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1. HISTORY ..........4

2.1 Biometrics Evolution... 4 2.2 IRIS Recognition...5 2.2.1 What is IRIS5 2.2.2 How IRIS works in EYE.5 2.3 FACE Recognition.7 2.4 FINGER Recognition.7 2.4.1 Template Creation...8 2.4.2 Auxiliary Images..9
2. PALM VEIN RECOGNITON....11 3.1 Vein Scanner Function..11 3.2 Vascular Pattern Authentication..11

3.2.1 High Authentication Accuracy 12

1. PALM VIEW TECHNOLOGY REVIEWS .13 4.1 Basics of Palm Vein Technology..13 4.2 Palm Vein Registration.14 4.3 Working of Palm Vein Systems15 4.4 How Secure is The Technology16 4.5 What Happens if the Registered Hand Get Damaged..17 1

4.6 Contact Less Palm Vein Authentication Device.17 1. .APPLICATIONS.18 5.1 A T M .. 18 5.2 Personal Computers..19 5.3 Libraries.19 5.4 Authentication..20

1. BENEFITS...21 6.1 Accuracy....21

6.2 Statistics.22 1. CONCLUSIONS...23 2. REFERENCES..23


1.1 WHAT IS PALM VEIN TECHNOLOGY? Palm Vein Technologies are one of the upcoming Technologies which is highly secure. It is the worlds first contactless personal identification system that uses the vein patterns in human Palms to confirm a persons identity. it is highly secure because it uses Information contained within the body and is also highly accurate because the pattern of veins in the palm is complex and unique to each individual. Moreover, its contact less feature gives it a hygienic advantage over other biometric authentication technologies. The palm secure works by capturing a persons vein pattern image while radiating it with nearinfrared rays. The palm secure detects the structure of the pattern of veins on the palm of the human hand with the utmost precision. The sensor emits a near-infrared beam towards the palm of the hand and the blood flowing through these back to the heart with reduced oxygen absorbs this radiation, causing the veins to appear as a black pattern. These patterns is recorded by the sensor and is stored in encrypted form in a database, on a token or on a smart card.Veins is internal in the body and have wealth of differentiating features, assuming false identity through forgery is extremely difficult, thereby enabling an extremely high level of security. The palm secure technology is designed in such a way that it can only detect the vein pattern of living people. The scanning process is extremely fast and does not involve any contact meaning that Palm secure meets the stringent hygienic requirements that are normally necessary for use in public environments. In the ubiquitous network society, where individuals can easily access their information anytime and anywhere, people are also faced with the risk that others can easily access the same information anytime and anywhere. Because of this risk, personal identification technology, which can distinguish between registered legitimate users and imposters, is now generating interest. Currently, passwords, personal identification numbers (4-digit pin numbers) or identification cards are used for personal identification. However, cards can be stolen, and passwords and numbers can be guessed or forgotten. To solve these problems, biometric authentication technology, which identifies people by their unique biological information, is attracting attention. Technology: Palm vein authentication works by comparing the pattern of veins in the palm (which

appear as blue lines) of a person being authenticated with a pattern stored in a database. Vascular patterns are unique to each Individual according to Fujitsu research even identical twins have different patterns. And since the vascular patterns exist inside the body, they cannot be stolen by means of photography, voice recording or fingerprints, thereby making this method of biometric authentication more secure than others

2. History
2.1 Biometrics Evolution:
The term "biometrics" is derived from the Greek words bio resembles life and metric is to measure. Biometrics is becoming an interesting topic now in regards to computer and network security, however the ideas of biometrics have been around for many years. Possibly the first known example of biometrics in practice was a form of finger printing being used in CHINA in the 14th century, as reported by explorer joao de barros. He wrote that the CHINESE merchants were stamping children's palm prints and footprints on paper with ink to distinguish the young children from one another. This is one of the earliest known cases of biometrics in use and is still being used today. In the 1890s, an anthropologist named ALPHONSE BERTILLION sought to fix the problem of identifying convicted criminals and turned biometrics into a distinct field of study. He developed 'BERTILLONAGE', a method of bodily measurement which got named after him. The problem with identifying repeated offenders was that the criminals often gave different aliases each time they were arrested. BERTILLION realized that even if names changed, even if a person cut his hair or put on weight, certain elements of the body remained fixed, such as the size of the skull or the length of their fingers. His system was used by police authorities throughout the world, until it quickly faded when it was discovered that some people shared the same measurements and based on the measurements alone, two people could get treated as one. After this, the police used finger printing, which was developed by Richard Edward henry of Scotland yard, instead. Essentially reverting to the same methods used by the Chinese for years. However the idea of biometrics as a field of study with Useful identification applications, was there and interest in it has grown. Today we have the

technology to realize the aims, and to refine the accuracy of biometric identification, and therefore the possibility of making it a viable field. Biometrics has been around since 29,000 BC when cavemen would sign their drawings with handprints. In 500 BC Babylonian business transactions were signed in clay tablets with fingerprints. The earliest cataloging of fingerprints dates back to 1881 when Juan Vucetich started a collection of fingerprints of criminals in Argentina. Talk about winning hands down over your competitors. That's what a new biometric technology is doing. It scans the veins in the palm to create an almost foolproof profile of the user. This technology is ideal not just for high security areas, but also where conventional ID systems have failed. With increasing awareness of security and identity theft, organizations would like to map individuals uniquely. Though various forms of biometric systems are being used - fingerprints, iris and retina scans, voice prints, facial features, hand geometry and signatures - the palm vein steals a march over others as it's found to be the most fraud-resistant. That's simply because the identity, in this case the complex maze of veins, is inside the palm.
2.2 IRIS Recognition 2.2.1 What Is IRIS?

It is very much important to have glimpse of IRIS of our eye. IRIS is a thin, circular structure in the eye. IRIS is responsible for controlling the diameter and size of eye ball (pupil) and amount of light reaching to the eyeball. A color of eye is responsible due to IRIS.
2.2.2 How IRIS Works In Eye

When light impact on the eye, muscles attached to the iris expand or contract the aperture at the Centre of the iris. This is known as pupil. IRIS recognition is one of the biometric identification and authentication that employs pattern recognition technology with the help of high resolution images of IRIS of a eye of a particular person. IRIS recognition is absolutely different than Retina Scan Technology. IRIS recognition employs camera with infrared illumination which reduces reflection from convex cornea and imparts detail rich images with complex structure of IRIS. Then

these images converted to digital templates and provide mathematical representation of the IRIS.

This technology provides unambiguous and perfect identification of an individual. Person with a glasses or contact lenses can also be identified by IRIS recognition. Because of its speed of comparison, IRIS recognition is the unique biometric recognition technology perfectly suited for one to many identification
2.2.3 Advantages

IRIS of an eye has been described as the ideal part of the human body for biometric identification: IRIS is an integral organ of the eye and is well protected against any damage. While fingerprint gets changed over a period of time because of certain type of manual labor. As compared to face, the shape of IRIS is flat and its geometric configuration is quite regular. This makes IRIS shape far more predictable than face. In general the rage of IRIS scanner is from some centimeters to few meters. There is no need for the person to touch IRIS scanner to be identified and authenticated. There will be no effects on the eyes while scanning on them this is guaranteed by the experts .

2.3Face Recognition
Face Recognition technology have lead to perfection since many years. Now Face recognition technology is the best of all technology available where the large no of database is required to identify with easy, user friendly process.The Face technology has been made to safely recognize persons, independent of variances

that appear to human faces. Face Recognition technology handles pose, mimic, aging variance as well as variances coming from a new hair style, glasses or temporary lighting changes.

Figure 2.3.1 shows the various fields involved in recognizing the face.

2.4Finger Recognition
Fingerprint recognition is also known as image acquisition. In this part of the process, a user places his or her finger on a scanner. Numerous images of the fingerprint are then captured. It should be noted that during this stage, the goal is to capture images of the center of the fingerprint, which contains many of the unique features. All of the captured images are then converted into black and white images. The fingerprint is composed of various ridges and valleys which form the basis for the loops, arches, and swirls that one can easily see on his/her fingertip. The ridges and valleys contain different kinds of breaks and discontinuities. These are called minutiae, and it is from these minutiae that the unique features are located and determined.

There are two types of minutiae: Ridge endings (the location where the ridge actually ends) Bifurcations (the location where a single ridge becomes two ridges)

2.4.1 Template Creation Template Creation Based upon the unique features found in the minutiae. The location, position, as well as the type and quality of the minutiae are factors taken into consideration in the template creation stage. Each type of fingerprint recognition technology has its own set of algorithms for template creation and matching. Template matching the system will either attempt to verify or identify a individual, by comparing the enrolled template against the verification template. Any application that requires such authentication can be interfaced with Biometrics system using standard APIs known as BioAPI or BAPI. These APIs are opensystems standard written in C and it consists a set of function calls to perform basic actions common to all biometric technologies, such as enroll user authentication discover identity identity

We all know that no two fingerprints in the world possess exact same characteristics; we are using the fingerprints to identify the employee in your company to mark the attendance and time. During the registration process, various employee data, i.e., name, address, [employee #] etc. Is entered into the database of the persons record. The person then places a finger on the scanner and a template of the finger is recorded tying the fingerprint to the record. By placing the user's finger on the sensor, in less than one second, the fingerprint reader/terminal verifies the person's identity. As no two fingerprint feature the exact same characteristics, fingerprint reader assures your company fraud and error free data collection and integration as well as payroll accuracy. From that point on, to "punch in" or "punch out", the individual simply places his or her finger on the scanner for recognition. The owner/employer/etc. Can then filter the data to generate customized reports of a single employee, several employees, over any time period, etc. 2.4.2 Auxiliary Images

Auxiliary images Sometimes, when working with AFIS or some more professional biometrics applications, it is useful to have auxiliary images to work with.AFIS can supply five types of auxiliary images. These are: a 500 DPI version of the extracted image; a binary image; a quality map; a ridge directions map; a ridges image

A 500 DPI version of the extracted image is useful because, regardless of the input image resolution, the minutiae extraction is always made on a 500 DPI image. International standards determined 500 DPI as the default resolution for fingerprint systems. As such, this resolution is used in fingerprint readers, fingerprint matchers and fingerprint compression algorithms

Fig The quality map shows the background (black) and four levels of quality, showing where the ridges are more consistent and where the image have noise or lack of ridges information

Fig quality map

The binary image shows the processed image after removal of the gray tones information. Good images provide a clear image of fingerprint ridges, in a binary image

Fig binary image

The ridges direction map shows the average direction of ridges in a given point of the image

Fig Ridge direction Finally, the ridges image shows the ridges detected by GRIAULE AFIS algorithm

Fig ridge image

3.Palm Vein Recognition

Each and every person is having unique pattern of palm veins. Even if they are twin they have different pattern of palm veins. In order to identify a person complicated vascular pattern is very much helpful and thats why it is having quite differentiating features for persons identification. One of the greater advantages of palm vein is that they do not adopt any change during the life of a human because they lie under the skin. It is very much secure method of identification and authentication

3.1 Vein Scanner Function


Persons palm vein image is captured by special kind of sensor. During reflection, illumination of palm takes place with the help of infrared rays and captures the light given off after diffusion through the palm. The deoxidized hemoglobin in the palm vein vessels absorbs the infrared rays and causing the palm veins to appear as a black pattern. This vein pattern is then verified against preregistered pattern to authenticate the human. This recognition method provides high level of security.

3.2 Vascular Pattern Authentication

Hemoglobin in the blood is oxygenated in the lungs and carries oxygen to the tissues of the body through the arteries. After it releases its oxygen to the tissues, the deoxidized hemoglobin returns to the heart through the veins. These two types of hemoglobin have different rates of absorbency. Deoxidized hemoglobin absorbs light at a wavelength of about 760 nm in the near-infrared region. When the palm is illuminated with near infrared light, unlike the image seen by the human eye, the deoxidized hemoglobin in the palm veins absorbs this light, thereby reducing the reflection rate and causing the veins to appear as a black pattern. In vein authentication based on this principle, the region used for authentication is photographed with near-infrared light, and the vein pattern is extracted by image processing and registered. The vein pattern of the person being authenticated is then verified against the preregistered pattern. In addition to the palm, vein authentication can be done using the vascular pattern on the back of the hand or a finger. However, the palm vein pattern is the most complex and covers the widest area. Because the palm has no hair, it is easier to photograph its vascular pattern. The palm also has no significant variations in skin color compared with fingers or the back of the hand, where the color can darken in certain areas


Figure 3.2 illustrating the palm pattern recognition. 3.2.1 High Authentication Accuracy Using the data of 140,000 palms from 70,000 individuals, Fujitsu has confirmed that the system has a false acceptance rate of less than 0.00008% and a false rejection rate of 0.01%, provided the hand is held over the device three times during registration, with one retry for comparison during authentication. In addition, the devices ability to perform personal authentication was verified using the following: 1) data from people ranging from 5 to 85 years old, including people in various occupations in accordance with the demographics released by the Statistics Center of the Statistics Bureau 2) data about foreigners living in Japan in accordance with the world demographics released by the United Nations 3) data taken in various situations in daily life, including after drinking alcohol, taking a bath, going outside, and waking up

4 Palm Vein Technology Reviews

4.1 Basic Of Palm Vein Technology
An individual first rests his wrist, and on some devices, the middle of his fingers, on the sensor's supports such that the palm is held centimeters above the device's scanner, which

flashes a near-infrared ray on the palm. Unlike the skin, through which near-infrared light passes, deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood flowing through the veins absorbs nearinfrared rays, illuminating the hemoglobin, causing it to be visible to the scanner. Arteries and capillaries, whose blood contains oxygenated hemoglobin, which does not absorb near-infrared light, are invisible to the sensor. The still image captured by the camera, which photographs in the near-infrared range, appears as a black network, reflecting the palm's vein pattern against the lighter background of the palm.

Fig 4.1 Veins of Palm In individual's palm vein image is converted by algorithms into data points, which is then compressed, encrypted, and stored by the software and registered along with the other details in his profile as a reference for future comparison. Then, each time a person logs in attempting to gain access by a palm scan to a particular bank account or secured entryway, etc., the newly captured image is likewise processed and compared to the registered one or to the bank of stored files for verification, all in a period of seconds. Numbers and positions of veins and their crossing points are all compared and, depending on verification, the person is either granted or denied access

4.2Registering Through Palm Vein Technology

Registration of palm is done in the following steps as shown Step 1: Palm vein authentication technology consists of a small Palm vein scanner

that's easy and natural to use, fast and Highly accurate . Simply hold your palm a few centimeters Over the scanner and within a second it reads your unique vein pattern .A vein picture is taken and palm pattern is registered .

Fig 4.2 Scanner Display Step 2: The registered palm pattern is stored into the database along with the personal details of the client.

4.3Working of palm vein security systems

1.One should place his/her palm near to scanner

Fig 4.3.1 palm on sensor


2.The scanner makes use of a special characteristic of the reduced hemoglobin coursing through the palm veins it absorbs near-infrared light. This makes it possible to take a snapshot of what's beneath the outer skin, something very hard to read or steal

Fig 4.3.2 infrared on palm

3. The integrated optical system in the palm vein sensor uses this phenomenon to generate an image of the palm vein pattern and the generated image is digitized, encrypted and finally stored as a registered template in the database.

Fig 4.3.3 short region on palm

4.4 How secure is the technology

On basis of testing the technology on more than 70,000 individuals, researches declared that the new system had a false rejection rate of 0.01% (i.e., only one out of 10,000 scans were incorrect denials for access),and a false acceptance rate of less

than 0.00008% (i.e.,incorrect approval for access in one in over a million scans). Also, if your profile is registered with your right hand, don't log in with your left - the patterns of an individual's two hands differ. And if you registered your profile as a child ,it'll still be recognized as you grow, as an individual's patterns of veins are established in utero (before birth). No two people in the world share a palm vein pattern even those of identical twins differ .In addition the devices ability to perform personal authentication was verified using the following: 1. Data from people ranging from 6 to 85 years old including people in various occupations in accordance with the demographics realized by the Statistics Center of the Statistics Bureau. 2. Data about foreigners living in Japan in accordance with the world demographics released by the united nations. 3. Data taken in various situations in daily life including after drinking alcohol, taking a bath, going outside and waking up

4.5 What happens if the registered palm gets damaged

There may be a chance that the palm we had registered may get damaged then we cannot use this technology, so during the time of registration we take the veins of both the hands so that if one gets damaged we can access through the second hand. When hand get damaged up to large extent we can get veins because deeper into the hand veins are obtained.

Fig 4.6 Registering two palms

When we apply this method we can maintain complete privacy


4.6 Contact less palm vein authentication device (HYGIENE CONCERN):

The completely contactless feature of this Device makes it suitable for use where high levels of hygiene are required .It also eliminates any hesitation people might have about coming into contact with something that other people have already touched

Fig 4.7 contact less sensor In addition to being contactless and thereby hygienic and user-friendly in that the user does not need to physically touch a surface and is free of such hygiene concerns, palm vein authentication is highly secure in that the veins are internal to the body and carry a wealth of information, thereby being extremely difficult to forge.

This palm vein authentication technology is used in various areas for more security. The following are some of the important areas where it is used

5.1 A.T.M
In July 2004, to ensure customer security, Suruga bank launched itsBio Security Deposit the worlds first financial service to use Palm Secure . This service features high security for customers using vein authentication , does not require a bank card or pass book and prevents withdrawals from branches other than the registered branch and ATMs thereby minimizing the risk of fraudulent withdrawals. To open a Bio-Security Deposit account, customers go to a bank and have their palm veins photographed at the counter in order to guarantee secure data management, the palm vein data is stored only on the vein data base server at the branch office where the account is opened..

Fig 5.1 ATM sensor In October 2004, The Bank of Tokyo launched its Super IC Card. This card combines the functions of a bankcard, credit card, electronic money and palm vein authentication. This Super IC Card contains the customers palm Vein data and vein authentication algorithms and performs vein authentication by itself .This system is advantageous because the customers information is not stored at the bank. When a customer applies for a Super IC Card, the bank sends the card to the customers home. To activate the palm vein authentication function, the customer brings the card and his passbook and seal to the bank counter where the customers vein information is registered on the card .After registration the customer can make transactions at that branch counter and ATM using palm vein authentication and a matching PIN number

5.2 Personal Computers

In personal computers palm vein technology can applied by inserting the vein sensor inside mouse. When power is supplied to system the mouse also gets power and the sensor in the mouse will be ready to sense palm veins. When one place his/her palm the sensor sense the veins and if they are matched with the registered ones the system allows the person to use it.


fig 5.2 pc sensor One can use this technology even to lock folders, that should be maintained as private information.

5.3 Libraries & Hospitals

A public library in Japan is set to become the first in the world to use palm-vein biometrics as a substitute for conventional library cards.

Fig 5.3 using sensor The University of Tokyo hospital has taken delivery of a contactless palm vein authentication system to secure physical access to its Department of Planning, Information and Management.

5.4 Authentication
In front of our homes we can apply this Palm vein technology so that by registering the veins of our family members and relatives we can maintain high range security which is not possible through other technologies .Japanese recently used this technologies before front doors and getting high range security.


Fig 5.5 Near Front Doors Generally the authentication work flow will be done in step by step process which involves placing the hand on the sensor, capturing the data, converting into encrypted data, storing the database. So when an user place his hand it verifies the data base and check whether the available palm copy exist or not , this can be explained by pictorial representation as shown in the figure

Fig 5.5.1 authentication work flow process

6.Benefits :
Currently, it's possible for someone to overhear or see sensitive personal information, or use someone else's Social Security number or health insurance card to receive services. It can also be time-consuming to check in at a hospital, filling out paperwork and waiting for staff to enter the information into a computer before a patient receives care. With the new palm scanning system, once a patient's information is collected on the first visit, it is permanently in the system. On subsequent visits, the patient need only provide a birth date and have their palm rescanned to establish a positive identification. In an emergency, a positive identification can be made even if the patient is unconscious.


6.1 Accuracy
One of its benfits is due to the accuracy over other technologies

Fig 6.1 6.2 Statistics

In compare to other technologies the statistics can be made as follows

Fig 6.2

Data flow: the flow of data between sensors for an ATM as an example can be showed as


Palm vein pattern authentication technology developed by Fujitsu one of the scientist which was being used in a wide range in japan .Compare to other technology this technology is widely used in other countries .If this technology is introduced in our country we can solve many problems such as password protection in ATM ,security in various fields and if we implement this technology in government offices we can make the employees to work according the government timings. Surely this technology will bring a revolution in the field of science and technology in the near future.

[1.] WWW.ZENGINKYO.OR.JP/EN/NEWS/INDEX [2.] [3.] WWW.networkworld.COM