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1-If air is used as media in pneumatic instruments ,then name the media in pneumatic instruments, then name the media used in hydraulic instruments? Oil 2-What is the purpose of a standard thermometer in a temperature bath? To compare the result of the instrument being tested with standaredthermometer 3-After a flow meter has been returned to service, the by-pass valve should be …. Kept open …..or…..kept closed? Closed 4-What type of sensing elements would provide the movement for a pressure gauge pointer? Bourdon tube diaphragm or bellows. The motion produced by the sensing element is transmitted through linkages & gears to move the pointer on the face of the gauge. 5-Keeping the load resistance constant, what will happen to current flow, if voltage decreases? Current flow will decrease 6-Keeping the voltage constant, what will happen to current flow, if load resistance decreases? Current flow will increase.
7-What do you mean by NO & NC contacts of a relay? NO means electrically open contact and NC means electrically close contact when the relay is in de-energized condition
8- What is the output of a thermocouple and how does it vary with temperature? Output is d.c. millivolts and it increases with increase in diff. in temp. between the cold & hot junctions.
9- How do you measure current and voltage using an A vometer? For measuring voltage A vometer is connected in parallel with the loop while it is connected in series for current measurement. 10- fill in the blanks a) In PT100 RTD, 0° means…100….. ohms. b) Feed back link of valve positioner is connected fo the … Stem of the valve ….of valve.
11- List the different units for pressure measurement? bar kg/sq. cm psi inches /mm. of water column pascal mm. of mercury 12- How can coil of solenoid valve be checked? A) Measure the coil resistance (not open or short ) Measure the resistance between coil & body (should be open).
13-what are the units of pressure in general use? Bar, P.S.I., mm of hg, mm of wc, and pascal’s
14-what are the relation or conversion from one unit to other? 1 bar=14.504psi 1 bar=750 mm of hg 1 bar=10198 mm of wc. 1 bar=100 k Pascal’s.
15-Name some pressure sensing element? 1. 2. 3. 4. Bellow assembly Capsule Bourdon tube U-tube manometer.
16-what is the simplest way of measuring pressure? The simplest way to measure pressure is u-tube manometer. (for low ranges) Pressure is measured with pressure gauges and with pressure transmitters.
17 –if a pressure gauge is reading less than the expected reading. What would you do? Compare the pressure gauge reading with that of a standard Pressure gauge. If it reads less or more than the standard pg. reading the gauge will be opened under test and adjusted to get the proper reading.
18-How would you calibrate pressure transmitter? With the help of proper pneumatic calibrator a known signal is fed to the transmitter, which is provided with power supply for the amplifier The signals are 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, &100% A corresponding output of 4, 8, 12, 16, &20 mA are noted down. If necessary adjust “0” and max. Reading and observe the linearity. 19-What is meant by RTD? Resistance temperature detector, 20-Name any known RTD? Pt 100
21-A pressure switch is defective what the reason could be? 1.Capsule/ diaphragm. 2.Micro-switch 3.connector.
22-How would you calibrate a compound pressure gauge? The positive pressure side be checked with dead weight tester and negative side vacuum could be checked with the help of standard Vacuum gauge and a vacuum pump with suitable tubing and fittings 23-Where do you use chemical seal type pressure gauges? Since some chemicals react with the material of the Bourdon tube, There p. gauges with chemical seal are used. 24-What are the problems encountered with pressure gauges in your observations? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Pinion sector damaged. Pointer broken. Dial damaged due to corrosion Bourdon tube. Glass broken.
25-How will you calibrate a temp gauge? With the help of “temperature bath” The temp. gauge sensor is dipped into the bath where liquid ( water / oil ) is circulated and heated. The temp. of the bath is read on the panel. The reading of the gauge is compared, & if necessary adjust it. 26-How would you calibrate E/P (electro/ pneumatic) converter? Connect 1.4 bar pressure compressed air to the supply port connet a standard pressure gauge of 0 – 1.6 bar. Feed 4 – 20 mA to the input terminals. At 4 mA input the output should read 0.2 bar and at 20 mA the output should read 1 bar, the linearity could be seen. If necessary adjust zero and range.
27-Why solenoid valve is passing? It may be due to : 1) O rings. 2) Plunger defective. 3) Coil open. 4) Seal/plunger defective.
28-Remote sensing temp. Switch defective. What could be the problem? 1. 2. 3. 4. A capillary broken from inside. Micro switch defective. Transmitting mechanism defective. Sluggish operation due to aging effect.
29- E/P (electro pneumatic) converter not working what could be the problem? 1. Open or short coil. 2. Pneumatic amplifier defective Due to chock up restriction, diaphragm defective, leaf spring broken, seal/plug defective, “o’’ rings defective. 3. Less damping oil/ no oil in damp. Chamber.
30-How would you check an E/P converter ? Generally input 4 – 20 mA from a Standard calibrator is fed to the converter, air supply is given to the supply point and output is monitored for different signals. Linearity and repeatability are checked 31-What is the accuracy of temp. switch? ± 0.5 °C 32-What is the response time for remote sensing temp. switch? 15 to 30 seconds, but if thermowell is present ,it will take double this time.
33-What is the response time for local mounting temp. switch? 10 to 20 seconds. 34-What are the types of temp. Gauges used in industries? Generally bimetal type dial temp. gauges are used in industries, Sometimes mercury filled or liquid filled gauges are used.
35-A diaphragm actuator, double acting one, does not control the positioner why? 1. 2. 3. 4. Defective positioner. Leak in connection. Diaphragm defective. Shaft seal defective.
36-A dial thermometer showing constant temp. And not responding. Why? 1. 2. Transmission system defective Bimetal measuring system disconnected due to age effect
37-What is the working principle of a bimetal thermometer ? The measuring system is made of bimetal strips, each strip having different temp. expansion coefficient. This system is connected with the transmission axle and the pointer. The temp. is directly transduced from the measuring system to the pointer and dial. 38- what is pt 100 ? Pt 100 is a temp. sensor made of fine platinum wire wound on a glass insulator giving 100 ohm resistance at 0 °C 39- How do you measure temp . In industry accurately ? Pt 100 is widely used with following electronic cards and indicating devices in industry 40- What will be the resistance of pt 100 at temperature of 50°C ? Temp. Coefficient for pt is 0.00385 hence Rt. = 100 °C ; RO = 100 Ω = 100( 1 + 0.00385 x 50 ) = 100 + 19.25 = 119.25 ohm 41- What are the problems encountered with pt 100 ? Pt 100 opens up , terminal gets corroded and sometimes breaks.
42- What is a thermocouple ? Consists of two different metal wires, one end of them fused together the other end to a proper indicating device. Or we can say t /c is a transducer which converts thermal energy into electrical energy.
43- What are the common types of thermocouples used in industry ? 1. 2. 3. 4. Iron constantan. Copper constantan. Chromel alumel . Platinum rhodium platinum.
44- What will be the resistance of a pt 100 at 100°C ? Rt. = 100 °C ; RO = 100 Ω @= 0.00385 Rt. = 100( 1 + 0.00385 x 100) = 100 + 38.5 = 138.5 ohm 45- Define temperature & Abs.zero point of °C & °F? Temperature of any substance is a degree of hotness and coldness, measured on a definet scale. Abs.zero for °C is -273 & for °F is -459.67. 46- Convert 86 °F into °C ? Formula: °C=5/9*(°F-32) °C=5/9*(86-32) °C=5/9*54 °C=30 47-Which flow senser is suitable for measuring flow of air in closed duct ? Venturi tube 48-What is a final control element How many kinds are used? The final control element is the mechanism which alter the value of The manipulated variable in response to the output signal of a controller a)…Hydraulic, b)…pneumatic & c)…Electromechanical Actuator are used 49-What is meant by the term pH of a solution? pH is the measurement of effective acidity or alkalinity of solutions Based on a measurement of the concentration of Hydrogen ions
50-What will be the solution called if its pH is more thean or less than 7 pH is more than or less than 7 pH? pH less than 7 is considerd as acidic, while vale above 7 pH is considered as alkalines.
51-How many kinds of temperature measurement devices do you know? a)Glass thermometer b)Dial thermometer c)RTD. d) Thermocouple 52-what is an RTD ? Resistance temperature device.
53-How do you check an RTD ? Check at the RTD, resistance and temp. then compare with tables. 54-How many different connection systems can be used with an RTD? a) b) c) Two wire system. Three wire system. Four wire system.
55-What type of output does a thermocouple give. Milivolts 56-What is a bourdon tube ? A pressure measuring element. 57- What kind of sealing material is to be used with NPT thread? Teflon tape.
58-What liquid is to be used to fill the liquid filled gauges and why is it used? Glycerin For vibration damping. 59-What kind of sealing element is to be used when fixing a 100 bar pressure gauge? Metal washer
60-For a transmitter with a range of 0~20 barga., and an output of 4~20 mA, please write the calibration table for above transmitter?
INPUT barg 0 5 10 15 20 OUTPUT mA 4 8 12 16 20
61-What is static head, and how is it compensated for ? 1. 2. Standing pressure due to location of device with respect to tapping. By zero suppression or elevation
62-A pressure gauge with 0-100 Barga range and 1% accuracy. What is the acceptable errors on 50bar reading? ±1 bar. 63-How do you calibrate a recorder with 4 to 5 mA input? Inject the mA’s using a current source. 64-How do you connect your meter to check transmitter current? a) Series with output wires b) At the test jack sockets 65-Do you connect the voltmeter in series or parallel to measure voltage? Connection should be parallel. 66-What precaution is to be taken before connecting your test equipment to a differential pressure transmitter? a) Open the equalizing valve b) Clos the + and –isolation valves gradually. c) Open the both drain valves. 67-How many types of connections possible with RTD? Why are different connections used ? Three different systems are used to connect RTDs this gives increasing Level of compensation. And accuracy 68-what is a thermocouple? Junction of dissimilar metal. It generates mV corresponding to temperature
69-Name two types of thermocouples in common use? J or K type which are iron-constantan or nickel chromium-nickel aluminum. 70-What is the purpose of cold junction compensation? To eliminate the effect of ambient temperature on the reading. 71-If you connect the mV meter directly on to thermocouple what is to be considered while calculating the temperature? Ambient temperature because thermocouple table consider reference at 0 °C 72-What is a conductivity meter used for ? It’s used to monitor the purity of water 73-What is the unit of conductivity? µS/cm (micro Siemens per cm)
74-how do you calibrate a pH meter? With buffer solution which has a known pH
75-what is a "variable area" flowmeter ? It has a tapered bore tube (glass usually) containing an indicator float. Trade name is "Rotameter"
76- what is a compound gauge? A bourdon tube gauge that can measure vacuum as well as gauge pressure. 77-what is the difference between a solenoid operated control valve and a proportional control valve? A solenoid operated valve has only two states , OPEN or CLOSED . A proportional control valve gives continuous control 78-where would you use a "displacement" type transmitter? For level measurement 79-what precautions do you take before working on a plant control loop? Check the loop diagrams for trips. Override (with permission). Put controllers /valves in manual mode. CHECK TO SEE IF YOU NEED A PTW. ALWAYS LET THE CONTROL ROOM STAFF KNOW WHAT YOU ARE DOING BEFORE YOU WORK.
80- 1 bar gauge pressure equal to how many bar absolute? 2 bar absolute
81-how many methods are there to calibrate a pressure gauge, explain one method. 1)comparator with a standard gauge 2)dead weight tester select a suitable standard gauge. Fix standard gauge & gauge to be calibrated on the comparator . check /compare both the gauge by increasing/decreasing pressure by comparator
82-what is a pneumatic regulator? A pneumatic regulator is a regulator to regulate air pressure in the system in selected ranges
83-what is the simple way to measure level in a tank Dip gauge or Local level gauge
84- How to calibrate an (moving coil) indicator Find from the indicator weather its input is voltage or current accordingly apply the input from a standard calibrator and calibrate
85-what are the major components of pH system? a) Glass electrodes b) Temperature compensator c) Reference electrode d) Monitor 86- Define E.M.F. ,resistance , and current. List their units. E.M.F.=Electro Motive Force the force which creats the pressure that causes the current flow through a conductor. Units=volts. Current= The flow of electrons along a wire give the current. Units = ampere Resistance = The opposition to to current flow. units =ohms 87-Name three types of sensers used in Pressure Gauges ? A) Bourdon tube, b) Diaphragm, c) Bellows 88-Name three units of pressure in general use give their relations ? a)bar , b) psi, c) mm of H20 1 bar=14.5 psi, 1bar=10169 mm of H2O 11
89-Name primary standards for caliber-ting pressure and temperature instrument? a) Dead weight tester, b) Manometer, c) Hg thermometer 90-Name important parts of pressure Gauge? a) b) c) d) e) Pinon gear Linkage, Pointer, Bourdon tube, Sector gear.
91-Name important parts of pneumatic transmitter? a) Flapper B) Nozzle c) Orifice d) Sensor e) Feed back spring
92-Name the standerd equipments used for calibrating the transmitter whose range is 0 to 1400 mBar Absolute ? a) Vacuum pump B) calibrator 0 to 500 mBar
93-Assume that the pressure range of a transmitter is 0 to 200 Bar & output signal range is 0.2 to 1.0 bar , what would be the expected output signal for an input pressure 150 bar? Output signal = 0.8 Bar. 94- The input range of a pressure trans- mitter is 0 to 1200 mBar & the output range is 4 to 20 mA , Calculate the output for 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% of its rated value? 8mA 12mA 16mA 20mA 95- In the sol. Valve it is written as V=50, 2A. What do you understand? Max 50 Volts Dc; 2 Amps 96- Name the type of thermocouple used to measure above 1000 degree C? Chromel-Alumel & Platinum-Rhodium Platinum 97- Write the colour code for a 1200Ω resistor with 5% tolerance. Brown, Red, Red, Gold 12
98-Find the value and tolerance of the resistor with the following colour code : Red Yellow Orange Silver 24kΩ with 10% tolerance 99-what is the total resistance
RT=R1+R2 RT=1000+200 RT=1200Ω
100-What is the value of RT?
RT= R1 x R2 R1 + R2 RT=500 Ω
101-What type of transistor is shown?
NPN 102-What is the relationship between resistance and conductance? Conductance =1 resistance
103-Convert the following temperatures a. 200;F°=?;C° b.180;C°=?;F° a. 200;F°=93.3C° b. 180;C°=356F° 104-Mention at least three types of thermocouples a. b. c. Iron-Constantan Copper-Constantan Chromel-Alumel Platinum-Rhodium, Platinum 105-Descride, using a diagram , a closed loop circuit to control the level of a tank 106- Why is the integral action used in a controller? To eliminate the offset between the set point and the process variable. 107-A rotameter is used to measure what? A) Flow B) Pressure C) Temperature A)Flow 108- The range of a level transmitter is ±2000 mm and output is 4~20ma. What will the output be at a level of 0 mm? 12mA
109-Fill in the calibration chart bellow for a square root extracting flow transmitter with an input range of 1600 mm and an output of 4-20mA %flow 0 25 50 75 100 Diff pr in mm 0 100 400 900 1600 O/P in mA 4 8 12 16 20
110- What is the propose of a flame scanner in a boiler? To confirm flame is available so that fuel can be stopped upon loss of flame. To stop a build up of unburned fuel in the furnace which could cause an explosion. 111- Explain the term "proportional Band" The inverse of gain. The portion of the measured variable "band" that it takes to get full output from a controller. ie.: Full valvel travel. 112- What are the emergency telephone numbers within the plant? a. Clinic b. Safety c. Security a.997 b. 998 c. 999
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