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LTE InTroducTIon and archITEcTurE ovErvIEw
© Informa Telecoms & Media
LTE Introduction and Architecture Overview
LTE InTroducTIon and archITEcTurE ovErvIEw
Drivers for Mobile Broadband Typical Applications and Network Requirements LTE E-UTRAN Objectives System Architecture Evolution (SAE) Evolved UMTS Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) Evolved Packet Core (EPC) Serving Gateway (SGW) Mobility Management Entity (MME) Packet Data Network Gateway (P-GW) LTE Reference Points LTE Roaming Architecture Non-3GPP Access Interworking with 2G/3G Networks LTE Femto Cells Self Organising Networks Spectrum Requirements for LTE WRC 2007 Spectrum LTE Spectrum Requirements 4 6 8 10 12 14 14 14 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32
© Informa Telecoms & Media
Network and handset capability have met with content and billing regimes and along with growing consumer confidence and experience this is leading to increased use of data services provided by operators. Revenues in the next decade will depend on increasing efficiency and finding alternative non-voice services. 4 © Informa Telecoms & Media . The graph opposite shows the increase in use of both fixed and mobile broadband services. it also shows that the use of mobile broadband is set to overtake fixed broadband in the future. technical and non-technical. As consumers.LTE Introduction and Architecture Overview drivers for Mobile Broadband After a slow start mobile data has finally taken off. the demand for data is forecast to continue growing for the foreseeable future. Many factors. relating to the success of mobile data have come together to provide data services that are both easy to use and meets the users performance expectations. this will only be possible if we can deliver a high performance and consistent service that the subscribers will come to expect. operators and third party application providers gain more experience with data services beyond the plain WAP home page. Good news for operators who are generally seeing a reduction in revenues from traditional voice based services.
2007 – 2012 Broadband subs (millions) 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 � Wireless � Wired Note: Wired includes DSL. by wired and wireless. HSPA and evolutions.Increase in Broadband usage Global broadband subscribers. but excludes WCDMA and WiFi. 1 – drivers for Mobile Broadband © Informa Telecoms & Media 5 . video broadcast Realtime gaming Bandwidth 1Mbps FTP Mobile of ce/ email Multiplayer games Video telephony Audio streaming Voice telephony 200 ms <64Kbps MMS. Wireless includes WiMAX. cable. web browsing SMS Voicemail >1 sec Interactive remote games Growth drivers msm: remote control 20 ms 100 ms Network latency Fig. pre-WiMAX. FTTx and evolutions. EV-DO. Source: Informa Telecoms & Media Typical Services and network requirements >5Mbps Video streaming Audio/video download Video conferencing m2m: robot security.
data. interactive remote gaming and real-time gaming will undoubtedly become a major industry in its own right • The quadruple play of voice. The network capability will need to evolve to ensure a consistent and reliable user experience.0 applications empower users to participate in communities.LTE Introduction and Architecture Overview Typical applications and network requirements While voice remains the most popular application for large user segments. notebooks. such network evolutions include. several distinct trends will influence mobile communications in the years ahead: • Common. and will generate content and interact in virtual worlds and increase the requirement to greater uplink capabilities • Streaming services that deliver individual video content on demand and mobile TV on demand are emerging as a favoured application • Mobile. ubiquitous broadband access and advanced security solutions will free business users from their office desk. access-independent Internet applications will replace silos for mobile applications and residential applications • Web2. with many users favouring flat-rate fees for reasons of cost control 6 © Informa Telecoms & Media . video and mobility bundles for residential and mobile use is heating up the battle over fixed-mobile substitution in the consumer market • Mobile office comprising smart phones. • The network’s capacity to support high peak user data rates and high average data throughput rates • Low user data plane’s and signalling channels’ response time. or latency • Guaranteed radio coverage ensuring full use of services up to the cell’s edge • A viable means of creating and maintaining individual connections and the entire system’s quality of service (QoS) • Service continuity between access networks • Single sign-on to all network access • Competitive prices.
Typical next Generation Services • Access-independent Internet applications • Web2. flat-rate fees Fig.0 • Streaming services • Interactive remote gaming • Quadruple play • Mobile office Typical Enablers for next Generation Services • High peak user data rates • High average data throughput rates • Low latency • Guaranteed radio coverage • Individual quality of service (QoS) • Service continuity between access networks • Single sign-on to all network access • Competitive prices. 2 – Typical applications and network requirements © Informa Telecoms & Media 7 .
(release 6 – HSPA) Spectrum Efficiency: Downlink target is 3-4 times better than release 6. Bandwidth: Scaleable bandwidths of 5. Mobility: The system is optimized for low mobile speed (0-15 km/h). Spectrum allocation: Operation in paired (Frequency Division Duplex / FDD mode) and unpaired spectrum (Time Division Duplex / TDD mode). to allow fast transition times of less than 100 ms from camped state to active state. Target for uplink average user throughput per MHz is 2-3 times better than release 6. co-existence: Co-existence in the same geographical area and co-location with GERAN/UTRAN.4 MHz and 3 MHz for FDD mode. Also. 10. co-existence between operators in adjacent bands as well as cross-border coexistence. Interruption time for handover between E-UTRAN and UTRAN/GERAN is less than 300 ms for real time services and less than 500 ms for non real time services.LTE Introduction and Architecture Overview LTE E-uTran objectives LTE is focusing on optimum support of Packet Switched (PS) Services. Interworking: Interworking with existing UTRAN/GERAN systems and non-3GPP systems is ensured. Latency: The one-way transit time between a packet being available at the IP layer in either the UE or radio access network and the availability of this packet at IP layer in the radio access network/UE is less than 5 ms. e. Throughput: Target for downlink average user throughput per MHz is 3-4 times better than release 6. Also bandwidths smaller than 5 MHz are supported for more flexibility. Also C-plane latency is reduced. 15. i. Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Services (MBMS): MBMS is further enhanced and is then referred to as E-MBMS. Quality of Service: End-to-end Quality of Service (QoS) is supported. 8 © Informa Telecoms & Media . assuming 2 receive antennas and 1 transmit antenna at the terminal. Uplink target is 2-3 times better than release 6.g. 20 MHz are supported. Multimode terminals support handover to and from UTRAN and GERAN as well as inter-RAT measurements.e.913 (2006) and can be summarised as follows: data rate: Peak data rates target 100 Mbps (downlink) and 50 Mbps (uplink) for 20 MHz spectrum allocation. 1. but higher mobile speeds are supported as well including high speed train environment as special case. Main requirements for the design of an LTE system are outlined in 3GPP TR 25.
7 Mbps UL 0.6-0.8 DL / 0.35 UL (bps/Hz/sector) 64 Kpbs DL / 5 Kbps UL 900 Kbps DL / 150 Kbps UL 50 ms 2 sec 384 Kbps Up to 250 km/h No 5 MHz LTE E-uTra 100 Mbps DL / 50 Mbps UL 3-4x DL / 2-3x UL improvement 3-4x DL / 2-3x UL improvement 3-4x DL / 2-3x UL improvement 5 ms 50 ms 6-8x improvement Up to 350 km/h Yes Scalable (up to 20 MHz) Fig.requirement Peak data rate Spectral effeciency 5% packet call throughput Averaged user throughput U-plane latency Call setup time Brodcast data rate Mobility Multi-antenna support Bandwidth current release (rel-6 hSxPa) 14 Mbps DL / 5. 3 – LTE E-uTran requirements © Informa Telecoms & Media 9 .
5G infrastructure is important. Also interoperability with the existing 3. The evolution of the network is designed to optimise performance and improve cost efficiency. The Evolved Packet System (EPS) is divided in to radio access and core network. 10 © Informa Telecoms & Media .LTE Introduction and Architecture Overview System architecture Evolution (SaE) One of the main objectives of the LTE architecture is an overall simplification of the network with a reduction in the number of nodes required in the radio access and core network components. particularly mobility and handover between the networks.
UTRAN GERAN 3GPP network External network S4/S11 Evolved packet core SG1 S1-U S1-MME E-UTRAN Fig. 4 – System architecture Evolution (SaE) © Informa Telecoms & Media 11 .
The S1 interface allows the eNB to communicate with the Mobility Management Entity (MME) via the S1-MME interface and the Serving Gateway (SGW) via the S1-U interface. uplink QoS enforcement. admission control. encryption and compression/ decompression of user data. The eNB are also networked together using the X2 interface. 12 © Informa Telecoms & Media . The eNB is connected to the core network on the S1 interface. scheduling. The eNB supports all the user plane and control plane protocols to enable communication with the UE. cell broadcast. It also supports radio resource management. The X2 interface is based on the same set of protocols as the S1 and is primarily in place to allow user plane tunnelling of packets during handover to minimise packet loss.LTE Introduction and Architecture Overview Evolved uMTS radio access network (E-uTran) Evolved UMTS Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) contains a single element known as the Evolved Node Bs (eNB). The interfaces support a many to many relationship between eNB and SGW/MME.
5 – E-uTran architecture © Informa Telecoms & Media 13 .MME/S-GW MME/S-GW S1 S1 S1 S1 X2 eNB X2 X2 eNB E-UTRAN eNB Fig.
reduced latencies and maximised throughput. allocation of UE IP addresses. via deep packet inspection. routing and forwarding packets of user data. This will result in more optimised performance and allows independent scaling of each component and efficient topological optimisation of platforms to ensure consistent service i. and MME. and service level charging. SGW selection during handover where EPC node change is necessary. NAS signalling is terminated at this point and included signalling related to bearer establishment and authentication of the UEs through interaction with the Home Subscriber Server (HSS). The SGW is also one of the Lawful Interception points in the network. gating and rate enforcement. Also some accounting functions for UL/DL services. It is also the decision point for SGW selection. high speed packet handling and mobility management. The MME handles roaming functions such as allocation of temporary identities. Serving Gateway (SGw) The SGW acts as a router. admission control and communication with the home HSS on the S6a interface. these functions are carried out by the SGW and MME. Mobility Management Entity (MME) The Mobility management entity (MME) is the primary signalling node in the EPC.LTE Introduction and Architecture Overview Evolved Packet core (EPc) The Evolved Packet Core contains two principle functions. It provides idle mode functions such as packet buffering and initiation of network triggered service request. downlink packet marking. The SGW will act as a local anchoring point for inter eNB handover and can also act as a 3GPP anchoring point for handovers between UMTS and LTE. 14 © Informa Telecoms & Media . it is able to provide transport level packet marking. This separation of function allows each to be implemented on a platform optimised for data handling or message processing. It provides functions of packet filtering. and the marking process may be used for QoS management by other network elements. Packet data network Gateway (P-Gw) The P-GW is the entry and exit point for UE connectivity with external data networks. The P-GW also acts as an anchor for mobility between 3GPP and non-3GPP technologies such as 3GPP2 CDMA2000 and WiMAX.e.
6 – Evolved Packet core (EPc) components © Informa Telecoms & Media 15 . mobility anchor for non-3GPP handover Fig. admission control. packet marking. router. roaming functions. packet inspection/filtering. bearer setup.IMS SGi Internet SGi Non-3GPP access S2a/b UMTS P-GW S3 MME S11 S5 SGW S1-MME S1-U eNB SGw – Serving Gateway. date entry/exit point. NAS signalling point. IP address allocation. selects SGW P-Gw – Packet Gateway. authentication. anchor for inter-eNB handover. some accounting MME – Mobility Management Entity.
Packet data network may be an operator external public or private packet data network or an intra operator packet data network. S5b: It provides the user plane with related control and mobility support between 3GPP anchor and SAE anchor. SGi: It is the reference point between the Inter AS Anchor and the packet data network. It is FFS whether a standardized S5b exists or whether 3GPP anchor and SAE anchor are combined into one entity. 16 © Informa Telecoms & Media . The interfaces between the SAE MME/UPE and the 2G/3G Core Network will be based on the GTP protocol.LTE Introduction and Architecture Overview LTE reference Points S1: It provides access to Evolved RAN radio resources for the transport of user plane and control plane traffic. The S1 reference point shall enable MME and UPE separation and also deployments of a combined MME and UPE solution. S4: It provides the user plane with related control and mobility support between GPRS Core and the 3GPP Anchor and is based on Gn reference point as defined between SGSN and GGSN. S2a/b: It provides the user plane with related control and mobility support between a trusted/ not-trusted non-3GPP IP access and the SAE Anchor. S7: It provides transfer of (QoS) policy and charging rules from PCRF to Policy and Charging Enforcement Point (PCEP). The allocation of the PCEP is FFS. for provision of IMS services. It is FFS whether a standardized S5a exists or whether MME/UPE and 3GPP anchor are combined into one entity. This reference point corresponds to Gi and Wi functionalities and supports any 3GPP and non-3GPP access systems. e. The interfaces between the SGSN in 2G/3G Core Network and the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) will be based on the GTP protocol. S5a: It provides the user plane with related control and mobility support between MME/UPE and 3GPP anchor. S3: It enables user and bearer information exchange for inter 3GPP access system mobility in idle and/or active state.g. It is based on Gn reference point defined between SGSNs. S6: It enables transfer of subscription and authentication data for authenticating/authorizing user access to the evolved system (AAA interface).
7 – LTE-SaE reference Points © Informa Telecoms & Media 17 .IMS SGi Internet SGi Non-3GPP access S2a UMTS P-GW S3 MME S11 S5 SGW S1-MME eNB S1-U X2 Fig.
The S6 interface connects the MME to the HSS and handles session and mobility related signaling including security. The data sessions are managed locally by the visited network but the call is anchored in the home network. The pictured scenario may be when the user visits a different country or where national roaming is supported. The S8 interface carries both user plane data and control signaling and is based on the Gp interface first defined in the GPRS/UMTS core network specifications. allowing the home operator to maintain control of the session. therefore. mobility management and elements of session management. for example. This may not be the most efficient routing in terms of cost and system resources. there is an option to route the U-plane traffic to a P-GW in the V-PLMN and make connections.LTE Introduction and Architecture Overview LTE roaming architecture Roaming is supported by the SAE. this includes the radio access. A roaming agreement must exist between the home and visited systems. the figure opposite show the situation where a user is roamed on to a V-PLMN (Visitor – PLMN). U-plane data is routed via visited SGW to the home network P-GW and the S8 interface. Part of the connection is handled by the visited network. directly to the internet or local services. 18 © Informa Telecoms & Media .
8 – roaming architecture – Traffic routed to h-PLMn © Informa Telecoms & Media 19 .IMS SGi SGi Internet H-PLMN V-PLMN P-GW S8 Optional routing to local P-GW SGi MME S1-MME E-UTRAN S11 SGW S1-U S6 HSS Fig.
both of which appear on the diagram. the user data from the WLAN network may be sent directly to the P-GW via the IP based S2 interface.e. network identity. 20 © Informa Telecoms & Media . Where the operator owns and operates the WLAN network.b. The ePDG (evolved Packet Data Gateway) element carried all the traffic from the WLAN via a secure tunnel (IPSec) over the Wn interface.) WiMAX. The information is provided via the 3GPP AAA server which acts as an inter-working point between the 3GPP and IETF worlds.g.g. In the non-trusted case.11a. There are two possible access scenarios. i. The Wm interface allows the user related data from the HSS via the 3GPP AAA Server. e. there are additional network elements to maintain the infrastructure security and integrity. to be exchanged. Information relating to subscriber profiles. trusted and non-trusted access. ensuring proper tunneling and encryption between the user terminal and the P-GW. authentication vectors.LTE Introduction and Architecture Overview non-3GPP access The diagram opposite shows the architecture that allows IP access to the EPC using non-3GPP access technologies. this may be considered a trusted case. a corporate entity has its own WLAN network and would like to offer 3GPP access to its customers. The main purpose of the 3GPP AAA server is to allow end to end interaction. In both of these cases the MME and SGW are redundant. such as authentications to take place using 3GPP credentials stored in the HSS via the Wx interface. charging and QoS information may all be provided to the WLAN access via the Ta interface. Wireless LAN (802.
charging characteristics Fig.Non-trusted WLAN Access ePDG S2 Wm S2 IMS Internet Wn SGi P-GW S5 Trusted WLAN Access Wa Ta 3GPP AAA Wx S6 S11 MME S1-MME S11 SGW S1-U HSS E-UTRAN S2 – IP based user-plane data Ta/wa – Transport authentication. 9 – non-3GPP access to EPc © Informa Telecoms & Media 21 . sub profile. identity mapping. security data. charging wn – Force non-trusted traffic via ePDG tunnel wm – Authorisation/authentication data. authorisation and charging-related information in a secure manner wx – Communication between WLAN AAA infrastructure and HSS. tunnel attributes.
No new systems elements are required but 2 additional interfaces are specified. S3 is based on the IP Gn interface designed for 2G/3G core architecture. 22 © Informa Telecoms & Media . it has a very similar role to the GGSN in 2G/3G networks.LTE Introduction and Architecture Overview Interworking with 2G/3G networks Where 2G/3G cells are adjacent or overlaid on to E-UTRAN cells there will be a requirement for interworking between the different infrastructures to support inter-system mobility. QoS and user context will be exchange so the target system has all the information required to re-establish the bearers on the new cell. S3 supports the user and bearer information exchange between the SGSN and the MME during handover/cell reselection. S4 carries the user plane data between the SGSN and the SGW. The S4 interface is also based on the Gn interface. S3 and S4. The SGW play the role of the mobility anchor in inter-system exchanges.
QoS. – U-Plane traffic Fig. 10 – 2G/3G – LTE Interworking © Informa Telecoms & Media 23 .IMS SGi SGi Internet P-GW HSS S6 MME S1-MME E-UTRAN S1-U S11 SGW S3 S4 SGSN lu UTRAN/GERAN S3 S4 – Exchange of bearer information.
• Support for full mobility into and out of a HeNB coverage including service continuity where applicable. Additionally. self-organising features. all home base stations in the future will have to provide the following functionality: • HNB and HeNB deployed as small UTRA and EUTRAN cells. 3GPP Release 8. respectively. 24 © Informa Telecoms & Media . Release 8 is also the first version of the 3GPP standard that contains the long awaited fourthgeneration (4G) GSM variant LTE (Long-Term Evolution). which can connect to thousands of femto access points. small office and similar environments. 3G femto access points. which are the WLAN-like devices residing at customer premises. has nominated this issue as a study item in the upcoming version of its standard. over a fixed broadband access network (e. The femto gateway. DSL. it defines a new interface capable of directly connecting home base stations to 3G and 4G core networks.g. etc. • Operators and owners of HeNB and HNB will be able to control access to the resources provided. HeNBs and IuH will become available with Release 9 of the 3GPP standard. are connected to so-called femto gateways via the customers’ private DSL links using largely proprietary protocols to provide femto-specific functionalities such as plug and play. The full specification for HNBs. In order to resolve resulting compatibility and interworking issues. According to the 3GPP specification. which is the standard connection between a 3G core and a 3G access network. roaming or charging. respectively. Femto aspects in this study cover both 3G (UMTS) and 4G (LTE) infrastructures. 3GPP. the ‘IuH’ interface.LTE Introduction and Architecture Overview LTE Femto cells Currently. in domestic. 3GPP Release 8 describes the femto architecture in an official standard document for the first time. guest user management. translates the femto communication links to the “Iu” interface. It introduces the concept of home base stations for 3G and 4G using the nomenclature Home Node B (HNB) and Home eNodeB (HeNB). the standardisation body behind the GSM family of technologies.). cable. • The HNB and HeNB interconnects with the 3G core and Evolved Packet Core.
cable.LTE EPC luH interface Broadband network Home eNB • HeNB deployed as small EUTRAN cells in domestic. small office etc • HeNB interconnects with the Evolved Packet Core. over a fixed broadband access network (e.g.) • Support for full mobility into and out of a HeNB coverage including service continuity where applicable • Operators and owners of HeNB will be able to control access to the resources provided Fig. etc. DSL. 11 – Femto cell Principles © Informa Telecoms & Media 25 .
LTE Introduction and Architecture Overview Self organising networks The objective of the Self-Configuration SON functionality is to reduce the amount of human intervention in the overall installation process by providing “plug and play” functionality in the eNodeBs. Self-Configuration of eNodeBs will reduce the amount of manual processes involved in the planning. integration and configuration of new eNodeBs. Self Test and Automatic Neighbour Relation configuration. such as Automatic Software Management. 26 © Informa Telecoms & Media . This will result in a faster network deployment and reduced costs for the operator in addition to a more integral inventory management system that is less prone to human error. Self-Configuration is a broad concept which involves several distinct functions that are covered through specific SON features. The scope of self-configuration functionality is expected to expand and evolve with upcoming versions of the LTE standard.
12 – Self organising network Principles © Informa Telecoms & Media 27 .Existing eNB DHCP/DNS SGW New eNB MME OSS Conﬁguration and performance • • • • • • • Automatic software management Self test Automatic neighbor relation configuration Tracking area planning Physical cell ID planning Load balancing Handover optimisations Fig.
The ITU-R already recognises the coming issues and has begun to address the problem at WRC 07 and will make further resolutions at WRC11. There is a great deal of work currently taking place to ensure that operators have access to a sufficient amount of spectrum to solve the principle problems of coverage and capacity that they face right now and may potentially face to a greater extent in the future. 28 © Informa Telecoms & Media . in the next few years there will be an ever increasing demand for access to high speed broadband data services.LTE Introduction and Architecture Overview Spectrum requirements for LTE It is very apparent from many industry sources that the mobile broadband revolution has begun. One of the greatest problems to overcome will be availability of spectrum and the availability of spectrum in suitable bands. Technologies like LTE and WiMAX seem very well placed to be able to offer these services to subscribers in a very cost effective way.
M S 2000 S Under study North America Cellular AWS PCS A D B EF C M S A D B EF C S M AWS S S Mobile allocation added. band plan not yet decided Cellular China GSM GSM 1800 IMT2000 M S S IMT.800 850 900 950 1000 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2500 2550 2600 2650 2700 MHz ITU allocations IMT-2000 IMT-2000 IMT2000 M S S IMT. no band plan yet Cellular Cellular Brazil Cellular IMT2000 IMT2000 Fig. 13 – IMT 2000 Spectrum allocations (wrc 2000) © Informa Telecoms & Media 29 .M S 2000 S IMT2000 (regional) Under study Japan PDC PDC P IMTH S 2000 M S S IMT.M S 2000 S IMT-2000 Europe GSM GSM 1800 D M E C UMTS S S T M UMTS S S IMT-2000.
Additional spectrum was allocated for IMT systems in various new bands.4 “to consider frequency-related matters for the future development of IMT-2000 and systems beyond IMT-2000. 30 © Informa Telecoms & Media .4 – 3. but opened to the market following transition periods of up to several years.4−3. resulting in 392 MHz of new spectrum in total in Europe and 428 MHz in the Americas: • 20 MHz in the band 450−470 MHz (globally) • 72 MHz in the band 790−862 MHz for Region 1 (Europe) and parts of Region 3 (Asia) • 108 MHz in the band 698−806 MHz for Region 2 (Americas) and some countries of Region 3 (Asia) • 100 MHz in the band 2. Additionally.3−2. “WRC-07 has identified globally harmonised spectrum for use by International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT-2000 and IMT-Advanced)”.6 GHz (no global allocation.6 GHz in Region 1 will only come into full effect in 2015 and 2010 respectively. the allocations regarding the bands 790-862 MHz and 3.LTE Introduction and Architecture Overview wrc 2007 Spectrum Under Agenda Item 1.4 GHz (globally) • 200 MHz in the band 3. but identified in 82 countries) Note: These bands will not be available immediately for NGMN usage.
no identification 3500 3600 3600 Asia Paciﬁc 450 470 698 862 2300 2400 3400 3500 Legend: Effective immediately in 61 countries.4 GHz (globally) • 200 MHz in the band 3. but identified in 82 countries) Fig.3−2.4−3.6 GHz (no global allocation. in 6 others a subset of the band Effective in all countries 17 June 2015 Mobile allocation in 14 countries Identiﬁed in 9 countries Identiﬁed in 10 countries Identiﬁed in 9 countries + mobile allocation everywhere • 20 MHz in the band 450−470 MHz (globally) • 72 MHz in the band 790−862 MHz for Region 1 (Europe) and parts of Region 3 (Asia) • 108 MHz in the band 698−806 MHz for Region 2 (Americas) and some countries of Region 3 (Asia) • 100 MHz in the band 2.WRC-07 IMT Identiﬁcations Europe/Africa/ Middle East 450 470 790 862 2300 2400 3400 In 81 countries. effective 11/17/2010 3500 3600 31 Americas 450 470 698 862 2300 2400 3400 Mobile allocation. 14 – additional Spectrum Identified at wrc 2007 © Informa Telecoms & Media .
32 © Informa Telecoms & Media . analogue TV broadcast are coming to an end in many parts of the word leaving behind spectrum in the ranges 470 – 862 MHz.LTE Introduction and Architecture Overview LTE Spectrum requirements The table opposite shows the existing bands supported by 3GPP and 3GPP2. where the regulator lifts the technology specific nature of the licenses. The majority of these are already in use with the well known 2G/3G technologies. The digital dividend is also another area of interest. Spectrum neutrality is becoming increasing wide spread. UMTS900 has already been approved and there is work taking place on the USA in the 700MHz band. One of the largest areas of interest for operators and regulators alike is the potential for spectrum re-farming in these bands.
9 698 – 716 776 – 788 788 – 798 downlink (Mhz) 2110 – 2170 1930 – 1990 1805 – 1880 2110 – 2155 869 – 894 875 – 885 2620 – 2690 925 – 960 1844.7/2.6GHz Total spectrum 2x60MHz 2x60MHz 2x75MHz 2x45MHz 2x25MHz 2x10MHz 2x70MHz 2x35MHz 2x35MHz 2x60MHz 2x25MHz 2x18MHz 2x12MHz 2x10MHz uplink (Mhz) 1920 – 1980 1850 – 1910 1710 – 1785 1710 – 1755 824 – 849 830 – 840 2500 – 2570 880 – 915 1749.9 2110 – 2170 1475.9 – 1784.operating brand Band I Band II Band III USA Band IV Band V Japan Band VI Band VII Band VIII Japan Band IX Band X Japan Band XI New 3GPP work items Brand name 2.9 1710 – 1770 1427. 15 – Existing and Future 3GPP Bands © Informa Telecoms & Media 33 .6GHz Paired 2.9 – 1500.9 – 1452.1GHz 850MHz 800MHz 2.7/2.6GHz 900MHz 1700MHz 7.1GHz 1900MHz 1800MHz 1.9 – 1879.1MHz 1500MHz Lower 700MHz Upper 700MHz Upper 700MHz public safety/private Paired 2.9 728 – 746 746 – 758 758 – 768 USA Band XII USA Band XIII Band XIV USA ETSI band numbers Band XV Band XVI 2x20MHz 2x15MHz 1900 – 1920 2010 – 2025 2600 – 2620 2585 – 2600 Fig.
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