THE
bearing the

I>ON,

^xVv^'

name

of Steppes.

The

very earliest

adventurers

from the

civilized

parts of Europe to these remote and barbarous
regions, found the country exactly as
appeai-s.
it

now
who

A

faithful description of its features

occurs in the narrative of 7V. de Ruhruquis,

was employed
says he,
*'

as a missionary about the middle
''

of the thirteenth century ^
tov/ards

We

journeyed,"'

the East, with no

other

objects in view than earth and sky, and occasionally the sea

upon our

right (wliich is called

the Sea of Tanais), arid moreover the sepulchres

of the Comani ; these

seemed about two leagues

distant, constructed according to the

mode

of

burial

which characterized

their ancestors/'

What

the land of the Comani was,

is

clearly

ascertained

by the Voyage of

the Ambassador

from Pope Innocent

the Fourth to 7\Jitanj, in the

year 1246, as taken out of the thirty-second

book of the Speculum
Be/uacensls^.
" Ibamus erjo
t-t

Historiale

of

Vincentius

'*

We

journeyed

through

the

(I)

versus orientem, nihil viJentcs nisi cerium et

tcrram,

aliquaiulo

mare ad dextram, quod
parentela^

dicitur

Mare Tanais,

et

ctiiim sepultura«

Comanorum,

quae apparcbaiu nobis a duabus leucis,

secundum quod solebant
ritan lV.de Rubruquis,
(")

eorum

sepeliri simul."

Itinera-

anno 1253.

See HaMuyt,

vol. I. p. 80.

ct flumina quatuor habet

" Ibamus autem per terram Comanorum, quae tota est plana, magna. Primum appellatur Neper (Bori-stliciies) ; secundum ai>pellatur Uon (Tanais) tertium dicitur Volga
;

(llliaj

;

quartum nominatur Jaec Jlhymnus)."

lb. p. 47.

^

TO AZOF AND TAGANROG.
country of the Comani
four great rivers.
:

401

this is all
first
is
is

flat,

and has
"^

^^'j^^'

The
P'^oJga

called Neper

y '—

(Borysthenes); the second
the third
is

called /)o7i(Tanais);
;

named

(Rha)

the fourth
it

is

denominated Jaec (Rhymnus)." Thus

appears

that the Comani, the ancestors of the Cossacks,
had. established themselves as far to the west-

ward

as the Dnieper, before the middle of the

thirteenth century;

and considerable

light is.

thrown upon a very obscure part of antient geooraphv bv the documents thus afforded.
Ruhritquis
Itinerary,
JV. de
^'^

Rubru-

himself,

in

another passage of his
far

extends their limits as

westward as

the Danube; and says, that the whole country,

from
them.

this river to the Tana'is,

was inhabited by The western part was called Casaria,

the country of the Cazars, Cassars, or Cossacks,
as they are
faithful

now

called.

Nothing can be more
left

than the account he has

of these vast

solitudes,

where there

is

neither

wood, nor

mountain, nor stoned

(2)

" Tendebamus

rectfe

in

proviiiciam Casaria:, habentcs

orientcm ex quo exivimus praedictam mare ad meridiem, et vastam solUudi:

nem ad aquilonem
in

:

quie durat per viginti dietas ali<'ubi in latitudine
nullus mnjis, 7nillus lapis.

qua nulla

est si/lva,

Herba

est optima.

In hac solebant pascere Comani, qui dicuiitur Capchat.
verb dicuutur falani, et provincia J'alania.

A

Teutonicia

Ab

Isidoro vero dicitur a

flumine Tan;ii usque ad paludes Meotidis et Daiiubiuni Alania.

durat

ista terra in longitudine

a Dauubio usque
vol. I, p.

Tanaim

Et

quiC tota

inhabitabatur a Comanis,"

Hakhiyt,

80.

VOL.

I.

2d

402
CHAP.
XIV.
V.

VOYAGE DOWN THE DON,
The Tahtars near to
the Sea of Azof ^x^ a "^ ^

smaH

race of men, but not so ugly as to answer to the
descriptions given of them.
selves very

Tahtam.

They disfigure themears forward

much by pressing their
:

with the lower rim of their caps, from their
tenderest infancy
tice,

in

consequence of

this prac-

their ears protrude

from the sides of their

heads, and front the spectator.

Some

of those

who passed us
dress of the

at NakhtsJdvan looked fearfully

wild, appearing in the rude and perhaps primeval
first

shepherds

of
:

the

earth.

Their bodies were almost naked

over their

shoulders were loosely suspended the undressed
fleeces of their sheep, fastened with a single loop
in front.

Upon

their heads,

and about their loins,
;

they had a covering of the same nature

and

upon their feet they wore those sandals of lindenbark of which a representation has been given as a Vignette to the Tenth Chapter of this Volume. A similar costume is sometimes represented upon the Grecian terra-cottas, and it is also exhibited by the sculpture of Anlient
Greece \

Armetiian
of Nakiiiill IV a II.

NahhtshivaYi offcrs an
'

example of that enter-

prising commercial spirit
Among
is

which
;

is

characteristic

(1)

the earthen vases described and published at Naples,

there

a costume of this kind, upon a male figure,

who

is

delineated

checking two furious horses.

;

TO AZOF AND TAGANROG.
'oi

403

Armenian merchants.

a lively race of

They are not naturally ^^(^' men. The Armenians are almost y *^
^

as grave as the Turhs, and they have

all

the

boorishness of Dutchmen

;

insomuch, that

this is

a

common

saying with European merchants in

Constantinople;

"A

SY>ortive

Armenian

is

as

awk-

ward

as a dancing bear."

Yet, instigated

by
all

commercial speculations, these
countries,

men

traverse

and overcome surprising obstacles
res^ions of the earth.

frequently making journeys to Indian and to the

most distant

Their com-

modities and their manufactures, as far as

we

were enabled to judge of them, appeared to be Turkish, and of a nature to find a ready sale in
Axay and
in Tcherkask.

They supply
;

all

the

fairs of the fairs

neighbouring provinces
the

and these
sights in

afford

most extraordinary
There
is

Europe, because they are attended

by persons
scarcely a
its

from almost every nation.

nation, civilized or barbarous,

which has not

representative at the fairs which are held along

the Sea of Azof, and

upon the Don; but

parti-

cularly at the great fair of Nahhtshivan.

The

Hamaxohii of Herodotus then make their appearance, as in the days of the historian
;

travelling

in vehicles, the coverings of which are their tents

by

night,

and

tilts for

their cars

by day^ Such

(2) See Uie J'ignette to this Chapter.

2 D 2

404
CH^p.
V"

VOYAGE DOWN THE

DOiN,
in all the

moveable dwellings may be noticed
territories of the Tahtars.

We

entered the quarter where the shops are
It is a

stationed.
cloister,

very

lofty

covered

street, or

surrounding a square, after the manner

of the Palais Royal at Paris.
its

Every trade has

peculiar station assigned, as in the bazars of

Constantinople; and, according to the rule ob-

served in Oriental bazars, the floor of each shop
is

made

level with the counter;

the dealers

sitting at their

work, as

in Turkey,

with their

legs crossed beneath their bodies.

The shops sale was going were all on. Their owners, in many instances, were really
well stored, and a rapid

Mohammedans, who manufactured
dals,

slippers, san-

and boots, in coloured

leather.

Among other
pipe-

tradesmen,

we observed

tobacconists,

makers, clothiers, linen-drapers, grocers, butchers, bakers,

blacksmiths, silk-mercers, dealers

in Indian shawls, &c.

Their bakers

make bread

of a very superior quality. tary Asiatic custom,
it

According to a salupublickly made, and

is

publickly baked

;

so that the whole process of

preparing the most important article of food
is

open

to

the

inspection

of

every

one.

The crowd passing before their shops resembled a masquerade, where the costly
embroidered vestments of rich Armenian mer-

TO AZOF AND TAGANROG.
chants'

40;

were

contrasted

with

the

coarse

chap.

hides covering wild Tahtars,

the long furred

pelisses of the Turks, the military, but simple,

garb of the Cossacks, the uncouth uniform of
the Russian police,
of the Calmucks.

and the greasy trappings

We

visited a Turkish coffee-house, the

most

favourite rendezvous of the

inhabitants.

On
tai-

the right hand as
floor
lors,

we

entered, and upon a raised

like

the

counters used by English

were squatted a number of merchants, reclining upon cushions, with long pipes in
their hands, smoking,

and drinking

coffee.

As

we

joined the party,

we were
wood
;

presented, ac-

cording to the usual custom, with kindled pipes
(having tubes
tree, tipped

made wood

of the

of the cherry-

with amber), a small cup of coffee,
of aloes
this,

and a

bit of

being put

into the

bowl of each pipe, exhaled a refreshing
In a corner of the

and pleasing fragrance.

(l)

Tlie costume of the /Armenian \\oinen of Astrarhan
It
is

is

the richest

in Russia.

surprising that they sustain the weight of their drese.
is

The
is

first,

or inner rol)e,

of silk and gold; the second,

of black

velvet, heavily laden with gold

and

pearls.

The

third, or outer vest,

almost of massive gold, in ponderous embroidery, with large gold

knobs, gold buttons, gold tassels, gold fringe, &c. &c.
js

The turban
two thick

white, hangs over the left shoulder, and conceals the face, except

the nose and eyes.

The only

hair disclosed

is

often false;

locks, one on each side, being brought in front before the ears.

406
CHAP,

VOYAGE DOWN THE DON,
apartment stood a vase, containing blossoms of
the large
It
it
Iris,

,y,-«^

called, in England,

Fhwer

de luce.

served as a kind of sign to the box whereon

was placed,

in the lid of

which was a small

hole to receive the contributions of those

had received refreshments in the house. Turks, who were present, seemed really
breathing

who Some
to

be

fumes

of tobacco.

large quantities

of

They inhaled smoke upon their lungs,
there until their features

and, after retaining

it

became distended with suppressed respiration,
yielded back curling volumes, as from a chimney, through their nostrils,
their ears^
their

mouth, and

According to

Pallas"-,

the origin of the Arme-

nian establishment at Nahhtshivan
gration of the inhabitants

was the emiof the Crimea, when
Tahtars.

Suvorof withdrew with the Russian troops, and

peace was concluded with the
that time the

At

most opulent Armenian mechanics

and merchants, together with the major part of the Christian inhabitants, upon whom the whole of the productive industry and commerce of
the Peninsula depended,
left

the Crimea late in

(1)

The

Chinese,

and other Oriental nations, perforate the drum of
It
is

their ears for this purpose.

not however

common

for

Ttaks to

undergo that operation.
(2) Travels

through the Southern Provinces, &c. Vol.

I.

p. 476.

TO AZOF AND TAGANROG.
the

407

autumnal season.

The Empress ordered
accommodations
to
;

proper buildings and

be
but

^-

^^W' ^' ^

prepared

for their reception

upon the Don
the

the Russian commissaries took especial care to

convey

into

their

own

pockets

money

allowed to complete the work according to the
intentions of their sovereign.

When

the Arme-

nian

colony arrived,

they

found a parcel of

miserable huts, constructed in the most expeditious

have

and most wretched manner. These since been converted into neat and
:

comfortable dwellings

many

of

them are of
:

limestone, and they are covered with tiles

in

the manufacture of these

tiles,

as well as of

earthenware
skilful.

in general, the inhabitants are

very
the

Other Armenian settlements, belong-

ing to the

same

district of Rastof, are in
all

neighbourhood, and
state.

of

them

in a flourishing

The Armenians
;

are

much

respected in
sobriety,

the

country

their

industry,

their

and
pire.

their general

moral conduct, render them a
to the Russian

most important acquisition
cluding persons
of both
in

emin-

Their whole population,
sexes,

however,

and

all

the

Armenian settlements

the district, does not

amount

to eight thousand'.

(3) Pallas estimates

it

at 7000.

Ibid. p. 480.

408
CHAP.
V

VOYAGE

DOWN THE

DON,

Again embarking upon the Don,
>

we
down

proSt.

-V-

ceeded from Nakhtshivan to the fortress of
Demetry
j.jygj.
i

st.Demetry Rastnf.

Rastof,
j|.

about a mile lower
place

the

^^^g ^

of great importance

when the Turkish frontier was nearer. The Don is here much broader and deeper in con:

sequence of
unfit to

this,

the vessels from

JVoronetz,

encounter the sea, are broken up,
the product of Russia,

and

their cargoes,

shipped

on board lighters and small vessels, and sent
to

Taganrog, to load the vessels lying in the

(1)

Mr. Heber performed a journey from Taganrog
and serve

to Rastof

by

land.

His observations concerning the latter place are therefore peto supply the deficiency of

culiarly api>ro|iriate,

our own.

" Here it ii that the barks from Voronetz are broken up, and the goods embarked from Taj^anrog. We saw about sixty lighters lying
in the river,

inaoy large enough to perform the voyage to Arabat.

Some
all

of these,

which we pointed out, they

told us

had made voyages

the way to Caffa.

There

is

a large brewery, producing very detest-

able beer and porter.

The

distilleries are

numerous, and,

if

we unof the

derstood right, pay no duties, unless sent inland.

The banks

Don

are covered above by vineyards, and below by stinking Sudak, a

large white fish, drying in

the sun.

Fish are caught in great abun-

dance and variety.
let,'

The

principal kinds are, Beluga, Sturgeon, Ster-

and Su(iak.

There are also myriads of Prussian Carp, which, with
great dunghills among the black The Cossacks pay no duty on salt, own consumption. The fortress is just above the
are heaped

all

the refuse

fish,

up

in

circular tents of the Calmucks.
if it

be

for their

town;

it is

extensive, but

ill

situated.

In

it is

a small garrison, and

a school kept by an old Frenchman of the name of Andr^.

He had

about twenty pupils, who were taught French, German, writing, and
geography.

They were

all

very

little

boys.

We
down

had a

letter to the

Master, and found an old

man

in a sheep-skin,

which would have
to

turned the stomach of a Mushick,
flock."

sitting

dinner with his

Heber's

MS,

Journal.

TO AZOF AND TAGANROG.
roads, off that place.

409
of
al-

The Governor, both
at Rastof;

cjMp.
XIV.

Azof and of Taganrog, resides
resident
officer,

though those places have each their superior

who

is

called

Commandant,
troops.

Rastof
found

is

garrisoned

by Russian
the

We
The upon

it

in a

deplorable state of neglect.

Cossacks of the

Don claim
is

territory

which the

fort

built,

as well as of the land
in its vicinity

where the Armenian settlements
are founded.
for this, than

We

could learn no other reason

that these Cossacks have the care

of conducting the mail.
of

Indeed, the generality

them seemed
an
empire,

to consider their land as limited

by a boundary between Axay and
In
so
little

Nakhtskivan.
as
that

settled

of

whose southern frontier is continually advancing, by encroachments daily made upon
Russia,

the territories of other nations, the limits of

any particular province are not likely to conOther travellers may postinue long the same.
sibly
arrive,

and

find the

whole race of Don

Cossacks

moved, and planted upon the sides of Caucasus : and those of the Black Sea, the
Tchernomorski, so lately carried from the Dnieper
to the

banks of the Kuban,
of

may

then be found

repelling the incursions

the Persians and

the Afghans, upon the southern shores of the
Caspian.

410
CHAP.
V

VOYAGE DOWN THE DON,
Pursuing our
.^

delightful

voyage with very
jizof;

V

favourable weather,

we advanced towards
sailing,
left',

and as we continued

with Europe on
reflections

our right hand, and Asia on our

were excited which contrasted the refinement, the science, the commerce, the power, and the
influence of the one, with the sloth, the superstition,

the effeminacy, the barbarism, and the

ignorance of the other.

One

fact,

at least,

may be
rope
;

derived from a general survey of Euit

namely, that there exists in no part of

a savage people, as fixed inhabitants.
part of Europe
is civilized.

Every

the wandering Calmuch,
lander,

Nagay TahtaVy or the nomade LapIf the
it

be considered as belonging to a savage
is

race,

which

nevertheless humane,

should

be observed, that these
no particular
the
territory,

tribes are peculiar to

but that they lead, like
life.

more ferocious
to

gipsy, a vagrant

It is

common

hear nations,

which are
yet
it

situate

remote from our observation, branded with an
imputation of barbarism
:

ought

to

be

confessed, ihdX the peasant of Ireland, the smuggler

of England, or the poissarde of France,

is alto-

gether as unenlightened,

more inhuman, and
than either

possesses jnore of savage ferocity,
(I)

" Quique duas

terras

Asiam Cadmique sororem

Separat, et cursus inter ulramque facit."

:

TO AZOF AND TAGANROG.
the Laplander, the Tahtar, or the Calmiick.
for the agricultural Laplander, the

411

As chap.
XIV,

mountaineer

of Norwaij, and the inhabitants of the north of
Siveden, there

does not exist a better disposed,

or a

more benevolent people.

Several villages are scattered along the banks
of
this

river;

but

they

consist

chiefly

of

wretched
flags

hovels,
in

constructed
the

of reeds of the

and

growing

shallows
in

Don

having these objects only
is

view, the traveller

presented with scenery which answers to the
given
of the

description

wigwams and

the

waters oi America. Soon after
fortress of Rastof,

we

saw,

we had passed the as we looked back

towards the East, the whole of the settlements

upon the northern
those of Rastof,

side of the river, including

of Nakhtshivan, and of Axay.
Division of

the

Here the Don is divided by the channel bearing name of The Dead Danaetz ; and the high lands, upon which those towns are stationed, continue to form the northern bank of that branch of the river. We sailed along the main
current,

which

flows,
flat

after

this

separation,

through a very

and marshy country.

The

xunmii.

only objects interrupting the uniformity of the

landscape are those antient sepulchres alluded
to in the passage cited

from Ruhniquis'.

We

(2) See p. 400.

412
CHAP,
V*

VOYAGE DOWN THE DON,
endeavoured
'

to delineate a

remarkable groiipe

-y—

of them, consisting of five tombs,

much
;

larger

than any of the others near the river

these

have always borne the appellation of The Five
Brothers.
If Ptolemy
s

They

are upon the European side.

position of the flexion of the Tanais
site of that
is

can be reconciled with the
"

remark-

able deviation of the river which

called the

Dead DanaetZy' these tombs might be conmonuments alluded to by him', under the name of the Altars of AlexThe (iu^^o), or Altars of the Greeks, ander. were called Altaria by the Romans, ah altiludine,
sidered as the actual

from

their being raised high
flat

above the ground^.
nei-

In low

countries,

where there were
they raised

ther mountains nor

hills,

artificial

were oftered upon the sepulchres of the dead, as upon
ascents for their altars.
sacrifices

But

altars

;

and,

consistently with
his

this

practice,
rites,

Alexander paid

vows,

and performed

upon the tombs of

Achilles

and of Ajax^, when

he invaded Asia, and landed upon the Plain of Troy; anointing with perfumes the ^TrjXui
placed upon them, according to the custom of
the age.
(1) 'T^ra
"h^ou

The same geographer places the
Thv

Ss

'Eni2TPO<l>HN rov

Tava/'Sof Torcifiou 'fS^vvrai o" Tt 'A>.t$«»-

BriMOI.

Ptolem. Geogr.

lib. iii. c. 5.

(2)

" Altaria ab
significatione.

altitudine dicta sunt,

qubd Antiqui
Sext.

diis superis in

aedificiis
P''erh.

k terr^ exaltatis

sacra

faciebant."

Pomp'
p. 70.

Fest. de

(3) Diodor. Sic. lib. xvii.

See also Chandler's Ilium,

TO AZOF AND TAGANROG.
Altars
these

4 13

C^sar yet nearer To one or other tombs.
of
mitil

to the position of

chap,

of

them they
In the

will

probably hereafter be referred.
time,

mean
leave

we have
its

better knowledge of the
antiquities,

country, and of

we must

their real history undecided.

Among

the various tribes dwelling near the
in

mouths of the Don and

the neighbourhood

of Rastqf, the Tahtars are the most numerous.

Many absurd reports were
Rastofy in particular,

in circulation

concern-

ing the danger of venturing

among them.
;

At
but

we

heard some fearful tales

of robbers, and of the banditti of the steppes

had every reason

to believe that all

such stories

were without foundation.
lonff-expected view of Azof at last pre^ •^. ^ ^ sented itself before our eyes, making a conspi. .

The

Fortress

andVillage oiAzoj:

cuous and considerable appearance, and some-

what corresponding with the
entertained
of
its

false ideas

we had

importance.

Its

imaginary can be
figure
it

consequence, however, as a fortress, vanished
the

moment we
in

arrived

;

for nothing

more wretched
has made

or insignificant.

The

the

wars between Russia and
it

Turkey has given
gazetteers
;

a place in our maps and
the

although

meanest hamlet
it

of
to

Kamchatka might dispute with

a

title

414
notice.

VOYAGE DOWN THE DON,

A

handful of troops, aided only

by
at

theif

bayonets,
time.

might take possession of

it

any

The

garrison consists of a few worn-out

Russian invalids.

The works,

if

such they

may

be

called,

are abandoned to decay, and they
so that, in the

are situate below the village;

event of an attack, there are several heights

which would command them. The
extremity
heights
is

village itself
its

stands upon a high ridge, and upon
situate

lower
the

the fortress.

From

we had

a view of the entrance of the

Don
the

into the Sea of Azof ,

and plainly discerned

town of Taganrog, across the water.

The

mines of the fortress have been described as
very extensive, and considerable excavations might be observed under the whole of the ramparts
;

but no use

is

now made
of

of them,

and

indeed the
for

officers of the garrison

what purpose many

were ignorant them were originally

designed.
tification is

All that remains of the Turkish for-

a part of a wall,

now a mere

ruin.

The

inhabitants

shewed

to us

an old rampart

raised

side of the river, as

by Peter the Great, upon the opposite it was used by him when

he besieged the place.

City of

It

has

been generally supposed
immediate vicinity

that

the

antient city of Tanais existed either

upon
:

the site

of Azof, or in

its

we were

:

TO AZOF AND TAGANROG.
particular in our inquiries concerning the site of
it,

415
chap.
v

both among the officers of the garrison and
other inhabitants.

^, _^

the

We

also

made such
dis-

research as the time allowed us would permit;

but not a trace of any former city could be
as a vestige,

covered, neither had there ever been observed,

any of those remains which

infal-

libly indicate the cities of the Greeks.

Of these,
to its

broken pottery, as the most usual, owing
point out the locality of Grecian

incorruptible nature, almost always serves to
cities,

even
con-

when medals and other marks of
phy have not been found.
clude, that
this
if

their topogra-

It is natural to

the Greeks ever built a city upon
it

branch of the Don,

to its banks,

and not

at

must have stood near any distance from the

But the site of ^zof is the only spot near the river where it has been possible to The rest is all a swamp, even the reeds build. To the east, of which are annually inundated.
water.
the south, and the south-east, the interior of the

country exhibits a parched and barren desert
the rest
is

all

one vast morass, consisting of

elevated
fortress

deep fens and water. If, then, upon the more soil, which affords a foundation to the
and
to

the

present village of ^zof,

such a city as

Tana'is

once stood, the immense

excavations carried on by the moderns, from

time to time, in the formation, and the reparation.

:

;

416
XIV.
y-

VOYAGE DOWN THE DON,
brought

CHAP, and the destruction of the citadel, must have
^

^

to

light

some

relic

of

antiquity
or sepul-

either medals, or weapons, or vases,

chres: yet, in no instance, has there ever been

observed a single vestige or remnant of any
former settlement, except the citadel originally

founded by the Turks.
cers,

Some

of the senior

offi-

who were

well informed concerning every

thing that had happened here since the time of

Peter the Great, and among
found of this description
in all the

others the Com-

mandant, declared that nothing had ever been
;

and maintained, that

country about the place there was no
city.

mark of the existence of any former About fifteen years ago, some coins were

dis-

.

covered upon the shore of the 8ea of Azof, further westward but the characters upon these
;

coins

were described

to us as Indian, or Chinese

probably they were Tahtarian, or Turkish.
Probable
Situation
.

If

of the City ANAis.

thcrc evcr did exist such a city as Tandis, we ri c aA might cxpcct to mid the traces oi it at the
i

i.

extremity of that northern embouchure of the

the very

Don which was before mentioned, as bearing name the Greeks gave to the city, in
no opportunity of exploring.
traveller
will

the appellation Tdanaets, Danaetz. This channel

we had

Perhaps

some future

meet with more
it,

success in the inquiry; and to further

we

have afforded him a clue,

in

our

Map

of the

TO AZOF AND TAGANROG,
Mouths of the River. The place to which we would particularly direct his attention is now
called

417
cuAr.
XIV.

Sinovka;

but he will
this

in

vain look for
river,

Sinovka, or even for
in

branch of the

any of the maps which were before pub-

lished.

The

inhabitants of

Azof amount
in the

to a small

condition
rilon^o^""^*

number, including the garrison.

There are not

more than

fifty

houses

whole settlement.

'^^^^

The

officers

quartered there complained, and
of
their

with reason,
state of hfe.

solitary
all

and secluded

Exiled from

intercourse with

the rest of mankind, because avoided even

by

the tribes around them, and without a single

comfort to

render

human

existence support-

able, the joy our arrival diffused

may be
the
old

easily

imagined.

"

Englishmen^''

said

Com-

mandant, as he approached the shore, to wel-

come our
would come

arrival,
to

" are the only travellers ivho
if
it

j4zof,

could

he

avoided."

Nothing could be more insupportable, however,
than the manner of their hospitality.

No

other

amusement was devised, but
shouting, and dancing.

that of drinking,
at the

Some symptoms,

same

time, of using compulsory measures to

prevent our departure, were manifested.
a century might pass, during VOL.
I.

Half

all

which period

2 E

;

418
CHAP,
XIV.
'

VOYAGE
the
'

DOWN THE
-^
.

DON,
no faces
;

inhabitants of

Azof would see
garrison

,^— except those of their own

conse-

quently, the most trivial novelties

were regarded
of strangers

with transport, and the coming

was considered
importance.

as an event of

more than usual
in indolence

We

found them lost

and wretchedness, badly supplied with provisions,

and destitute even of wholesome water.

The
fices,

suspicious inquiries, and the insidious arti-

by Russians in their reception of foreigners, were for once laid aside but in their place were substituted boisterous greetings, and the most troublesome Our appearance at this time importunities.
practised
:

commonly

was

certainly rather calculated to

excite

cu-

riosity.

We

had not

less than four large bobacs^

living constantly in the carriage,

whose ravages
its

were
for

visibly displayed in
is

all

parts of

lining

there

hardly any thing

these animals

will not
ter,

endeavour to devour.

Our

interpre-

a Greek, the salloM^est of his race, wore

a strange dress, in which the various habits of
Russians,

of Cossacks,

of Tahtars,

and of the

people of his
blended.
able,

own

country,

were singularly

Our wardrobe, scarcely less remarkbetrayed evident marks of the casualties

(1)

See pp. 325—328.

TO AZOF AND TAGANROG.
and the disasters incident
to a long journey,
filled

419
chap.
'

We

had, besides, several large books

with

..^-i

„/

plants for our herbary,
stuffed birds

some

minerals, a few
insects,

and quadrupeds, boxes of

thermometers, pots, kettles, half a cheese, and
a vinegar cask.

seemed
else

to

The soldiers of the garrison be more astonished and amused by
bohacs,

the appearance of the bohacs than by any thing
;

and the

participating equal sur-

prise
shrill

upon seeing them, sounded their loud and whistle whenever they approached. A
officer,

concert and supper were prepared for us in the

evening; and a veteran

General Pekin,

seventy-three years of age, was brought in a
chair to see the

two Englishmen.

lie

had been
at jizof.

celebrated both in the Prussian and the Russian
service,

and now lived upon a pension
soldier expressed

This venerable

himself so

much

rejoiced at seeing us, that, in spite of his
officers

years and infirmities, making one of the
stand up with him, he
insisted

upon exhibiting

the Russian national dance.

The contrast, before made% between a Cossack and a Russian appeared very striking in this voyage down the river from Axay to Azof. In

(2)

See
t2

p. 385.

E 2


420
CHAP,
^

VOYAGE DOWN THE DON,
the course
'

of a

single

day,

we had

breakto

"V-

fasted with one people, and

were compelled

sup with another

;

compelled,

because the con-

sequences of refusing such invitations are very
serious in this country,
vitations

especially

if

these in-

are

Russian army;

and generally
visited
Russia,

made by petty officers of the who have always the power, had the inclination, when we
to

embarrass and impede an

The distance between the two places does not exceed forty-five versts. We had left the Cossacks with sorrow, and full
English traveller.
of gratitude for the politeness and the liberal
hospitality

we had

experienced

:

the very sight
it

of a Russian, under such impressions,

may

Opinion
entertained of the Cos-

be conceived, was doubly revolting to us. Let the Reader then imagine what our feelings were,
when, as we landed
at Azof,

an impertinent

young Russian officer, belonging to the garrison, demanded the motive which could have induced us to venture among a people so ferocious as
the Cossacks.

Instead of gratifying his curiosity,
to question

we ventured
:

him;

and asked him,
" Never
!"

whether he had ever visited them. " we consider them as so said he
beasts.
It is

many
;

wild

true,

they are rich

but

God
it."

alone

knows what they do with
it
:

their

money, or

how

they obtain

we never

see any of

We

could only refrain from replying with some

:

'

TO AZOF AND TAGANROG.
iiidiofnation °
it
;
:

421
chap.
XIV.
'

"

You
it.

shall hear

how
it
;

they obtain
*'

and what they do with

and why you

,-—

never see any of

They

are industrious mer-

chants, and derive wealth

by commerce: they
fathers, providing for

are good husbands and
their families,

and educating
all this,

their

children

and you never see
fess,

because, as you con-

you never

visit

them."

We

great succeeded, with °
,

difficulty,
"^

in ob- Departure
fromJzof.

\

taining leave to quit the place the following day.

General Fekin lent us his assistance

;

and

it

was
to

owing chiefly to were ordered to attend by day-break, and
assist in

his interest that twenty soldiers

towing the boat against the current;
to re-ascend a part of the

as

it

was necessary
and
to

river,

proceed towards the sea by one of

the mouths through which the Do7i disembogues
itself,

nearer to Taganrog than that branch of
is situate.

it

upon which ^zof
most of
retreat,

We

took leave of

our boisterous entertainers soon after midnight,

whom were by
;''

this

time more than

" half seas over

and, in order to secure our
to pass the night in the

we determined
It

boat.

was

still

dark,

and dreadfully tem-

pestuous.

A

thunder-storm came on, and the

wind blew with the fury of a hurricane.

As

we passed

the

sentinels, to

go towards the

river, vivid flashes of lightning disclosed to us,

422
CHAP,

VOYAGE DOWN THE DON,
at intervals,

our carriage tossed about
a gale at sea.

in

the

boat, as

if in

We

succeeded,

however,

in getting

on board; and presently

such a deluge of rain ensued, that
to seek shelter

with the

hohacs,

we were glad whose natural

somnolency was not proof against such violent
concussions, and

who were

thrusting their noses

between the blinds of the windows. We never experienced such a tempest. During all the
rest of the night, the water

seemed

to

descend

as from a cataract, beating through the very

roof of the
crevice.

carriage,

and entering by every
rain ceased

As

the

day dawned, the

to

fall

:

but the wind continued as before.

Our
encouafterthat,

servant arrived from the fortress, havino- sue-

ceeded

in

mustering the soldiers.
liberal

We

raged them by

offers;

and soon
to
find,

wards we had the

satisfaction

although our boat's motion was hardly progressive against the united force of

wind and

tide,

we were

actually leaving j4zof.

After a long and very obstinate

struggle,

during which our boatmen were
hausted,

nearly ex-

we

at last reached that

branch of the

which we were to steer with the tide towards the sea. It is called the Kalancha.
river along

Here we rewarded and dismissed our

assistants

from the garrison, hoisted our canvas,

and.

TO AZOF AND TAGANROG.
falling

423
chap.

very rapidly down the current, sailed

into the

Palus M^eotis.

The mouths

of the

Don

are thirteen in number.

In other respects,
islets, its perio-

this river,

by

its

shallows and

dical inundations, its rapidity

and
its

rolling eddies,

perturbed by slime and mud,

vegetable and

animal productions, bears, as was before re-

marked, a most striking resemblance
Nile.

to

the

The

inhabitants of
its

^zq/* maintain that

all this part of the Sea of waters annually diminish.

A remarkable
lent east

^

pheenomenon occurs
:

winds

the sea retires in so singular a

...
versts':
it

during^ vio- Remarkable

Ph»-

nomcnon.

manner, that the people of Taganrog are able to
effect a

passage upon dry land to the opposite

coast, a distance of

twenty
this

but when

the

wind changes, and

sometimes does

very suddenly, the waters return with such
rapidity to their

wonted bed, that many

lives

are lost'.

In this manner, also, small vessels

(\)
('2)

Rather

less

than fourteen miles.
being: ciware of this circumstance,

Similar changes are effected by winds towards the northern parts

of the

Red Sea; and the author,

had

availed himself of the fact, in the first edition, to explain the passage

cf the Israelites in their escape from Egtjpt.
f.-onsiderahle

The

allusion excited a

degree of clamour: some stupid bigots maintained that

the reconciliation of this event to wrt^wra/ causes amounted to a denial
cf the truth of sacred history; as
if

the miraculous interposition of the
in
''

Almighty
fiursuers,
''

in behalf

of bis chosen people, and
in

the overthrow of their

were not as awfully manifested

dividing the waters," by
as

the

wind and

the storm fit IJilling his word,"

by any other means of

supernatural power.

To

hold an ar;jument, however, with sucli bigots,

would be

to as little

purpose as to reason with Turks iu matters of
religion
:

424
are

VOYAGE DOWN THE DON,
stranded ^

We

saw the wrecks of two,
in

which had cast anchor
the
coast,

good soundings near

but were unexpectedly swamped

upon the sands.
weeks.

The

east

wind often

sets in

with great vehemence, and continues for several

They have

also frequent gales

from the
;

west

;

but very rarely a wind due north
its

and

hardly ever an instance occurs of

blowing

from the south.

This last circumstance has

been attributed
casus,

to the

mountainous ridge of Cau-

intercepting the winds from that quarter.
is

The

sea

so shallow near Taganrog, that ships
lie

performing quarantine

off at

a distance of

religion

:

the Note was therefore withdrawn
fully states {chap. xiv. 21.)

;

although the plain text

of

Exodus

that

" the Lord caused the

SEA TO GO BACK BY A STRONG EAST-WIND, AND MADE THE SEA DRY LAND, AND THE WATERS WERE DIVIDED: AND THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL WENT
INTO
(l;

THE MIDST OF THE SEA UPON THE DRY GROUND." " The merclumdize brought from Voronetz comes down

to

RastofF in barks which will not bear the sea, but are broken up there.

Their cargoes are again embarked in lighters, which convey thera to

Taganrog, and to the ships
east,

in the road. As the wiud changes to the and the water grows shallower, they get farther and farther out to sea, and are often obliged to sail without having completed their

cargo.
after

This singular kind of monsoon takes place almost every year,

Midsummer.
;

The Governor

said, it
is

seldom

failed.

Storms are

not

uncommon

and the [navigation

considered as very unscife, by

reason of the numerous shoals, and the want of shelter."

Heber's

MS.

Journal.

Mr. Heber's ortliography,
whenever an extract
it

in

the names of places, has been followed,
;

is

given from his Journal

the author not deeming

lawful to subject so accurate a writer to any rules which he
laid

may

have

down

for himself,

and to which, perhaps, he has not alwa\ s

adhered.

TO AZOF AND TAGANROG.
fifteen versts'^:

425
eierht
>

and vessels, drawino: from

chap.
XIV.
...y

to ten feet of water, cannot approach nearer to

»/

the town to take in their freightage.

The elevated
built

situation on
visible to

rendered

it

which Taganrog is us from the moment

An-ivai at
''^''"'"''°'

we

entered the Sea of Azof.

ever,

began
tlie

to fail

;

and

it

The wind, howwas night before we

reached

shore.

Several of the inhabitants
;

came down upon our arrival and being afterwards provided with a tolerable set of apartments,
days,

we resolved to remain here for a few that we might prepare our journey through

Kuban Tahtary.

(2)

Ten

miles.

— —

A DRAUGHT

of

the

iminication to he

Intended Commade between the

EUXINE

and the

CASPIAN SEAS.

CHAP. XV.

EUROPEAN AND ASIATIC SHORES OF THE SEA
OF AZOF.
Taganrog

— Commerce,

external and internal

— Canal

of

Communication letween the Caspian and Black Sea

Consecrated Ceremony of the Cahnucks Difference letween Ensigns of the Calmuck Lata

Marriage

their

rious

— — — Sarniacand VaSacred and Vulgar Inhabitants of Taganrog — Antiquities — Voyage
IVritings
the

across

Sea of

Azof

Chumlurskaia

— Margariof a very

tovskaia.

^xv^'
•^

Taganrog
lofty

is

situate

upon the

cliff

promontory,

commanding an extensive

2'o:?(inj'o

TAGANROG.
prospect of the Sea of Azof, and
all

427
the Euro^^^J^}''

pean

coast, to the

mouths

of the Don.

Azof
in-

'

,

itself is visible, in fair

weather, from the heights

of the citadel.

At present, the number of
Don,
is

habitants does not exceed five thousand.

water,

as in the

The very unwholesome
;

when when

the winds carry off the salt water

but

a current sets in from the sea,

it is

more

salutary.

The foundation of a town, intended

for the metropolis of the empire, in a place liable

was not one of the wisest plans of Peter the Great. The water
to insuperable disadvantages,

here

is

so shallow, that no haven could possi-

bly have been constructed, unless by forming
canals at an

expense beyond
of ten

all

calculation.
lie off

The
the

ships

now performing
miles
to

quarantine
;

at

distance

and

all

vessels,

drawing from eight

ten feet water, cannot
fifteen versts.

approach nearer to the town than
inhabitants
tion

Taganrog formerly contained seventy thousand
;

but, in consequence of a capitula-

made with

the Turks, the original city
Its revival

was

entirely rased.

may

be referred to
colony at

the establishment of the Armenian
Nahhtshivan.

At present, all the best houses are in its suburbs. The citadel contains a miserable village, full of ruins exhibiting, at the same
;

time, traces of considerable works,

now

aban-

doned.

The

inhabitants entertain hopes that

428
CHAP,
^

TAGANROG.
the
^

Emperor
it

will visit

and inspect the place,
of the first
is

.,-

and that

will then

become a town
There

importance in the empire.

not any

situation in the South of Russia
for
Commerce
external

commerce,
>-

were

it

more favourable not for the want of
all

^atcr.

Ships froui the Black Sea find here, in
the produce of

and

inter-

rcadiucss for embarkation,
Siberia,

with the

of Astrachan;

and other commodities whereas at Cherson and Odessa
caviare,

they have to wait

for lading after their arrival.

But
that

it is

only during three months in the year
carried on at Taganrog.

commerce can be
is

In Winter, the sea

frozen, so that the sledges

pass upon the

ice to Azof.

During the short
estimated at four
as the
first

season of their commerce, the rent of a single

warehouse upon the shore

is

hundred roubles.

As soon

ships

make

their

appearance from the Black Sea, the
interior begin to arrived

waggons from the

The

(l)

*'

From November
a small vessel
vice versa.
is

to

March the
As soon

seals frozen, and navigation
as the ice
is

seldom
passed,

safe earlier

than April,

supposed to have

sent from Taganrog to Kertch (in the Cri-

mea), and

After this signal, the navigation commences.

From

a south-west wind prevails very steadily, which greatly increases the depth of waterj and favours the arrival of

April to

Midsummer

vessels.

Aljout

Midsummer

the water

is

generally deepest, and the
few. Vessels

sea crowded with small vessels.

The harbour admits but

two hundred tons are campelled to lie in the open sea, fifteen versts (ten miles) from the shore. In autumn, the Sea of Azof is often no more than fourteen feet at its greatest depth. From Taganrog to Azof is a
lie

may

then

tolerably near the shore; at other times, ships of

shoal,

TAGANROG.
vessels undergo a quarantine
:

499
during- all

which
;

chap.

time the caravans continue to increase

and

before the end of the quarantine, not less than
six thousand waggons occupy all the plains below the town. Of this number, three thousand

arrive annually from the Ukraine.

Taganrog has three
first

fairs

in

the year

:

the

upon the

principal

fair,

the third

May ; the second, and the upon the tenth of ylugust; and upon the eighteenth of November.
first

of

The quantity
is

of fishes taken in the Sea of Azof
;

truly astonishing

they are sent,

in

a dried

sboal, or continuation of shoals, with hardly seven feet water,

and in

some

places only five.

The number

of vessels

is

generally from six to
fifty,

seven hundred.

Of

these, about one hundred and

or

two hunvarious

dred, are small craft, from Trebizond and Sinope, which bring nardek,

a marmalade
fruits

of grapes, and

bechtniss, a

sirup

made from

by boiling them with honey. Raisins of the sun are also brought
All these are used in the distilleries.

in great quantities.

Since the

destruction of the vineyards, by the late hard winters, the beckmiss

has become more necessary. the empire as French brandy.
chiefly

The spirit thus produced is sold all over The Greeks of the Archipelago bring
which
is

wine of a very poor

sort,

also used in the distilleries.
;

Of these Greeks, about one
friend

third carry the Russian flag
*

but, as our

D

said,

(a

merchant who resided here,)
a house and land,

Mauvais Russe,

Mauvais

Pavilion.'

They

are of very bad character, and very poor.

Any Greek who would purchase
Russian subject,
traders are very few.

and enjoyed their protection.

became at once a The real Russian

The European

traders were, Italian, Ragusan,

Austrian, and Dalmatian J and in 1805, a few French, but under English
col^Ols,

and with Maltese crews.
cloth.

These bring French wines, and
carry back fish and iron."

German and English

They

Hcber's

MS. Joumul.

430
CHAP,
^—-v'
state,
'

TAGANROG.
over
all

the South of Russia\
;

Fruit is

brought from Turkey
oranges
:

such as

figs, raisins,

and

Greek wine from the Archipelago, silk, shawls, tobacco, and precious stones. Copper comes to them from
also

with incense, coffee,

Trehisond, but of a very inferior quality
all

:

it

is

sent to Moscoiv.

Among

the

principal ex-

ports, are, caviare, butter, leather, tallow, corn,
fur,

canvas, rigging, linen,

wool,

hemp,

and

iron: of this last article

above a million
very
bad.

pouds'^

v/ere exported during the year of our visit to

the place.

Their canvas
is

is

The

copper of Siberia

not brought to Taganrogy

as Moscoiu receives the whole produce of the
Siberian mines.

Yet the greatest advantage the
is,

town

enjoys,

in being

the

depository of
re-

Siberian productions.

From Orenburg they
:

ceive tallow, fur,

and iron

these,

with the

caviare of Astrachan,

have only the short pas-

sage by land intervening between Zaritzin on the
P'olga,

and the Don ; a distance of forty English

(1)
in

"In

winter the greatest fishery

is

carried on.

Holes are made

the

ice, at

small distances; and the net passed under from each of

these to the next in succession, by
i;

means

of a pole, until a large tract

inclosed.

Christmas
is

is

consequently as busy a time as Midsummer,
Heber's

and a mild winter
(2)

ruinous."

MS. Journal.
;

A poud equals thirty-six pounds of English weight writers, among others the translator of Pallas's Travels
South of Russia, &c. state
it

but some

throngh tho

as equal to forty.

:


431
'"vy^"
^

'

TAGANROG.
miles % where
canal

Peter the Great projected the which it was Paul's intention to have com-

^

pleted.

A

draught of the intended communi-

canaiof
c-Mk>nhl--'
^caTj^iol^
^'^'^

cation between the Euxine and the Caspian Sea,

by means
by Peter

of this canal,

was

first

published by

Perry the English engineer,

who was employed

^^"'^^

Sea.

for the undertaking'.

A

part of Perry

s

Narrative, concerning the conduct of the Russian

Government towards
ing,

himself, is very interest-

because

it

betrays the false glare around

the greatest sovereign that Russia ever knew.

Peter the Great shuffling with his engineer, to evade the payment of a few roubles, is a faithful

archetype of
scruple
;

all

the Tsars, Tsarinas, Princes,
;

and Nobles of the empire
not
to

many
their

of

whom would
valet

defraud

own

de

chambre

having the meanness of their heroine

Dashkof, who, after losing thirty roubles to Ssgur
at cards, sent

him

thirty of the

Royal Academy's

(3)

The canal

of communication between the f'ofga and the Don,
(p. 3.)

according to Perry,

would have been 140

versls,
;

because

it

would

have followed the course of two other small rivers
fa]l>

the Lavla, which

into the Don, and the Camishinha, \th\c\i falls into the f^olga but the section for the canal would not much exceed two miles.

Upon

these small rivers," says Perry,

"

sluices

uere

to be placed, to

make them navigable ; and a canal of near four Russian
51}

miles (equal to

miles English) to be cut through the dry land, where the said rivers

come nearest together."
tion in

A

work

like this

would not long be

in agita-

England.
Chapter; &\%o Perry's State of Russia,

(4) See. tha flgnettc io this

Lond. 1716.

432
CHAP,
almanacs,

TAGANROG.
by way of payment*. The Russian
people cannot be duly appreciated, excepting

by those who have not only actually resided among them, but who have seen them when they are removed from intercourse with civilized nations, and when they appear divested
of that external varnish which
is

so forcibly

alluded to

by the Lord-lieutenant of the county
a

of Vasa, in the Extract annexed to

former

page of
to

this

volume ^
credit,

Perry hardly expected
his

meet with

when he gave
hardship he

humble

representation of

the

sustained,

inasmuch as

it

affected the integrity of so lofty

an individual;

but further acquaintance with
of the people".

the country has long reconciled his simple narrative
to all our notions

An

Englishman will probably pause before he contracts for

employment

v/ith

any future Potentate

(1)

See Memoirs of Die Court of Petersburg, by Scgur,

\o\. II. p. 130.

It

was Segur himself to
(2)
(3)

whom

this

happened.

Pa^e386.

"

In the
his

mean

time, his lordship {Apraxin, the Lord- Chamber-

lain,')

upon

return to Moscow, informed

me

that he had orders
his

from the Czar

to

pay me my

arrears,

and he gave directions to
to

deputy to bring in the account of what was due
thought myself now sure of my money
his lordship, in discourse he toid
:

me;
I

so that

/

but the next time
his
it

waited upon

me, that

Majesty was so taken up

with the

affairs of

the army in Poland, that
to

time before he would come again

would perhaps be a long Moscow, and have leisure to go
&c. anA pleasantly ashed me,
time."

and view the

place,

and

to give his orders,

what

1

would do with myself
Lend,
\~t\6.

in

the

mean

Perry's State of

Russia, p. 19.

CALMUCKS.
of Russia.

433
^"^^•
^-

The canal has never been accomis
it

plished, neither

hkely to be
;

so,

without

the

aid of foreign engineers
find

and these the
difficulty in pro-

Russian Government may

The Calmuchs form

large settlements in the

neighbourhood of Taganrog.

Their camps were numerous at the time of our visit both Calmuck men and women were seen galloping their
:

horses
or

through
in

the the

streets

of

the

town,
Calmuck

lounging
ride

public

places.

women
cated,

better

than the men.
if

A

male

Calmuck on horseback looks as

he was intoxievery instant,
but the

and

likely

to

fall

off
:

althousfh he never loses his seat
sit

women
the Jiamage
of the r^;-

with more ease, and ride with extraordinary

skill.

The ceremony

of marriage

among

C«/772Zfc^v is

performed on horseback.

A

girl is

first

mounted, who rides
:

off in full speed.

Her

lover pursues
his wife,

if

he overtake her, she becomes

and the marriage
:

upon the spot after this But it sometimes happens that the to his tent. woman does not wish to marry the person by

consummated she returns with him
is

whom
suffer

she

is

pursued

:

in this case she will not

him

to overtake her.

We

were assured

that no instance occurs of a Calmuck girl being

thus cauglit, unless she have a partiality for her
VOL.
r.

2 p

434
pursuer.

CALMUCKS.
If she dislike him,

she rides, to use
*'

the language of
nothing,'' until

EngUsh sportsmen,

neck or

she has completely effected her

escape, or until the pursuer's horse

exhausted, leaving her at liberty to
to

becomes return, and

be afterwards chased by some more-favoured

admirer.

We

visited one of their largest camps, near

the town.

The earth

all

around their tents was
hohacs

covered with the mutilated carcases of dead
rats, cats, dogs, suslics,

and

:

the limbs of

horses were placed upon upright stakes, drying
in the sun.

Their dogs are fierce and nume-

rous.

A

dreadful storm had happened during

the preceding night:

we

found the Calmucks
to the

in considerable distress,

owing

havoc the
:

tempest had made among their tents
these
it

some of

had unroofed, and overthrown others.
Priest, in

Their High

a yellow dirty robe,

was
tent

walking about to maintain order.
consecrated Ensigns of the

To each

^^^^ affixed a small flag-staff, with an ensign of
gcarlct Uuen, containing^, in sacred o'
'

characters,

Caimuck

La

the written law of the Calmucks.

By means

of

an

interpreter,

who accompanied us upon
told that
in

this

occasion, w^e

were

such banners were

always erected
preventions of

times of general calamity, as

theft,

and of intrusion upon each
of the banners which

other's property.

Many

CALMUCKS.

435

we examined were torn; and others were so much effaced by use, that we could only discern
some of the written characters yet all of them were sufficiently entire to convince us that they were manuscripts, beautifully written upon coloured linen. It was therefore highly desir;

^xv^

able to procure one of these interesting docu-

ments

;

and we ultimately succeeded
first

:

but the

acquisition

was made with considerable diffithey would not suffer us even culty. At being told, however, that we to touch them were stransrers in the land, that we came from
:

very distant western countries,

and that

we

were not subjects of

Russia, they entered into
:

consultation with each other

the result of this
that
if

was an assurance on their part, pay the Priest for the trouble
the

we would
used
in

of transcribing,

a fac-simile of one of the banners then

camp should be brought
linen,

to our lodgings in

Taganrog.
scarlet

This manuscript, fairly written upon

was accordingly brought,

in

a

very solemn embassy, and with many curious
forms of presentation, by a party of the elder
Calmucks,

headed by
in their

their

Priest,

the whole

party being
absent
;

best dresses.

We

had been

and, upon our return,

we

found these

strange-looking people sitting
earth, in the court-yard of the

upon the bare
house where

we

lodged.

As we drew

near, the Priest, in a kind

2 V 2

436
*^xv^

CALMUCKS.
^^ y^^^ow frock,
>

V

made a long speech. The sub* was to inform us, that their law, esteemed sacred, had never been before suftance of this

fered to pass

from their hands

;

but as they

had been assured that we were great princes, travelled to see the world, and gather instruction for our own people, they had ven-

who

tured to consign the consecrated code to our
use.

They moreover
:

desired us
it

to observe,

that the character, in which
also sacred

was

written,

was
in

on

this

account they had also

brought a specimen of the vulgar character
Mfference between
tiieir

vui.

dailv usc amouof them. Their sacred characters, " ^ like those of Europeans, read from left to
right,

gar and Sacred ^Vritiogs.

and are of the highest antiquity
all

:

these

are used in

writings concerning the Calmuck

law.
in

The

vulgar characters, such as they use
in

their

correspondence and
life,

the ordinary

concerns of

are read from the top to the
in

bottom, and they are placed

columns.

We

have used every endeavour, but
our
return
to

in vain, since

England,
:

to

get this curious
it

manuscript translated
satisfactorily decided

neither has
in

been yet

written^
lensky,

A

what language it is gentleman of Taganrog, Mr. Kovaexperienced

from

whom we

many

other

(l)

Edition, that

The Author has been informed, since the puhhcation of the it is Sancrit. The original is now deposited in

first

tlie

Lodleian Library at Oxford.

'

CALMUCKS.
acts of kindness,

437

was our
it

interpreter

upon

this
'

^Jv^*

occasion.

He

spoke the Calmuck language with

,-—

great fluency, and said
cult to acquire.
chan,

was by no means
used

diffi-

It is frequently

in jistra-

and

throughout all the territorry of 5oc/?«m,

whose inhabitants are principally Calmucks. We had an opportunity of seeing some who had
traversed those
trable regions.
resrard °
capital,

remote and almost
once

impenesarmacand.

When we

questioned them with
its
.

to

Sarmacaxd,

celebrated
.

they described

it

as possessing the
it

remains of former magnificence. Perhaps
contains

also

many

curious

manuscripts;

as

the

Calmucks are so well versed in the art of waiting,

and hold certain
nations,

of their manuscripts

even

in religious veneration.

Like

all

other Oriental
traditions
re-

they

preserve

many

specting Alexander.

These remarks,

in addition

to former observations, contain all the information

we

are able to afford concerning this re-

markable people, the HippoPHAGiof Plbiy and
of the

more

antient historians.

Their number

in the Russian

empire has diminished since the

establishment of provincial governments

and
at-

the division of lands, owing to their being more
confined to
limited situations^.

Frequent

tempts have been made, and are daily making,
to induce
C2)

them

to

form a regular settlement
vol.
1.

;

See Pulla/s Travels in Russia,

p. 113.

438
CHAP,
'

EUROPEAN AND ASIATIC SHORES
but, like all
landers

wandering
Gipsies,

tribes, particularly

Lap-

and

they are so

much accustomed
life,

to an uncontrolled

and vagrant

that no-

thing but extreme indigence can compel
to cultivate land,

them

and

to reside in

any fixed

habitation.

The country near Taganrog
scribed,

is

a continuation

of those steppes which have been so often de-

thousand
the the
little

and which afford pasture to several It abounds with swarms of cattle.

quadrupeds before mentioned, under
of
suslic.

Near to the town are small plantations of trees, and particularly some fine oaks these the late Commandant planted, and
:

name

they flourish with other large trees near the
shore.

We

also

observed crab-trees, and the
the
:

plant from which
obtained, in
full

Spanish Liquorice'
the root of this

is

bloom

was

full

of juice, and had a very high flavour.
inhabitants
close
to

The

of Taganrog avoid planting trees
dwellings,

their

on account of the

swarms of mosquitoes which would thereby
be harboured.

The

diversity of nations observable in the
is

various inhabitants of Taganrog

altogether

without example.

Every

street

resembles a

(l)

Glycyrrldza glabra.

,

.

OF THE SEA OF AZOF.
masquerade.
together

439
in-

We

counted, at one time, the

dividuals of fifteen different countries assembled
;

and they were not more remarkable
friendship

\^^'Xl-

in the exhibition of their various costume, than
for the

^^^^l^l

harmony and

which prevailed

among them.
intermarriages,

No

one seemed to regard the
In their associations and

other as a stranger.

each individual preserves hi^

mode

of dress, and exercises his rule of worship,
eti-

without making the smallest sacrifice to

quette (by any alteration in his national habits),
or giving the slightest offence to the parties witli

whom
in the

he

is

connected.

Even

the

common

dis-

putes and petty quarrels, which are so frequent

markets of large commercial towns, ap-

peared to be unknown among the motley tribes

which peopled this place yet Babel itself could hardly have witnessed a greater variety of lan;

guages.
tives

The

fifteen nations,

whose representaassembled,

we observed simultaneously may be thus enumerated
:

1.

Russians,

9.

French,

2. Greeks,

10. English,

3. 4.

Armenians,

11. Turks,

NagayTahtars" (Hamaxolii)j 12. Italians, 5. Calmucks {Uippophagi) 13. Malo-Russians,
G. Cossacks,
7. S.

14. Prussians, 15. Hungarians.

Germans,
Poles,

(2)

" The Nagay
good

Tartars begin to the west of Marinopol

they

cultivate a

deal of «;orn, yet they dislike bread as an article of
Ibtitl

440
^
*

EUROPEAN AND ASIATIC SHORES
^^ ^^^

xv^'
-

commerce

of Taganrog should experience

v

-'

any considerable increase, we may reasonably
conclude, from the present view of
tants, that almost
its

inhabi-

every nation upon earth will

have

its

agent there.

The shores

of the Sea of Azof, from the com-

Antiquities.

merce carried on by the Antient Greeks in the Euxine and in the Palus Mceotis, bring the traveller so near to what may be deemed classic
"^

land, that an inquiry after antiquities ought not
to

be neglected.

We
and

did not hear, however,

of any thing worthy of notice.
in all the steppes
;

Tumuli abound
cliffs

in

working the

for

the establishment of a magazine or store-house,

where one of those tumuli had been raised, in a loose sandy soil, they had fomid an arched
vault,

shaped

like

an oven, constructed of very

large square bricks, and paved, in a style of

most exquisite workmanship, with the same materials. If any thing were discovered by the

workmen who made
concealed
;

this

excavation,
its

it

was

for

they pretended that

contents

were unobserved or disregarded.
food.

In

all

proba-

They extend from Marinopol
Their tents
differ

to Perecop, alone; the coast of the

Sea of Zabasche.

from those of the Calmucks,

as,

being more clumsy and never taken to pieces, they are carried about

on

cars.

This usage they seem to have borrowed from the primiti\e

Scythian population.

The Nagay
ill

tribes train their camels to

the"

yoke, for which they are

qualified,

and which practice
Heber's

is

unknown

auiong

all

the Mogul tribes in Asia."

MS.

Journal.

OF THE SEA OF AZOF.
bility,

441
^"^^^•

something of value was removed from the
as will appear

sepulchre,

by the

description

hereafter given of a similar tomb, opened upon

the Asiatic side of the Cimmerian Bosporus.

Such
the

vaulted sepulchres seem to render

trivial

notions recently entertained and published re-

specting the antiquity of arches.

The

tumuli in

which such appearances have been discovered
cannot be considered as of later date than the age of Alexander ; and perhaps they are

much

more

antient.

News
called,
tary,

arrived before

we

left

Taganrog^ that

the Cossacks of the Black Sea, or, as they are

TcHERNOMORSKi, inhabiting Kuban Tahhad crossed the river Kuban with a consiofficer in the Russian service,

derable reinforcement under General Draskovitz,

a Sclavonian

and

had made war upon the
be revenged
in

Circassians, in

order to

for the injuries

they had sustained

consequence of the continual incursions of

that people in their territory.

We

had long

been desirous to traverse the Deserts of the
Kuban, with a view to reach the districts at the
foot of

Caucasus, and,

if

possible, to gratify

our curiosity by a sight of the Circassians in
their

own country. A favourable opportunity seemed now to present itself; but even the
I)o7i

Cossacks

had cautioned us against

their

442

EUROPEAN AND ASIATIC SHORES
of the Kuban,

CHAR brethren
v

whom

they described as

i-y-

'

a lawless set of banditti; and our friends in

Taganrog considered the
hazardous

undertaking to

be

in the extreme. Yet the experience which had so often taught us that rumoured

perils vanish

when they

are approached, and,

above
Voyage
across the

all,

the desire of exploring an

tract of land,

encouraged us to

unknown make the un-

dcrtakiug. ^

In the evening of the third of July, ^ 'J

seaofAzof.

haviug placcd our carriage on board a wretched
flat-bottomed vessel,

than a boat,

more shaped like a saucer we ventured among the waves and
.

the shallows of the Sea of Azof of our voyage as

The

first

part

was

as pleasant and as tranquil
it

we

could wish
all

to

be; but having sailed

through

the Turkish fleet of merchant ships

in quarantine, as night

came

on, a gale

comlittle

menced with considerable
boat,

violence.

Our
to

heavily laden,
ill

with an

enormous
be

sail
all

which was very
at once at the

managed, seemed

mercy of the sea. The direction given to us had been, to steer south-east by east. The only person on board with the slightest knowledge of navigation, was a French

who pretended that he had been a sailor: this man held the guidance of our vessel. By mere accident we noticed the Polar Star and its bearing proved that we were out of our course. Upon this our helmsman
refugee at the helm,
;

;


443

OF THE SEA OF AZOF.
was asked,
using
it,

if

he had not a compass.
:

"

Oh

yes,
'^

f'"AP.
-sr'-^

a very good one," he rephed

but,

mstead of

he had kept
sat.

it

safe locked in the chest

upon which he
duced,
south
in
it
;

it

The compass being proappeared that we were going due
to

and

prove the ignorance of mariners

these waters,

who

are

all

of

them

coasters,
pilot,

may

only be

mentioned,

that

our

alarmed by his mistake, continued to turn the

box containing the compass, in the hope of making the needle correspond with his wishes. Finding that all was wrong, an instantaneous and fearful confusion ensued. We let go the mainsail, and made an endeavour to lower it but the rigging became hampered, and the gale, fast increasing, bore the gunnel down; at the
same
time, the carriage rolling nearly over the
lee side,

we

shipped as

much water

as

we

could

barely sustain without sinking.

Our

first efforts
roll.

were With

to secure the carriage
all

from another

our force exerted,

we

held the wheels,

while our terrified boatmen, half out of their

were running over and against each officers in the British navy have often declared, that they encounter more real danger in what is called boating, than in doubling the Cape of Good Hope during the heaviest gales of wind perhaps not one of them m such a situation would have deemed it possible to
senses,
other.

Veteran

:

444
CHAP,
V
I

EUROPEAN AND ASIATIC SHORES
gave our
''

lives.

We at last,

however, succeeded
;

.y-

ill

getting out a couple of anchors

and having

lowered and lashed the carriage, so as to secure
it

from any violent motion, passed the night in

a state of extreme anxiety and terror.

As

the

morning broke,

we
;

discerned the Asiatic coast

towards the south

but the gale continuing,
;

we

could not raise our anchors before noon
again getting under weigh,

when,

more moderate weather to the promontory of Chumburskaia, in Asia, where we landed our carriage.
sailed with
Chumiur. ikam.

we

Chum burs kaia consists of a few miserable sheds, whose tenants were busied hauling their nets, when we arrived. So prodigious was the draught of fishes made at every haul, that the waggons stationed with oxen to carry off the produce of the fishery were inadequate to its removal. A single haul was somevillage of

The

times sufficient to
gons.

The

fishes

two or three of those wagthus taken were conveyed to
fill

a place for preparing them,
OM^ners of the land
:

belonging to the

here,

being

first

salted,

they were exposed for drying in the sun.
variety caught was very great.

We
fish
size,

The saw them

draw out Prussian
let,

carp, pike, sturgeon, ster-

a

sort

of large bream,

resembling

perch, but of very considerable

and those

immense crawfish before mentioned. The shore

OF THE SEA OF AZOF.
at this place

445

was covered with
and sand.

fine gravel,

com-

chap.
XV.

posed of

shells

Swarms

of toads

and small serpents were crawling or running
towards the sea
somf'
;

the water, although unwholelittle

so

impregnated with
it,

salt,

that these animals live in

and the inhabitants

use

it

for drinking as well as for culinary pur-

poses.

Proceeding towards the

interior, the

view

is

bounded by

steppes,
tall

as

upon the European
"

side,

covered with
guage," says
tion

luxuriant plants.
',

No

lan-

Humhoh

" can express the emofeels,

which a naturalist
attention

when he touches
European.

for the first time a land that is not

The

is

fixed on so great a

number of

objects, that he can scarcely define the impres-

sion he

receives.

At every step he thinks
;

and in some new production this tumultuous state of mind he does not recollect those which are most common in our These recollections of Natural History."

he discovers

marks are so
that

strictly applicable to

our

first feel-

ings and observations

upon landing

in Asia,

of

we new

cannot avoid this insertion.
objects

A variet^^
to present

seemed immediately
;

themselves to our notice
(1)

beetles of a gigantic
Lond. 18N.

"HumbuU'sVcT%oudX Narrative,"

Vol.

I.

p. 88.

446'
^"5^^XV.
size,

SHORES OF THE SEA OF AZOF.
locusts,

various-coloured

insects,

and

some of which were twelve Having brought a letter to a inches in length. Greek gentleman, whose commercial speculations, particularly in the fishery, had induced
lare-e o^reen lizards,

him
:i[argari.

to fix his residence in this country,

we
and

fouud him at Margaritovskaia,
villasfe,

another small
;

tovskaia.

four

miles

from
to

Chumhirskaia

caused our
hoiise.

carriage

be conveyed to his

He was

settled in a small colony of his

own countrymen,
other

the neatness of

whose
all

cot-

tages plainly distinguished them from
inhabitants of the

the

country.
*'

"

I

have

retired to this place," said he,

to

be somewhat

removed from

the shore

;

as the natives along

the coast are not to be trusted."

He
we

gave us
should

a supper of rice, milk, and pancakes, according
to the

custom of

his nation

;

and

have
it

felt

comfortable in his

little

dwelling,

had
bad

not been for the revolting appearance of toads
floor.

crawling upon the
air,

Reptiles, vermin,

bad water, and bad people, are among the
but the small
of the Kuban,

plagues of Oriental territories;
district

we

traversed in this part of Asia, from

the Mouths of the

Don

to those

may

vie in natural horrors with

any other

we
and

have since seen.
the post

The roads

at this

season of

the year (July) were however excellent,

was very well

supplied.

ADDITIONAL NOTES.

Jtage

11, line 16.

"

/^

phcenomenon."'^

— The same
similar

most interesting and remarkable

appearance has been since obtestify,

served near Cambridge, as numerous witnesses can

and precisely under

meteorological

circumstances.
in their

The

stars were, if possible,

even more perfect

forms

than at Petersburg.

This happened Jan. 16, at half-past ten
this

A.M. during the year of the publication of
account of
it

Volume.

An

appeared in the Cambridge Chronicle. " Brought with them the pictures of the
in his

P. 26,
Sainfs."'2

1.

S, 9.

— Broniovius,

account of the city of Cher-

sonesus,
illo

has afforded historical evidence of the fact.
. . . .

"

Kv

monasterio duos portas ceris Corinthii,

et

Imagines

insigniores

Kioviam deportavisse."
L. Bat. 1630.

Martini Bronioiii
insigniores can

Tartaria.

The words Imagines

only apply to pictures: the Greek Church admitted idols of

no other form.

P.

1

53.

Note

(1

.)

" It was founded, according

to

Augustine,

in 1653,

during the reign of Alexis."'^

— The discordant acthis bell are
:

counts which have been published of the age of

owing

to a circumstance I neglected to notice

it

has been
in

more than once founded.

The

first

cast

was made

the

reign of Boris Gudenof, and injured

by a

fire.

The Empress
lire.

Anne,

in 1737, caused

it

to be re-founded, with considerable
it

augmentation of metal, when

was again damaged by

This explains the cause of the different statements made,
concerning
its

weight and age, by different authors; and

accounts for the figure of the Empress
its

Akne Iva.novnA

upon

exterior surface.

:

448

ADDITIONAL NOTES.
P. 199, last line of text:

"A

distinction of dialect."^

According

to the classification of the Sclaves

by Schloezer, prethey were either

served in the Notes to Starch's Tableau de laRussie, tom.l. p. 15,
that people admit of a seven-fold division
;

Russians, Poles, Bohemians, Vendians, Illyriafis, Hungarians,
or Turks.

Perhaps

I

may some day be

permitted to discuss

the interesting subject of the origin of these and other nations,

where

its

introduction will be less extraneous.

The

three great
trans-

progenitors, the Tahlar, XheArah, and the

Goth\ have

mitted to their progeny the clearest and most decisive marks
of the sources whence they were derived.
It
is

singular, that,

from

their opposite

and devious track, the descendants of
found their way to Europe.

those families have
established

all

The

Getc^,

by

right ©f long possession,

were found concen-

tered as a nucleus,

when

the Sclavi and the Moors,

by the

most remote and unconnected operations, possessed themselves
of the borders.

P. 339,

1.

22.

"

It lore then, as it does

now,

the

name of

Danaetz."^

— Observations of a
the

similar nature

may have been

suggested to

compilers

of the account of Muscovy,

published in Holland, at the Elzevir Press, in 1630; as appears by the following passage: " Est
qui in Siberiensi Ducatu oriens (unde
et alter

TanaVs Minor,

Dunecz

Severski vocatur)
Dcscript.

supra Axoph in Tanai'm
covicc,

Magnum

descendit."

Mus-

p. 8.

L.Bat. exOS.Elzev. 1630.

P. 348,
initial

1.

21 .

" The name Jray
is

is

a Tahtar zi-or^,";]— The

of this word

properly a diphthong,

common in

Sweden,

(1) By Goths, I would not be understood to mean the Barbarians who invaded tlie Roman Empire from the East; but the more antiwit

descendants of the Getee, who, crossing the Dardanelles, peopled Thraae,

and were the

origin, not only of the Teutonic tribes, but of tlic Greeks
:

" In paucis remanent Grnite vestigia lingutv
lla-c tjiioqiie

jam

Cetico barbara facta son o."
Ovid. TrUt.
lib. V.

Eh-g. YIJ,.

ADDITIONAL NOTES.
consisting of A, with writes
it

449
Heler therefore
Its

with the

O placed above A simply. (See Note

it.

Mi-.

to p. S-tS.)

etymo-

logy

may be found

in the Exopolis, or Axopolis,

of Ptolemy.

P. 386, Note
&:cr\

(1).

" At

the time

of maVing
of

this extract,"

— In the Morning Post of the 6th

March 1810, the
committed there

following extract was given of a private letter from Abo, the
capital of Finland, i-especting the atrocities

by the Russians ;

bearing date Pel. 6th, of the same year.
o

Extract of a Private Letter from Abo, the Capital of Finland,

6lh ultimo.

"

It

is

with the deepest i-egret that I communicate to you
atrocities, scarcely

an account of the perpetration of

exceeded
at Paris,

by the memorable massacre on

St.

Bartholomew's day

by the Russian
country.

troops,

on the inhabitants of

this ill-fated
*

In violation of an express stipulation in the treaty

for the transfer of Finland to Russia, a certain proportion of

the inhabitants were ordered to be drafted, or rather impressed,
into the Emperor's service.

The

despotic mandate was in

general obeyed

;

and considerable

levies

were procured, before

their destination

was known to be the shores of the Euxine,
In the province of Savolax the

to fight against the Turks.

alarm became general; and the people, conceiving that they

were exempt from service for a limited time, ventured to
remonstrate against what they considered as an infraction of
the treaty.

Count Tolesky, the Governor of Finland, to

whom
repair

the appeal was

made

in the

most respectful and sub-

missive terms, invited the inliabitants,

by proclamation, to
churches, in order to

on Sunday

last to their respective

obtain a redress of grievances.
effect.

This

artifice

had the desired

The

inhabitants,

who

are widely scattered, and difficult
in a

to

be got
VOL.
I.

at in detail,

were collected
2 G

focus

;

and

wjiile in

450

ADDITIONAL NOTES.
anxious expectation for the proffered act of grace, and uncon^
scious of the unpendlng danger, they were suddenly surrounded

by bands of
place,

soldiers,

who, regardless of the sanctity of the
dragged the flower

and deaf

to the voice of humanity,

of the young

men from
in life

the altars of their God, from the

bosoms of

their parents,
;

and the enjo3Tiient of

all

that

was

most dear to them

and moreover butchered, without

any distinction of age, sex, or condition, those that attempted,
Tjy intercession or force, to soften the hearts

or avert the

deadly weapons of their remorseless assassins. In the parishes

where those

atrocities

were perpetrated, no

less

than 700

unoffending and defenceless individuals have fallen victims to
the relentless fury of monsters in a

human

form."

450*

ADDITIONAL NOTE
TO
P. 61.

*'

K.IRGISSIANS

;

a people yet unknown"'^

— The

author

has mentioned the circumstance of his having resided beneath
the same roof with a party of Kirgissians, in an irm at Moscow;

and he has
people.

also

stated,

that very

little

is

kno\vn of

this

They

call

themselves " Sara Ka'isaki," or " Cossacks

of the Desert." Their antient history is so obscure, that even their name, and the existence of their race, were unheard in

Europe before the cession of Siberia
(or, as it is

to the Russians

by Jermak
in

pronounced, Yermak), the Cossack hero,
fell

1581*.

The Kirgissians

under the Russian yoke

in 1606,

and from

that period they have rendered themselves conspicuous
their frequent revolts-]-.

by

In 1643, they were vanquished by
time, they have

the Calmucks.

From immemorial

been divided

into three separate hordes, or Clans;

and these leading branches
or Nobles,

admit also of subdivisions.

Their Chiefs,

are

distinguished into three classes; bearing the several

titles

of

Ghodscha, Bio,

and Saltan.

The

first consists of families

renowned

for their antiquity only; the second, of those families

which, as princes, have had Saltans, or famous warriors, for
their ancestors.

For the

rest, their history,

owing to the

mili-

tary spirit of the people, and to that contempt of labour which

* See Chap.
Russie,
torn.

XIII.

p.

376, of this volume.

Also Starches Tableau de la

I.

p. 76. Basle,

1800.

See also Miiller's Description de

tontes les Nations, &c. Petersburg, 1776. p. 138.

f

M'dller, p. 139.

ADDITIONAL NOTE.
characterizes

even the lowest of their commoners,
Scottish

resembles
Kirgissiafis

the history of the

Highlanders.

much The

may be

considered as Highlanders on horseback.

Nearly the same threefold division into orders distinguished
the Highland Clans; and the same remarkable superstitions
still

exist

among
a
his

these

widely-separated
in

nations.

The
to

author
depart

saw
into

Kirgissian,

Moscow, when
busied
in

about

own
in

country,

divination,

by

examining the marks upon the blade-bone of a sheep, which

had been blackened
the time,

the

fire:

and he remembered, at

that such a

mode of
;

divination existed in

some

country that he had visited

but not recollecting where he
to

had observed
to be too

it,

he omitted

mention the

fact;

deeming

it

trivial

a circumstance to be noticed of itself.
this

Having

however recently read an account of

as practised in the Highlands of Scotland * (where he

mode of divination now
tliis

remembers having seen

it),
it

and

also in the country of the

Jfghauns, he has thought
Note.

right to introduce

Additional

* See the interesting Article on the " Cidloden Papers," as inserted in

No.

XXVIII.

of the Quarter/!/ llevieus published in lilay 1816.

"The

Af^hauiis most ordinary mode of divination," obser.'es the writer of that article, " is by examining the marks in the blade-bone of a slieej), held up
to the light
time, the
:

and even so the Rev. Mr. Robert Kirk assures

us, that in his

end of the sixteenth century, the Seers prognosticate many future

events (only for a month's space) from the shoulder-bone of a sheep, on

vhich a kasf^ never ca:ne."

APPENDIX.

No.
JL

I.

HE following document
at

is

inserted to prove

the remarkable fact, that during a period

when

war with Russia, two English Gentlemen, accredited by their Government, and bearing with them recommendatory letters from the English Secretary of State, were
England was not
detained prisoners in that country, contrary to
the laws observed between civilized nations.
It is

an answer, from the Governor of Moscow,
for

to

their petition

a passport to return to

England; after every application to the Emperor,

by means of

their Minister at Petersburg,

had

failed of effect;

given verbally and

literally.

" Le Comte

Soltijcof est mortiiie qui'l

ne peut

pas contenter Messieurs
fronti^res, par la raison

Cripps et Clarke, en

leurs procurant la permission de sortir hors des

que ca ne depend que

de Sa Majeste l'Empereur mtoie.

Ce

qui con-

cerne I'envoi de la lettre au Ministre diAngleterre

1g2

452

APPENDIX, N"

r.

a Petersbourg, ces Messieurs la peuvent faire

remettre par
toute surete."

la poste,

et elle sera

rendue en

TRANSLATION.
" Count
Soltijcof is

concerned that he cannot
in obtaining

gratify Messrs.

Cnpps and Clarke

permission for them to pass the frontiers, since
that depends solely on his Majesty the Emperor.

As

to the

conveyance of the
send

letter

addressed to

the English Minister at Petersburg, those Gen-

tlemen

may

it

by

the post, and

it

will

be

delivered in perfect safety."'

As a comment upon
tion, it

this curious

communica-

may be

necessary to add, concerning the
letters

pretended security of

entrusted to the

post in Russia, that few of them ever reached
their

destination:
;

they were

all

opened and

read by the police

and often destroyed, or sent

back to

their authors.

We

had, at that time,

no other means of intercourse with our Minister,
than by sending a messenger the whole

way

from Moscow

to Petersburg;
;

a distance nearly

6qual to five hundred miles

and

it

was

in this

manner we obtained his instructions for attempting an escape by the southern frontier.

APPENDIX,

N" II.

453

No.

11.

TRANSLATION
OF THE

REPORT

made hj a

BOARD

of

RUSSIAN ENGINEERS,

ON THE STATE OF THE

INTERNAL NAVIGATION OF RUSSIA.

The

present water communication between the

TiieCanais

Volga and the Baltic,

having the Canals

oi

vohshok,

Vyshney Foloshok for

its

point of separation and

reservoir, dates its origin from the year 1711.

One

part of the reservoirs, sluices, &c. at this

place, serves to

improve the navigation of the

Tveret; and the other, to render the passage of

the craft, over the Borovitsky Falls (in the Mstd),
less dangerous.
is

This part of Inland Navigation
the state of perfection
it

brought to
of;

all

is

capable
slcy,

except finishing the Cut from

FilievviUevsicy

for

an extraordinary supply of water, in
This

time of drought, out of the Lake Velia.

Canal.

Canal was begun
In
1

in 1779,

but soon abandoned.
In

1797> the

work was again resumed.

798, an extraordinary drought prevailed, and ex-

hausted the reservoirs of Vyshney Voloshok to that
degree, that the vessels

bound

to St. Petersburg

;

454

APPENDIX, N"

II.

were in danger of being totally stopped which circumstance was a convincing proof of the absolute necessity to complete this Cut
'

from the Lake
water

Felia'.

But, as the sole object

of this undertaking was the mere

supply of

to Fyshney Voloshoh, after leaving of

which

the barks were exposed to

new

danger, in pass-

ing the Cataracts oi Borovitsky, and in navigating
the Lake Ilmen (which not only subjects them to
loss of time in watching for favourable weather,

but to imminent risk of the

total loss of capital,

and many

lives,

from the natural turbulency of
merchants frequenting this track
toll

this water), the

voluntarily proposed paying a
for

of ten

roubles.

each vessel, to make a passage practicable
to

round the Ibnen leading from the Msta direct
the Tolchof.
nation, in
NooogoCanal.

The plan was adopted, on exami^ 1775; but the work not begun till
In 1800,
the spring caravan,

1797, under the denomination of the NovogoTodsKy CauaP.

taking advantage of the high water, usually

prevalent at that season, effected a passage

through this canal with ease, though not yet

(1)

To

extricate the caravans, cost ^0,000 roubles.

(2)

For this purpose, 18,000 roubles were appropriated.

(3) 250,000 roubles

were assigned forthiswork.

The

toll collected,

produced 50,000 roubles;
already expended.

and the whole sum of 300,000

roubles

is

;

APPENDIX, N"
perfectly finished.
3

ir.

455

Its completion

was

to

be

in

802.

The Canals

of Vyshney Volosliok (forming, as

before mentioned, the chief point of separation,

on which depends the whole communication)
being the mere work of
dent, from
art,

are liable to acci-

many natural causes. The destruction
work of like conseall

of a dam, sluice, or other

quence, notwithstanding
precaution,

human

foresight or

may put an

entire stop, at least for

a time, both to the conveyance of the necessaries of life and articles of trade to the capital. Independent of this
circumstance,
this

track of

navigation requires annually an unmeasurable

quantity of wood, for the construction of vessels,

which can never return home

for future
it

use (the

Borovitsky Cataracts rendering

an absolute

impossibility); consequently the forests will

be

exhausted, and, in a certain space of time, this

communication

will decline of itself, and, finally,
for

be totally abandoned,

want of building materials. These inconveniences were observed by Peter the Great at the very beginning, he took measures to find other means of communication and, after a survey, had resolved on the junction of the Rivers Kofgia and Fetegra. His demise
:

put a stop
that time:
aijd,

to
it

the execution of this project at

was however resumed

in 1785,

on a further survey, adopted on the same

;

456
principles.

APPENDIX, N"

II.

The excessive drought convinced Count Sivers, then chief
reservoirs
of

in

1799
this

of

department, of the

utiUty of this work,

the

Vyshney Voloshoh being totally

drained: he procured an order from the Sovereign
Mariensky
Canal.

for

the purpose;

and the

canal,
to

now

called thc

Marienshj,

was begun

be dug

The first, between the Kofgia and Fitegra. excepting a few places which require being
cleared a
little, is

at all seasons pretty navigable,
versts is to unite it
is to

and a canal of about six
the Fitegra.

with

This canal

be supplied with

water from the Malco Lake (Malcosero), through

which
to

it

takes

its

course; and the reservoir

is

have an additional supply by a Cut from the
This canal
is to

great Kofgia Lake.

be

fur-

nished with twelve sluices, seven of which are
to

serve for the convoy of vessels from the

Kolgia, up to the point of separation in the Malco

Lake the other five,
:

to conduct

them

doivn to the

Vitegra.

This river requires infinitely more

labour than the Kofgia, to be
considerable
falls

made
;

navigable

require nineteen sluices, to

make

a safe passage practicable

and

in

some
to

places, the digging of circuitous passages,

shun the
ing in

Falls, is absolutely

necessary

;

extend-

all to

about eight hundred fathoms (of

seven feet English).

The whole space requiring
comprehends seven-

labour, the canal included,

APPENDIX,
teen
versts.
:

N" If.

457

Hitherto
the canal

it

has been successfully
finished
;

carried on

is

ten versts on

the Vitegra cleared,
pleted.

and thirteen sluices com-

In 1801, the canal was supplied with ease,

and the greatest part of the communication
rendered navigable.
of the whole,
for clearing

The

entire

completion

including the

time necessary
Vitegra,

the cataracts in the
it is

and
be

improving the Kofgia,
in

computed,

will

1805

'.

Independent of the benefits expected from
this

canal,

in

avoiding the inconveniences of
it is

that of Fyshney Voloshok,

expected to open

another track, and procure a new, and not a

very circuitous passage, to the vessels going

from the Sheksna

to the

Volga.

The caravan

from the Lower Folga will also be freed from
detention in waiting for high water at Vyshney
Voloshok and in the Msta River,

by which the
for

passage through the former will be rendered
easier,

and trade have a greater scope
;

exertion and increase
its

as Vyshney Voloshok, in

most perfect

state,

cannot admit a passage
annually, and thereby

for

more than 4000 barks

(j)

2,000,000 roubles were assigned for this work;
roubles

and

in

17,9.0

and 1800, 500,000
necessary for leOJ,

were expended,

400,000 were computed

;

458
impedes

APPENDIX,

N"

II.

commerce.

Still

greater

benefits

would accrue from the Marknsky Canal, if the favourite plan of Petek the First were put into
execution;
nication
Project for

viz.

that of establishing a

commu-

by water between
In 1800,

the ports of St.

Petersburg and Archangel, or the Baltic and the

inga^com-

White

Secis.

by order

of the Emperor,

practicability was examined into, and found r^'water" ^^^ between a. means of the River Sheksna, and
Petersburg

feasible,
ti^e

by
-^

and Arch-

The proper arrangements were made, and the Department of Water
Lake
KubensJcoij.

Communication has
to

it

in

view

to

put

it

into

execution in due time.

Giving this advantage
of the

these two principal ports

Empire

would be

of the greatest utility, not only with

regard to trade, but the easy means of supplying
the Admiralty of
St.

Petersburg with timber for

the navy,

from the abundant forests of the

North of Russia.
Voloshok

There are other inconveniCataracts of the Folchof, and

ences attending the navigation through Vyshney
Tiie Cata;

viz. tlic

River vui.
toJ'i'ng^^^'^^'

the

Outlet from the

Ladoga Canal into the

Neva, where vessels are at times detained for
a fortnight

by

contrary winds

'.

Measures

were taken to lessen the danger of the Falls and proper roads or tracks for towing vessels

(])
foj

For clearing the cataracts, 118,000 rovbles were allowed

;

and

the towing road, 60,000 roubles; ninety rent^ of

which are done.

APPENDIX,

N° If.

459

against the stream, for the return of them,

were

ordered to be made

in 1799.

To
a

facihtate the

passage out of the Ladoga Canal into the Neva,
against wind and weather,

was begun to be made, at Schlussellmrg, the same In 1798, a new passage was also year-.

new

outlet

effected at Ladoga.

In general, the Canal of

Ladoga, through length of time% requires annual and important repairs.

This canal

is

now

The sUkoy

continued from the Volchof to the Sasy River,

and thence called the Sashoy.
finished

This work was
versts

entered upon in 1769, and three
;

thereof
re-

and then abandoned

;

and again

sumed

in 1799*.

Great as the importance of
St.

the Ladoga Canal to the export trade of
Petersburg, that of the Sciskoy
is

no less

so,

in

consideration of the facility of conveying the
foreign goods imported at
St.

Petersburg,

and

distributing

them in the interior of the country. The chief object of these canals is, to avoid the Lake of Ladoga. From the River Sasy, merchandize
is

conveyed,

through

the
;

River
a land-

Tifenha, to the city of the

same name
it

carriage of ninety versts brings

to the

wharf

(2)

The new

Outlets out of the Canal of Ladoga are, one at Schltisat the

selburg,
(3)

and another

town

of

Ladoga.
estimated to rost 117,000

The Outlet
;

at

Schlusstlburg was

roubles
(4)

that at Ladoga, 74,000 roubles.

240,000 roubles are assigned for this canal.

;

460
of Sominka;

APPENDIX,

N" II.

and from thence, by
it is

the rivers

Tzagodotchia and Mologa,
Volga, which suppUes
all

conveyed to the

the adjacent country.

From

the vi^harf of Sominshay, about 2,000,000

roubles in value, of foreign

goods,

is

annually

carried into the interior.

The deepening of

some of the

rivers

belonging to this inland

navigation has increased this branch of trade

but the considerable land-carriage between the
Somina

and

Tifin

greatly

impede
of

its

farther
last

progress.

The junction

these

two

wharfs,

by water, engaged the attention of Peter the First and proper measures for the discovery of the most eligible means were taken by Generals Dedenef, Resanof, and others, in In 1800, the examination was resumed, 1765. and the junction of the two wharfs found practicable, by a canal on the English plan, adapted
;

to the navigation of such vessels as are

now

in

use on the rivers Tifenka, Sasy, and Somina.
sluices to

The
of

be constructed on

this canal are to

have no more than ten and twelve
breadth,
Vysliney

feet

when opened.
Voloshok

If the plan of those of

were

to

be followed,
a
;

they
of

being thirty-two feet wide,

sufficiency

water could never be collected
construction.

nor does the

situation of the place admit of this

mode

of

By

an Imperial

uhase, the

work

was

to

begin in 1802, and conclude in 1801.

APPENDIX,

N° II.

4G1
Project for
can^'ir"""
^^"^"e

When
]

the

Mariensky Canal was begun, in

799, the practicability of a circuitous inland

nav^igation,

round the Onega and Ladoga Lakes,
into, to
first

La-

was
Svir

also

examined
the

avoid passing any
rivers
Sasjj to

J^^^^^^"*^

part of them:

by means of the
through the

and Vitegra, the

latter

the Svir.

This last was ordered to be carried

into execution in 1802,

and
of

its

chief object is

to

facilitate

the return

barks

The

canal from the Sasy to
in 1802'.

homeward. the Svir was orTheXonhern Kutherinskoy

dered

by water, between the Caspian and White Seas, or the Voha and the ISorthern Z)rm« rivers, was m agitation m but the first the reign of Peter the Great survey was only made in 1785; and, as hardly any natural obstacle was found to oppose the execution of the plan, it was adopted, and a canal* begun to be dug, named the Northern Katherinskoy, which was to unite two small rivulets, having a morass of an immense exa communication
*'

To make

;

tent

for their

common

source,

situate

on the

frontier of Permia

and Onstnhk.
Volga;

rivulets

has a communication,

One of these by means of
and the other

the

Kama,

with the

with the Northern Dvina,
however not begun.

through the river

(J) It

is

(2)

600,000 roubles was assigned, and 100,000 expended

;

but

llic

war put a stop to the work.

;

462
Fitchagda.

APPENDIX,

N"

II.

But the canal remains unfinished

J

and the only advantage that resulted from the
attempt was, the opening of a
road,

new

track,

or

by land, through a country then totally waste and uninhabited. This canal could have
supplied Archangel, at a
trifling

expense, with

merchandize, not only from the province of
Fiatha,

but through the river Belaya, from the

Government of Oujimsk and Tznsiovaya from that of Permia, in the course of one summer. The importance of this canal is enhanced, by
the facility
it

affords of conveying timber for

ship-building to Archangel, from the

immense

forests in its vicinity, abounding, particularly,
in the Listvinitzna
Tiiejunction of the

wood,

at Tchai-dina.

Thc

iunctiou of the Volga and the
"^

voig