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TheCaseofJohnStewartService-
INTHE afterm athofthewar, U nited Statesp ol itical and m il itary
infl u ence, ineffect, swu ng tothesid eoftheChineseCom m u nists
and hel p ed toestab l ishthem inp ower . Theoverrid ing q u estionat
issu eintheServicecasewas, q u itesim p l y : had Servicehel p ed to
b ring ab ou tthatshiftofU . S . foreig np ol icy ; and , ifso, had hed one
itou tofhonestconfu sionorou tofp artisanship forCom m u nists?
TheTy d ing sCom m itteewasd eterm ined toavoid thisq u estion .
W hy ? B ecau seitshearing stook p l aceatam om entwhenal l b u tthe
incorrig ib l y naivewereb eg inning toseethattheshiftinU . S . F ar
Easternp ol icy had b eenp rod u ced neitherb y chance, norb y the
m ig htand cu nning oftheU SSR, norb y sheerb l u nd ering onou r
p art
; b u t, tosom eex tentatl east, b y consp irational forcesop erat-
ing onthehig hestl evel softheU . S . g overnm ent .
Theb u rd enofM cCarthy ' scharg ewasthatServicewas" oneof
thed oz entop p ol icy m ak ersintheentireStateD ep artm entF ar
EasternD ivision" and " p artofthep ro-Sovietg rou p " whichad vo-
cated thattheU nited StatesoverthrowChiang K ai-shek " b ecau se
theonl y hop eofAsiawascom m u nism . "
1 7 3
Thecharg erested m ain-
l y onService' srep ortsfrom China .
InhisRep ortNo . 4 0 , ofO ctob er
1 o,
1 9 4 4 , forex am p l e, Service
had writtenthefol l owing com m entonChiang and theK u om in-
tang Governm ent :
W eneed notfearthecol l ap seoftheK u om intang Governm ent . . . .
any newg overnm entu nd erany otherthanthep resentreactionary con-
trol wil l b em orecoop erativeand b etterab l etom ob il iz ethecou n-
try . . . . Theex am p l eofad em ocratic, non-im p erial isticChinawil l b e
m u chb ettercou nterp rop ag and ainAsiathanthep resentreg im e . . . .
* F orreasonsg ivenattheb eg inning ofthissection, weshal l notp resent
ab l ow-b y -b l owaccou ntoftheServicecase, oroftheL attim orecase, which
fol l ows.
* * M cCarthy ' scharg erel ated toap articu l ard ivision( theF arEastern) of
theStateD ep artm ent . TheCom m itteed isp osed
of
itwiththerem ark thatit
isd ou b ted whether" the entire StateD ep artm ent" ( ital icsad d ed ) wasin
consp iracy withService
. Itob served al so, thatatthetim einq u estion
( 1 9 4 4 -
1 9 4 5) Servicewasonl y aj u niorg rad eF oreig nServiceofficer . Thep rem ise
here, thattheg rad eoccu p ied b y am and eterm inestheex tentofhisinfl u ence
onhig h p ol icy is, ofcou rse, ab su rd : al l avail ab l eevid encesu p p ortsM c-
Carthy ' sarg u m entherethatthe p ol icy m ak ersintheStateD ep artm entl ean
heavil y onthej u d g m entofon-the-sp otex p erts .
1 4 8

THENINEPU B L ICCASES
Thek ey tostab il ity m u stb eastrong , u nified China . Thiscanb eaccom -
p l ished onl y inad em ocraticfou nd ation . . . . Chiang ' sm ainsu p p orts
arethem ostchau vinistel em entsinthecou ntry . . . . W eneed feel no
tiesofg ratitu d etoChiang . . . . W ecannothop etod eal su ccessfu l l y
withChinawithou tb eing hard b oil ed ; second l y , wecannothop eto
sol veChina' sp rob l em s( whicharenowou rp rob l em s) withou tcon-
sid erationoftheop p ositionforces, Com m u nist, Provincial and L ib er-
al . . . . Itisim p ractical toseek Chineseu nity withou ttheu seofthe
Com m u nistforces . . . . W eshou l d notb esway ed b y p l easo fthed ang er
ofChina' scol l ap se . . . . Therem ay b eap eriod o fsom econfu sion, b u t
theeventu al g ainsoftheK u om intang ' scol l ap sewil l m orethanm ak e
u p forthis . . . " [ Ital icsad d ed . ]
TheTy d ing sCom m itteed enied , ineffect, thatthisrep ortre-
veal ed any p ro-Com m u nistb entonService' sp art
. B u titd id not
real l y arg u etheq u estionsitraised
. Instead , itp ontificated ab ou t
theim p rop riety of" sing l ing ou t" onerep ortfrom aseriesofrep orts .
Itsim p l y ig nored whattherep ort" sing l ed ou t" u ncontested l y
p roved : Servicehad u rg ed thatAm ericashou l d transferitssu p p ort
totheChineseCom m u nists . 1 7 4
B esid es, theCom m ittee' sownrecord m ak esitcl earthatnom at-
ter what
Servicerep ortm ig htb e" sing l ed ou t, " onewasl ik el y to
find p ro-Com m u nistb ias
. Notethefol l owing ex cerp ts, al l avail ab l e
totheCom m ittee : " Thiswid esp read p op u l arsu p p ortm u st, u nd er
thecircu m stanceinwhichithasoccu rred , b econsid ered ap racti-
cal ind icationthatthep ol iciesand m ethod softheChineseCom -
m u nistshavead em ocraticcharacter" ( Sep tem b er4 , 1 -9 4 4 )
. " The
Com m u nistshaveu sed theirinfl u enceinad em ocraticway and to
fu rtherd em ocraticend s" ( Sep tem b erl o, 1 9 4 4
. ) " Pol itical l y , any
orientationwhichtheChineseCom m u nistsm ay oncehavehad
toward stheSovietU nionseem stob eathing o
fthep ast . . . . The
Com m u nistshavework ed tom ak etheirthink ing and p rog ram
real istical l y Chinese, and
they arecarry ing ou td em ocraticp ol icies
whichthey ex p ecttheU nited Statestoap p roveand sy m p atheti-
cal l y su p p ort"
( Sep tem b er 2 8 ,
1 9 4 4 )
. ( Ital icsad d ed
. )
Them ostcasu al read ing oftheserep ortswou l d convinceanim -
p artial ob serverthatServiceinfactrecom m end ed the" chang eof
p ol icy , " whichwasoneofM cCarthy ' scharg es
. This, however, d oes
notd isp oseofthep ossib il ity thatService, ratherthanentertain
p ro-Com m u nistsentim entsand awishtoservetheCom m u nist
cau se, m ad ehisrecom m end ationwiththeb estofp atrioticinten-
tions
. O nem u st-soarg u esthed efense-tak eintoaccou ntthecir-
cu m stancesinwhichService' srep ortswerewritten
.
JO HNSTEW ARTSERVICE

1 4 9
Theissu ehereseem stob oil d owntotwoq u estions
: Arewe
retrosp ectivel y entitl ed , inviewofService' sex p erienceinChina
and hisp ositionasaU . S . official ob serverinthefiel d , tod em and of
him aninform ed accou ntofwhatwasg oing oninChina? And
:
D id hisrep ortsp resentanaccu ratep ictu reofwhatwasg oing on?
Theanswertothefirstq u estionisinescap ab l e
: Servicewas
id eal l y situ ated tok nowwhereofhesp ok e
. Hewasam anofrare
ex p erienceinChina, having sp entm ostofhisl ifethere
; and , as
theU . S
. Governm ent' saccred ited rep resentative, hewasincon-
stantcontactwiththeNational istand theCom m u nistl ead ers
. He
wasthu soneofthefewAm ericanofficial sinChina( O wenL atti-
m ore, O l iverCl u b b and JohnVincentb eing threeothers) whose
ex p ertise
asAm ericanad visorsonChinawasofthesortthatevok ed
sp ecial confid enceintheiracu ity and rel iab il ity
.
Theanswertothesecond q u estion-d id Service' srep ortsp resent
anaccu ratep ictu reofwhatwasg oing on? -d ep end sonwhetheror
notCom m u nism inChinawasanind ig enou sd em ocraticm ove-
m entatthetim eServicesaid itwas-or, top u ttheissu einaway
thattak esintoaccou nttheCom m u nists' tal entford isg u ising their
p rox im ateob j ectives, itd ep end sonwhetherChineseCom m u n-
ism , atthetim einq u estion, real l y l ook ed
toseasoned ex p ertson
Chineseaffairsl ik ead em ocraticm ovem ent .
Thissecond q u estion, ofcou rse, isb y nom eanssoeasy toanswer
asthefirst
. Service' sd efend ersareinp ositiontosay
: " IfService' s
p ictu reoftheChineseCom m u nistm ovem entwassoob viou sl y
wrong , thenotherex p erienced ob serversofChineseaffairswou l d
su rel y haveb eeng iving ad ifferentp ictu reatthattim e
. Giveu s
som ereferencetotheofficial and / orschol arl y l iteratu reofthed ay
thatwil l p rod u cead ifferentp ictu re, theoney ou nowsay tob ethe
correctone-orel seg iveu p y ou rp ointthatServicem u sthave
d el ib eratel y l ied . "
And ind eed , theChinal iteratu rethat" inform ed " thiscou ntry in
thefortiesp red om inantl y su p p orted Service' scontentions
. B u tno
onewhohasread theM cCarranCom m itteerep orthasany reason
tob esu rp rised atthat, fortheF arEastl iteratu reofthed ay was
l arg el y writtenb y activep articip antsinthecab al su rrou nd ing
O wenL attim ore
. M oreover, thewhol earg u m ent( " every b od y was
say ing it, sowhy d eny thatServicecou l d honestl y haveb el ieved
it? " )
isal og ical trick cal cu l ated totransfertheb u rd enofp roof
from whereitb el ong s, onService, towhereitd oesnotb el ong ,
onService' saccu sers
. F ortherel evantq u estionisnot, W hatd id
1 50

THENINEPU B L ICCASES
theF arEastl iteratu reofthattim esay ab ou ttheF arEasternsitu -
ationofthattim e
; b u trather, W hatd oesthecom p etentF arEast
l iteratu re, oftod ay , nol ong erm onop ol iz ed b y L attim ore
etal . show
tohaveb eentheF arEastreal ity oftheforties
. And thatl itera-
tu red oes not
say thatChina, whenServicewrotehisrep orts,
l ook ed ashesaid shel ook ed . Itd oes not
say thattheChineseCom -
m u nistm ovem ent,
after theServicerep ortswerewritten, u nd er-
wentasea-chang e, ceasing tob ewhatServicethensaid itwasand
b ecom ing whatwek nowittob e
. Therel iab l el iteratu resay sit
then was whatwek nowittob enow
. Thu sthep resu m p tionm u st
b ethatServicem isrep resented whathewasseeing
. F oral l ag ree
thatheisasanem anwithhiswitsab ou thim .
Thisb eing thecase, why d id henotrep ortwhathesaw? W hat
werehism otives? O nep ossib l eex p l anationisthathewastry ing to
sel l theCom m u nistl inetohissu p eriorsinW ashing ton
. Thefacts,
inotherword s, inex orab l y raise( thou g hthey d onotnecessaril y
answer) theq u estionofl oy al ty
. And theb u rd enofp roof, once
thel oy al ty q u estionisraised , fal l sonthe" accu sed
. "
Service' sChinarecord , asitstood , p rovid ed g rou nd su nd erthe
" reasonab l ed ou b t" stand ard forhisd ism issal from theD ep art-
m ent . Hisactivitiesonretu rning totheU nited States, farfrom
d isp el l ing thed ou b tsthathad arisen, m ad ething sag reatd eal
worse . F orheg otcau g httransm itting cl assified g overnm entd ocu -
m entstotheed itorsof Am erasia, a Com m u nistm ag az ine
.
Hishaving d onesorock ed theTy d ing sCom m ittee
: " W em u st
concl u d ethatServicewas ex trem el y ind iscreet inhisd eal ing swith
Gay nand Jaffe
1 7 5
( Ital icsad d ed . ) ( Tob esu re, theCom m it-
teed id notl oseitssenseofb al anceb y ack nowl ed g ing thel og ical
u p shotofthisevid ence, i . e . , thatag overnm entem p l oy eecannot
p ossib l y b e" ex trem el y ind iscreet" withcl assified g overnm ent
d ocu m entsand notb easecu rity risk
. ) B u ttheq u estionofServ-
ice' sg u il tin the Am erasia affairhad , afteral l , b eenl aid torestb y
the1 9 4 5g rand j u ry whichhad voted nottoind icthim . Ap p arentl y
l ostontheCom m itteewasthefactthatsom eofthem ostincrim i-
nating evid enceag ainsthim , e . g . , thatob tained b y wire-tap , cou l d
not, b ecau seofl eg al insu fficiency , b econsid ered b y theg rand
j u ry . Hereisanex am p l eoftheevid enceTy d ing scou l d weig h, b u t
whichwasnotb eforetheg rand j u ry . TheF B Ihad record ed acon-
versationb etweenServiceand Am erasia' s ed itor, Phil ip Jaffe .
Servicehad said atonep oint
: " W el l , whatIsaid ab ou tthem il itary
p l ansis, ofcou rse, very secret . " W henq u estioned b y theCom m it-
JO HN STEW ART
SERVICE

1 51
teeab ou tthisrem ark , Service' srep l y was
: " Ichosem y word svery
u nwisel y , b ecau seIwasnotreveal ing any m il itary p l ans
. " Thesu g -
g estionwasm ad etohim
: " Y ou think y ou m issp ok e? " Heanswered ,
" Ithink Im issp ok e, y es . " 1 7 6
TheCom m itteep ressed them atterno
fu rther.
M cCarthy al socharg ed thatServicehad " Com m u nistassocia-
tions, " and cited the
Am erasia
caseinp roofofthem . Thou g hthe
g rand j u ry had no-b il l ed Service, his" association" withthosewho
wereind icted wasneverd enied
. Servicecl aim ed , however, thathe
had notk nownthey wereCom m u nists
. Y etsinceServicetestified
thathe was
acq u ainted withm any p rom inentand m il itantCom -
m u nists, the" concl u sion" oftheTy d ing sCom m ittee( " thecharg e
thatM r
. Servicehad wel l -k nownCom m u nistassociations, is
com -
p l etel y u nfou nd ed " )
1 7 7
isfantastic
; as, ind eed , areal l theCom m it-
tee' sb road sid esconcerning Serviceand the
Am erasia affair .
O neofService' sm ostvocal d efend erswasM r
. JohnPeu rifoy ,
thenD ep u ty U nd erSecretary ofState
. Hisfol l owing statem ent
onServicecap tu resu nerring l y thesentim ental confu sionand in-
vincib l eig noranceoftheD ep artm ent' ssecu rity d ivision
:
j
In
thep ersonofJ . S
. Servicewehaveanab l e, conscientiou s, and a
d em onstrab l y
l oy al F oreig nServiceofficer . . .
. O ntheb asisof im p l ied
" g u il tb y association, "
thathasb eenu sed inm ostoftheother" cases"
thu sfarp resented totheSenateSu b -Com m ittee, heu nd erwentag rand
u ry investig ationb ack inAu g u st1 9 4 5inconnectionwiththecharg es
thathehad transm itted cl assified m aterial tou nau thoriz ed p ersons
. . . .
M r
. Service' sfil ehasb eenreviewed threetim esd u ring theensu ing
fivey ears, and ineachinstancethefind ing softhereviewing ag ents
haveb eencom p l etel y favorab l e . . .
. B u tnow, asaresu l tofSenator
M cCarthy ' sresu scitationofthese
d ead , d iscred ited , d isp rovencharg es
ag ainsthim , M r
. Servicefind shischaracteroncem orecal l ed intoq u es-
tion . . .
and his b ril l iant
careerasad ip l om atoncem oreinterru p ted so
thathecanb ed efend ed , and cand efend him sel f, ag ainstsu ch
b asel ess
al l eg ationsal l overag ain
. . . . It' s a sham e and ad isg race
. . . . Iwou l d
l ik etosay thatthesy m p athy and g ood wishesoftheentireD ep art-
m entg oou ttothem [ M r . Serviceand hisfam il y ]
. * [ Ital icsad d ed . ]
L ater, tob esu re, Peu rifoy wassom ewhatm orecau tiou s
. Hem ad ethe
q u oted statem entonM arch
1 6 . O nJu ne 2 1
hewasask ed b y theTy d ing s
Com m itteewhetherhestil l hel d theop inionhehad ex p ressed earl ier
. Peu ri-
foy rep l ied : " . . .
thatstatem entwasp rob ab l y m isinterp reted
; m ay b eIwent
toofar . " M r . M orrisinsisted
: " D id y ou k nowatthetim e, thatM r
. Service
had p assed secretd ocu m entstoM r
. Gatl ey , theSovietsecretag ent? " M r
.
Peu rifoy answered , " Atthattim e, Id id notk nowit
. " ( Ty d ing sHearing s,
p 1 2 4 6 . )
( Them y steriou sM r
. Gatl ey hasnever, totheau thors' k nowl ed g e,
b eenid entified . )
1 52

THE NINE PU B L IC CASES


TheTy d ing sCom m itteeevid entl y thou g htm u chthesam eway
ab ou tService . Itu l tim atel y rep orted thathiscasewasoneof" com -
p l eteinnocence" -" notd isl oy al , p ro-Com m u nist, ora secu rity
risk " 1 7 8 ( Ital icsad d ed ) . And withthisthem atterend ed -notwith
ex p osu reorrem ed y , b u twitharou tined enu nciationof" M cCar-
thy ism . "
B u tM cCarthy wastob evind icated inaway thateventheTy d -
ing sCom m ittee, had itstil l ex isted , wou l d haveu nd erstood
. After
Service' scl earanceb y theTy d ing sCom m ittee, theStateD ep art-
m ent' sL oy al ty Secu rity B oard had him u p fou rm oretim es, and
eachtim ecl eared him . B u tinD ecem b erof1 9 51 , Servicewas
d rop p ed from theStateD ep artm ent" astheresu l tofanad verse
find ing astohissecu rity q u al ificationsb y theL oy al ty Review
B oard oftheCivil ServiceCom m ission . "
TheCaseofO wenL attim ore
O nJu ne2 7 , 1 9 52 , theSenateSu b com m itteeonInternal Secu r-
ity , ind etail ing theIPR' sim p actonAm ericanforeig np ol icy , an-
nou nced several corol l ary find ing s :
" TheIPRp ossessed cl oseorg anicrel ationswiththeStateD e-
p artm ent . . . . O wenL attim oreand JohnCarterVincentwereinfl u -
ential inb ring ing ab ou tachang einU nited Statesp ol icy in 1
9 4 5
favorab l etotheChineseCom m u nists . "
" O wenL attim orewas, from som etim eb eg inning inthe1 9 3 o' s,
aconsciou sarticu l ateinstru m entoftheSovietconsp iracy . "
" O wenL attim oretestified fal sel y b eforethesu b com m itteewith
referencetoatl eastfivesep aratem attersthatwererel evanttothe
inq u iry and su b stantial inim p ort
. " 1 7 9
Ind u ecou rse, aGrand j u ry ind icted O wenL attim oreforhav-
ing testified fal sel y u nd eroathwithresp ecttosevensep arate
m atters . *
Twoy earsb efore, theTy d ing sCom m itteehad writtenitsfind -
ing sonO wenL attim ore . Every thing thatM cCarthy had said
ab ou tL attim ore, theCom m itteerep orted , wasfal se . L attim ore
wasnotasp y , notaStateD ep artm entem p l oy ee, notthearchitect
ofou rF arEasternp ol icy , notaCom m u nistorawitting associate
ofCom m u nists . Rather, hewasavictim of" p rom iscu ou sand
sp eciou sattack su p onp rivatecitiz ensand theirviews . " F u rther-
m ore, theCom m itteerecord ed itsreg retthatithad g oneintothe
L attim orecase : su chinq u iriesshou l d ratherb econd u cted b y " the
d u l y constitu ted ag enciesofou rGovernm entthatareeq u ip p ed to
hand l esu chm attersb y intel l ig entand p rovenm ethod sd esig ned
toob tainthetru thwithou tinj u stice, characterassassinationand
ap rostitu tionoftheAm ericanconcep toffairp l ay . "
1 8
Tob esu re, M cCarthy had g otoffonthewrong footintheL atti-
m orecase-b y assu ring theCom m ittee ( in cl osed session) thatL at-
tim orewas" d efinitel y anesp ionag eag ent . . . oneofthetop esp ion-
ag eag ents . . . thetop Ru ssiansp y . . . thek ey m aninaRu ssian
esp ionag ering
. " " ' Theword shad hard l y l eftM cCarthy ' sm ou th
whenD rewPearsonl eak ed thesecharg estothenation . Thu sM c-
Carthy wasim m ed iatel y p u tonthed efensiveintheL attim ore
case . B u tthefactisthathereind eed washis" b est" case, i . e . the
AU . S . D istrictCou rtsu b seq u entl y d ism issed fou rofthesevencou nts .
( Itsru l ing is, atthiswriting , b eing ap p eal ed . )
1 54
THENINEPU B L ICCASES
m ostsensational , and theonewithresp ecttowhichM cCarthy was
inap ositiontoad d u cethem ostd am ag ing evid ence . " Iam wil l ing
tostand orfal l onthisone, " hetol d theCom m itteeintu rning over
L attim ore' snam e . And forthishehad ex cel l entreasons .
Soonafterm ak ing the" top esp ionag e" charg eag ainstL attim ore,
M cCarthy m od ified itonthefl ooroftheSenate . " Ifear, " hesaid ,
" thatIm ay havep erhap sp l aced toom u chstressontheq u estion
ofwhetherornothehad b eenanesp ionag eag ent i 8 2 Itsoon
b ecam ecl ear, however, thatnom atterhowp recisel y orhowm od -
eratel y M cCarthy m ig hthavep u thisind ictm entofL attim ore,
theTy d ing sCom m itteehad nointentionofm ak ing anex cep tion
toitsp ol icy ofcl earing every oneonwhom M cCarthy p u tthe
fing er .
Thou g hL attim orewasnotanem p l oy eeoftheStateD ep art-
m entintheorthod ox sense, M cCarthy started off, hewasnever-
thel ess" oneofthep rincip al architectsofou rF arEasternp ol -
icy . " " '
Thisal l eg ationwasim p ortant . F oronething , thetechnical
p rop riety oftheCom m ittee' sinvestig ationofL attim orehing ed on
whetherornotL attim orewas, orhad b een, p ertinentl y connected
withtheStateD ep artm ent . F oranother, L attim oreem p hatical l y
d enied having had any rel ationship whateverwiththeD ep art-
m ent . And asforb eing infl u ential , said L attim ore, " . . . Iam thel east
consu l ted m anofal l thosewhohaveap u b l icrep u tationinthis
cou ntry assp ecial istsintheF arEast . " " " M u ch, then, tu rned on
whetherM cCarthy cou l d p rovethatL attim orehad p l ay ed a
q u asi-official rol einthep reced ing y ears .
Hestarted in : In 1 9 4 1 , hesaid , L attim orewaschosenb y Presi-
d entRoosevel ttob ethep ersonal p ol itical ad viserofChiang K ai-
shek . Hestay ed withChiang u ntil theend of
1 9 4 2
.
F rom 1 9 4 2 to 1 9 4 4 , L attim orewasthechiefofPacificop erations
fortheO fficeofW arInform ationwhich, M cCarthy inferred , natu -
ral l y work ed hand -in-hand withtheStateD ep aihnent .
In 1 9 4 4 , L attim oreaccom p anied Vice-Presid entHenry W al l ace
onhistrip toSib eriaand China .
In 1 9 4 5, L attim orewasap p ointed b y Tru m anasam em b erof
thePau l ey Rep arationsM issiontoJap an .
In 1 9 4 9 , L attim oreattend ed aStateD ep artm entconferenceon
Chinap ol icy .
Throu g hou tthisp eriod , L attim orehad b eenex trem el y active
intheIPR, whose" org anicrel ations" withtheStateD ep artm ent
Seeab ove, " TheCaseofPhil ip Jessu p . "
O W EN L ATTIM O RE

1 55
wered em onstrab l ewel l b eforetheM cCarranCom m itteeb eg an
itsinvestig ation .
W hatism ore, ad d ed M cCarthy , L attim oreatonetim eevenhad
ad esk intheStateD ep artm ent
.
Al l ofthis( ex cep tforthe" StateD ep artm entd esk " ) wasam at-
terofrecord
. Y etL attim orehotl y resisted theim p l icationthat
thed ataad d ed u p toafirm connectionb etweenhim and theState
D ep artm ent . " Itol d thenewsp ap erm en, " hewrotein
O rd eal b y
Sl and er, " thatSenatorM cCarthy wascraz y ifhehad g otm em ix ed
u p withtheStateD ep artm ent . Ihad neverb eenintheStateD e-
p artm ent . " 1 S 5 TheCom m itteeconsu l ted theD ep artm entonthe
m atter, and concl u d ed thatL attim orewasrig ht .
1 8 6
Twoy earsl ater, d u ring theM cCarranCom m ittee' sinterrog a-
tionofL attim ore, theCom m itteecou nsel , M r . M orris, showed
L attim oreap hotostaticcop y ofal etterL attim orehad writtento
B enj am inK iz eronJu ne 1 2 , 1 9 4 2 . Thel astp arag rap hofthel etter
read
:
M y hom ead d ressisasty p ed ab ove, and m y hom etel ep honeisTow-
son 8 4 6 -W . I am inW ashing tonab ou t 4 d ay saweek , and whenthere
canal way sb ereached atL au chl inCu rrie' soffice, room 2 2 8 , StateD e-
p artm entB u il d ing ; tel ep honeNational 1 4 1 4 , ex tensiong o .
Y ou rsvery sincerel y ,
O W ENL ATTIM O RE
Atthetim eheg aveevid encetotheTy d ing sCom m ittee, M c-
Carthy had nointim ationofthecl oserel ationship b etweenL atti-
m oreand L au chl inCu rrie( nam ed aCom m u nistu nd eroath) ,
whoseofficewasp u tatL attim ore' sd isp osal . L attim oretestified b e-
foretheM cCarranCom m itteeasfol l ows :
1 8 7
M R. M O RRIS . M r . L attim ore, isn' titafactthatwhenCu rriewent
away forap eriod oftim ehewou l d ask
y ou totak ecareofhism ail at
theW hiteHou se?
M R . L ATTIM O RE . No. . . .
M R . M O RRIS . Tel l m ethis, M r . L attim ore . Isity ou rtestim ony that
y ou d id notatthereq u estofL au chl inCu rrietak ecareofhism ail at
theW hiteHou sewhenhewasaway ?
M R. L ATTIM O RE
. Thatcertainl y ism y statem ent
.
M orrissu b seq u entl y ad d u ced al etterwrittenb y L attim oreto
E. C . CarteroftheIPR, onJu l y 1 5,
1 9 4 2 , thefirstp arag rap hof
whichread : " D earCarter : Cu rrieask ed m etotak ecareofhiscor-
1 56

THENINEPU B L ICCASES
resp ond encewhil eheisaway and inviewofy ou rtel eg ram of
tod ay [ ad d ressed toCu rrie, p resu m ab l y ] , Ithink Ihad b ettertel l
y ou thathehasg onetoChinaonasp ecial trip
. Thisnewsisab so-
l u tel y confid ential u ntil rel eased inthep ress . . . . "
Afterread ing thel etter, M orriscontinu ed :
. . . D id thetop official oftheStateD ep artm ent-
M R. F oRTAS[ L attim ore' sl awy er, interru p ting ] . Ex cu sem ej u stam o-
m ent, M r . M orris .
( M r. L attim oreconferred withcou nsel . )
M R. L ATTIM O RE . M r . M orris, Ishou l d l ik etoad d towhatIhavej u st
said thatthisrefreshesm y recol l ectionand thatIb el ievethatCu rrie
tol d hissecretary toop enhism ail and top assontom eany thing that
m ig htb eofconcerntom e . *
Anotherm atter, fl ip p antl y d ism issed b y Ty d ing s, wascau g htu p
and m ad etostick b y M cCarran . M cCarthy tol d theTy d ing sCom -
m ittee, toshowL attim ore' sinfl u enceonAm ericanp ol icy , that
L attim orehad visited Tru m anshortl y b eforethePotsd am Con-
ferencetou rg eu p onthePresid enthisviewsonF arEasternp ol icy .
L attim oread m itted having g onetotheW hiteHou se . " O u rcon-
ferencel asted ab ou tthreem inu tes, " hel atertol d theM cCarran
Com m ittee . B u titd evel op ed that, howeverl ong L attim orehad
actu al l y conferred withTru m an, hehad l eftwiththePresid enta
m em orand u m d etail ing hisrecom m end ationsonF arEastern
p ol icy .
SENATO RF ERGU SO N
. D id y ou showtheex hib itsthatwehavenowon
therecord , ofy ou rvisittotheW hiteHou se, thatis, them em orand u m
and thel etter, toany m em b eroftheTy d ing sCom m ittee?
M R . L ATTIM O RE . No
.
SENATO RF ERGU SO N . O rthestaff?
M R . L ATTIM O RE . No .
SENATO RF ERGU SO N . Howd oy ou accou nt, M r . L attim ore, fornot
m ak ing thatp artoftherecord ? D id y ou notthink thatwasm aterial on
theq u estionastowhetherornoty ou everhad any thing tod owiththe
foreig np ol icy oftheF arEast, asfarasthePresid entortheStateD e-
p artm entwasconcerned ?
M R . L ATTIM O RE . Id id notthink itwasm aterial . Theq u estionof
whetherthecom m itteewanted toseeitwasu p tothem .
SENATO RF ERGU SO N
. Howwou l d they k nowthatitex isted ? Y ou d id
notd iscl oseittoany ofthem .
M R . L ATTIM O RE . . . . asacitiz enIwou l d nottak etheinitiativein
* L attim orewassu b seq u entl y ind icted forhaving com m itted p erj u ry in
thism atter .
reveal ing thed etail sofacitiz enask ing toseethePresid entofhis
cou ntry . . . . theresp onsib il ity l ieswiththeCom m ittee .
Iseenoob l ig a-
tiontovol u nteerany thing ofthatk ind . 1 8 8 [ Ital icsad d ed . ]
Thu s, withL attim oreseeing noob l ig ationtovol u nteerany in-
form ationthatm ig htthrowl ig htonthep ointsatissu e, and with
theTy d ing sCom m itteeseeing noob l ig ationtop ressL attim ore
forsu chinform ation, itwasonl y l eftforthetwop artiestorecog -
niz etheirob l ig ationtoex p oseM cCarthy ' sb l ack hearted m end ac-
ity , and thiscau sem ob il iz ed them b oth-ab oveand b ey ond , even,
thecal l ofd u ty
. W earenotim p l y ing , tob esu re, thattheTy d ing s
Com m itteewas in
ap ositiontob ring tol ig htthed ataonL atti-
m orewhichatthattim erep osed p eacefu l l y inanol d b arninL ee,
M assachu setts . W e are
say ing , however, thatM cCarthy d em on-
strab l y fu l fil l ed hisfu nctionofg iving totheTy d ing sCom m ittee
enou g hl ead stoj u stify itsg oing intoL attim ore' srecord
. M cCar-
thy , infact, g avetheCom m itteem ore
; heg aveitenou g hl ead sto
enab l eittob l owsk y -hig hL attim ore' sp retensionstob eing ad isin-
terested and sed entary ex p ertontheF arEast, enou g hd atatop u t
theStateD ep artm entonwarning ag ainstfu rthertrafficwithL atti-
m ore, and enou g h, even, tohavesp ared theintel l ig entsiathel ast-
ing em b arrassm entoftak ing L attim ore' ssnivel l ing b ook ,
O rd eal
b y Sl and er,
totheirb osom , and ofm arty riz ing itsau thor, whonow
su cceed ed Al g erHissastheF irstL ad y am ong Am ericanwitches
.
F orM cCarthy had notconfined him sel fto" d ocu m ent-snitch-
ing -ty p e" charg es
; * heinvited theCom m itteetoinsp ectL atti-
m ore' s
writing s,
and onhisinsistenceM issF red aU tl ey wascal l ed
intoanal y z ethem ou tofher
ex p ertise ontheCom m u nistParty
l ineontheF arEast
. M issU tl ey su m m ariz ed hertestim ony :
SovietRu ssia, inal l ofL attim ore' swriting s, isal way ssinned ag ainst
and isal way srep resented b y L attim oreasstand ing l ik eab eaconof
hop eforthep eop l esofAsia, evenwhensheiscol l ab orating withthe
Naz isorag g ressing onherownaccou nt
. Ru ssiaisneverinthewrong
and ifheisforced totak ecog niz anceofafewsl ig htm isd em eanorson
herp art, heex cu sesthem asonl y areactiontoAm ericanim p erial ism
orsom eothercou ntry ' sm isd eed s
. 1 8 9
W eb orrowM issU tl ey ' sshrewd ob servationonM cCarthy ' s" top
sp y "
charg eag ainstL attim ore : " To su g g estthatM r
. L attim ore' sg reattal entshave
b eenu til iz ed inesp ionag eseem stom etob easab su rd astosu g g estthat
M r. Grom y k oorM r
. M ol otovem p l oy theirl eisu rehou rsatL ak eSu ccess, or
atinternational conferences, insnitching d ocu m ents
. "
1 58

THENINEPU B L ICCASES
And iftheviewsofM issU tl ey ( asap rem atu reanti-Com m u nist)
weresu sp ect, theCom m itteem ig hthavetu rned forasu m m ary of
oneofL attim ore' sb ook stohisownp u b l isher
. Thisb l u rb had ap -
p eared onthej ack etofhis
Sol u tioninAsia:
He[ L attim ore] showsthatal l theAsiaticp eop l earem oreinterested
inactu al d em ocraticp racticessu chastheonesthey canseeinaction
acrosstheRu ssianb ord er, thanthey areinthefinetheoriesofAng l o-
Sax ond em ocracieswhichcom ecou p l ed withru thl essim p erial ism
. . . .
Heincl inestosu p p ortAm ericannewsp ap erm enwhorep ortthatthe
onl y real d em ocracy inChinaisfou nd inCom m u nistareas
.
Y ettheCom m itteed ecl ared , sim p l y , thatL attim ore' swriting s
" ob viou sl y cannotb ed ecl ared toap p roachCom m u nistd og m a
.
" 1 9 0
M cCarthy thencharg ed thatL attim orehad associated with
k nownCom m u nists . Tom entionafew
: F red erick Vand erb il tF iel d
( " AsfarasIk new, " L attim oretol d theCom m ittee
" . . .
hewas
ratheral ib eral y ou ng m an
. . . . " )
;
Phil ip Jaffe ( " . . .
oneofthose
Am ericanswhohad avery b rig htand op enviewofthed em ocratic
natu reoftheCom m u nistsinChina, b u tIhad noreasontob el ieve
thathewashim sel faCom m u nist" ) ; Ag nesSm ed l ey
( " . . . sheis
notand nevercou l d b eaCom m u nist" )
; Ny m W al es( " Ihaveno
reasontob el ievethatsheisorwasaCom m u nist" )
; T
. A . B isson
( nog rou nd s" whatever" forb el ieving him tob eaCom m u nist)
;
and Chao-ting Chi( " Id on' tk nowthatheisinfactaCom m u nist
[ even] now
. " " Isthereany d ou b tiny ou rm ind , " retorted Senator
Hick enl oop er, " thathewou l d b ehereasthep rop osed rep resenta-
tiveofCom m u nistChinatotheU NifheisnotaCom m u nist? "
" Itisp ossib l e, Senator
. TheCom m u nistg overnm entinChinaap -
p earstohavetak enovertheservicesofaconsid erab l enu m b erof
non-Com m u nistsesp ecial l y wherethey werem enofsp ecial iz ed
training ofvariou sk ind s
)
1 9 1
TheCom m itteeconcl u d ed thatL attim orewasnotawitting asso-
ciateofCom m u nists .
M cCarthy charg ed thatL attim orewasaCom m u nistand u nd er
Party d iscip l ine
. L ou isB u d enz corrob orated M cCarthy ' scharg e
inwhatwasp erhap stheCom m ittee' sm ostd ram aticsession
. F or
hetestified that, in1 9 3 7 , Com m u nistl ead erEarl B rowd er, inthe
p resenceofF red erick Vand erb il tF iel d , had ag reed withhim ( B u -
d enz ) thatL attim oreshou l d tak eovertheg eneral d irectionofthe
m ovetod ep icttheChineseCom m u nistsas" ag rarianreform ers"
;
thatin1 9 4 3 he( B u d enz ) had heard F iel d rep ortataCom m u nist
O W EN L ATTIM O RE

1 59
Party m eeting thatL attim orehad b eeninstru cted ofachang eof
thep arty -l ineonChiang K ai-shek ; thatin1 9 4 4 he( B u d enz ) had
b eeninstru cted b y Jack Stachel , oneofthehig hestCom m u nist
Party fu nctionariesintheU nited States, toconsid erL attim orea
Com m u nist ; thatin1 9 4 5, Stachel , atasessionatCom m u nisthead -
q u arters, had ind icated thatL attim orehad b eenofservicetothe
Com m u nistParty inthe Am erasia case . '
9 2
" . . . Thewhol estory isap l ain, u nvarnished l ie,
" 1 9 3
said L atti-
m ore .
TheTy d ing sCom m itteecau g htitscu eand d ism issed B u d enz ' s
evid enceas" hearsay . ' 1 9 4
Aswehavesaid , weshal l notb etreating theL attim oreep isod e
ind etail . Thosewhowantm ore-and thereisag reatd eal m ore-
wil l find anear-d efinitiveex p osu reofL attim oreinthehearing sof
theM cCarranCom m ittee . Thesehearing s" shou l d b eread sid e-
b y -sid ewith O rd eal b y Sl and er .
Su fficetonotehere, sim p l y , thatinad d itiontotheevid encewe
haveb riefl y treated here, M cCarthy g avetheCom m itteeanu m -
b erofad d itional l ead s, noneofwhichtheCom m itteeu nd ertook
tofol l owu p withany thing l ik ethep erseverancenecessary totrip
u p thosewhoseoccu p ationim p l ies, afteral l , aconsid erab l etal ent
forthrowing investig atorsoffthescent .
M cCarthy ex p osed oneofthem ostim p ortantp ol itical op era-
torsofou rtim e . O wenL attim ore' ssk il l s, energ ies, and sing l e-
m ind ed nessenab l ed him top l ay ad om inantrol einam ovem ent
thatd isp ossessed ou ral l iesintheF arEastoftheirhom el and , en-
sl aved fou rhu nd red m il l ionp eop l e, and d ou b l ed thep erim eterof
theIronCu rtain . O wenL attim orehad m oved d iscreetl y throu g h-
ou tthep eriod . Hisnam ewasnotk nown-ex cep tinacad em icand
F arEasterncircl es-u ntil M cCarthy attack ed him
. B u tinhisu nob -
tru siveway , L attim orewasserving theRoosevel tand Tru m an
Ad m inistrationsastheoracl eonal l m attersAsiatic . Hisb ook swere
stand ard inAm ericancol l eg esand g rad u ateschool s
. Heand his
votariesd om inated theb ook reviewsectionsofthem etrop ol itan
* " L istening toB u d enz , " wrotethed ising enu ou sM rs . L attim orein Har-
p ers ( Sep tem b er, 1 9 50 ) " . . . d escrib ehissord id l ifeintheCom m u nistu n-
d erworl d inwhichhesp ent 1 o y earswasag ru esom eex p erience . Heb u il t
u p ap ictu reofasinister, m u rk y worl d ofCom m u nistconsp iracy whichfor
al l Ik nowm ay ex ist . "
* * M r . JohnT . F l y nnhaswrittenanex cel l entcond ensationofthehear-
ing s
. See
TheL attim oreStory ( NewY ork ; D evin-Ad air, 1 9 53 )
.
1 6 0

THENINEPU B L ICCASES
p ress . If a
newb ook onChinafol l owed theParty l ine, itwontheir
end orsem ent . Ifit so
m u chasintim ated thetrag icfol l y ofou r
F arEasternp ol icies, itwasd oom ed eithertod enu nciationorto
ob l ivion .
Y etd esp iteal l L attim ore' sp recau tions, som eAm ericanshad g ot
ontohim . Shortl y afterM cCarthy connected withL attim ore,
Tim e
m ag az inecom m ented onthreefig u resintheweek ' snews-Jol iot
Cu rieofF rance, JohnStrachey ofEng l and , and O wenL attim ore
.
Al l form ed theirp ol itical consciou snessinthey earsofW orl d W arI,
whenag enerationwasassau l ted b y thecentu ry ' sm ostviciou sfal l acy ,
i . e. thatcom m u nism wasak intop rog ress . Al l wereaffected b y thefal -
l acy invary ing d eg rees, and al l , b eing g ifted withb ril l iantintel l ects,
d id ag reatd eal tosp read thisp aral y z ing p oisonthrou g htheW est' s
think ing .
Thefactd id notm ak eany ofthem atraitor, eitherinl aworinm or-
al s . . . . B u tthel eg al rig httob ewrong had som ehowg ottend istorted
intoal az y transl ationthatassu m esal l id eastob ecreated eq u al , p art
rig ht, p artwrong -and whoism antotry toj u d g eb etweenthem ? It
wasthissam ep u b l icneg l ig enceab ou tid easthatm ad ewrong id eas
d ang erou s . . . .
ThefactthatL attim oreisnoSovietag ent* d oesnotcl earhim ofhav-
ing had , inl essd ram aticway s, ad isastrou sinfl u enceontheforeig n
p ol icy ofhiscou ntry . . . . [ L attim ore' sm em orand u m totheStateD e-
p artm entonF arEasternp ol icy ] p aid l ip servicetotheid eathatAsiatic
Com m u nism m u stnotb eap p eased , b u titwasineffectathorou g hand
d etail ed p rog ram forap p easem ent . . . . L attim ore' sid easd id work to
thwartthed evel op m entofaneffectivep rog ram ofU . S. hel p toanti-
Com m u nistforcesinChina . "
And y et, ifonel ook sthrou g hthe Read er' sGu id etoPeriod ical
L iteratu re forthey earsp reced ing M cCarthy ' sex p osu reofL atti-
m ore, notasing l earticl eisfou nd warning Am ericaag ainstL at-
tim ore' sinsid iou sinfl u ence-notevenin Tim e m ag az ine . * * Thisj ob
wasl efttothej u niorSenatorfrom W isconsin, whoforhisp ains
m etwiththed am nationoftheintel l ig entsiathathad cou ntenanced
L attim oreand infacthad b eenb ewitched b y him forsom any y ears .
Itshou l d b erecal l ed thatthisarticl ewaswrittenon Ap ril 1 7 , 1 9 50 ,
b efore theIPRinvestig ationwasu nd ertak en.
Col u m b iaM ag az ine, anorg anoftheK nig htsofCol u m b u s, p u b l ished
anarticl eb y theReverend Jam esK
. K earney attack ing L attim oreinSep -
tem b erof 1 9 4 9 .
ReferencestoL attim ore' sp arty -l ining had al soap p eared in
TheChicag oJou rnal ofCom m erce, and inthe NewL ead er
.
CHAPTERVIII
" W arm ed -O verCharg es"
T
im foreg oing ninep u b l iccasesm u stb eviewed asM cCarthy ' s
earnestm oney toward stheinvestig ationhehad b eenp rom -
ised . F orthatreasonwehavetak enad etail ed and p erhap s
l ab oriou sl ook atthem ; foronthatb asisal onewehavetod ecid e
whetherM cCarthy had ap rim a facie caseag ainstthesecu rity p rac-
ticesoftheStateD ep artm ent . W eb el ievethat, onthewhol e, the
record herevind icatesM cCarthy .
Notwithstand ing , theTy d ing sinvestig ationoftheStateD ep art-
m ent, toal l intentsand p u rp oses, end ed withitshearing ofthe
ninecases .
Y etthereism oretotheTy d ing ssag a . M orem u stb esaid ab ou t
certainthing stheCom m itteep u rp orted tod o, and d id notd o, in
thep rocessofd iscred iting M cCarthy ; and ab ou tthing sthatitd id
notevenp u rp orttod ob u t had tod ou nd eritsm and atetoinvesti-
g atetheStateD ep artm ent . F ortheTy d ing sCom m ittee' sm ost
ob viou sob l ig ationwas, ofcou rse, tou nd ertak eathorou g hstu d y
oftheeig hty -onecasesM cCarthy had p resented inhisSenate
sp eechofF eb ru ary z o( onl y twoofwhich-Phil ip Jessu p and
EstherB ru nau er-were" p u b l iccases" ) .
O verand overag ain, theanti-M cCarthy l iteratu reb earsd own
ex u l tantl y onthe" fact" thatasu b com m itteeoftheHou seCom -
m itteeonAp p rop riationsoftheRep u b l ican-control l ed 8 othCon-
g resshad al read y investig ated al l
ofM cCarthy ' scasesinthewinter
of
1 9 4 7 -1 9 4 8
; and had cl eared them al l
. Thereisnom orefu nd a-
m ental -orm orep ervasive* -inaccu racy inthisfiel d .
* Eventheshrewd and u ng u l l ib l eB ritishau thor, M issReb eccaW est, is
ensnared b y thisl eg end . Seeherotherwisead m irab l earticl ein U SNews
and W orl d Rep ort,
M ay 2 2 ,
1 9 53
.
1 6 2

M CCARTHY AND HISENEM IES


HereishowtheTy d ing sCom m itteep u tit
:
Thereisnofactu al inform ationrel ativetoany oneoftheF eb ru ary
2 0
caseswhichd oesnothaveitsid entifiab l ecou nterp artam ong the" io8
l ist. " .
. .
Thesu b com m itteeoftheHou seAp p rop riationsCom m itteeof
theRep u b l ican-control l ed Eig htiethCong resswhichconsid ered
the
io8 m em orand a
d id notreg ard them ofsu fficientsig nificanceevento
su b m itarep ortconcerning them orthel oy al ty ofStateD ep artm ent
p ersonnel g eneral l y
. '
Herearethefacts
: Inthefal l of1 9 4 7 , thesu b com m itteeinq u es-
tion, throu g hitschiefcl erk , M r
. Rob ertE
. L ee, cond u cted anin-
vestig ationofStateD ep artm entsecu rity p ractices
. Theaim was
aneval u ationoftheD ep artm ent' ssecu rity p rog ram , itsstand ard s
and itsad m inistration
. L ee' sinvestig atorsp rep ared su m m ariesof
thel oy al ty fil esof" 1 0 8 p resent, form er, and p rosp ective" D ep art-
m entem p l oy ees
. Thesu b com m itteestu d ied thesesu m m aries, in-
terrog ated resp onsib l eStateD ep artm entofficial s, and rep orted its
concl u sions, earl y in1 9 4 8 , asfol l ows
:
TheCom m itteehel d ex tensivehearing sonthesecu rity p haseofthe
D ep artm ent[ ofState] and theem p l oy m entofind ivid u al sthatwere
consid ered p oorrisk sfrom thesecu rity ang l e
. Com m itteeinvestig ators
d iscl osed and rep rod u ced from D ep artm entfil estheem p l oy m enthis-
toriesof1 o8 p resent, form erand p rosp ectiveem p l oy ees
. F il esonthe
p rosp ectiveem p l oy eeswereactive, and theind ivid u al s, atthetim eof
theinvestig ation, wereb eing consid ered forem p l oy m ent, eventhou g h
inform ationofrecord p ointed totheirb eing p oorrisk s
. TheCom m ittee
d oesnotfeel thattheD ep artm enthasb eenasd il ig entasitm ig hthave
b eeninthesel ectionofitsp ersonnel and hasnotsu fficientl y ex ercised
thep rerog ativeg ivenitu nd ertheso-cal l ed M cCarranRid er,
contained
inap p rop riationactsforthisD ep artm entforthep astseveral y ears
. . . .
Itwou l d seem totheCom m itteethatany d ou b tsinconnectionwith
em p l oy m entofp ersonnel intheD ep artm entofStateshou l d b eresol ved
infavoroftheU nited States, and officersorem p l oy eeswhoaresu s-
p ected inthesl ig htestd eg reeshou l d b eencou rag ed toresig n
. * [ Ital ics
ad d ed . ]
Them em b ersofthesu b com m ittee, inotherword s, m ad enose-
cretoftheirb el iefthattheStateD ep artm enthad b eenl ax inits
secu rity p ractices
. M oreover, com m itteem em b ersd id notal way s
ex p resstheirfeel ing sinthem atterwithsu chrestraint
.
Hou seofRep resentativesRep ortNo
. 1 4 3 3 , 8 othCong ress, 2 nd Session,
F eb ru ary 2 7 , 1 9 4 8 , p .
3 .
Therep ort, p resented totheHou seb y Cong ress-
m anK arl Stefan, wasu nanim ou s
.
" W ARM ED -O VER CHARGES"

1 6 3
D u ring theCom m ittee' sq u estioning ofM r . Ham il tonRob inson
( theD ep artm ent' sd irectoroftheO fficeofControl s) , Cong ressm an
K arl Stefan' sex asp erationb ecam eu ncontrol l ab l e . " Iam j u stam an
from thep rairiesofNeb rask a, " heb l u rted ou t, " j u stask ing y ou why
itisthatthesep eop l eareonthep ay rol l whenthep eop l eofthe
U nited Statesaretry ing tog etb ehind theGovernm enttofig ht
com m u nism and theencroachm entofcom m u nism inthiscou ntry
and al l overEu rop e . And herewefind them em p l oy ed intheState
D ep artm ent
. " 2
W hentheHou seCom m itteeconcl u d ed itsinterrog ationofM r
.
Rob inson, theChairm anrem ark ed :
Ihavenootherq u estionsatthistim e
. However, Iwou l d say thisto
y ou , thatitm ak esm ed istu rb ed astowhetherwehaveany rep resenta-
tionoftheU nited StatesintheStateD ep artm ent
. Ihavenotb eenas
m u chd istu rb ed inal ong tim e . . .
. herearel oocasesand m any of
them arestil l onthep ay rol l and thep eop l eareg oing toask u s, what
areweg oing tod oab ou tit
. 3
Y etontheb asisofsu chfactstheTy d ing sCom m itteeand its
cam p -fol l owersd ared concl u d ethattheSu b com m ittee had cl eared
theStateD ep artm ent)
O nl y afewweek saftertheHou seAp p rop riationsCom m ittee
had q u estioned theD ep artm entab ou tthe1 o8 , anotherHou se
Com m ittee-Ex p end itu resintheEx ecu tiveD ep artm ent-wasask -
ing D ep u ty AssistantJohnPeu rifoy tob ring itu p tod ateonthe
L eel ist . Hestated that9 ofthel ob werestil l b eing consid ered for
em p l oy m ent, thatonl y 57 ofthe1 o8 werecu rrentl y em p l oy ed b y
theD ep artm entand that, oftheem p l oy ed g rou p , z z wereb eing
check ed b y theF B I . Head d ed thattheresig nationofoneofthe
57 wasp end ing . Thu s, 4 2 oftheio8 wereb y thistim eal read y
sep arated from theD ep artm ent .
Then, onM arch3 , 1 9 4 8 , Rep resentativeStefanag ainfocu sed
attentiononthel ob -" concerning m ostofwhom , " hesaid , " there
wassom ed ou b tastol oy al ty . " 4 Innoway d id he, any m orethanthe
Com m itteethathad heard Peu rifoy , ex p resssatisfactionwiththe
StateD ep artm ent' shand l ing ofp ersonnel secu rity .
Theio8 cam eu p fornoticeonseveral otheroccasionsintheen-
su ing m onths
. O nM arch2 5, forex am p l e, Rep resentativeB u sb ey
sharp l y criticiz ed theStateD ep artm entD irectorofControl s, M r .
Ham il tonRob inson, and p articu l arl y em p hasiz ed thed erel ictions
reveal ed b y theinvestig atorswhocom p il ed thel istof1 o8 . 5
1 6 4

M CCARTHY AND HISENEM IES


Inshort, therewasind eed al istof1 o8 cases . D rawnu p inthe
l astd ay sof1 9 4 7 , itd id receiveag reatd eal ofp u b l icattention ;
and thetestim ony b eforetheEx p end itu resCom m itteetotheeffect
thatonl y 57 ofthe1 o8 p ersonsonitwerecu rrentl y em p l oy ed d id
servetoassu ag eCong ressional anx iety . B u tthereisnorecord o f
any Cong ressional " cl earance" fortheentirel istofio8 orany
p artofit ; rather, thereiscl earevid encethattheHou seAp p ro-
p riationsCom m ittee, whichg athered thed ataonthe1 o8 , ex -
p ressed m ark ed d issatisfactionwiththeStateD ep artm entsecu r-
ity afterex am ining them . To p u rsu ethem atterany fu rtherwas
im p ossib l efor any Cong ressional com m itteeb ecau se, onthe1 3 th
ofM arch, 1 9 4 8 , Tru m anb anned therel easeofsecu rity d atato
Cong ress ; and thatinform ationwasab sol u tel y ind isp ensab l etoany
com p rehensiveeval u ationofsecu rity p racticesintheStateD e-
p artm ent . *
TheTy d ing sCom m ittee" fou nd " that al l nu m b ered casesp re-
sented toitb y SenatorM cCarthy were" ol d and stal e . " ItsRep ort
said that" thereisnotoneofthecasesd iscu ssed [ b y M cCarthy ] on
F eb ru ary 2 0 , 1 9 50 , ontheSenatefl oorwhichisnottob efou nd
am ong the` 1 o8 ' l ist" -im p l y ing thatal l M cCarthy ' s( non-p u b l ic)
nam esweretak enfrom theL eel ist
. Nowhereinitsrep ortd id the
Com m itteecom m entu p onthefactthatM cCarthy had g ivenita
nu m b erofnam eswhichhad notap p eared ontheL eel ist
. Inshort,
theCom m itteeconsciou sl y attem p ted top ersu ad ethep u b l ic( and
inthisitwassu ccessfu l ) thatM cCarthy fu rnished nonam es-or
evid ence-thathad notal read y b eenreviewed b y Cong ressional
com m itteesin1 9 4 8
.
L etu sb every cl earab ou ttherel ationb etweentheL eel istand
theM cCarthy l ist
. Itisq u itetru ethatthetwol istsoverl ap . B u t
theL eel istd id
not incl u d etheentireM cCarthy l ist
. W hatism ore,
aStateD ep artm entd ocu m entintheAp p end ix totheTy d ing s
Hearing s( p p .
1 8 1 4 -1 7 ) reveal sthatm u chI
Twoothercom m itteesofCong ressareoftensaid tohavecl eared the
StateD ep artm entin1 9 4 8 and , inthep rocess, theio8 . O neistheSenate
Com m itteeonAp p rop riationsofthe8 othCong ress, and wehavenoted the
ex p l icitd enial ofany su chcl earanceb y oneofitsm ostactivem em b ers,
SenatorHom erF erg u son
. Theother-theHou seCom m itteeonF oreig n
Affairs-d el eg ated thetask ofcheck ing onStateD ep artm entsecu rity toa
com m ittee-of-one, Cong ressm anB artel Jonk m an, whoseam u sing " rep ort"
wem entioned inap reviou schap ter .
* * Thisd ocu m entisnot, however, eithercom p l etel y accu rate
( e . g . , itfail s
tonotethatM cCarthy ' sCaseNo
. 1 4 corresp ond swithL ee' sNo
. 1 o) or
ex hau stive( itm ak esnom entionofany ofM cCarthy ' scasesafterhis8 1 st)
.
" W ARM ED -O VERCHARGES
" 1 6 5
M cCarthy g avetotheTy d ing sCom m ittee
1 1 o p ersonstob e
investig ated
. * O fthese, 3 7 werenotontheL eel ist . And ofthe3 7 ,
z 6 werestil l em p l oy ed b y theStateD ep artm entatthetim eM c-
Carthy b rou g hthischarg es .
Y etintheteethofsu chfacts, cou ntl essb ook sand ed itorial s
havestated , and continu etostate, thatM cCarthy d id nothing
m orethanrenu m b ertheL eel istl
Aswesay , M cCarthy g avetheCom m ittee
1 1 o nam es . O fthese,
6 z wereem p l oy ed b y theStateD ep artm entatthetim eofthe
Ty d ing shearing s : * *
6 had b eencl eared b y theStateD ep artm entb eforeF eb -
ru ary , 1 9 50 , and werenotb eing rep rocessed asof
Ju ne,
1
9 5 1
;
1 9 werecl eared b etweenF eb ru ary , 1 9 50 , and Ju ne, 1 9 51
;
2 9
wereb eing investig ated u nd erthePresid ent' sL oy al ty
O rd erasofJu ne, 1 9 51 ;
7 had neverb eeninvestig ated as ofJu ne, 1 9 51 ;
1 resig ned inD ecem b er, 1 9 50 , whil eu nd erinvestig ation .
Total : 6 2
Inshort: withinoney earafterTy d ing shad u nam b ig u ou sl y
cl eared al l p ersonsonM cCarthy ' sl ist, and theStateD ep artm ent
had ind ig nantl y affirm ed theirl oy al ty and rel iab il ity , theD ep art-
m entsawfittorep rocess - nol essthan4 9 ( ou tof6 2 ! ) , 2 9 ofwhom
werestil l " inchannel s" aso fJu ne,
1
9 5 1 .
Thehig hincid enceof" rep rocessing s" cannotb eex p l ained away
ontheg rou nd sthatPresid entTru m an' sEx ecu tiveO rd erofAp ril
Thisex cl u d esd u p l icationsand u nid entified p ersons, and incl u d esM c-
Carthy ' sp u b l iccases
. F orad etail ed b reak d ownoftheseand ensu ing fig u res,
seeAp p end ix C .
Inform ationontheb al anceofM cCarthy ' scases, thosewhowerework -
ing fortheStateD ep artm entatthetim eheb rou g hthischarg es, isd erived
p rim aril y -thou g hb y nom eansex cl u sivel y -from onefairl y com p rehensive
and ab sol u tel y au thenticd ocu m ent, d ated Ju ne
1 3 , 1 9 51 , towhichtheau -
thorshavehad access . F orthatreason, and thatreasonal one, thatd ateap -
p earsintheensu ing b reak d own .
tW esay " rep rocess" b ecau se, inthel ig htoftheag eofthed erog atory
evid enceag ainstthem , itisvirtu al l y aforeg oneconcl u sionthatthe4 9 were
b ack inl oy al ty -secu rity channel sthey had al read y weathered inthed ay s
b eforeTy d ing s .
1 6 6

M CCARTHY AND HISENEM IES


2 8 , 1 9 51 , chang ing thel oy al ty stand ard from " reasonab l e g rou nd s"
to" reasonab l e d ou b t, " had forced theStateD ep artm enttore-
p rocess al l em p l oy eesag ainstwhom d erog atory inform ationhad
everb eenreceived . As wehaveshownab ove, theD ep artm enthad
b eenop erating fory earsu nd erthe" reasonab l ed ou b t" stand ard
inthesecu rity categ ory . NeithertheD ep artm entnortheap ol o-
g istsforitssecu rity p rog ram cantak erefu g ehereinthep l eathat
theru l esoftheg am ehad b eenchang ed . W hathad chang ed was
theD ep artm ent' sd isp ositiontoob servethem .
Eig hteenofthe4 9 M cCarthy casesrep rocessed aftertheTy d -
ing shearing shad l efttheD ep artm entasofthefirstofJanu ary ,
1 9 53
. W ed onotk nowwhetherthey al l werecl assed , orwereab ou t
tob ecl assed , asl oy al ty orsecu rity risk s
. B u tthep resu m p tionl ies
inthatd irectionwithresp ecttoanu m b erofthem
; iffornoother
reasonthanthatthetu rnoveram ong M cCarthy cases( 1 8 ou tof
6 z ) isag ood d eal hig herthanthatoftheD ep artm ent
as awhol e .
Tosu m u p : D u ring theTy d ing shearing s, StateD ep artm ent
official stim eand ag ainasserted thatal l ofM cCarthy ' scaseshad
b een" thorou g hl y investig ated " and , onthestreng thofthesein-
vestig ations, cl eared . TheCom m itteeitsel freinforced thisverd ict
withitsownacross-the-b oard cl earance . Y etay earl ater, 8 op er
centofM cCarthy ' scaseshad b eenp u tintol oy al ty orsecu rity
channel s ; and b eforel ong , 2 9 p ercentofthem weresep arated .
TheD ep artm ent, inotherword s, b y itsd ecisiontotak eanewhard
l ook atthe4 9 , tacitl y ad m itted whatM cCarthy had b eensay ing
al l al ong : thatanim p ortantnu m b erofStateD ep artm entem p l oy -
eeshad notb eeng ivenanad eq u atesecu rity screening
. Itisevi-
d ent, then, thatweareind eb ted toM cCarthy ' scam p aig nforj ol t-
ing D ep artm entofficial sintoreop ening theq u estiontoseewhether
theirinvestig ationshad b eenthorou g henou g hortheireval u ations
sternenou g h .
CHAPTERIX
Som eU nanswered Qu estions
W
EHAVE b y nowl earned enou g htop assj u d g m entu p onthe
Ty d ing s" investig ation . " " F rau d " and " hoax " arep retty
g ood word sford escrib ing notM cCarthy ' scharg es, b u t
Ty d ing s' concl u sionsab ou tthem , i
. e . ,
( i) thatthep ersonsM c-
Carthy had accu sed werep atriotsb ey ond areasonab l ed ou b t, ( 2 )
thattheStateD ep artm ent' ssecu rity d ivisionhad b eenefficient
and effectivewhen, accord ing toM cCarthy , ithad b eenl ax and
fu til e, and ( 3 ) thatSenatorM cCarthy wasacharl atan
.
W em u strem em b er, however, thatinvestig ationofM cCarthy ' s
sp ecificcharg eswasb u tthefirstitem ontheCom m ittee' sag end a-
and cou l d notb einterp reted asany thing m oreinthel ig htofthe
Com m ittee' sm and ateto investig atetheStateD ep artm ent
.
The
Ty d ing sCom m ittee' stacitassu m p tionthatifitcou l d d iscred it
M cCarthy ' scharg esitwasau tom atical l y j u stified inend orsing the
total l oy al ty -secu rity p rog ram oftheD ep artm ent, wasentirel y u n-
warranted . TheCom m ittee' sm and ate, thou g ham b ig u ou sinsom e
otherresp ects, wasq u itecl earinthisonereg ard : theStateD ep art-
m entwastob ethorou g hl y investig ated .
SenatorL od g eap p arentl y sensed that, ind eferencetothewishes
ofAm ericanL ib eral d om , hisD em ocraticCom m itteecol l eag u es
wereab ou ttohand d ownab l ank etend orsem entoftheStateD e-
p artm ent . F orheread intotherecord nol essthan 1 g sp ecific
q u estionswhichhad b eenraised b y p ersons other thanM cCarthy ;
and L od g earg u ed thattheCom m itteehad nob u sinessrep orting
thattheStateD ep artm ent' ssecu rity p rog ram wassatisfactory
whil ethey rem ained u nanswered .
Tononeofthese ig
q u estionsd id theTy d ing sCom m ittee
ad d ressitsel feitherinitsinvestig ationorinitsrep ort . L od g e' sl ist,
tob esu re, b y nom eansex hau sted theavail ab l esu p p l y ofsu ch
q u estions
; itd id notp u rp orttob em orethanasam p l ing ofq u es-
1 6 8

M CCAR=AND HISENEM IES


tionsrel evanttoStateD ep artm entsecu rity thatthenwanted ask -
ing ( and that, forthem ostp art, wantask ing tod ay ) . Y etitwas
su fficientl y reveal ing tom eritcitationinfu l l . SenatorL od g eask ed :
W hatStateD ep artm entofficial swereresp onsib l eforp l acing Hiss
and W ad l eig hintheStateD ep artm ent?
W hatp ersonorp ersonswerep rim aril y resp onsib l eforsp onsorship
forem p l oy m entofthe9 1 sex u al p ervertswhowereintheStateD ep art-
m entand whowererep orted ashaving b eend ism issed b eg inning with
Janu ary 1 , 1 9 4 7 ?
W erethoseStateD ep artm entofficial swhoop p osed U nited States
recog nitionofSovietRu ssiaand whothereafterwarned ag ainstany
ap p easem entoftheSovietreg im einany way d iscrim inated ag ainstor
u nfairl y treated b y theStateD ep artm ent?
W hatwerethep roced u reswhereb y Com m u nistsg ained entry into
theU nited Statesu p ontheb asisofvisasob tained throu g hou rcon-
su l arserviceab road ?
W hatarethefactswithreferencetotherel easeoftheSovietsp y
nam ed Gaik B ad al ovichO vak im ianonJu l y
2 3 ,
1 9 4 1 ?
W hatarethefactswithreferencetotherel easeoftheSovietsp y
nam ed M ik hal aNick ol avichGoranonM archz z , 1 9 4 1 ?
W hatisthesig nificanceofthestatem entb y Ad ol p hB erl etothe
Hou seU n-Am ericanActivitiesCom m itteethatAl g erHissb el ong ed
tothep ro-Ru ssiancl iq u eintheStateD ep artm ent?
W hointheStateD ep artm entwasresp onsib l eforob taining theserv-
icesofF red erick Schu m anand O wenL attim oreassp eak ersfortheD e-
p artm ent' sind octrinationcou rseforF oreig nServiceem p l oy ees?
W hatarethefactsofthecharg ethataStateD ep artm entsecu rity
officer' sd ecisionthat 1 o m em b ersoftheD ep artm entb ed ischarg ed
wassu b seq u entl y reversed b y hig herau thority ?
W hatStateD ep artm entofficial swereresp onsib l eforad viceg iven
hig herofficial sthattheSovietGovernm entwou l d al l owfreeel ections
inPol and and Cz echosl ovak ia, Hu ng ary , Ru m ania, and theothersatel -
l itecou ntries?
W hatarethefactssu rrou nd ing thecaseofArthu rAd am s, anal l eg ed
Sovietsp y , whowasp erm itted tol eavetheU nited Statesin1 9 4 6 ?
Itisrep orted thattheF B Ihad p rep ared achartwhichp u rp orted to
showthenu m b erof" ag ents, " " Com m u nists, " " sy m p athiz ers, " and " su s-
p ects" intheStateD ep artm entasofM ay 1 5, 1 9 4 7 . W hoaretheseCom -
m u nistsand ag entsand sy m p athiz ersand su sp ects? W hataretheir
nam es? W hy arethey there?
IntheL attim orecase, thereareanu m b erofq u estionstowhichan-
swerswerenotob tained . F orex am p l e :
Thereisnoau thoritativeand d etail ed p resentationintherecord
from theStateD ep artm entsetting forththep recisefacts, d ates, etc
. ,
concerning M r. L attim ore' srel ationship withtheStateD ep artm ent .
Thep ersonsm entioned b y M r
. B u d enz ashaving had rel ationswith
SO M EU NANSW ERED QU ESTIO NS

1 6 9
M r . L attim orehavenotb eenex am ined
. Thereweresom e
1 6 innu m b er .
Thosewhohead ed theChinad esk intheStateD ep artm enthavenot
b eenq u estioned tod eterm inewhetherM r
. L attim oreg avead viceon
U nited Statesp ol icy onChinaand whetherthisad vicewasfol l owed
.
TheU nited StatesAm b assad orstoChinawhohel d thatofficed u ring
M r
. L attim ore' sp eriod ofactivity havenotb eenq u estioned al ong the
sam el ines .
Thesu b com m itteehasnotd iscovered whetherany newinform ation
hascom eintothep ossessionoftheD ep artm entofj u sticeresp ecting
M r
. L attim oresinceM arch2 4 , 1 9 50 , whenthem em b ersofthesu b -
com m itteewereal l owed toseeasu m m ary ofM r
. L attim ore' sfil e .
O nAp ril 2 5, M r
. B u d enz stated thathewou l d fu rnishthesu b com -
m itteewithnam esofCom m u nistswhom hek newtob eintheState
D ep artm ent . Thatl isthasnotcom etothesu b com m ittee
.
Investig ationhasnotb eenm ad eofal l thosewhom M r
. L attim oreis
su p p osed tohaveb rou g htintotheInstitu teofPacificRel ations
. '
TheTy d ing sCom m itteechosenotm erel y toig noreal l these
m atters, itattem p ted al sotoconceal theirex istencefrom theread -
ing p u b l ic
: som em em b eroftheCom m ittee, orsom eoneonitsstag ,
sawtoitthatthep ortionofthetranscrip tcontaining Senator
L od g e' sq u estionswasd el eted from thep u b l ished record ofthe
hearing s .
L od g ed etected theom issionseveral d ay saftertheCom m ittee
su b m itted itsRep ort . Heex p ressed hisind ig nationtotheSenatein
nou ncertainterm s . " Is theSenator[ Ty d ing s] aware
. . . ofthefact
thatinthep rinted cop y ofthehearing softhesu b com m itteeon
d isl oy al ty , thereareom itted , b eg inning atp ag e1 4 8 8 , ab ou t3 5
ty p ewrittenp ag esofthetranscrip tofthesu b com m itteem eeting
onJu ne2 8 ? . . . Perm itm etosay thatIshal l notattem p ttocharac-
teriz ethosem ethod sand thetacticsofl eaving ou tofthep rinted
tex tp artsofthetestim ony and p roceed ing s . . .
. Ishal l notchar-
acteriz esu chm ethod s, b ecau seIthink they sp eak forthem sel ves
. " 2
SenatorM cM ahonhu rried totherescu e
: som eonehad sl ip p ed
u p , hesaid ; b u t, hap p il y , therewasarem ed y , nam el y , toru nthe
om itted p ortionsinanam end ed versionofthehearing s
.
No, L od g eretorted , theex p l anationwou l d notd o
. " Theom is-
sion . . . cou l d nothaveb eenam istak e, inthesensethatb y m istak e
theentirel atterp artofthep roceed ing swasom itted , b ecau seafter
theom issionofthel arg enu m b erofp ag estowhichIhavereferred ,
inthep rinted cop y ofthehearing sap p earthel astseveral sentences
showninthety p ewrittentranscrip t, incl u d ing thestatem entab ou t
1 7 0

M CCARTHY AND HISENEM IES


thead j ou rnm ent
. " 3 Inotherword s, som eone* had sim p l y m oved
thecl osing sentencesintheorig inal transcrip tb ack som ethirty
p ag es, evid entl y inad esp erateand chil d ishattem p ttoshiel d the
Com m itteefrom theem b arrassm enttowhichsu chad roitq u es-
tionsfrom oneofitsownm em b ersm ig htex p oseit .
Thethirty -fiveom itted p ag escontained , b esid estheL od g eq u es-
tions, othertestim ony thatp u ttheCom m itteeinanex trem el y p oor
l ig ht
. Sid ing withL od g e, SenatorHick enl oop erhad p rotested
ag ainsttheinad eq u aciesoftheinvestig ation : " W ehave g o or3
0
nam es[ thathavecom eu p inthecou rseoftheinvestig ation] that
Ithink weou g httol ook into . " 8 IftheCom m itteewou l d reconsid er
itsd ecisiontocl osethehearing sthatd ay , hecontinu ed , hewou l d
d rawu p al istofthe " z o or3 0 " nam es, and " y ou canhaveittom or-
row afternoon . " B u tthem aj ority wasad am ant . SenatorTy d ing s :
" Ithink ou rwork is p retty wel l concl u d ed , if y ou wantm y op inion . "
It
is nothard toseefrom theensu ing d ial og u e, why theCom m ittee
m aj ority el ected tosu p p ressthosethirty -fivep ag es :
SENATO RHICK ENL O O PER . I d on' tthink ithasevenstarted , M r . Chair-
m an .
SENATO RTY D INGS . Y ou d isag reewithm e?
SENATO RHICK ENL O O PER . Id isag reewithy ou .
SENATO RTY D INGS . B u tId isag reewithy ou , sothereweare .
M R . M O RRIS [ M inority cou nsel ] . Senator, m ay Im entionj u stonecase
here?
* Theid entity ofthecu l p rit( s) hasneverb eenreveal ed . Note, m oreover,
thatthisisnottheonl y ind icationthattheCom m itteewasu nd erhand ed in
p rep aring itsRep ort . SenatorHick enl oop erhasb rand ed theRep ort" am y s-
teriou sand am y steriou sl y p rep ared d ocu m ent . " 4 And SenatorF erg u son,
sp eak ing fou rd ay sl ater, wentstil l fu rther : " Ireal l y feel thatthesu b com m it-
tee . . . shou l d resu m eitswork and u nd ertak eaninvestig ationofitsown
staff . . . .
Noriseventhatal l . SenatorsL od g eand Hick enl oop erhad intim ated d u r-
ing thehearing sthatthey wou l d notsig nthesortofrep ortthem aj ority ap -
p arentl y had inm ind tosu b m ittotheSenate . They werenoteveng ivenan
op p ortu nity toseeitb eforeitwassenttotheSenateand cop ieshad b een
g iventothep ress . 6
And SenatorM u nd td etected y etanotherb itofsharp
p ractice . Therep ortwasatfirst" l ab el ed a` su b com m itteerep ort' and . . .
afterthe[ p arent] Com m itteeonF oreig nRel ationshad d isavowed p aternity
oftherep ort, itwasfinal l y p rinted , and , inthep rocessofp rinting , thej ack et
waschang ed from ` su b com m itteerep ort' toind icatethatitwasarep ortof
thefu l l com m ittee . . . . " " Iwond er, " M u nd tconcl u d ed afterhearing Senator
F erg u sonl istsom eofthem orep atentd erel ictionsoftheCom m ittee,
" W hethertheSenatorfrom M ichig an[ F erg u son] wil l ag reewiththeSenator
from Sou thD ak otathatthiswhol eb u sinessofarep ortand censored setof
hearing scom esvery cl osetob eing ahoax and afrau d , tou setheword sof
theorig inal rep ort . " 7
SO M E
U NANSW ERED
QU ESTIO NS

1 7 1
SENATO RTY D INGS . M r
. M orris, wecanm entioncasesfrom nowu ntil
d oom sd ay .
M R . M O RRIS . Itisintherecord , Senator
. M ay Ij u stfinish?
SENATO RTY D INGS .
O fcou rse, y ou arenotam em b eroftheCom m it-
tee
. W henwewantcou nsel tosp eak , wewil l ask them , b u tIam g oing
tol ety ou sp eak
. However, thatisam atterfortheCom m itteetod ecid e
.
SENATO RL O D GE . I wou l d l ik etohearwhathehastosay
.
M R . M O RRIS .
Thereisacaseofam annam ed Theod oreGeig er
. He
hasb eenanem p l oy eeoftheStateD ep artm ent
. HeisnowoneofPau l
Hoffm an' stop assistants
. Heisd oing work thatisq u asi-StateD ep art-
m entincharacter
. Ihaveg oneand g ottensom ewitnessestog etherwho
wil l testify thathewasam em b erofthesam eCom m u nistParty u nit
asthey were, and Ithink thatwewou l d b ed el inq u entifinthefaceof
thisevid encethatisnowontherecord -
SENATO RTY D INGS .
W hy d id n' ty ou tel l u sthis? W hy d id y ou waitu n-
til thishou rtotel l m e?
M R
. M O RRIS . I am notwaiting , Senator
. O ned ay SenatorGreenm ad e
m eawitnessand Ip u tital l intherecord .
SENATO RTY D INGS .
Y ou haven' ttol d m eab ou tit
. ThisisthefirstI
haveheard ab ou tit .
M R . M O RRIS. Senator, Iassu m ethaty ou areawareofevery thing in
therecord .
SENATO RTY D INGS
. No, therearesom ething sintherecord Ihaven' t
b eenab l etoread
.
M R . M O RRIS .
Certainl y M r . M org an[ theCom m ittee' schiefcou nsel ]
k nowsit
. Ihavem entioned itseveral tim estohim
. . . .
SENATO RTY D INGS . Tu rnitovertotheF B Iord osom ething withit
. I
wou l d l ik etog etad ecisionhere
. W ed on' twanttowastethisafter-
noon. . . 9
Su charethefacts
. Y etitisstil l b eing cl aim ed thattheTy d ing s
Com m itteefou nd nothing l efttoinvestig ateonceithad g ottenat
the" tru th" b ehind M cCarthy ' ssp ecificcharg esl
TheCom m ittee' sinvestig ationofthel oy al ty fil es( whichTru -
m anfinal l y consented tohand overtoit) wasafarce
. Thisisso
foranu m b erofreasonsthatwil l b ed etail ed intheAp p end ix ,
wherewewil l al soconsid erM cCarthy ' scharg ethatthefil eshad
b eensk el etoniz ed
. Su fficetoq u otethefirstsentencesofSenator
L od g e' sestim ateofthefu til ity oftheCom m ittee' sreviewofthe
fil es
:
Afterhaving read arep resentativecrosssectionofthe8 il oy al ty fil es
[ hetol d theSenate] , theconvictionwasreached thatthefil esal oned id
notfu rnishab asisforreaching firm concl u sionsofany k ind and that
toattem p ttoconcl u d ewithresp ecttoanind ivid u al caseontheb asis
1 7 2

M CCARTHY AND HIS


ENEM IES
ofthefil esal onewou l d b eam osthal f-b ak ed and su p erficial p roce-
d u re . . .
. Thefil eswhichIread wereinsu chanu nfinished stateasto
ind icatethatanex am inationofeachfil ewou l d b eawasteoftim e
. . . .
Twop ossib l eavenu esofinvestig ationtheCom m ittee
d id con-
sid er
. B othm eritonl y b rieftreatm entheresincethesal ientfacts
ab ou toneofthem , the
Am erasia case, arewid el y k nown
; and those
ab ou ttheother, them y steriou s" F B Ichart, " arestil l u navail ab l e-
thank sl arg el y totheinertiaoftheTy d ing sCom m ittee
.
AM ERASIA
TheTy d ing sCom m itteewou l d al m ostcertainl y neverevenhave
g l anced atthe Am erasia
caseb u tforthep u b l icp ressu rethe
Scrip p s-Howard newsp ap ersg enerated inthesp ring of1 -9 50 with
aseriesofarticl esb y F red W ol tm an
. Thesearticl esd em and ed that
theq u estionsl eftu nanswered b y theHob b sCom m itteeinq u iry of
1 -9 4 6 b ecl eared u p onceand foral l
.
Them aj orfactsofthecaseap p eartohaveb eenthese
. InF eb -
ru ary ,
1 9 4 5,
O SSag entsd iscovered anu m b erofhig hl y confid ential
StateD ep artm entd ocu m entsintheofficesoftheCom m u nist
Am er-
asia m ag az ine
. TheF B Iu nd ertook ap hy sical su rveil l anceofp er-
sonswhoap p eared tob einvol ved inthetheftofthed ocu m ents
.
O nJu ne6 , arrestswerem ad eand 1 0 6 9 ad d itional d ocu m ents
seiz ed atthe Am erasia
offices( 54 oofthem cl assified ) .
O fthesix p ersonswhowerearraig ned oncharg esofconsp iracy
tosteal g overnm entd ocu m entsrel ating tothenational d efense, *
fou rwentscotfree
; thetwootherswerel etoffwithfinesof$ 50 0
and $ 2 50 0 , resp ectivel y
. And atl easttwoq u estionshad seem ed to
cry ou tofthosefacts
. F irst, d id they m eanthatsom eonehad
stu m b l ed intoanetwork ofsp ieswhosetentacl esex tend ed into
theStateD ep artm ent? And , second , had theconsp iratorsand their
sp onsorsex ercised infl u enceontheg overnm enttoshort-circu itin-
vestig ationoftheaffair' sram ifications?
Thefirststep inseek ing answerstothesetwoq u estionswas, of
cou rse, tol ook intothehand l ing ofthecaseb y thej u sticeD ep art-
m ent
. TheTy d ing sCom m itteetu rned tothatvery D ep artm ent
for j u d g m ent
onthem atter, and end ed u p tak ing thej u sticeD e-
p artm ent' sword thatal l charg esl evel l ed ag ainstthej u sticeD e-
* Threeofthe
six d efend ants, JohnService, M ark Gay nand K ateM it-
chel l , wereno-b il l ed b y theGrand j u ry
; itind icted And rewRoth, Em m anu el
L arsenand Phil ip Jaffe
.
SO M EU NANSW ERED QU ESTIO NS

1
7 3
p artm ent, inconnectionwiththecase, wereu nfou nd ed . Had hid -
d enforcesm asterm ind ed awhitewashofthe
Am erasia
case? The
Ju sticeD ep artm entsaid no . Had theJu sticeD ep artm ent, d esp ite
thefactthatthecaseseem ed oftheop en-and -shu tvariety , p ressed
itwithsom ething l essthanitsu su al vig or? Certainl y not, said the
Ju sticeD ep artm ent . W asthereevid encethatatl eastthreeofthose
arrested ( Jaffe, L arsenand Roth) had p u tcl assified StateD ep art-
m entd ocu m entsatthed isp osal oftheCom m u nists? Asfarasit
went, y es, thatwascorrect, said theD ep artm ent. Had theJu stice
D ep artm entneverthel essl ettheRothp rosecu tiond rop al tog ether
and m ad ed eal swithJaffeand L arsen( thatitwou l d recom m end
onl y nom inal finesifthey wou l d ag reetoenterp l easof" g u il ty " and
" nol ocontend ere, " resp ectivel y ) ? Y es, said theD ep artm ent ; b u t
therewerel eg al ob stacl esthatm ad ethecaseag ainstthe Am erasia
d efend antsweak erthanitseem ed tothel ay m an .
Theab oveisnocaricatu reofthem inu etb etweentheTy d ing s
Com m itteeand theJu sticeD ep artm ent . TheCom m itteecal l ed b e-
foreittheD ep artm entofficial swhohad b eeninvol ved ( M r . Jam es
M cInerney , head oftheD ep artm ent' sCrim inal D ivision, and M r .
Rob ertHitchcock , theD ep artm entp rosecu torincharg eofthe
Am erasia case) and ask ed them torecite, asthey had d onetothe
Hob b sCom m itteefou ry earsb efore, theD ep artm entaccou ntof
them atter . And having heard whatthej u sticeD ep artm enthad to
say , theCom m itteep u b l ished overitsim p rim atu ral eng thy m em o-
rand u m onthel eg al p ointsinvol ved -not, asonem ig hthaveex -
p ected , acanvassofthel eg al p rosand cons, b u taventu reinad vo-
cacy thatp l ead ed thecaseag ainstthep rosecu torasp assionatel y
astheaccu sed ' sattorney swou l d haved ared top l ead it
. B u tthe
Com m itteewasatl easthonestenou g hnottoconceal thesou rces
from whichthem em orand u m wasob tained : itwasconceived and
ex ecu ted inthej u sticeD ep artm entitsel f!
Inthecircu m stances, itwasthecl earob l ig ationoftheTy d ing s
Com m itteetoob tainanim p artial verd ictonthetenab il ity ofthe
Ju sticeD ep artm ent' sl eg al p rem ises, and writethatverd ictintoits
rep ort . And thep l acetog oforsu chaverd ictwasnottothe
Ju sticeD ep artm ent, b u ttoab od y ofd isinterested l eg al ex p erts
b rou g httog ether ad hoc u nd ertheCom m ittee' sau sp ices . L etu s
notesom eoftheissu essu chap anel wou l d haveb eeninap osition
toconsid er ; and thenweshal l l eavethe
Am erasia caseastheTy d -
ing sCom m itteehasl eftit-ad eep and d istu rb ing m y stery .
F irst : W erethe Am erasia d efend antsp rosecu ted u nd ertherig ht
1 7 4
M CCARTHY AND HISENEM IES
l aw? Theorig inal com p l aintscharg ed viol ationofastatu tethat
d eal twithconsp iracy tosteal g overnm entd ocu m ents
rel ating to
thenational d efense . Thischarg ewassu b seq u entl y d rop p ed , and
thecaseswerefinal l y p rosecu ted u nd eral awthatd eal ssim p l y
withconsp iracy tosteal g overnm entp rop erty
. Thereasonforthis
chang e, asstated b y theD ep artm entattorney s, wastheiru ncer-
tainty ab ou tb eing ab l etop rovethatthetheftwas" forthep u rp ose
ofob taining inform ationresp ecting thenational d efense
. " W as
thisareasonab l eex p l anationinviewofthenatu reofthestol en
d ocu m ents? Thed ocu m entsincl u d ed , toid entify j u stavery few
ofthem
: arep ortonthed isp ositionoftheJap anesefl eetp riorto
theB attl eofL ey te ; arep ortonthed evel op m entoftheChinese
National istarm ies, g iving thel ocation, streng thand arm am entof
al l National isttroop s, d ivisionb y d ivision
; arep ortontheNavy ' s
sched u l eforb om b ing Jap anesestrateg ictarg ets
; theNavy ' scou n-
ter-intel l ig ence" org aniz ationp l an" ; arep ortonthel ocationof
2 5
Am ericansu b m arinesinPacificwaters ; an" Ey esO nl y " m essag e
from Presid entRoosevel ttoChiang p rop osing thatGeneral Stil -
wel l b eg ivensu p rem em il itary com m and inChina
. Aswesay ,
whenitd rewu p theorig inal ind ictm ent, thej u sticeD ep artm ent
fel titm ig htp ossib l y convinceacou rtthatsu chd ocu m entsre-
l ated tothenational d efense . *
B ey ond this, therewastheq u estion, W hy d id theD ep artm ent
fail toad d toitscom p l aintastil l fu rtheraccou nt, nam el y , esp io-
nag e? Initsm em orand u m totheTy d ing sCom m ittee, theD ep art-
m entattorney sd id notevenm entionthisp ossib il ity
; and wem u st
assu m ethey had fel tthey cou l d notp rovethattransm itting g overn-
m entd ocu m entstoak nownCom m u nist( Jaffe
) , and toam ag a-
z inethatcou l d easil y b eid entified asCom m u nist, am ou nted to
transm itting them toaforeig np ower
. And itm ay b etru ethatsu ch
acharg ecou l d nothaveb eenm ad etostick in1 9 4 5
. B u tthisd oes
notd isp oseoftheq u estion, W erethep ossib il itiesofm ak ing it
* TheD ep artm entattorney sp ointed ou tthat, sincethem ax im u m p enal ty
p rovid ed b y eachofthestatu tesinq u estionwasthesam e, i
. e . , twoy earsin
j ail , itwasam atterofind ifferencewhichl awwasu sed
; theTy d ing sCom -
m itteeob ed ientl y rep orted thattheissu ewas, therefore, " acad em ic
. " Any
reasonab l y im ag inativep ersonshou l d b eab l etoseewhy thechoiceofthe
l awu nd erwhichthecasewastob ep rosecu ted wascru cial : Ifthe" national
d efense" statu tehad b eenu sed , theD ep artm entwou l d havehad a" sp y "
caseonitshand s, and Cong ressional investig ationwou l d very l ik el y have
resu l ted from theattend antp u b l icity
. Thu s, thenational Ad m inistrationstood
toavoid consid erab l eem b arrassm entifthecasecou l d b ep assed offas
sm al l -tim ep il ferag e .
SO M EU NANSW ERED QU ESTIO NS

1 ' 7 5
stick g ood enou g htowarrantan
attem p t tom ak eitstick ? W em u st
rem em b erthattheoverrid ing issu ehereisnotwhethertheGov-
ernm entwou l d have won itscasehad itvig orou sl y p ressed the
p rosecu tion, b u twhetherthechancesofitswinning itwereg ood
enou g htowarranttheol d school try .
Second l y
: W asitad visab l efortheGovernm enttoconceal from
thecou rttheCom m u nistel em entinthecase? TheD ep artm ent
attorney sad vanced tworatherd ifferenttheoriesforhaving k ep t
Roth' sand Jaffe' sCom m u nistconnections, aswel l as Am erasia' s
p ol itical col oration, ou tofthecase
. They tol d theTy d ing sCom -
m ittee( a) thattohaveb rou g htintheCom m u nistang l ewou l d
have weak ened
thecase, sincetheCom m u nistswerefriend sand
al l iesatthetim e
; and ( b ) thattob ring itinwou l d haveb een
" p rej u d icial " tothed efend antsand thu sg rou nd sforam istrial
sinceCom m u nism was anathem a atthetim el M r . M orris, m inority
cou nsel fortheCom m ittee, took thep ositionthatsu chevid ence
certainl y wou l d haveb eenad m issib l e, and m ostcertainl y wou l d
havestreng thened thecase( eventhou g hthecharg ewassim p l y
theftofg overnm entd ocu m ents) , sinceitwou l d havehel p ed estab -
l isham otiveforthecrim e . Atany rate, l etu snotehowthisasp ect
oftheJaffecasehad b eenhand l ed b eforej u d g eProctoroftheU . S .
D istrictCou rt
:
M R. ARENT [ Jaffe' sattorney ] . Y ou rHonor, thisind ictm entcharg es
thed efend antand otherswithconsp iring toob tainvariou sGovern-
m entp ap ers . TheGovernm entd oesnotcontend thatany ofthism ateri-
al wasu sed forany d isl oy al p u rp oses . . . . IfM r . Jaffehastransg ressed
thel aw, itseem shehasd onesofrom anex cessofj ou rnal isticz eal . . . .
W erecog niz e, technical l y , theviol ation-and notfrom any d esireto
enrichhim sel f, asd em onstrated b y thecharacterofthep u b l ication, or
any intenttoj eop ard iz ethewel fareofhiscou ntry . . . .
THECO U RT . I think itwou l d b ewel l , p erhap s, if, inviewofthestate-
m entthathasb eenm ad e, whichIu nd erstand y ou [ theGovernm ent
attorney s] ap p roveofasacorrectstatem ent-
M R . HITCHCO CK [ thep rosecu tor] ( interp osing ) . Insu b stance, y es,
Y ou rHonor . . . .
THECO U RT . L etm eask y ou thisq u estion, p l ease : Isthereany evi-
d encethattheu setowhichthesed ocu m entswerep u twou l d b eau se
whereb y inj u ry orem b arrassm entwou l d com etotheArm y orthe
Navy inthecond u ctofthewar?
M R. HITCHCO CK . W ehavenoevid enceofthat, Y ou rHonor, and ,
fu rtherm ore, noevid encethatthey wereintend ed to .
THECO U RT .
W asthereany thing inthenatu reofp u b l icationthat
had thattend ency ?
1 7 6

M CCARTHY AND HISENEM IES


M x . Hrrcx cocK . Therewasnot, Y ou rHonor, asfaraswek now . Sofar
aswek now, therewasnothing intheu sep u tofthesed ocu m entsthat
had thattend ency noristhereany thing thatwehaveinou rp ossession
thatwou l d ind icate-infactq u itetothecontrary -thatthed efend ant
intend ed thatthey shou l d havethattend ency . Tou s, itwasl arg el y to
thep u rp oseofl end ing cred enceorvariety tothep u b l icationitsel f, and
p erhap sincreaseitscircu l ationand p restig e . . . .
TIIECO U RT . . . . I accep twithou tany d ou b ttheassu ranceb othof
y ou r[ Jaffe' s] cou nsel and oftheGovernm entattorney sthattherewas
nothou g htoractu p ony ou rp artwhichwasintend ed orcal cu l ated or
had atend ency toinj u retheGovernm entorthem il itary forcesinthe
p rosecu tionofthewar . Itwou l d m ak eq u itead ifferencetom ei fId id
nothavethatassu ranceand d id notk now, confid entl y , thatthatwas
tru e. . . . 1 0 [ Ital icsad d ed . ]
Third , and m ostim p ortant, W hatofthe" evid entiary " p rob l em
thatl iesattheheartofthed isp u teab ou tthej u sticeD ep artm ent' s
hand l ing ofthecase? TheD ep artm entarg u ed -and thisarg u m ent
haseversinceb eenthem ainstay foritsd efend ersinwhathas
am ou nted toal eg al hotstovel eag u e-thatthed ocu m entsseiz ed
in Am erasia' s officeswere" tainted evid ence, " and thu swou l d have
b eeninad m issib l einatrial . Sp ecifical l y , theD ep artm entm ain-
tained thatithad b eencom p el l ed tom ak ea" d eal , " and tod oso
inahu rry , sinceoneofthed efend ants( L arsen) had d iscovered
thatil l eg al searchesand seiz u reshad b eenu nd ertak enb y theO SS
and theF B Ip riortothearrests, and thu sm ig hthavem oved , su c-
cessfu l l y , toq u ashtheind ictm ent .
Thearg u m entb y whichthe" tainted " or" p ol l u ted " evid ence
theory isap p l ied tothe Am erasia caseru nsasfol l ows : TheO SS
raid and several F B Isearchesp riortothearrestswerecond u cted
withou tsearchwarrants . B u tk nowl ed g eob tained from theseil l e-
g al raid sl ed tothep rocu rem entofthewarrantsthatau thoriz ed
thearrestofthed efend antsand theseiz u reof L , o6 g Am erasia
d ocu m ents . Therefore, u nd erthetheory thatevid enceisinad m is-
sib l ewhichhasb eend iscovered throu g hil l eg al m eans, theD e-
p artm entarg u ed that none ofthe Am erasia d ocu m entswou l d have
b eenad m itted inevid enceattrial , and thu sthatthesu ccessofthe
p rosecu tiond ep end ed u p onthed efend ants' notfind ing ou tab ou t
theil l eg al searches
. And onceEm m anu el L arsenhad g otwind ofthe
il l eg al entry , thecasewasj eop ard iz ed -and d eal shad tob em ad e .
Therewereind eed l eg al p reced entssu p p orting theD ep art-
m ent' sp osition . O ntheotherhand -and thisisthecru cial con-
sid erationineval u ating thehand l ing ofthe Am erasia case-there
SO M EU NANSW ERED QU ESTIO NS

1 7 7
wasal soau thority fortheviewthattheevid ence was ad m issib l e .
Six week sb eforetheTy d ing sCom m itteem ad eitsrep ort, onJu ne
2 ,
1 9 50 , SenatorF erg u sonsu b m itted totheSenateal eng thy and
d etail ed anal y sisofthel eg al consid erations, and hecam etothe
concl u sionthat, atthevery l east, theevid entiary issu einvol ved in
the Am erasia casewasm oot
. Accord ing toF erg u son, atl eastsix
sep aratearg u m entssu p p orting thead m issib il ity oftheg overn-
m ent' sevid ence-al l ofthem b ack ed b y l eg al p reced ent-wou l d
haveb eenavail ab l etotheD ep artm entattorney shad they el ected
top ressthep rosecu tion :
a) Thetainted evid enceru l ed oesnotap p l y wherethep rior
il l eg al seiz u reinvol vestherecovery ofstol enGovernm ent
p rop erty ;
b ) TheGovernm ent' sp rocu rem entofthearrestwarrantsand
thu stheseiz u resofJu ne6 d id notd ep end ex cl u sivel y u p on
k nowl ed g eob tained inthecou rseoftheil l eg al searchesand
seiz u resthatp reced ed thearrest . TheGovernm enthad
g rou nd sforthearrestinthek nowl ed g eithad ob tained from
othersou rces ; forex am p l e, from thed iscovery , p riortothe
O SSraid , thatoneoftherestricted d ocu m entshad ap p eared
al m ostverb atim inthep ag esof Am erasia ;
c) Sincethey werenecessary inp rotecting national secu rity in
wartim e, theO SSand F B Iraid swerel eg al , evenintheab -
senceofwarrants, u nd eranim p l ied ex cep tiontotheF ou rth
Am end m ent ;
d ) Thep rotectionoftheF ou rthAm end m ent, atthem ost, ex -
tend stothem ag az ine Am erasia ( whosep rem iseswerevio-
l ated b y theorig inal O SSseiz u re) nottotheind ivid u al s
invol ved ;
e) The" tainted evid enceru l e" is, sim p l y , notg ood l awin
situ ationsofthisk ind . AsaU . S . D istrictCou rtsaid inacase
invol ving theGovernm ent' sseiz u reofcertainm achinery
p arts : " [ thecontentionthattheseiz u reisil l eg al ] . . .
wou l d
havetorestonthesing l efactthattheAssistantU . S . Attor-
ney k newwherethep artswere[ d u etoap reviou sil l eg al
raid ]
. Ifwesohel d , wewou l d say ineffectto[ thed efend -
ant : ] . . .
sincethefirstseiz u rewasil l eg al , y ou nowhavea
chancetosp iritaway theevid ence, fornosearchcanb e
m ad eu ntil som etim eaftertheF B Ihasl osttrack ofits
whereab ou ts . Thep rotectionoftheF ou rthAm end m entis
nottob esecu red b y ad op ting ru l esofhid eand g oseek . "
1 7 8

M CCARTHY AND HISENEM IES


B u tiftheevid entiary q u estionwasm oot-and itistheau thors'
op inionthatthep anel ofim p artial ex p ertswou l d havesofou nd -
then, ofcou rse, thej u sticeD ep artm entisl eftwithou tal eg to
stand on . F orthep rosecu tion, p articu l arl y inacaseasim p ortant
asthe Am erasia case, isob l ig ed totestthel awwhentherearerea-
sonab l eg rou nd sforb el ieving thataconvictioncanb eob tained . *
THEF B ICHART
O nJu ne6 , 1 9 50 , SenatorM cCarthy m ad e, onthefl oorofthe
Senate, ap rofou nd l y d istu rb ing revel ation . Itwasb ased , hesaid ,
on" inform ationwhichhasneverb eforeb eenb rou g httotheatten-
tionoftheAm ericanp eop l e" -inform ation, m oreover, thathad
b eenel icited from arep ortontheStateD ep artm entb y oneofits
ownofficial s, aD ep artm entsecu rity officernam ed Sam u el K l au s .
Thisrep ort, M cCarthy continu ed , contained achartp rep ared b y
theF B I, showing thesiz eoftheSoviettask forceintheStateD e-
p artm ent . AsofM ay 1 5, 1 9 4 6 , thechartal l eg ed l y reveal ed , there
were 2 o " Com m u nistag ents, " 1 3 " Com m u nists, " 1 4 " Com m u nist
sy m p athiz ers, " and
7 7
" su sp ects" work ing intheD ep artm ent . The
chartal socontained , accord ing toM cCarthy , anam end ed cou nt
m ad etwoand ahal fm onthsl ater ; b y thattim e, asaresu l tp resu m -
ab l y ofD ep artm entp ersonnel action, therewereii" ag ents, " 1 o
" Com m u nists, " 1 1 " sy m p athiz ers, " and
7 4
" su sp ects" l eft .
" CantheSenatorsconceiveofit? " M cCarthy ask ed . " El even
Com m u nistag entswerel eftintheStateD ep artm enttwom onths
aftertheF B Ihad l ab el ed them and said , O u rfil esshowthese
m enareCom m u nistag ents
. 1 1 1 3
Nor, l etu snote, hasany thing b eend one, seveny earsl ater-
asfaraswehaveb eenab l etol earn-b y way ofascertaining how
m any oftheem p l oy eesinq u estion, ifany , arestil l arou nd
. B u ta
Thisviewofthem atteristhem oreconvincing b ecau setheD ep artm ent
itsel fad op ted itinanothercasethataroseatab ou tthesam etim e . Am an
nam ed Harriswascau g httraffick ing inU
. S . d raftcard s, and therewassom e
q u estionwhetherthecharg ecou l d b em ad etostick , itb eing farfrom cl ear
thattheincrim inating evid encehad b eenl eg al l y seiz ed
. TheGovernm ent
attorney sm ig hteasil y havep ersu ad ed them sel ves, " ontheb asisofp rece-
d ent, " thattheweak nessesintheircasewerefatal . B u tthey wentahead al l
thesam eand , inaU nited StatesSu p rem eCou rtd ecisionthatm ark ed am il e-
stoneintheevol u tionofU . S . Constitu tional l aw, they final l y wonou t . How
ex p l aintheD ep artm ent' sz eal inp u tting b ehind b arsasm al l -tim eoffend er,
and itsap athy ( withm u chthesam el eg al issu esinvol ved ) inp rosecu ting
Com m u nistswhohad stol ensecretg overnm entd ocu m ents?
1 2
SO M EU NANSW ERED QU ESTIO NS

1 7 9
y earafterM cCarthy ' srevel ation, step swereb eing tak entop u nish
him forhaving b rou g htthem atteru p ! InSep tem b er, 1 9 51 , Sena-
torB entonannou nced totheGil l ette-M onroney Com m itteethat
M cCarthy ' s" F B Ichart" wasoneoftheoccasionsonwhichM c-
Carthy had d el ib eratel y d eceived theSenate . Howso? B y tel l ing
itthattheF B Ihad p rep ared thechart ; whereasJ . Ed g arHoover
hasd enied thattheF B Ihad d oneany su chthing .
Tru e, after M cCarthy ' ssp eech, Hooverasserted thatM r
. K l au s'
statem entattrib u ting thecharttotheF B Iwaserroneou s . B u tM c-
Carthy , withou tcl aim ing any p ersonal k nowl ed g eofthem atter,
had m erel y rel ay ed totheSenateap ieceofinform ationfrom are-
p ortthathehad had every reasontoreg ard asau thentic ; whichl ets
him off, b u tcertainl y nothisaccu sers, towhom thechronol og y of
M cCarthy ' scl aim and Hoover' sd enial wasread il y avail ab l e . ( To
b esu reacontrad ictionrem ainsontherecord : som eone-m ay b e
K l au s, m ay b eHoover-eitherm isrep resented thefactsorm isu nd er-
stood them . M r . Hooverhasarep u tationforu nd eviating honesty
;
b u tsod oesK l au s . W hichap p earstob eal l thatcanb esaid ab ou t
them atter-ex cep ttonoteonehy p othesisthatl etsb othm enoff
thehook : nam el y , thatF B Ip ersonnel had p rep ared thechart, b u t
withou ttheau thoriz ationork nowl ed g eofM r . Hoover . )
Inany case, noonehaseverq u estioned thatthechartex isted
orthatitwasavail ab l etotheTy d ing sCom m ittee-whichshou l d
havem ad eititsb u sinesstofind ou twhod rewitu p and whatthe
StateD ep artm enthad d oneab ou tthestateofaffairsthechart
d escrib ed . Here, certainl y , wassom ething fortheCom m itteeto
m oveinon, and interesting q u estionsshou l d nothaveb eenhard
tothink u p . W howerethe" Com m u nistag ents, " the" Com m u -
nists, " the" sy m p athiz ers, " the" su sp ects, " referred tointhechart?
Howm any ofthem had continu ed intheD ep artm ent' sem p l oy ?
F orhowl ong ? W eresom eofthem , b y any chance, stil l intheD e-
p artm entin1 9 50 ? Ifso, had thesecu rity d ivisionacted wisel y in
cl earing them ?
TheCom m itteesq u ared offtothechartincharacteristicfashion :
" W hil ethesecharg esarenotb eforeu s, " itsRep ortstated , " . . . itis
b el ieved p rop erthattheread ershou l d havethefactsinthem at-
ter . " 1 4 W hereu p onitrep rinted Hoover' sl etterd eny ing F B Iau thor-
ship ofthechart, and al etterfrom JohnPeu rifoy , theStateD ep art-
m ent' sD ep u ty U nd erSecretary , whichd ecl ared that" thecond i-
tionsm entioned b y M r . K l au sd onotex isttod ay . . . . noneofthese
p ersonsarenowem p l oy ed b y theD ep artm ent, ex cep tthosewho
1 8 0

M CCARTHY AND HISENEM IES


havesinceb eeninvestig ated and whohaveb eencheck ed and eval -
u ated u nd erthel oy al ty p rog ram
. "
1 5
O nceag ain, theCom m itteehad sig ned u p theStateD ep artm ent
tofind ou twhethertheStateD ep artm entwasd el inq u entinits
hand l ing ofl oy al ty and secu rity cases
. TheCom m ittee' sex p l ana-
tionastowhy itwasnotg oing intothem atteritsel f( " these
charg esarenotb eforeu s" ) is, inthel ig htofitsm and ate, sim p l y
u nintel l ig ib l e
. W hatwem u stconcl u d eisthat, asitshearing s
m oved intotheirfou rthm onth, theCom m itteed ecid ed tonarrow
itsarb itrary and u nwarranted interp retationofSenateResol u tion
2 3 1
evenfu rther : notonl y wou l d itl im ititsinvestig ationto
charg esm ad eb y M cCarthy b eforetheCom m ittee
; charg esm ad e
ou tsid eitscham b ersweretob eig nored -evenifthey werem ad e
onthefl ooroftheSenate .
Theread er, having ex am ined thism u choftheTy d ing sCom m it-
tee' sp erform ance, wil l p erhap sag reethatM cCarthy ' sg eneral
charg ethatshock ing secu rity cond itionsp revail ed intheStateD e-
p artm entwasnotd isp roved , b u tm erel y setasid e . And why d id ,
theCom m itteerefu setod othej ob thathad b eenassig ned toit?
Som esay theCom m ittee' sshortcom ing swered u etotheincom p e-
tenceortheinex p erienceortheig noranceofitsm em b ers, ora
com b inationofthethree . B u tthisanswerism orerecom m end ed
b y itscharitab l enessthanb y itsp l au sib il ity . Incom p etencewasa
factor, al l rig ht ; b u titl eavestoom u chu naccou nted for
. TheCom -
m ittee' shearing sand itsRep ortd em onstrateb ey ond reasonab l e
d ou b tthattheTy d ing sCom m ittee-d eterm ined from thefirstto
vind icatetheStateD ep artm ent-consciou sl y setou ttod estroy M c-
Carthy and m ak eofhim anex am p l eforal l who, inthefu tu re,
m ig htfeel tem p ted toag reethattheD em ocraticAd m inistration
wasj eop ard iz ing thenational secu rity b y harb oring l oy al ty and se-
cu rity risk sinsensitiveag encies .
Therecord isthere ; and itshows
thattheCom m ittee' sm aj ority neverhad any intentionofcond u ct-
ing anob j ectiveinvestig ationoftheStateD ep artm ent ; that, from
thed ay theSenatead op ted Resol u tion 2 3 1
tothed ay M cCarthy ' s
charg eswerep ronou nced totheSenateand thenationatl arg eto
b ea" frau d and ahoax , " SenatorsTy d ing s, Greenand M cM ahon
p l ay ed therol eofAd m inistrationhatchetm en
.
Thisex p l ainsag reatm any thing sthatwou l d otherwiserem ain
incom p rehensib l e
. F oronething , itex p l ainstheCom m ittee' sharas-
sing ofM cCarthy b eforehewasevenal l owed tob eg inhisp resen-
tation, ofwhichtheu su al l y im p ertu rb ab l eSenatorL od g esp ok eas
SO M EU NANSW ERED QU ESTIO NS

1 8 1
fol l ows : " ap erfectl y ex traord inary p roced u re
. Ihaveneverseen
any thing l ik eit, and Ihaveb eenheresince1 9 3 7 . . . . Id onotu nd er-
stand whatk ind ofag am eisb eing p l ay ed here
.
" 1 6
Itex p l ains, al so, theCom m ittee' sd og g ed refu sal toal l owthe
m anp resenting thecharg es, and theonl y p ersonp resentwhohad
m ad ep riorstu d y oftheevid ence, tocross-ex am inethewitnesses .
Tim eand ag ainM cCarthy req u ested therou tinep rivil eg eofinter-
rog ating p ersonsb eforetheCom m ittee-acou rtesy thattrad ition-
al l y isex tend ed b y any SenateCom m itteetoany Senator . 1 7 Hewas
tu rned d ownevery tim e . Atfirst, Ty d ing sru l ed , u np reced ented l y ,
thatthecou rtesy wou l d b eex tend ed toM cCarthy onl y ifhewere
wil l ing tob ecross-ex am ined intu rnb y thewitnesses . W henM c-
Carthy consented tothisarrang em ent, Ty d ing schang ed hism ind ,
and refu sed tol ethim cross-ex am ineatal l . "
O u rhy p othesisal soex p l ainstheCom m ittee' sconsistentrefu sal
tog ob ey ond theevid enceM cCarthy had p resented , and itsre-
p eated accep tanceofad enial b y the" accu sed " astheconcl u sive
refu tationoftheal l eg ation
. Itex p l ainstheCom m ittee' sinsu l ting
treatm entofal l witnesseswhosetestim ony p ointed tol ax ity onthe
p artoftheD ep artm ent' ssecu rity d ivision
; and , b y thesam etok en,
itsl ick sp ittl eb earing toward sany and al l , incl u d ing Com m u nists,
whosetestim ony tend ed tod iscred itM cCarthy ' scharg es
.
Consid eritstreatm entofL ou isB u d enz , whoserel iab il ity asa
first-hand sou rceofd etail ed inform ationab ou ttheCom m u nist
consp iracy wasb y thenfirm l y estab l ished
. Hetol d theCom m ittee
thatL attim oreand HansonwereCom m u nists
. TheCom m ittee
u sed onhim every k nowntechniq u eforhu m il iating am an
. The
fol l owing isaninstanceofitsefforttod iscred ithim b y rid icu l e .
[ B u d enz had j u stfinished item iz ing thesou rcesfrom whichhehad
l earned thatO wenL attim orewasam em b er of theCom m u nistParty
. ]
SENATO RGREEN. D oy ou k nowM r . L attim ore?
M R . B U D ENZ
.
D oy ou m eanp ersonal l y ?
SENATO RGREEN. Y es .
M R
. B U D ENZ
. I d onot .
SENATO RGREEN
. Havey ou everseenM r . L attim ore?
M R . B U D ENZ. No, Sir ; Ihavenot . Asam atteroffact, however, Id id
notseeM r
. Al g erHiss, either, and Ik newhim tob eaCom m u nistand
sotestified b eforetheHou seCom m itteeonU n-Am ericanActivities .
SENATO RGREEN.
B u ty ou arenotreasoning thatevery oney ou have
neverseenand neverheard m ay b eaCom m u nist . Isthaty ou rarg u -
m ent?
M R . B U D ENZ . No, sir ; thatisnot . 1 9 [ Ital icsad d ed . ]
1 8 2

M CCARTHY AND HISENEM IES


O rconsid ertheCom m ittee' sb ehaviortoward M issF red aU tl ey ,
awom anwithaninternational rep u tationasacou rag eou sand
k nowl ed g eab l eanti-Com m u nist . Shehad k nownL attim orep erson-
al l y , and had g iveny earsofstu d y totheCom m u nistParty l inein
theF arEast ; sosheou g httohavem erited attentioninconnection
withtheL attim orecase
. W hen, however, sheattem p ted tod em on-
strate, p assag eb y p assag e, howL attim ore' swriting shad tal l ied
withtheCom m u nistl ine, Ty d ing sscornfu l l y and im p atientl y cu t
hershort
: " W ed on' twantop inionevid encehere
. W ewantfacts,
f-a-c-t-s . W eareg etting very fewofthem
. W eareg etting m ostl y
op inion . " 2 0
( Ifeverag rou p ofm enneed ed som eex p ertop inion,
o-p -i-n-i-o-n, onhowtosp otp arty -l ining intheareaofChinese
p ol icy , thisonecertainl y d id . )
AfterM issU tl ey had finished herp rep ared statem ent, theCom -
m ittee, instead ofq u estioning herab ou tL attim oreand hiswrit-
ing s, p l ied herwithim p u d entq u eriesab ou thersel f
. Itwanted to
k now( a) whethershewasAl fred K ohl b erg ' sstoog e, ( b ) whether
shewasb eing su b sid iz ed b y theChineseNational ists, and ( c)
whethershehad b eenaNaz isy m p athiz er . *
Consid ernow, b y way ofcontrast, theCom m ittee' sd em eanor
inthep resenceof, first, Earl B rowd er, and second , F red erick Van-
d erb il tF iel d
.
L etu sl ook inontheCom m itteeatthem om entwhenSenator
Hick enl oop erhasb eenask ing B rowd erwhetherhek newthisor
thatp ersontohaveb eenam em b eroftheCom m u nistParty
. B row-
d erhasrefu sed toanswer( " Iwanttod ecl aretotheCom m ittee
thatIconsid eritou trag eou sthatthishearing shou l d b ed evoted
tothed evel op m entofnewsm earcam p aig ns, " etc
. , etc . Irefu seto
tak ep artinsu chp roceed ing s"
) , 2 1 and SenatorM cM ahonism oved
tointervene :
SENATO RM CM AHO N. . . .
therearetwonam esSenatorHick enl oop er
hasp resented to y ou . . . . M issK eny onand M r
. Hansonwerenam ed
* Theseq u estionswereask ed b y theCom m ittee' scou nsel , Ed ward M or-
g an
. B u tthey had b eenp rep ared , and p l aced inM org an' shand , b y Ab e
F ortas, O wenL attim ore' sl awy er
. Theinnu end oreg ard ing M issU tl ey ' s
Naz isy m p athieswasb ased ononeofherb ook s,
TheD ream W eL ost( 1 9 4 0 ) ,
inwhichsheu rg ed aneg otiated p eacewithGerm any , soastoavoid Soviet
d om inationofEu rop e, and p red icted thatawarof" u ncond itional su rren-
d er" ag ainstGerm any wou l d op entheway tosu chd om ination
. Theinsinu a-
tionthatshewasap awnofK ohl b erg wasb ased onthesol efactthatshe
wasam em b eroftheChinaPol icy Association, ofwhichK ohl b erg waschair-
m anoftheb oard
. Theinsinu ationab ou therreceiving financial su p p ort
from National istChinawasb ased onheavenonl y k nowswhat .
SO M E U NANSW ERED QU ESTIO NS

1 8 3
op enl y and charg ed op enl y b y SenatorM cCarthy . . . . Itoccu rstom e
thatwhatevery ou ranswerm ay b e, thattowithhol d ananswertoM iss
K eny onand thisotherg entl em an, ify ou aresincerel y interested innot
contrib u ting toasm earcam p aig n, thaty ou rwithhol d ing ofananswer
onthem , iftheanswerisintheneg ative, iscontrib u ting tothatsm ear .
O ntheotherhand , iftheanswerisinthep ositive, sincethosecases
areb eforetheCom m ittee, Ib el ievey ou shou l d answer
. . . .
SENATO RTY D INGS . Al l owm etotal k tothewitnessam om ent . . .
. The
chairm anwou l d l ik etob ring thism attertoy ou rattentionand inthe
interestoffairnessand tru th, and inp u rsu ing theinvestig ationwhich
weareord ered tom ak e, toask y ou ify ou wil l notreconsid eronthose
twonam es, and tel l u swhetherornoty ou k noword onotk nowthey
arem em b ersoftheCom m u nistParty .
B rowd erisnottob eou td oneincou rtl inessb y am ered em ocratic
Senator :
M R . B RO W D ER . I am q u itewil l ing toanswertheq u estionab ou tthose
twop ersons, and Irefu sed toanswerb eforeonl y b ecau se . . .
[ the
q u estion] wasob viou sl y theb eg inning ofafishing ex p ed itionfornew
nam estosm earb y association . . . . Iwou l d say , withou tthesl ig htest
hesitation, thatneitheroneofthem ever, inm y p eriod ofl ead ership in
the[ Com m u nist] org aniz ation . . . had any org aniz ed connectionas
m em b ersorfriend s .
SENATO RTY D INGS . Thank y ou very m u chforcoop erating .
. . . 2 2
Several m om entsl ateritiscal l ed toTy d ing s' attentionthat
B rowd erhasrefu sed toanswerwithresp ecttotwoother" M cCar-
thy cases . " Hem ovesintocl earu p therecord :
SENATO RTY D INGS . . . . Toy ou rk nowl ed g eisM r . JohnCarterVincent
orM r . Service, m em b ers[ sic] oftheCom m u nistParty ? Thosearethe
onl y twonam esIshal l p resenttoy ou
.
Thistim e, however, B rowd erg etscantank erou sand p u tsthechair-
m anonwarning that, atsom ep oint, enou g hg etstob eenou g h :
M R . B RO W D ER .
Y es-b eforeitwastwoothernam es . Now, itistwo,
m ay b eoneb y onewewil l g etintoal istofthou sand s
.
SenatorTy d ing snowp l ay shistru m p card -anap p eal toM r .
B rowd er' snatu ral wishtostreng thentheStateD ep artm ent, tohel p
Cong ressional com m ittees, and tog ainthechairm an' sg ratitu d e .
SENATO RTY D INGS . . . . I seey ou rp ointofview
. Iam notarg u ing at
them om ent, b u tId othink y ou ared efeating thep u rp oseofthisin-
1 8 4

M CCARTHY AND HIS ENEM IES


q u iry inaway thaty ou p erhap sd onotreal iz e, ify ou al l owthistob e
ob scu red , and ify ou fel tthaty ou cou l d answer, inthecasesofM r . Vin-
centand M r . Service, Iwou l d b every g ratefu l to y ou . . . .
M R. B RO wD ER . . . . I wou l d say thatreg ard ing thetwonam esy ou
m entioned , totheb estofm y k nowl ed g eand b el ief, they neverhad any
d irectorind irectconnectionwiththeCom m u nistParty .
SENATO RTY D INGS . Thank y ou , sir
2 3
[ Ital icsad d ed . ]
AsforF iel d , whoap p eared thenex td ay , hetoo, atfirst, b u tonl y
atfirst, refu sed totak etheCom m itteeintohisfu l l confid ence .
ThenTy d ing srem ind ed him , ashehad rem ind ed B rowd er, that
arefu sal toanswerwou l d d am ag ethep ersonsinvol ved m orethan
itwou l d hel p them . F iel d ' sb etternatu rep rom p tl y asserted itsel f :
M R. F L EL D . Y es, M r . Chairm an . Iwou l d b eg l ad tostateIhaveno-
totheb estofm y k nowl ed g e-M r . Vincentisnotand neverhasb eena
Com m u nist . . . .
SENATO RTY D INGS . I
wanttothank y ou fory ou rcoop eration, and I
hop e, aftertheconferencewithy ou rattorney , y ou cang ointoother
areas . . . . Iwou l d l ik etoask y ou whetherornotthesethreem en-
Hal d oreHanson, JohnS . Service, and JohnCarterVincent, orany of
them , insofarasy ou k now-havecom m itted any actofd isl oy al ty tothe
Governm entoftheU nited States, incl u d ing theStateD ep artm ent, of
cou rse?
M R
. F IEL D . No, M r . Chairm an
; totheb estofm y k nowl ed g e, noneof
thesethreem enhavecom m itted any actofd isl oy al ty .
SENATO RTY D INGS . Thank y ou
.
2 4
O u rhy p othesisex p l ainstheCom m ittee' sstartl ing d ecisionto
d eny SenatorM cCarthy , and eventhem inority ' scou nsel , M r . Rob -
ertM orris, accesstotheCom m ittee' scham b erswhil eL ou isB u -
d enz wastestify ing inex ecu tivesession-d esp itethep resencein
thatcham b erofb othO wenL attim oreand hisl awy erAb eF ortas!
O u rhy p othesisex p l ainswhy them ostim p ortantofM cCarthy ' s
witnesseswasm ad ethevictim ofanu nsp eak ab l eventu reinchar-
acterassassinationonthefl ooroftheSenate-with, itseem s, the
connivanceoftheCom m ittee' sm aj ority . L etu sl istentoM r
. M or-
ris asherel atesthisp hase of thestory inanarticl ein TheF reem an
m ag az ine( O ctob er 3 0 ,
1 9 5 0 ) :
. . . Ahig hp ointincal u m ny wasreached whenL attim oreintrod u ced
intoevid enceaseal ed cop y ofthetranscrip toftheSantod ep ortation
p roceed ing s, atwhichB u d enz had b eenthep rincip al g overnm entwit-
* O nl y afterstrenu ou sp rotestsb y M cCarthy d id theCom m itteefinal l y
ask theL attim orep eop l etol eave .
SO M EU NANSW ERED QU ESTIO NS

1 8 5
ness
. Itincl u d ed arecord ofwhattheCom m u niststhrou g htheirattor-
ney , Harry Sacher, had thrownatB u d enz inthathearing . * TheIm -
m ig rationau thorities, sensing itsvil eness, had d ecreed thatonl y one
cop y b em ad e, afactthatwasverified inwriting b y theD istrictD irec-
torofIm m ig rationinNewY ork , whoasserted thatthisonecop y had
b eeng iventoSacherintheeventhehad tou seitonap p eal . Santo
neverap p eal ed ; hevol u ntaril y wentb ehind theIronCu rtain . B u tL at-
tim orereceived ( ob viou sl y from Sacher) thatonecop y ofthetran-
scrip t .
Then, su rp rising l y , SenatorD ennisChavez ( D em . , NewM ex ico) re-
veal ed itscontentsontheSenatefl oor, eventhou g hitwasseal ed and
thecontentswereneverm ad ek nowntoSenatorsHick enl oop erand
L od g eorm y sel f
. SenatorTy d ing s, asChairm anoftheSu b com m ittee,
and SenatorL u cas, asD em ocraticfl oorl ead er, official l y j oined Chavez
inthisattack
. Itwasb u toneofm any instancesp ointing toasecret
l iaisonb etweentheCom m u nists, L attim ore, theSu b com m itteeand the
D em ocraticAd m inistration . . . .
TheTy d ing sCom m ittee, m oreover,
p u b l ished theentireSacher
transcrip tintheAp p end ix sectionofitshearing s
.
O u rhy p othesisex p l ainstheCom m ittee' sviciou ssm earing of
p rivatecitiz enswhohad su p p orted M cCarthy -who, ind eed , had
anticip ated him -ind em and ing aninvestig ationoftheStateD e-
p artm ent
. W ehaveinm ind , sp ecifical l y , Pl ainTal k ed itorsIsaac
D onL evineand Ral p hd eTol ed ano, and M r . Al fred K ohl b erg ,
whom , al ong withGeneral Patrick Hu rl ey , theCom m itteeid enti-
fied asthethree" wel l -d efined sou rces" ofthecharg ethatU
. S .
Chinap ol icy had b eenu nd erm ined b y sab oteu rs .
Pl ainTal k had p u b l ished , in1 9 4 6 , anarticl eb y Am erasia d efend -
antEm m anu el L arsenentitl ed " TheStateD ep artm entEsp ionag e
Case . " L arsen, however, attem p ted torep u d iatehisarticl e, assert-
ing thatL evineand d eTol ed anohad com p l etel y rewrittenthe
orig inal d raftofhisp ieceand had ex erted financial p ressu re
onhim toau thoriz ep u b l icationoftherevised version . TheCom -
m ittee, thou g hconced ing thatL arsen' s" cred ib il ity g eneral l y is
op entoseriou sd ou b t, " " neverthel essp roceed ed top rinthis
story astheau thoritativeversionoftheincid ent, withou tsom u ch
asp u tting inatel ep honecal l toL evineord eTol ed anofora
check onthefacts . And asifthiswerenotenou g h, theCom m ittee
l evel l ed ad isg racefu l and coward l y l ib el atthetwoed itors : " The
factthatthesep ersonshaveb eenrep orted tou sasp rofessional
* Sacherhad attem p ted tod iscred itB u d enz b y su b m itting him tosm u tty
q u estioning onhisp ersonal l ifep riortohisconversionfrom Com m u nism .
1 8 6

M CCARTHY AND HISENEM IES


` anti-Com m u nists, ' whoseincom esand rep u tationsd ep end onthe
d evel op ing and m aintaining o
fnewCom m u nistfears, whil enot
d eem ed necessaril y sig nificant, hasnotb eenal tog etheroverl ook ed
b y thesu b com m ittee . " 2 6 ( Ital icsad d ed . )
Several d ay safterthep u b l icationoftheCom m ittee' sRep ort,
L evineand d eTol ed anoreq u ested Ty d ing storep eatthestate-
m entwithou ttheb enefitofim m u nity . Ty d ing sp rom ised torep eat
ou tsid etheSenateany thing from theRep ort, ifp ressed forsatis-
factionb y al l eg ed l y inj u red p arties
. Y etheneverrep eated this
charg e . *
W ehaveal read y tol d howtheIPRsm eared Al fred K ohl b erg .
TheTy d ing sCom m itteewenteverfu rtherthantheIPR : " [ M r .
K ohl b erg ' s] weal thap p earstohavestem m ed from contractswith
rep resentativesoftheNational istGovernm entofChina
. " This" in-
d ivid u al b ehind thescenes, " them an" resp onsib l e
. . . [ for] ag reat
d eal ofSenatorM cCarthy ' sassertions, " is" rep orted , " tohavea
" financial stak e, inthe
. eventu al victory oftheNational istGovern-
m ent . " 2 7 B u tthereisnotasing l eshred ofevid enceintheCom m it-
tee' srecord s( orany whereel se, toou rk nowl ed g e) tosu p p ortthe
im p l icationsofthischarg e-u nl essitb ethetwou nd eniab l efacts
thatM r . K ohl b erg was( a) anim p orterofChinesetex til es, and
( b ) ananti-Com m u nistAm erican, and assu chcertainl y had " a
stak e" inthe" eventu al victory oftheNational istGovernm ent
. "
Som eotherthing sou rhy p othesiscanex p l ainare
:
-TheCom m ittee' sfail u retohearthetestim ony ofthe
" 2 0 or 3 0 "
witnessesd escrib ed b y SenatorHick enl oop erasp ersons" towhom
thetrail sinthisthing l ead . "
-TheCom m ittee' srefu sal tog ointothenu m erou s( Senator
L evineand d eTol ed anoal soforward ed totheCom m itteetheiraccou nt
ofthehand l ing oftheL arsenarticl e-whichSenatorTy d ing sd id notcircu -
l ariz eor, asfarasisk nown, ex am ine .
ThefactsonK ohl b erg are
: ( 1 ) Hehasneverhad afinancial transac-
tionofany characterwhateverwiththeNational istGovernm ent, any ofits
su b sid iary oraffil iated org aniz ations, orany ind ivid u al whohaseverb een
connected official l y withtheChiang reg im e ; m oreover, hehasform al l y of-
fered tosotestify u nd eroath
; ( 2 ) heisonrecord ashaving favored aChina
p ol icy d etrim ental tohisownfinancial interests
: inF eb ru ary of1 9 4 9 , when
theCom m u nistconq u estofChinawasaforeg oneconcl u sion, K ohl b erg m ad e
anenerg eticefforttop ersu ad etheF arEast-Am ericanCou ncil ofCom m erce
and Ind u stry ( a" Cham b erofCom m erce" forAm ericanb u sinessinterestsin
Asia) toad op tastand op p osing al l trad ewithChina . O nl y oneotherm em b er
oftheCou ncil waswil l ing tog oal ong . He, inshort, wasoneoftwop ersons
d oing b u sinesswithChinawhowerep rep ared top u ttheiranti-Com m u nism
ab ove
theircom m ercial interests .
SO M EU NANSW ERED QU ESTIO NS

1 8 7
L od g e, aswehaveseen, l isted nineteen) q u estionsthataroseinthe
cou rseofthehearing sand thatrem ained u nanswered atthetim e
theRep ortwaswritten .
-TheCom m ittee' sm anip u l ationofthep ortionofitstranscrip t
thatd ram atical l y reveal ed theinad eq u aciesoftheinvestig ation
.
-TheCom m ittee' sconsistentp racticeofp assing tothep u b l ic
theStateD ep artm ent' sanswerstocharg esb rou g htag ainstthat
very ag ency .
-Som eofTy d ing s' m oresham el essventu resinsid eshowm an-
ship -forex am p l e, histu rning hisform al p resentationtotheSenate
oftheCom m ittee' sRep ortintob u rl esq u e
.
O fthatl astitem , m orem u stb etol d
. W hentheSenateconvened
onJu l y 2 o, tohearwhatitsinvestig ating com m itteehad fou nd ou t,
SenatorTy d ing shad astag eactp rep ared forhiscol l eag u es, p rop s
and al l . Hep ointed toal arg echartsetag ainstthecham b erwal l
.
Itp u rp orted toshowthateig htCong ressional com m itteeshad p re-
viou sl y reviewed and cl eared M cCarthy ' s8 icases
. ' " . . . Il ove
thisl ittl echart, " said Ty d ing s, " Ical l itB ehind the8 B al l
. . . .
Som etim eIhop eitwil l earnm eritintheNational Gal l ery of
Art . ( L au g hter . ) Ihavetitl ed thisfu tu risticd esig nand p aint
` W hitewash . ' Ihaveseenwhitewashb efore, b u titisthefirsttim e
Ihaveeverseenitap p l ied witheig htcoatsonany p ol itical fence
inAm erica . " 2 8
B u ttheacthad j u stb eg u n . O nastand infrontofthecham b er
SenatorTy d ing scerem oniou sl y p l aced ap honog rap h
. " Iwond er, "
heask ed , " ifIcou l d g etu nanim ou sconsenttop l ay arad iorecord -
ing oftheSenator' s[ M cCarthy ' s] ownvoiceononeoftheseocca-
sions? " Ty d ing swasd eterm ined tom ak ethep ointonceand for
al l thatM cCarthy ' sversionoftheW heel ing sp eechwasab al d l ie .
" Iam notask ing theSenatorstotak em y word , b u ttohearthe
Senator' sownvoice, whosay shehasnotm ad eastatem entof
thischaracter . "
SenatorW herry roseatthisp oint, nottom ak eaform al ob j ec-
tion, b u ttoob servethatforthesak eofd ecoru m therecord m ig ht
b etterb ep l ay ed " som ep l aceel sethanonthefl ooroftheU nited
StatesSenate . "
TheCom m ittee' srep ortm ad ethem orem od estcl aim that
fou r com -
m itteeshad p rocessed and cl eared M cCarthy ' scases ; aswehaveseen, even
thiscl aim isp atentl y fal se
.
Ty d ing sreferred toM cCarthy ' sW heel ing sp eechand therag ing con-
troversy astowhetherhehad said hehad " inhand " thenam esof
2 0 5
Com -
m u nistsintheStateD ep artm entorsim p l y 57
.
1 8 8

M CCARTHY AND HISENEM IES


Ty d ing sp rom p tl y withd rewhisreq u est, al thou g hW herry in-
sisted thathehad notactu al l y ob j ected
. Ty d ing swasad am ant : " If
theu nanim ou s-consentreq u estistob ed enied , Iwithd rawit
. I
withd rawtheu nanim ou s-consentreq u estand retainthefl oor . . . .
Iwil l p l ay thisrecord offtheSenatefl oorind u etim e, b u tad m ission
wil l b eb y card onl y . [ L au g hter
. ] " Hewentonreferring ag ainand
ag aintotherecord ing thatwou l d " onceand foral l " settl ed ou b tsas
towhetherSenatorM cCarthy wasatru thfu l m an
. Insu m m ing u p ,
heham m ered thep ointhom eafinal tim e
: " Thenwhatisthere, " he
ask ed , " otherthanafrau d and ahoax and ad eceitab ou tthiswhol e
m atter? Itou g httom ak etheb l ood ofAm ericansb oil , thatthey
haveb eentol d thesefou l and vil echarg es-and hereisarecord to
p roveit . And ifthatisb rok en, Ihaved u p l icates
. [ L au g hter]
1 1 2 9
Nex tm orning , newsp ap ersal l overthel and head l ined Ty d ing s'
" p roof" thatM cCarthy had l ied
. B u twhenanu m b erofnewsp ap er
rep ortersask ed Ty d ing sforap rivateau d itionoftheW heel ing re-
cord ing , hep u tthem off
. Hehad top u tthem off . F orTy d ing shad
nosu chrecord ing , and d id nothaveonewhensp eak ing b eforethe
Senatel
Theonl y record ing m ad eoftheW heel ing sp eechhad b een
d estroy ed thed ay afterthesp eechwasm ad e-afactd iscovered b y
theStateD ep artm entinvestig atorswhorep orted ontheW heel ing
ep isod etotheTy d ing sCom m ittee-and thiswaswel l k nownto
Ty d ing s . *
Som u chforthething sou rhy p othesisex p l ains-ahy p othesis, we
m ay note, whichisconfirm ed b y astory thathad ap p eared in
"
Ty d ing sl aterad m itted , atad ep ositionhearing p u rsu anttoM cCarthy ' s
l ib el su itag ainstSenatorB enton, thathehad neverp ossessed theW heel ing
record ing
. W hy , then, d id Ty d ing ssoex p osehim sel f? W asitsheerb ravad o?
Perhap s
; b u tl eavened withthecool cal cu l ationsofap arl iam entary veteran .
Ty d ing su nq u estionab l y cou nted ontheob j ectionofaRep u b l icanSenatorto
hisp rep ared stu nt-inwhichcasehewou l d p roceed , asheinfactd id , to
d rawp recisel y thesam einferencesab ou tM cCarthy ' stru thfu l nessasifhe
had actu al l y p l ay ed therecord and ithad p roved M cCarthy al iar
. Asforthe
nex td ay and thep ress, hewou l d sim p l y p u tthem off
ashed id -and the
issu ewou l d soonerorl atersim m erd own-asitd id ; b u tM cCarthy wou l d
haveb eend am ag ed al l thesam e . And intheu nl ik el y eventthatnoonein
theSenateshou l d haveob j ected tothep l ay ing oftherecord ing , Ty d ing s
wasp rep ared forthisconting ency , too
. F orhed id havearecord -ofthe
Sal tL ak eCity
b road cast . Acarefu l read ing ofTy d ing s' sp eechb ol stersthis
hy p othesis
; for, u ntil thetim eW herry " ob j ected " and Ty d ing s" withd rew"
thereq u esttop l ay therecord , Ty d ing shad sp ok enam b ig u ou sl y onthep oint
whetheritwasarecord ing ofthe
W heel ing sp eechorofthe Sal tL ak eCity
b road castthathep rop osed toserenad ehiscol l eag u eswith
. And onl y after
W herry had u nwitting l y ob l ig ed d id Ty d ing sfirm l y settl eintotheW heel ing
g roove .
SO M EU NANSW ERED QU ESTIO NS

1 8 9
Newsweek six
week sp riortotheTy d ing sex travag anz aofJu l y z o
.
Thestory ( a Newsweek scoop ,
l aterconfirm ed b y Ty d ing shim -
sel f) tol d ofastrateg y m eeting hel d atTy d ing s' ap artm enton
M ay 7 , 1 9 5o, atwhichthecou rseoftheAd m inistrationcam p aig n
ag ainstM cCarthy wascharted
. Presentatthem eeting wereTy d -
ing s, Com m itteeCou nsel Ed ward M org an, and D ep u ty U nd erSec-
retary ofStateforAd m inistration, JohnPeu rifoy , theD ep artm ent' s
front-m anintheM cCarthy controversy
. " Thetim ehad com e,
said Ty d ing s[ inthe
Newsweek accou nt] , toex p oseM cCarthy
. He
had d iscu ssed itwiththePresid entand ad vised him thatthecou n-
terattack wou l d b el au nched onthefl ooroftheHou seand the
Senate . "
Thu s, thechairm anofaSenatetrib u nal , inl eag u ewiththetrib u -
nal ' schiefofstaff, and therep resentativeofthed efend ant, p l otted
tog ether evenb eforethetrib u nal had com p l eted itsd el ib erations
tod iscred itthep rosecu tor)
InSu m m ary :
M cCarthy ' sownb ehaviord u ring theTy d ing sep isod ewasfar
from ex em p l ary
. Heshowed him sel ftob einex p erienced , or, worse
stil l , m isinform ed . Som eofhissp ecificcharg eswereex ag g erated
;
afewhad noap p arentfou nd ationwhatever
. Al l histransg ressions
wehaverecord ed ind etail , sothatthosewhoseconcernitistore-
m ind him and hiscou ntry m enab ou thisp astsinsm ay atl eastk now
whatsinshecom m itted , and whatsinshed id notcom m it
.
M cCarthy neverred eem ed hisu nred eem ab l ep l ed g etoreveal
thenam esof" 57 card -carry ing Com m u nists
. " Hed id , however,
u nq u estionab l y red eem hisp rom isetoex p oseshock ing cond itions
withreg ard toStateD ep artm entsecu rity ad m inistration
. And if
theTy d ing sCom m itteewasu nim p ressed , theStateD ep artm ent
aswehaveseen, wasnot
; forit" rep rocessed " 4 6 ofthe59 " nu m -
b ered " M cCarthy caseswhowerestil l initsem p l oy -and b efore
l ong , 1 8 ofthem wereg oneand thentherewere
4 1 .
B esid esthe59 ,
therewerethoseform erStateD ep artm entem p l oy eesnam ed b y
M cCarthy whohad fou nd theirway intootherfed eral ag enciesor
intothestaffoftheU nited Nations
. TheTy d ing sCom m ittee, in
theteethofitsm and atetoinvestig atep resentand p astevid ences
ofCom m u nistinfil trationintheD ep artm ent, l etsl ip throu g hits
fing ersthechancetotrack d ownfel l owtravel l ersand l oy al ty risk s
sositu ated astod ohu rtnotm erel y toU
. S . foreig np ol icy , b u tal so
toU . S . g overnm ental p rog ram sing eneral , and totheinternational
1 9 0

M CCARTHY AND HIS ENEM IES


org aniz ationonwhich, wisel y oru nwisel y , theg overnm enthas
p u titsb ets .
Thestatem entisinterm inab l y m ad ethat" M cCarthy d id not
p resentevid enceononesing l eCom m u nistwork ing intheState
D ep artm ent . " M cCarthy him sel f, withhisfam ou sthreed ay sof
org iasticsp eechesand rad iob road casts, m ad eitp ossib l eforhis
enem iestob eatthatp articu l ard ru m . Nod ou b t, M cCarthy d id not
estab l ishthathis" 57 " werecard -carry ing Com m u nists . W hether
he nam ed 57 Com m u nistsisanotherm atter . W em u strem em b er
thatM cCarthy wasd eal ing withm enand wom enwhohad com -
p rom ised them sel vesb y j oining Com m u nistorg aniz ations, m ain-
taining Com m u nistassociations, m ak ing and writing statem ents
ofsu chanatu reastoarou sel eg itim atesu sp icions
. Theavail ab l e
inform ationonthetechniq u eofthecry p to-Com m u nisthasevok ed
aheal thy resp ectforhisel u sivenessand ing enu ity . Al g erHisswas
ab l etofool intim atefriend sand su chseasoned m enofaffairsas
D eanAchesonand F el ix F rank fu rter
. And whowou l d tod ay b e-
l ieveHisswasaCom m u nistb u tforthetenacity and foresig htof
W hittak erCham b ersand hisu ncanny p rescienceinp reserving the
p u m p k inp ap ers? W ed arenotassu m ethatforevery Al g erHiss
p rovid encewil l g iveu saW hittak erCham b ers .
Thu s, ap reciseverd ictonM cCarthy ' scharg eswou l d b easfol -
l ows : M cCarthy d id
not
p resentconcl u siveevid encethatthere
were 57 card -carry ing
Com m u nistsintheStateD ep artm ent
; and
heshou l d nothavem ad ethesp ecificcharg ehem ad e
. Itd oesnot
fol l owthatnoneofthep ersonshenam ed wasaCom m u nist
; nor
thatinthel ig htoftheirrecord sthey shou l d haveb eenp erm itted
torem ainem p l oy eesoftheStateD ep artm ent . F rank l inRoosevel t
isnotwid el y rem em b ered astheAm ericanPresid entwhorep u d i-
ated virtu al l y every p l ank ofthep l atform onwhichhewasel ected .
Ju stso, M cCarthy shou l d notb erem em b ered asthem anwho
d id n' t p rod u ce57 Com m u nistParty card sb u tasthem anwho
b rou g htp u b l icp ressu retob earontheStateD ep artm enttorevise
itsp racticesand toel im inatefrom resp onsib l ep ositionsfl ag rant
secu rity risk s .
AfterTy d ing s' Rep ort, theod d swereag ainstM cCarthy ' sp ol iti-
cal su rvival , and certainl y ag ainsthisb eing rem em b ered inthis
way . W em u stnot, however, l od g etheTy d ing sCom m itteewith
toog reatashareoftheresp onsib il ity forthescand al ou sp u b l ic
m isinform ationab ou tM cCarthy . Al l thattheu nscru p u l ou sau -
thorsoftheTy d ing sRep ortcou l d d owaswriteasm earRep ortand
SO M EU NANSW ERED QU ESTIO NS

1 9 1
fil eit . ThefateoftheRep ortwasp l aced , asal l su chthing sare
p l aced , inthehand sofop inion-m ol d ersthrou g hou tthel and .
TherewasthatRep ort-ap al p ab l e . frau d . They cou l d ex p ose
thatfrau d ; orthey cou l d b ecom eaccom p l icesafterthefact
. F or
them ostp art, they chosethel attercou rse . And this-notM cCar-
thy ism , noteventhep erform anceoftheTy d ing sCom m ittee-is
thenation' sl iving sham e .
CHAPTERX
AVind ication
T ishard l y p ossib l etoex am ineStateD ep artm entsecu rity with-
ou thaving accesstod atathatareasread il y avail ab l easthe
l ateststatisticsonthehy d rog enb om b . Stil l , anau thentic( as
d istinctfrom acom p l ete) ap p raisal canb em ad eb y p iecing to-
g etherthescrap sofinform ationthat have b ecom ep u b l icand b y
searching ou tafewothers . Inou rex am inationoftheD ep art-
m ent' sp erform ancewehaveconcentrated onthe eval u ative d ivi-
sionofitssecu rity ap p aratu s ; thatistosay , wehaveatal l tim es
assu m ed thatthe investig ative arm hasd oneitsj ob thorou g hl y and
ing ood faith . W ethenask ed whether, g iventheinform ationavail -
ab l etoit, theD ep artm entacted inthenational interest .
Thed ocu m entofp rim ary im p ortanceineval u ating theD ep art-
m ent' ssecu rity p rog ram isthetranscrip tofL oy al ty Secu rity B oard
hearing s . ThisistheB oard b eforewhichasu sp ectem p l oy eeap -
p ears( ifhesowishes) toanswercharg esm ad eag ainsthim . B u t
thetranscrip tishig hl y confid ential and itsrel easetothep u b l iccan
onl y b eau thoriz ed b y theem p l oy eeu nd erinvestig ation . These
m inu teswou l d reveal theex tenttowhichthe" g overnm ent' scase"
isp ressed b eforetheB oard
. They wou l d ind icatewhethersu sp ect
em p l oy eesareb eing su b j ected toartfu l and p enetrating cross-
ex am ination, and whethertheB oard evid encesinitial p rej u d icefor
orag ainsttheem p l oy ee . They wou l d ex p oseany tend enciesto
stray from j u sticeinthed irectionofeitherK ang arooism orwhite-
washing . F inal l y , they wou l d throwl ig htontheq u al ity ofthe
work ing j u d g m entoftheB oard ' sp anel m em b ers . F orthey wou l d
ind icatewhetherthesem enareintel l ig entl y and rig orou sl y ap p l y -
ing thel oy al ty and secu rity stand ard ssetb y D ep artm entd irec-
tives
. Them inu teswou l d , infact, b etheb estevid enceastowhether
ornottheinternal secu rity oftheU nited Statesisb eing ad eq u atel y
p rotected intheStateD ep artm ent .
AVIND ICATIO N

1 9 3
B u tonl y onesetofB oard m inu teshas, toou rk nowl ed g e, b een
rel eased . Itd eal swiththecaseofJohnStewartService .
JohnStewartServiceap p eared b eforetheStateD ep artm ent' s
L oy al ty and Secu rity B oard inM ay of1 9 50 . Eventhen, Servicewas
astrong contend erforthetitl e, " m ostfreq u entl y cl eared m anin
al l W ashing ton . " Hehad b eencl eared b y theB oard onJanu ary 1 8 ,
1 9 4 9 . AfterM cCarthy m ad ehischarg es, Service' scasehad b een
rep rocessed , and anewcl earancehad b eeng ivenhim onM arch 1 ,
1 9 50 . Hehad b eencal l ed u p ag ain, and cl eared ag ain, onO ctob er
6 ,
1 9 50
. Hehad b eencl eared afou rthtim eonM arch7 , 1 9 51 . Three
m onthsafterthat, afifthtim e ; and onJu l y 3 1 , 1 9 51 , asix thtim e .
Several m onthsl ater, however, theCivil ServiceL oy al ty Review
B oard took theServicecaseou toftheStateD ep artm ent' shand s
and fou nd , onD ecem b er3 1 , 1 9 51 , thattherewas" reasonab l e
d ou b t" astohisl oy al ty . M r . Achesonim m ed iatel y su sp end ed Serv-
ice( asism and atory u nd ertheEx ecu tiveO rd er) and su b seq u entl y
fired him .
Thecharg esag ainstServicewereb ased ontwosep aratecou nts
.
B etween1 9 4 2 and 1 9 4 5, Servicewasstationed inChinaasaF or-
eig nServiceO fficer. F rom therehesu b m itted m em orand atohis
su p eriorsinW ashing tonenthu siastical l y p raising M aoTseTu ng
and theChineseCom m u nistsand avid l y su p p orting thecontention
thattheirm ovem enthad itsroots, notinL eninism , b u tinanasp ira-
tionforind ig enou sag rarianand d em ocraticreform s . TheService
m em orand awereal soseverel y critical oftheChineseNational ists,
whom they d escrib ed asaneffete, corru p t, and u nrel iab l eforce
.
Theq u estionarosewhetherM r . Service' sj u d g m ent, asex p ressed
inthesem em orand a, wasinfl u enced b y ad evotiontoCom m u nism ,
orwhetherhesim p l y su ffered from aseverecaseofp ol itico-ethical
astig m atism . W iththisq u estionwehaved eal tinanearl ierchap ter . *
Thesecond cou ntwasm ored ram aticand p erhap sal som ore
im p ortant . O nJu ne6 , 1 9 4 5, Servicewasarrested b y theF ed eral
B u reau ofInvestig ationforhaving transm itted , withou tau thority ,
cl assified d ocu m entstotheed itorsof Am erasia, aCom m u nistm ag -
az ine . O therfactorsinthecase, tog etherwithap recisofService' s
d efense, ared iscu ssed intheforeg oing chap terontheTy d ing s
Com m ittee . Hereweconcernou rsel vesonl y withafewsecu rity
asp ectsofthecase . And thefol l owing q u estionswarrantcarefu l
attention :
I . Having atl east p rim a facie evid enceag ainstService( there
* See" TheCaseofJohnStewartService . "
1 9 4
M CCARTHY AND HIS ENEM IES
wasnod isp u ting hisb reachofsecu rity reg u l ationsin1 9 4 5) , why
d id theStateD ep artm entwaitseveral y ears* b eforep resenting
hiscasetoal oy al ty trib u nal ?
z . Having b eencl eared onthe l oy al ty
cou nt( " reasonab l e
g rou nd s" ) , why washenotd ism issed as a secu rity
risk whereac-
tionwou l d haveb eeng overned b y the" reasonab l e
d ou b t" stand -
ard ? Isnotthetransm issionofcl assified m aterial toaCom m u nist
enou g htocreatereasonab l ed ou b tofanem p l oy ee' srel iab il ity ?
3 . W hatab ou tthetwoofService' ssix trial sthatwerehel d
after
the2 8 thofAp ril , 1 9 51 , and henceu nd ertherevised , " reasonab l e
d ou b t" l oy al ty stand ard ?
4
. Howm any m em b ersofCong ress, had they b eenru l ing onthe
case, wou l d haveex onerated Serviceu nd erthesecu rity stand ard ?
W hichb ring su p thefu rtherq u estion
. D oesitm atter how
m em -
b ersofCong resswou l d haveru l ed ?
5 . W hy ( seeService' sp u b l ished l oy al ty hearing s) d id notase-
cu rity officerassu m eafu nctionanal og ou stothatofthep u b l ic
p rosecu torinatrial ? Servicewasrep resented b y anab l eand con-
vincing l awy er . Theg overnm entwasnot
. Governm entcross-ex am -
inationand reb u ttal were, therefore, ineffective, u nresou rcefu l ,
and d iffid ent
. ( Thisp roced u ral d eficiency confersaform id ab l e
and oftencru cial ad vantag eonthe" accu sed
. " Tob esu re, m em b ers
oftheB oard arep erm itted tocross-ex am ineand eventocontrad ict
witnesses
. B u t, b y d efinition, asap anel ofj u d g es, they areex p ected
nottoshowb ias
. Certainl y they cannotl eg itim atel y d oforthe
g overnm entthesortofj ob Charl esRhettsd id forJohnService
. -- )
6
. D oesnottheCivil ServiceL oy al ty ReviewB oard ' sreversal
ofp reviou sd eterm inationsind icatethatitsconcep tionofwhat
constitu tesa" reasonab l ed ou b t" ofl oy al ty d iffered from thatofthe
StateD ep artm entB oard ? W hichofthetwo-theCivil Service
B oard ortheStateD ep artm entB oard -ex ercised thesou nd erj u d g -
m entonthisp oint? Isitnotp erp l ex ing -and sig nificant-that,
whil etheCivil ServiceB oard ru l ed
ad versel y eveninthe
l oy al ty
D u ring whichtim ehewasp rom oted
.
* B y anofficerwhohad g ivenevid ence, afewm onthsb efore, ofad istinct
u nd erstand ing ofsecu rity reg u l ationswhenhe
refu sed toreveal cl assified
m aterial toM r . B rook sAtk insonofthe
NewY ork Tim es
.
tThesam ed eficiency p revail ed ontheap p el l atel evel , wherethed efend -
antand hisl awy erwereentitl ed top l ead b eforetheSecretary ofState( or
hisd esig nee) , whil enoonewasal l owed toarg u efortheothersid e
. Atthe
su g g estionofSenatorM cCarthy
( SenateAp p rop riationsCom m itteeHear-
ing s [ fiscal ] 1 9 53 , p
. 4 3 5) , theStateD ep artm entrevised thisp roced u reinthe
su m m erof1 9 52 .
AVIND ICATIO N

1 9 5
categ ory , theStateD ep artm enthad cl eared Serviceonl oy al ty
and
secu rity ?
M cCarthy p ressed thecaseag ainstJohnStewartServiceb efore
theTy d ing sCom m ittee, which, aswehaveseen, cl eared him
.
NootherB oard m inu tes, thatwek nowof, haveb eenrel eased
.
F orthem ostp art, therefore, scattered d ataonp articu l arcases
m u stb el eaned ontoarriveataj u d g m entreg ard ing thep erform -
anceoftheStateD ep artm entinthefiel d ofsecu rity
. Ind iscu ssing
thesecasesinthefol l owing p ag es, weshal l m entionb y nam ethe
p ersonsconcerned -b u tonl y iftheirl oy al ty hasb eenp u b l icl y q u es-
tioned el sewhere
. W hatism ore, weshal l notreveal d am ag ing in-
form ationthatsits, u nd iscu ssed , intherawfil esofsom eofthem
;
forsom eoftheinform ationm ay b efal se, orm ay b eex p l ainab l e,
and m ay , forthosereasonsorothers, haverem ained su p p ressed .
W IL L IAM T . STO NE
W il l iam T
. Stonel efttheB oard ofEconom icW arfaretoj ointhe
StateD ep artm entasd irectorofitsO fficeofInternational Inform a-
tionand Cu l tu ral Affairsonthe1 2 thofNovem b er,
1 9 4 5 . O nthe
2 2 nd ofM arch, 1 9 4 6 ,
theB annerm anSecu rity Screening B oard of
theStateD ep artm entconcl u d ed arep ortonhim asfol l ows
:
. . .
itisrecom m end ed thatactionb einstitu ted toterm inatesu b j ect' s
serviceswiththeStateD ep artm ent . Itissu g g ested , toachievethisp u r-
p ose, thatanap p rop riateofficeroftheD ep artm entshou l d inform
[ Stone] thathiscontinu ed p resenceintheD ep artm entisem b arrassing
totheD ep artm entand thatheb eg ivenanop p ortu nity toresig n
. If
[ Stone] shou l d notresig nvol u ntaril y , actionshou l d b einstitu ted u nd er
Civil ServiceRu l e3 toterm inatehisserviceswiththeD ep artm ent
. '
Thecaseag ainstStonewasb ased onthefol l owing inform ation
:
1 . F rom 1 9 3 7
to 1 9 4 1 , Stonewasam em b eroftheed itorial b oard
of
Am erasia . Am erasia
wasnotcap tu red b y theCom m u nists ; it
had b eenp ro-Com m u nistfrom theou tset .
2 . O nD ecem b er
1 0 , 1 9 4 1 ,
F red erick Vand erb il tF iel d wroteto
thehead oftheInstitu teofPacificRel ations, Ed ward C
. Carter, as
fol l ows
1 9 6

M CCARTHY AND HISENEM IES


Ihavej u sthad aconversationwithB il l Stoneoverl ong d istance
.
Hewassp eak ing from theofficeoftheEconom icD efenseB oard and
ind icated thatweshou l d g ointothep rob l em ofm y g etting aj ob m ore
fu l l y inp ersonal conversation . Neverthel esswehad enou g hofatal k
toconvey ap retty cl earp ictu re .
B il l said thattherewou l d b every form id ab l eob stacl esind eed tom y
g etting aW ashing tonj ob . 2
Su b seq u entl y , Stoneend orsed F iel d foraj ob inm il itary intel l i-
g ence
. ' W hetherStonek newF iel d tob eaCom m u nist, onl y hecan
say
. Certainl y hehad reasonsotoreg ard him
. ( See" TheCaseof
Phil ip Jessu p " forad iscu ssionofthenotoriety ofF iel d ' sCom m u -
nistactivitiesatthetim e
. )
3
. W hil eStonewasAssistantAd m inistratoroftheB oard ofEco-
nom icW arfare, anad versesecu rity rep ortarrived from m il itary
intel l ig enceonCom m u nistsp y m asterNathanGreg ory Sil verm as-
ter, al soem p l oy ed b y theB EW
. Stonead vised Sil verm asterofthe
rep ort-infact, tu rned itovertohim forhisp eru sal .
M R . STRIPL ING
[ Cou nsel , Hou seCom m itteeonU n-Am ericanActiv-
ities]
. M r
. Stone, oftheB oard ofEconom icW arfare, g avey ou acop y
oftheNaval Intel l ig encep rotestag ainsty ou ?
M R . SIL VERM ASTER
. Y es .
M R . STRIPL ING
. Heg aveittoy ou ?
M R. SIL VERM ASTER
. Y es .
M R
. STRIPL ING. Y ou answered thatrep orty ou rsel f?
M R
. SIL VERM ASTER . I answered the r
ep ort .
M R
. STRIPL ING . Y ou y ou rsel f
answered it?
M R. SIL VERM ASTER . Thatisrig ht .
M R. STRIPL ING.
W herewasy ou rrep ortsu b m itted ?
M R . SIL VERM ASTER . . . .
toM r . Stone . 4 [ Ital icsad d ed
. ]
4
. Arep ortp rep ared fortheHou seAp p rop riationsCom m ittee
inl ate1 9 4 7 noted that" su b j ect[ Stone] hasal sosincerecom m end -
ed twoform erem p l oy eesofthe
Am erasia
Ed itorial B oard top osi-
tionswiththeStateD ep artm ent
. "
O nJu ne1 8 , 1 9 4 7 , aftertherep l acem entofPanu ch, B annerm an,
and otherm em b ersoftherel ativel y hard -hitting secu rity staffof
1 9 4 6 , aStateD ep artm entofficial su m m ariz ed thecaseofStoneas
fol l ows
Itisnotb el ieved b y thisofficethattheinform ationathand raisesa
reasonab l ed ou b tastothesu b j ect' sl oy al ty totheU nited States, and
accord ing l y , secu rity cl earanceisrecom m end ed
. However, thisoffice
intend satal aterd ate, whenthep ersonnel isavail ab l e, toreviewthe
A VIND ICATIO N

3-9 7
issu esof
Am erasia M ag az inefrom . 1 9 3 7 to1 9 4
. 1 and tod eterm ineifthe
contentsofthearticl esaresu chastohaveab earing onthesecu rity
statu sofsu b j ect .
F ou rm onthsl ater, theStateD ep artm enthad noty etreviewed
theseissu esof Am erasia .
Itisnotk nownwhetherthep rom ised b it
ofresearchwaseveraccom p l ished
; thou g hitisk nownthateven
thevery firstissu eof Am erasia
satisfied theAm ericanPol itb u roon
itsfaithfu l nesstotheParty L ine .
And itisk nownthatinthesu m m erof1 9 50 Stone' scasewasin
theStateD ep artm ent' sl oy al ty and secu rity channel s, awaiting
ad j u d ication
. Hewascl eared . Ay earl ater, inNovem b erorearl y
D ecem b er,
. 1 9 51 , p resu m ab l y asaresu l toffu rtherinvestig ation, he
wasag aincl eared
. O nJanu ary 3 1 ,
1 9 52 , therecord softhecase
wenttotheCivil ServiceL oy al ty ReviewB oard forthecu stom ary
p ost-au d it
. TheB oard ex p ressed itsd issatisfaction
. withthehan-
d l ing ofthecaseand ind icated itwou l d tak echarg eofit( asithad
d onewiththatofJohnStewartService) .
O nthe2 nd ofF eb ru ary ,
1 9 52 , W il l iam T
. Stoneresig ned from theStateD ep artm ent, sothat
thereviewing B oard neverd ecid ed hiscase
.
Itisq u itep ossib l ethatStonehassatisfactory ex p l anationsfor
having served ontheed itorial b oard of
Am erasia;
forhaving rec-
om m end ed F red erick Vand erb il tF iel d foraj ob inm il itary intel l i-
g ence ; forhaving tip p ed Sil verm asteroffonhisd ossierintheNaval
Intel l ig encefil es ; and forhaving recom m end ed other
Am erasia
ed itorsforp ositionsintheStateD ep artm ent
. Stil l , itwastheview
oftheCivil ServiceB oard , asofJanu ary of1 9 52 , thatd esp itehis
StateD ep artm entcl earancestherewerestil l q u estionsab ou tStone
worthinvestig ating
. And ifStone was
al oy al ty orasecu rity risk , he
had six y earstim e, whil eoccu p y ing aninfl u ential p osition, tod am -
ag etheU nited States-eventhou g hhisd ism issal wasrecom m end -
ed inthefirstofthesesix y ears
. Hisu nex p ected and u ntim el y resig -
nation, ofcou rse, d oesnotinsp ireconfid enceineitherhim orthe
StateD ep artm entofficial swhohand l ed hiscase
.
W il l iam T
. Stone' snam eisoneofthoseg iventheTy d ing sCom -
m itteeb y SenatorM cCarthy
. HewasM cCarthy ' sCaseNu m b er4 6
.
JO HN CARTER VINCENT
JohnCarterVincent' scaseisinsom eresp ectssim il artothe
Servicecase .
Thed ou b tsab ou tVincentrest, first, onhisenerg eticactivitiesin
1 9 8

M CCARTHY
AND HIS ENEM IES
b ehal foftheChineseCom m u nistswhil eoccu p y ing variou sim p or-
tantp ositionsintheStateD ep artm ent
. Vincentj oined theState
D ep artm entin1 9 2 4 , and heroserap id l y aftertheb eg inning of
thewar
. In1 9 4 3 hewasap p ointed AssistanttotheChiefofthe
F arEasternD ivisionoftheStateD ep artm ent, u nd erJosep hGrew
.
L aterthesam ey earhewasap p ointed Sp ecial AssistanttoPresi-
d entRoosevel t' sAd m inistrativeAssistantforF oreig n
Affairs,
L au chl inCu rrie, whom form ercom m u nistEl iz ab eth
B entl ey
nam ed asam em b erofthe
Sil verm astercom m u nistsp y
g rou p . D u ring theensu ing y ears, m ostp articu l arl y afterhetook
overtheD ivisionofChineseAffairs, Vincenthad anim p ortanthand
inU . S
. d ip l om aticactivitiesthathastened M aoTseTu ng ' scon-
q u estofChina .
Therep ortoftheM cCarranCom m ittee, b ased onfou rteen
vol u m esoftestim ony concerning theInstitu teofPacificRel ations,
concl u d ed that" overap eriod ofy ears, JohnCarterVincentwas
thep rincip al fu l cru m ofIPRp ressu resand infl u enceintheState
D ep artm ent . ""
B u tinad d itiontod ou b tsthatreasonab l y ariseconcerning the
rel iab il ity ofaF arEastern" ex p ert" whosoconsistentl y m isinter-
p retsvital d ataand m isd irectsAm ericanp ol icy infavorofou r
enem ies, thecaseag ainstVincenthasb eensu b stantial l y rein-
forced b y thetestim ony ofL ou isB u d enz whostated inthesu m m er
of1 9 51 thathehad k nownVincenttob eam em b eroftheCom m u -
nistParty . '
Y etonthe1 9 thofJu ne, 1 9 52 , M r . Carl isl eHu m el sine, D ep u ty
U nd erSecretary ofStateforAd m inistration, testified thatJohn
CarterVincenthad b eencl eared threetim esb y theL oy al ty Secu r-
ity B oard oftheD ep artm entofState . ' And Vincentwascl eared
twiceag aind u ring thenex tsix m onths .
O nD ecem b er1 2 , 1 9 52 , theCivil ServiceL oy al ty ReviewB oard
reversed theStateD ep artm entb y find ing thatreasonab l ed ou b t
ex isted concerning Vincent' sl oy al ty
.
This, then, isanotherinstanceinwhichasu b ord inateb oard re-
p eated l y cl earsam anonl oy al ty
and secu rity , and asu p eriorb oard
find sag ainsthim evenon l oy al ty . If theCivil ServiceReview
B oard ' sj u d g m entwasthesou nd erone, thentheStateD ep art-
m ent' ssecu rity setu p wassu chastoenab l eal oy al ty risk tooccu p y
cru cial l y im p ortantp ostsind efinitel y . D u ring Vincent' sstay inthe
StateD ep artm ent, theCom m u nistcau seintheF arEastwasd ra-
m atical l y ad vanced
; and sinceareasonab l ed ou b tab ou tVincentin
AVIND ICATIO N

1 9 9
1 9 52 p resu m ab l y constitu tesareasonab l ed ou b tab ou thim in
1 9 4 7
( thou g hthecritical B u d enz testim ony wasnotel icited u ntil
1 9 51 ) ,
Vincent m ay haveb eeninstru m ental inthisad vance
. TheM cCar-
ranCom m itteecam etoj u stthisconcl u sion .
Notwithstand ing theL oy al ty ReviewB oard ' srecom m end ation,
D eanAcheson( al thou g hhesu sp end ed Vincent) d id notfirehim
.
Instead , hep ersu ad ed Presid entTru m antorep u d iate, ineffect, his
ownl oy al ty p rog ram . Tru m ansetu p ab oard , head ed b y j u d g e
L earned Hand , toreviewthefind ing softheReviewB oard . Secre-
tary D u l l esd issol ved thisnovel p ieceofm achinery whenheas-
su m ed officeinJanu ary ,
1 9 53 .
B u tshortl y thereafter, withou tau thority and incl earviol ationof
thereg u l ationso fthefed eral l oy al ty p rog ram , * D u l l esreversed
thefind ing softheL oy al ty ReviewB oard . Hewentonto" req u est"
Vincent' sresig nation-ontheg rou nd sthathehad shownb ad j u d g -
m ent-b u thep u b l icl y stated that, inhisview, Vincentwasneither
al oy al ty norasecu rity risk and , b y im p l ication, thatany d ou b tsas
towhetherhewaseither, wereu nreasonab l e .
Therefu sal oftheStateD ep artm entL oy al ty Secu rity B oard -
and ofSecretary D u l l es-tod ecl areVincenteitheral oy al ty ora
secu rity risk , com m itsthem , incid ental l y , tothecu riou sp osition
concerning L ou isB u d enz ' veracity that, aswenoted ab ove, the
Ty d ing sCom m itteetook intheHansoncase :
L ou isB u d enz d ecl aresthatJohnCarterVincentwasam em b er
oftheCom m u nistParty .
Conceal ed m em b ership intheCom m u nistParty constitu tesrea-
sonab l ed ou b tastoam an' sl oy al ty .
TheStateD ep artm entand Secretary D u l l esfind thel oy al ty of
JohnCarterVincenttob eb ey ond reasonab l ed ou b t .
* Itiscu riou sthatSecretary D u l l eswasnevercensu red forhiscaval ier
d isreg ard oftheru l es . TheStateD ep artm ent' s
M anu al ofReg u l ationsand
Proced u res
g overning l oy al ty and secu rity cl earl y im p l iesthattheSecretary
ofStatehasnop owertooverru l etheCivil ServiceL oy al ty B oard . ( See
sections
3 9 6 . i1
and 3 6 6 . 4 1 , M ay 4 , 1 . 9 51 ) . Carl isl eHu m el sineoftheState
D ep artm entstressed thesovereig nty oftheL oy al ty ReviewB oard earl y in
1 9 52 b eforeaSenateCom m ittee :
" SENATO RM CCARTHY . Am Icorrectinsay ing thatM r . Acheson [ i. e. ,
the
Secretary ofState] hasthefinal say onb othl oy al ty and secu rity casesinthe
StateD ep artm ent?
" M R . Hu M EL SINE . Hehasthefinal say intheD ep artm entonsecu rity
cases, b u tinl oy al ty cases [ Vincent' swasal oy al ty case] , hed oesnothave
thefinal au thority . Thefinal au thority restswiththeReviewB oard . "
( Ital ics
ad d ed . SenateAp p rop riationsfor
1
9 53 , p
. 9 8 2 . )
2 0 0

M CCARTHY AND HISENEM IES


Therefore : TheStateD ep artm entand Secretary D u l l esfind no
reasonab l ed ou b tb u tthatL ou isB u d enz l ied .
Thisconcl u sionassu m esesp ecial interestifweb earinm ind
that
B u d enz ' contrib u tionstothework oftheF ed eral B u reau
ofInves-
tig ationhaveb eenwarm l y ap p l au d ed b y M r
. J. Ed g arHoover, and
thatanofficial ofthej u sticeD ep artm enthassaid ofB u d enz , " His
evid encehasb eenworth
2 o d ivisionstotheU nited States . "
Theq u estionarises
: Ifsworntestim ony from theform er
m anag -
ing ed itorofthe
D ail y W ork er
( awitnesswhoserel iab il ity hasb een
freq u entl y tested ) , totheeffectthataStateD ep artm ent
official was
k nowntohim tob eaCom m u nist, isnotsu fficientevid encetosatis-
fy theStateD ep artm entthat reasonab l ed ou b t
ex istsconcerning
thatofficial ' sl oy al ty -m u chl essrel iab il ity -what,
then, d oesittak e
toarou se" reasonab l e" d ou b ts? Secretary D u l l es' u nthink ing
rever-
sal oftheCivil ServiceB oard hasthrownawrenchintothe
secu rity
op erationofthefed eral g overnm ent .
JohnCarterVincent' snam ewasg iventotheTy d ing s
Com m it-
tee
. HewasoneofM cCarthy ' snu m b ered cases
.
O L IVERED M U ND CL U B B
Thep u b l iccaseag ainstCl u b b , acareerF arEasternex p ert inthe
StateD ep artm ent, restsp rincip al l y onhisassociations
withsu ch
Com m u nistsand Com m u nistsy m p athiz ers
asAg nesSm ed l ey ,
M ichael Gol d , L awrenceTod d , Phil ip Jaffe, and others .
Therearescattered referencestoCl u b b intheM cCarran
Com -
m itteehearing sontheIPR
; and thereisanoteinW hittak er
Cham -
b ers' b ook ,
W itness,
whichtel l sofCl u b b ' svisiting theed itorial of-
ficesofthe
NewM asses in 3 . 9 3 2 .
Al l theab oved oesnot, intheop in-
ionoftheau thors, j u stify a" reasonab l ed ou b t"
astoCl u b b ' sl oy -
al ty
; nord oesitj u stify anad versesecu rity find ing
. Itseem sasafe
g u ess, then-thou g hag u essj u stthesam e-inthel ig ht
ofwhatfol -
l ows, thattheStateD ep artm entortheF B Ihad assem b l ed
fu rther
and m oreconcl u siveevid enceag ainstCl u b b
. ( Anem p l oy eeis
p resented withatranscrip tofhishearing sb efore
al oy al ty b oard ,
and isp rivil eg ed torel easethem
. Cl u b b hasnotd one
this . )
Them inu tesofCl u b b ' shearing b eforetheStateD ep artm entL oy al ty
and Secu rity B oard havenotb eenrel eased
. TheHou seCom m itteeonU n-
Am ericanActivities, however, interrog ated Cl u b b onM arch
1 4 , Au g u st 2 o,
and Au g u st 2 3 ,
3. 9 51 , and itshearing sarep u b l ic
.
A
VIND ICATIO N

2 0 1
O nJu ne2 7 , 1 9 51 , hewassu sp end ed from hisj ob -anu nu su al
step
. TheD ep artm entd oesnot, asam atterofcou rse, su sp end an
em p l oy eewhenheisp u tinchannel s, p end ing final actiononhim
b y theD ep artm ent' ssecu rity d ivision .
O nF eb ru ary 1 1 , 1 9 52 , theStateD ep artm entcal l ed inthep ress
and annou nced thatCl u b b had b eencl eared .
Q
. [ B y arep orter] D id y ou say hewascl eared ofthesecharg es?
A
. Ab sol u tel y cl eared , -cl eared onl oy al ty and secu rity .
Q
.
Iftherewerel oy al ty charg es, thisnewstand ard [ reasonab l e
d ou b t] wasu sed and hewasj u d g ed innocent?
A . Thatisrig ht .
Q
.
M ac, [ AssistanttotheSecretary forPressRel ations, M ichael M c-
d erm ott] y ou say hewascl eared onb othl oy al ty and secu rity
charg es, -thentherewereb othcharg esag ainsthim ?
A . Hewascl eared onb othl oy al ty and secu rity
. Itd oesn' tsay
charg es . Thereisnoq u estionab ou teitheroneand hewasre-
stored tod u ty .
This, ittu rned ou t, wasnotq u itethewhol estory . SenatorsF er-
g u sonand M cCarthy d iscovered ( 1 ) thattheStateD ep artm ent
L oy al ty and Secu rity B oard had , b y u nanim ou svote, d ecid ed that
Cl u b b ' sretentionintheStateD ep artm entconstitu ted asecu rity
risk ; ( 2 ) thatM r. Carl isl eHu m el sine, D ep u ty U nd erSecretary for
Ad m inistrationand top official inthesecu rity fiel d , had concu rred
intheB oard ' sj u d g m ent
; ( 3 ) thatCl u b b had ap p eal ed toSecretary
Acheson, whoap p ointed aretired d ip l om at, M r . Nathaniel D avis,
toreviewthecase ; and thatonD avis' recom m end ationAcheson
had overru l ed theB oard and restored Cl u b b tod u ty ; ( 4 ) that
Cl u b b had p rom p tl y resig ned -whetherb y p rearrang em entornot,
itisim p ossib l etosay .
O nM arch5, 1 9 52 , M r
. Achesonad m itted tothep ressthatSena-
torsF erg u sonand M cCarthy werecorrect .
O l iverEd m u nd Cl u b b had b eenanem p l oy eeoftheStateD e-
p artm entsince1 9 2 8
. Hehad hel d resp onsib l ep ostsinHank ow,
Pek ing , Peip ing , Tientsin, Nank ing , Shang hai, Saig on, Chu ng k ing ,
K u nm ing , Tihwa, M u k d en, Harb inand Chang chu n, p riortohis
ap p ointm entaschiefoftheChina
D esk in i9 5o. If theStateD e-
p artm ent' sB oard and theStateD ep artm ent' schiefsecu rity officer
werecorrectinad j u d g ing him asecu rity risk hisp resenceinthe
D ep artm entthrou g hthey earsthatcostu sChinab ecom es( l ik e
thep resenceofVincentand Service) hig hl y sig nificant
.
2 0 2

M CCARTHY AND HISENEM IES


W hy wastheStateD ep artm entsotard y ininvestig ating Cl u b b ?
W astheevid enceag ainsthim u navail ab l eu ntil 1 9 51 ? O rd id the
StateD ep artm entsatisfy itsel fwiththeb l ank etcl earanceg iven
him b y theTy d ing sCom m ittee?
Al thou g hCl u b b wasnotoneofM cCarthy ' s" nu m b ered " cases,
M cCarthy g avetheCom m itteeCl u b b ' snam eand som eoftheevi-
d enceag ainsthim .
ED W ARD G . PO SNIAK
O nJu l y 6 , 1 9 4 8 , theF B Itransm itted totheStateD ep artm entan
el even-p ag erep ortonEd ward G. Posniak whohad b eenoneofits
em p l oy eessinceO ctob er 2 6 , 1 9 4 5. Hewasthenwork ing asanin-
ternational econom istintheD ivisionofInvestm entand Econom ic
D evel op m ent, Central and EasternEu rop eanB ranch .
Posniak , b orninRu ssia, em ig rated totheU nited Statesin1 9 3 5
and wasnatu ral iz ed in1 9 3 9 . Ex cep tforafewm onthshehad sp ent
witham anu factu ring concerninStam ford , Connecticu t, in1 9 57 ,
and ashortp eriod u nd ercontractwiththeB rook ing sInstitu te,
Posniak had al way swork ed fortheg overnm ent . B eforeentering
theStateD ep artm ent, hehad b eenem p l oy ed , inthatord er, b y the
D ep artm entofJu stice, theF ed eral Pu b l icHou sing Ad m inistra-
tion, and theO fficeofStrateg icServices . Heenl isted intheArm y in
Au g u st, 1 9 4 3 , and rem ained intheservicefortwoy ears, d oing
work fortheO SS
. Thenhej oined theStateD ep artm ent .
HisStateD ep artm entp ostwasim p ortant . Itisd escrib ed inthe
F B Irep ortasfol l ows :
Inthiscap acity , he[ Posniak ] work swiththeAssistantChiefand
otherrank ing officersinthed rafting offinal p ol icy d eterm inationsre-
g ard ing variou sform sofeconom icassistance, investm entand d evel op -
m entp rog ram s . Heal som ak esp ol icy recom m end ationsinconnection
withq u estionsofp u b l icand p rivateinvestm entand effectonind u strial
org aniz ations, econom icstab il ity and d evel op m entofthecentral and
easternEu rop eanareasand theirrel ationship totheb road ob j ectives
oftheU nited States" foreig np ol icy . " F orthep astseveral m onths
[ i
. e . ,
inearl y 1 9 4 8 ] hehasb eenwork ing ontheq u estionofex p ortstoRu s-
siaand thesatel l itenations .
W ithresp ecttoPosniak ' sid eol og ical affil iations, therep orthad
thistosay :
A VIND ICATIO N

2 0 3
AnF B Iag entwhoj oined theCom m u nistParty atthereq u esto
fthe
B u reau in . 7 9 3 6 and wasex p el l ed from theCom m u nistParty in1 9 4 8
and whoserecord asaninform antwasoneofcom p l eterel iab il ity ,
stated thatPosniak wasam em b eroftheCom m u nistParty and p er-
sonal l y k nowntohim assu ch . . . .
Accord ing tothisinform ant . . . Posniak cam etoal otof" op enu nit"
m eeting sand toal l recru iting m eeting softheCom m u nistParty from
1 9 3 8 tosom etim ein 1 9 4 . 2 . Thisinform antsaid hehad nocontactwith
Posniak since
1 9 4 2 , stating fu rtherthatPosniak washorrified atthe
Ru sso-Germ anal l ianceof 1
9 3 9 .
Anotherrel iab l eF B Iinform antrecal l ed Posniak asam em b ero fthe
Com m u nistParty inthel ate1 9 3 o' s . [ Ital icsad d ed
. ]
Inthesu m m erof1 9 3 8 , whil e-accord ing tothetestim ony ofan
F B Iag ent-Posniak wasanactivem em b eroftheCom m u nist
Party , hewaseng ag ed b y theB rook ing sInstitu tetowork onone
ofitsstu d ies
. B eforehiring him , therep ortg oesontosay , hissu -
p eriors" sp ecifical l y q u estioned Posniak astoany Com m u nistcon-
nectionshem ig hthavehad inRu ssiaorEu rop e, and Posniak said
hehad none, and ex p ressed him sel fag ainstCom m u nistParty p rin-
cip l es . "
F u rtherm ore, anassociateintheF ed eral Pu b l icHou seAd m ini-
stration, whohad k nownPosniak " from 1 9 3 8 to1 9 4 1 and had
work ed u nd erhim foroney ear, " " hig hl y reg ard ed Posniak and
stated [ that] d u ring thetim ehehad k nownPosniak , Posniak had
ex hib ited nothing refl ecting onhisl oy al ty . "
Inshort, Posniak ap p earstohavehad som ething ofHiss' tal ent
forp ersu ad ing hisassociatesthathewasl oy al totheU nited States
.
TheF B Ial soincl u d ed anaffid avitfrom aresp onsib l eschol ar
whohad b eenassociated withPosniak forsom etim eintheState
D ep artm ent
. ( Inrep rod u cing it, wewithhol d onl y thenam eof
theinform ant, thenam esofotherp ersons, and som eid entify ing
d ata
. ) Theaffid avitshowsim p ressivel y howthep resu m p tionthat
StateD ep artm entp ersonnel had b eenthorou g hl y screened hel p ed
p ro-Com m u niststoinfl u encethecond u ctofforeig naffairs .
Iserved [ theinform antstated , in] . . .
theCz echosl ovak ianCom m it-
teeinM ay and Ju neof
1 9 4 6 . M y acq u aintancewiththep ersoninwhom
y ou areinterested isl im ited tothisp eriod
. Atthefirstm eeting and at
al l m eeting sthereafter, Inoted thatheap p roached eachp rob l em from
thestand p oint" Howwil l thishel p Cz echosl ovak ia? " . . .
AsIrecal l ,
su chq u estionsasGerm antransitrates, thesettl em entoftheArm y ' s
d eb ts, and fu rtherl oanstoCz echosl ovak iawereu nd erconsid eration
.
Ik nownothing ab ou tthep ersoninq u estion, b u ttheb iasd isp l ay ed
2 0 4

M CCAR=AND HISENEM IES


wassom ark ed thatIq u eried [ M issX] and fou nd shehad reacted in
asim il arfashion
. Iassu m ed hewasofCz echorig inand check ed the
reg isterasam atterofcu riosity , onl y tod iscoverthathisorig inwas
Ru ssian
. Sincehehad work ed inotherag enciesand hisorig inwou l d
natu ral l y havecau sed him tob ethorou g hl y investig ated , Id id nothing
fu rtheratthetim e .
Irecal l twootherep isod es
. Hereq u ested m etohaverep rod u ced , as
aCom m itteed ocu m ent, anarticl eb y . . .
whichhad ap p eared inthe
Cong ressional Record
. ( Ib el ieveatthereq u estofCong ressm anSa-
b ath, b u tam notcertain
. ) Thearticl ewasaeu l og y ofB enes' p ol icy of
friend ship and coop erationwiththeSovietU nion
. Ap artfrom thecon-
tentsofthearticl e( ab ou twhichIhad g raveq u estions) , thereq u est
top u b l ishitasaCom m itteed ocu m entwasp ecu l iarl y ou toford er
. I
sp ok ewith[ Y ] and [ Z] oftheSecretariatab ou tit, b u tthey took the
p ositionthattheSecretariatcou l d n' tq u estionaCom m itteem em b er' s
req u est . Ithensp ok ewith . . .
theCom m itteeChairm an, stressing the
inap p rop riatenessand theex p ense( thearticl ewasl eng thy )
. Hed i-
rected m enottoissu eitasad ocu m ent, b u ttoob tainafewcop iesof
theRecord and circu l atethem forinform ation
. Thatwasd one .
Atthatstag eIwasb eg inning tohaved ou b tsofthenatu reofthep ro-
Cz echb ias-wasitp ro-Cz echorp ro-Soviet? -p articu l arl y sincethere-
p ortsfrom ou rEm b assy weretotheeffectthatCz echosl ovak iawas
overthehu m p and thatwem ig htb eb u il d ing u p Cz echind u stry for
Ru ssia
. Al l theinform ationcom ing intotheD ep artm entd u ring that
p eriod wascertainl y op p osed tothep ositiontak enb y thep ersonu nd er
consid eration, and p ol icy inl inewiththerep ortswasestab l ished b y
theSecretary shortl y thereafter
. Toward theend ofJu neIattend ed a
m eeting oftheRu ssianCom m itteeu nd er
Secretary oftheCom -
m ittee, atwhichtheind ivid u al u nd erconsid erationwasp resent . After
them eeting , whichwasonahig hl y secretm atter[ X] com m ented that
heconsid ered theind ivid u al d ang erou sl y p ro-Sovietand thathein-
tend ed tod iscu sstheq u estionofhisfu rtherattend ancewiththeChair-
m anoftheRu ssianCom m ittee
. " Id onotk nowwhatsu b seq u entl y
transp ired , sinceIwentond etail to
. . . earl y inJu l y . . . .
Itwasconsid erab l y l ater, whenal l connectionwiththeCom m ittee
and theind ivid u al had b eenterm inated , thatIrecom m end ed aninves-
tig ation .
Thed eterm ining factorwasthereal iz ation, from factsem erg ing in
anothercase, thattheassu m p tionofthorou g hinvestig ationinviewof
b ack g rou nd wasnotnecessaril y val id
. Istil l hesitated sinceIam total l y
op p osed to" red -sm earing " and otherform sofharassm ent
. I was
q u estioned ab ou tanotherind ivid u al b othb y theD ep artm entsecu rity
officersand b y F B Iag entsand wasim p ressed b y theirab il ity and b y
theirsincerity intry ing tosearchou tthetru th
. W iththatassu ranceof
athorou g hinvestig ationand fairhearing fortheind ivid u al , Ifel tthat
* Thep ersoninq u estionsu b stantial l y corrob orated thisaccou ntofhis
reaction .
A VIND ICATIO N

2 0 5
Id ared notrefrainany l ong erfrom recom m end ing aninvestig ation .
Thisistheonl y instanceinoversix y earswiththeD ep artm entwhenI
havefel tthatIhad totak esu chaction
. [ Ital icsad d ed . ]
TheF B Irep ortstated thatPosniak had continu ed toassociate
withatl eastthreeCom m u nistsand fel l owtravel ersinto1 9 4 8 , that
is, u p tothel atestm om enttherep ortcovered . *
O ntheothersid eofthel ed g er, theF B Irep ortcontained ad oz en
orsostatem entsfrom form erassociatesand em p l oy erstotheef-
fectthatthey b el ieved Posniak tob el oy al
.
W iththisevid enceb eforeit, theL oy al ty Secu rity B oard ofthe
StateD ep artm entcl eared Posniak in1 9 4 8 onb othl oy al ty and se-
cu rity and heresu m ed hisd u tieswiththeD ep artm ent
. Inthem ind s
oftheB oard ' sm em b erstherewerenog rou nd sforb el ieving Pos-
niak tob eal oy al ty risk , and nog rou nd sforj u stify ing evenarea-
sonab l e d ou b t thathewasasecu rity risk l
Twoy earsl ater, onNovem b er1 5, 1 9 50 , theStateD ep artm ent
wrotetotheL oy al ty ReviewB oard thatPosniak " el ected toresig n
ratherthanaccep tsu sp ensionp end ing investig ationand ad j u d ica-
tionofcertaincharg esb earing onl oy al ty . "
Evid entl y , theF B Ihad had inform ationonPosniak ' sCom m u nist
al l eg iancesasearl y as1 9 3 8 . D id itcom m u nicatethisinform ation
totheO SSand totheStateD ep artm ent? Ifso, howwasPosniak
ab l etog etj ob sinthosesensitiveag encies? W hy d id theStateD e-
p artm entL oy al ty and Secu rity B oard waitu ntil 1 9 4 8 b eforep roc-
essing him ? And how, inthefaceoftheF B Iag ent' stestim ony , d id
itp ersu ad eitsel fPosniak wascl earab l e? W hy -withthesam esecu r-
ity stand ard sval id in1 9 50 asin1 9 4 8 -d id Posniak g etcl eared in
1 9 4 8 and find him sel fsu sp end ed in1 9 50 ?
Ed ward C . Posniak ' scasewassu b m itted b y M cCarthy tothe
Ty d ing sCom m ittee( CaseNo
. 7 7 )
.
Al soincl u d ed intherep ortisab iz arreaffid avitfrom aconfid ential
in-
form antwhovol u nteered hisop inionsab ou tPosniak ' sl oy al ty b ecau sehe
had d istrib u ted l iteratu reoftheAm ericaF irstCom m ittee( d u ring 1 9 3 9 and
1 9 4 o) -" whichatthattim e I consid ered tob eag rou p whichwere[ sic]
d isl oy al totheU nited States . " " Ib el ieveM r
. Posniak wasam em b erofthe
Am ericaF irstO rg aniz ation, " theinform antwenton, " b ecau sehetried to
sel l thep rincip al s[ sic] oftheorg aniz ationtotwooftheel evatorop erators
whichheintim ated totheop eratorsasb eing b etterthanou rAm ericanway
. "
M essrs . Rog erB al d winand Al anB arth wil l
b ep l eased tonotethattru eto
itscl aim s, thenoneval u ating F B Ip assesal ong al l itsinform ation,
no m atter
howrid icu l ou s .
2 0 6

M CCARTHY AND HIS ENEM IES


D AVID ZAB L O D O W SK Y AND STANL EY GRAZE
D avid Zab l od owsk y resig ned from theStateD ep artm enton
Ju l y 7 , 1 9 4 6 , having served aschiefofitsEd itorial B ranch
. ( He
thenb ecam eD irectoroftheU nited NationsPu b l ishing D ivision
. )
Six y earsp assed
. O nO ctob er2 3 , 1 9 52 , W hittak erCham b erstes-
tified b eforetheM cCarranCom m itteethathehad k nownZab l o-
d owsk y asam em b erofanu nd erg rou nd esp ionag ering in1 9 3 6
.
ThisZab l od owsk y ad m itted , thou g hhed enied everhaving b eena
" m em b er" oftheCom m u nistParty ( which, inthecircu m stances,
isneitherherenorthere)
.
Zab l od owsk y wasM cCarthy ' sCaseNo
. 1 0 3 . L ik eevery b od y
el se, Zab l od owsk y wascl eared b y theTy d ing sCom m ittee
.
Stanl ey Graz ework ed fortheStateD ep artm entu ntil 1 9 4 8
. O n
Ap ril 2 0 , 1 9 4 8 , hewascl eared b y theL oy al ty Secu rity B oard
. He
resig ned from theStateD ep artm enttend ay sl atertog otowork
attheU nited Nations .
O nO ctob er1 4 , 1 9 52 , Graz erefu sed toanswerthefol l owing
q u estionp u ttohim b y theM cCarranCom m ittee
: " Arey ou now
orhavey ou everb eenam em b eroftheCom m u nistParty ? " He
al sorefu sed toanswertheq u estion
: " Arey ou noweng ag ed inesp i-
onag eactivity ag ainsttheU nited States? "
How, inviewoftheserefu sal s, arewetoex p l ainhishaving
su rvived hishearing b eforetheStateD ep artm entB oard ? D id the
B oard ask him whetherhewasam em b eroftheCom m u nistParty ?
Ifso, d id heonthatoccasion( asb eforetheM cCarranCom m it-
tee) refu setoanswer-and winacl earancenotwithstand ing ? Ifhe
d id answerand d enied Com m u nistParty m em b ership , howex p l ain
hisrefu sal toanswerthesam eq u estionfou ry earsl ater? Isthe
StateD ep artm entinap ositiontofu rnishthej u sticeD ep artm ent
withatranscrip toftheGraz ehearing s, withaviewtod eterm ining
whetherp erj u ry hasb eencom m itted ?
Graz e( M cCarthy ' sCaseNu m b er8 ) wascl eared b y theTy d -
ing sCom m ittee .
ESTHERB RU NAU ER
D r
. EstherCau k inB ru nau er( forafu l l d iscu ssionseeChap ter
VII) j oined theStateD ep artm entinNovem b er, 1 9 4 4 , and roseto
thep ositionofp ol icy l iaisonofficerforU NESCO ( Ju l y
1 , 1 9 4 7 ) .
A VIND ICATIO N

2 0 7
Im m ed iatel y afterherhu sb and ' ssu sp ensionb y theNavy for
secu rity reasonsinAp ril , 1 9 51 , M rs . B ru nau erwassu sp end ed b y
theStateD ep artm ent-wheresu sp ensionofanem p l oy eep end ing
ad j u d icationofasecu rity p roceed ing wasb y nom eansacom m on
p ractice . Thereisreasontob el ievethattheevid enceag ainsther
p rom p ted thisu nu su al action
. '
O nJu ne
1 6 , 1 9 52 , M rs . B ru nau erwasd ism issed b y theState
D ep artm ent, asasecu rity risk .
SenatorM cCarthy su b m itted theB ru nau ercasetotheTy d ing s
Com m ittee . ShewasM cCarthy ' sCaseNu m b er 1 7 .
Thefol l owing cases, b riefl y su m m ariz ed , throwl ig htononeor
anotherofthep ointsatissu einthisb ook . Inm ostinstances, the
p ersonsl isted b el owwerem em b ersoftheStateD ep artm entwho
b ru shed u p ag ainstitssecu rity d ivision . They arenotal l -b y any
m eans-transp arentsecu rity risk s . Inoneway oranother, however,
theirex p eriencesad d tothep ictu reofafu m b l ing and insensitive
secu rity p rog ram .
Herb ertF ierstwashired b y theStateD ep artm entinSep tem -
b er,
1 9 4 6
. In 1 9 51 , heg otintothel oy al ty -secu rity channel softhe
StateD ep artm ent
. TheCivil ServiceL oy al ty ReviewB oard ex -
p ressed d issatisfactionwiththehand l ing ofhiscase, and sentit
b ack totheStateD ep artm entB oard for . read j u d ication . Inshort,
aj u d g m entwashand ed d ownb y theCentral B oard ( astheCivil
ServiceL oy al ty ReviewB oard isoftencal l ed ) thataStateD ep art-
m entofficer' sl oy al ty statu shad notb eenex p l ored withsu fficient
thorou g hnessevenafterseveny ears . F ierstwasoneofM cCarthy ' s
nu m b ered cases .
JohnPatonD avieshad b eenp rocessed atl eastfou rtim esb y
theStateD ep artm entB oard onthestreng thofcharg esofp ro-Chi-
nese-Com m u nistactivity . InD ecem b er,
1 9 52 , theCivil Service
B oard ( whosej u risd ictionex tend sonl y tol oy al ty , nottosecu rity
cases) ru l ed thatnoreasonab l ed ou b tex isted astoD avies' l oy al ty .
SenatorF erg u son
: " . . . y ou rb oard hasal read y d ecid ed inthel oy al ty
channel thattherewassu fficientevid encetosu sp end [ M rs . B ru nau er] ? "
M r . Hu m el sine : " Therewas . " ( Senate
Ap p rop riations for
1 9 53 , p . 4 57 ,
M arch 2 7 , 1 9 52
. )
2 o8

M CCARTHY AND HISENEM IES


However, inAp ril , 1 9 53 , D avieswastransferred b y thenewad m in-
istrationfrom anim p ortantp ostinGerm any toarel ativel y u nim -
p ortantp ostinL im a, Peru
. Inthem eantim e, theM cCarranCom -
m itteehad fou nd thatD avieshad " testified fal sel y b eforethesu b -
com m itteeind eny ing thatherecom m end ed theCentral Intel l i-
g enceAg ency em p l oy , u til iz eand rel y u p oncertainind ivid u al s
having Com m u nistassociationsand connections
. Thism atterwas
. . . su b stantial inim p ort
. " ' D avieswasoneofM cCarthy ' snu m -
b ered cases .
4
HansL ansb erg had l efttheStateD ep artm entb eforetheTy d -
ing sCom m itteeb eg anitswork , totak eaj ob withtheD ep artm ent
ofCom m erce . Asaform erStateD ep artm entem p l oy ee, however,
hecam eu nd erthep u rviewoftheTy d ing sCom m ittee, which
cl eared him . Ay earl aterhewasru l ed al oy al ty risk b y theCom -
m erceD ep artm ent, aru l ing whichtheCivil ServiceL oy al ty Re-
viewB oard u p hel d onM ay 2 5, 1 9 51 . Inotherword s, theState
D ep artm ent' sl oy al ty -secu rity m achinery fail ed toap p rehend
a
l oy al ty risk whom al esssensitiveag ency d isp osed ofassu chata
l aterd ate
. And here, asel sewhere, theTy d ing sCom m itteenotonl y
sl ep tonatip from M cCarthy thatwastob evind icated ind u e
tim e, b u tactu al l y g avetheind ivid u al afu rther" cl earance" to
p ointto
. L and sb erg wasoneofM cCarthy ' snu m b ered cases .
0
Val R. L orwinj oined theStateD ep artm entinD ecem b er, 1 9 4 5
.
Heb ecam echiefoftheD ep artm ent' sEu rop eand ivisionofinter-
national l ab or, social and heal thaffairs ; su b seq u entl y , hework ed
fortheD ep artm entasal ab oreconom ist . Ay earaftertheTy d ing s
Com m itteecl eared L orwin, theD ep artm entsu sp end ed him -on
F eb ru ary 5, 1 9 51
. Hewasrestored tod u ty b y theD ep artm enton
M arch2 8 , 1 9 52 , and inJu newasform al l y cl eared ofal l charg es
b earing onl oy al ty orsecu rity
. Shortl y after, heresig ned , and went
towork fortheU niversity ofChicag oasanassistantp rofessorof
social sciencesand ind u strial rel ations .
O nD ecem b er4 , 1 9 53 , aF ed eral Grand j u ry hand ed d ownan
ind ictm entofL orwin, charg ing thathehad l ied u nd eroathin
cl aim ing ( 1 )
thathehad neverb eenam em b eroftheCom m u nist
AVINDICATION

2 0 9
P a r t y , ( z ) t h a t h e h a d n e v e r c a r r i e d a Co m m u n i s t P a r t y c a r d , a n d
( g ) t h a t h e h a d n e v e r h e l d a Co m m u n i s t P a r t y m e e t i n g i n h i s
h o m e .
L o r w i n w a s M c Ca r t h y ' s Ca s e Nu m b e r 5 4
.
0
P e v e r i l M e i g s j o i n e d t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t i n S e p t e m b e r ,
1 9 4 5 ,
a n d r e s i g n e d i n 1 9 4 8 , t o g o t o w o r k f o r t h e De p a r t m e n t o f t h e
Ar m y
. H e w a s c l e a r e d b y t h e Ty d i n g s Co m m i t t e e . S e v e r a l m o n t h s
l a t e r h e w a s s u s p e n d e d b y t h e Ar m y L o y a l t y B o a r d a n d , s u b s e -
q u e n t l y , w a s d i s c h a r g e d . M e i g s w a s o n e o f M c Ca r t h y ' s n u m b e r e d
c a s e s .
0
[ W r i t e s W h i t t a k e r Ch a m b e r s : ]
Th e t r e a s u r e r o f t h e W a r e Ap p a r a t u s ,
H e n r y H . Co l l i n s , J r
. , P r i n c e t o n a n d H a r v a r d , a n d a s c i o n o f a P h i l a -
d e l p h i a m a n u f a c t u r i n g f a m i l y , w a s m y p e r s o n a l f r i e n d . H e a l s o s e r v e d ,
v o l u n t a r i l y a n d , i n f a c t , i r r e p r e s s i b l y , a s a r e c r u i t i n g a g e n t f o r t h e S o -
v i e t a p p a r a t u s a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t . It w a s h e w h o
r e c r u i t e d
o n e o f t h e B y k o v a p p a r a t u s ' S t a t e De p a r t m e n t s o u r c e s , a m a n
o f m u c h m o r e g l i t t e r y s o c i a l b a c k g r o u n d t h a n Al g e r H i s s
. 8
[ It a l i c s
a d d e d
. ]
Th e p e r s o n r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e i t a l i c i z e d p o r t i o n o f t h e a b o v e p a r a -
g r a p h ( h i s n a m e h a s n e v e r b e e n p u b l i c l y d i s c u s s e d ) j o i n e d t h e
S t a t e De p a r t m e n t i n 1 9 4 0 , a n d r e s i g n e d i n De c e m b e r o f 1 9 4 8 . At
t h a t t i m e t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t h a d h a d i n i t s p o s s e s s i o n f o r o v e r
t w o y e a r s a m e m o r a n d u m s t a t i n g t h a t h e w a s a " r e c o g n i z e d l e a d e r "
o f t h e Co m m u n i s t u n d e r g r o u n d i n t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t . H e w a s
M c Ca r t h y ' s Ca s e Nu m b e r 5 3
.
-
0 - Do r o t h y
K e n y o n * w a s h i r e d b y t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t i n 1 9 4 7
t o a c t a s U n i t e d S t a t e s De l e g a t e t o t h e U n i t e d Na t i o n s Co m m i s s i o n
o n t h e S t a t u s o f W o m e n . Th r e e y e a r s l a t e r , t h e Ty d i n g s Co m m i t t e e
w a s g i v e n d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e o f h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a t l e a s t
t w e n t y - f o u r Co m m u n i s t f r o n t s d u r i n g t h e t h i r t i e s a n d f o r t i e s .
J u d g e K e n y o n ' s a p p o i n t m e n t w i t h t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t e x p i r e d
* F o r a f u l l d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e K e n y o n c a s e , s e e Ch a p t e r VII
.
2 1 0

M CCARTH Y
AND H IS ENEM IES
t h e l a s t d a y o f De c e m b e r , 1 9 4 9 . S h e h a d n e v e r b e e n s o m u c h a s
i n v e s t i g a t e d b y t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t d u r i n g t h e y e a r s o f h e r e m -
p l o y m e n t .
J u d g e K e n y o n w a s o n e o f M c Ca r t h y ' s c a s e s .
H a l d o r e H a n s o n * w r o t e a n a l l e g e d l y p r o - Ch i n e s e - Co m m u n i s t
b o o k , H u m a n e En d e a v o r , i n 1 9 3 9 . B e f o r e t h a t , h e w a s a s s o c i a t e d
w i t h Ed g a r S n o w a n d Ny m W a l e s , n a m e d c o m m u n i s t s , o n a m a g a -
z i n e i n P e i p i n g . H a n s o n w a s e m p l o y e d b y t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t i n
1 9 4 2 , a n d r o s e t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f Ch i e f o f t h e Te c h n i c a l Co o p e r a t i o n
P r o j e c t S t a f f s h o r t l y b e f o r e t h e t i m e t h e Ty d i n g s Co m m i t t e e c o n -
v e n e d . L o u i s B u d e n z t e s t i f i e d t o t h e Co m m i t t e e t h a t h e h a d k n o w n
H a l d o r e H a n s o n t o b e a m e m b e r o f t h e Co m m u n i s t P a r t y . Th e
Co m m i t t e e - a n d t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t - c l e a r e d * H a n s o n . It w a s
n o t u n t i l S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 5 3 , t h a t h e w a s d i s m i s s e d f r o m f e d e r a l
s e r v i c e .
H e w a s o n e o f M c Ca r t h y ' s p u b l i c , u n n u m b e r e d c a s e s
.
4
W i l l i a m Re m i n g t o n i s i n j a i l , h a v i n g b e e n c o n v i c t e d o f p e r j u r y
f o r d e n y i n g h i s m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e Co m m u n i s t P a r t y . M c Ca r t h y
c a n n o t b e g i v e n t h e c r e d i t f o r e x p o s i n g Re m i n g t o n ;h e d i d , h o w -
e v e r , g i v e h i s n a m e t o t h e Ty d i n g s Co m m i t t e e a t a t i m e w h e n Re m -
i n g t o n w a s w i d e l y c o n s i d e r e d g u i l t l e s s . Re m i n g t o n h a d b e e n
c l e a r e d b y t h e Ci v i l S e r v i c e L o y a l t y Re v i e w B o a r d
. Re m i n g t o n w a s
n o t a n e m p l o y e e o f t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t , b u t h e h e l d a j o b w i t h
t h e Co m m e r c e De p a r t m e n t i n w h i c h h e w o r k e d c l o s e l y e n o u g h
w i t h t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t t o b e o f i n t e r e s t t o i t s s e c u r i t y o f f i c e
.
H e w a s M c Ca r t h y ' s Ca s e Nu m b e r 1 g .
Ro b e r t T. M i l l e r j o i n e d t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t i n J u n e , 1 9 4 4 , a n d
r e s i g n e d o n t h e 1 3 t h o f De c e m b e r , 1 9 4 6 . S t a t e De p a r t m e n t s e c u r -
i t y o f f i c e r s u n d e r P a n u c h u r g e d h i s d i s m i s s a l a s e a r l y a s J u l y 2 4 ,
F o r a f u l l d i s c u s s i o n o f H a l d o r e H a n s o n , s e e Ch a p t e r VII
.
Th e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s c l e a r a n c e i n t h e f a c e o f B u d e n z t e s t i m o n y a r e
i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h o s e d i s c u s s e d a b o v e i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h J o h n Ca r t e r Vi n c e n t
.
A
VINDICATION

2 1 1
1 9 4 6, a n d t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s f o r t h e H o u s e Co m m i t t e e o n Ap p r o -
p r i a t i o n s c l a s s i f i e d h i m , i n 1 9 4 8 , a s " i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y t h e g r e a t e s t
s e c u r i t y r i s k t h e De p a r t m e n t h a s h a d . " F o r m e r As s i s t a n t S e c r e -
t a r y o f S t a t e , W i l l i a m B e n t o n , i n w h o s e o f f i c e M i l l e r w o r k e d , h a s
t e s t i f i e d 9 t h a t As s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y Ru s s e l l , e v e n w i t h t h e M c Ca r -
r a n Ri d e r i n h a n d , d i d n o t f e e l h e h a d e n o u g h e v i d e n c e t o f i r e
M i l l e r . In 1 9 5 1 , El i z a b e t h B e n t l e y t e s t i f i e d b e f o r e t h e M c Ca r r a n
Co m m i t t e e : " Ro b e r t M i l l e r w a s o n e o f t h e Co m m u n i s t P a r t y m e m -
b e r s t h a t It o o k o n a s a n e s p i o n a g e a g e n t w a y b a c k i n
1 9 4 1 . . . . H e
w a s o n e o f t h e p e o p l e Id e a l t w i t h d i r e c t l y , c o l l e c t e d h i s d u e s a n d
g o t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . " "
Ro b e r t T. M i l l e r w a s M c Ca r t h y ' s Ca s e Nu m b e r 1 6 .
It w o u l d b e c o m f o r t i n g t o s t a t e , a t t h i s j u n c t u r e , t h a t w e h a v e
m e n t i o n e d e v e r y s e c u r i t y d e r e l i c t i o n i n t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t d u r -
i n g t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1 9 4 7 t o 1 9 5 0 . B u t w e h a v e n o t . In d i c a t i o n s a r e
t h a t w h a t w e h a v e p i e c e d t o g e t h e r i s b u t a t i n y , t h o u g h h o r r i f y i n g
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f r a g m e n t o f t h e w h o l e s e c u r i t y p i c t u r e - m u c h o f i t
b r o u g h t t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f a n u n r e s p o n s i v e p u b l i c b y t h e i r r e p r e s -
s i b l e e f f o r t s o f o n e m a n .
CH AP TERXI
Co n f r o n t a t i o n
. . .
a l o t o f p e o p l e g e t t h e i d e a t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r o g r a m
[ t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t ' s s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m ] i s n o t u n d e r Co n -
g r e s s i o n a l s c r u t i n y
. Ih a v e t o g o u p a n d g e t t h e b u d g e t o f t h e
De p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e e a c h y e a r , a n d Ig o b e f o r e t w o a p p r o p r i a -
t i o n s s u b c o m m i t t e e s , o n e i n t h e H o u s e a n d o n e i n t h e S e n a t e
. . .
a n d t h e y a r e s a t i s f i e d t h a t w e a r e r u n n i n g t h i s p r o g r a m i n
t h e p r o p e r w a y . - CARL IS L EH
. H U M EL S INE, De p u t y U n d e r
S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n , o n " M e e t t h e P r e s s , "
Au g u s t
1 g , 1 9 5 1 .
M
CCARTH Y' S " t e r r o r i z a t i o n o f t h e De p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e " h a s
f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s n o w b e e n t h e c e n t r a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n o f o u r
i n t e l l i g e n t s i a
. Th e y s e e i n i t c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e
n e w Ag e o f Co n f o r m i t y i s u p o n u s
. Th e De p a r t m e n t , t h e y a l l e g e , i s
p e t r i f i e d
: u n a b l e t o g o a b o u t i t s n o r m a l b u s i n e s s b e c a u s e i t m u s t
f o r e v e r b e w a r d i n g o f f a n e w M c Ca r t h y o f f e n s i v e , u n a b l e t o r e c r u i t
t h e t a l e n t e d y o u n g m e n i t n e e d s b e c a u s e n o s e l f - r e s p e c t i n g y o u n g
m a n w o u l d h a z a r d t h e i n d i g n i t i e s M c Ca r t h y w i l l s u b j e c t h i m t o ,
p o w e r l e s s i n d e a l i n g w i t h f o r e i g n n a t i o n s b e c a u s e i t i s k n o w n
a r o u n d t h e w o r l d t h a t M c Ca r t h y h a s u n d e r m i n e d p u b l i c c o n f i -
d e n c e i n t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t .
To b e s u r e , a t l e a s t u n t i l t h e c h a n g e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n
1 9 5 3 ,
t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t o f t e n b e h a v e d a s i f M c Ca r t h y w e r e i t s
Nu m b e r On e p r o b l e m
. Th e p u b l i c w o r k o n t h a t p r o b l e m w a s n o r -
m a l l y l e f t t o M r
. Ac h e s o n ' s l o w - e c h e l o n o p e r a t o r s - i n p a r t ,
n o
d o u b t , b e c a u s e i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n i n f r a d i g n i t a t e f o r M r
. Ac h e s o n
h i m s e l f t o e n g a g e i n s u c h s o r d i d e n c o u n t e r s
. In a n y c a s e , t h e s e u n -
d e r l i n g s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e s e c u r -
i t y p r o g r a m , w e n t a t t h e j o b l u s t i l y a n d c e r t a i n l y n o t i n t h e m a n n e r
o f m e n t e r r o r i z e d b y t h e m i g h t y M c Ca r t h y .
In Oc t o b e r o f 1 9 5 1 , f o r e x a m p l e , G e n e r a l Co n r a d E . S n o w ,
Ch a i r m a n o f t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t ' s L o y a l t y S e c u r i t y B o a r d s i n c e
CONF RONTATION

2 1 3
i t s i n c e p t i o n , h a d t h i s t o s a y a b o u t t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t ' s t r o u b l e s
i n a s p e e c h d e l i v e r e d a t G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n U n i v e r s i t y : " W h a t ,
t h e n , i s a l l t h e s h o u t i n g a b o u t ?
. . . Th e o l d s a y i n g i s - w h e r e t h e r e
i s s o m u c h s m o k e , t h e r e m u s t b e s o m e f i r e
. Th e r e i s , h o w e v e r , n o
e x c u s e f o r m i s t a k i n g d u s t f o r s m o k e
. Th e d u s t i n t h e p r e s e n t c a s e
i s c r e a t e d b y o n e m a n , t r a m p i n g a b o u t t h e Na t i o n a n d m a k i n g ,
o v e r a n d o v e r a g a i n , t h e s a m e b a s e l e s s a n d d i s p r o v e d a c c u s a t i o n s
.
Th e o n e m a n i s a b l e t o r a i s e s o m u c h d u s t o n l y b e c a u s e
( 1 ) h e i s
a S e n a t o r o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , a n d ( 2 )
h e s p e a k s i n a l o u d a n d
d e t e r m i n e d v o i c e a n d w a v e s i n h i s h a n d a b u n c h o f p h o t o s t a t s
t h a t n o b o d y t a k e s t h e t r o u b l e t o e x a m i n e . "
Tw o m o n t h s e a r l i e r , o n M e e t t h e P r e s s ,
Ca r l i s l e H u m e l s i n e ,
w h o m m o d e r a t o r M a r t h a Ro u n t r e e i n t r o d u c e d a s " t h e m a n w h o i s
r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m i n t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t , "
f a c e d a b a t t e r y o f n e w s p a p e r m e n a n d w e l c o m e d t h e i r q u e s t i o n s
.
" S e n a t o r M c Ca r t h y , " o n e r e p o r t e r a s k e d , " h a s b e e n q u i t e a c t i v e i n
t h i s f i e l d [ l o y a l t y i n g o v e r n m e n t ]
. H o w m a n y n e w l e a d s w o u l d
y o u s a y h e h a s g i v e n y o u f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f p e o p l e i n t h e De p a r t -
m e n t ? "
Ve r y f e w i n d e e d [ H u m e l s i n e a n s w e r e d ]
. Th e S e n a t o r p i c k e d u p a n
o l d l i s t t h a t w a s f u r n i s h e d t o t h e 8 o t h Co n g r e s s
. Ac o u p l e o f n e w
n a m e s w e r e p r o v i d e d b y h i m
. Th o s e h a v e b e e n c a r e f u l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d ,
a n d a s a r e s u l t o f t h a t i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h e y h a v e b e e n c l e a r e d
. No w , i t
m i g h t b e o f i n t e r e s t . . .
t o t e l l y o u a s t o r y o f o n e o f t h o s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s
b e c a u s e h e c h a r g e d - a m o n g t h e s e v a r i o u s l i s t s o f n a m e s h e g a v e o n e
p a r t i c u l a r n a m e . W e l o o k e d i n t o t h i s c a s e
. Th e F B Ih a d a v e r y c a r e f u l
i n v e s t i g a t i o n
. Th e y f o u n d n o t h i n g w r o n g w i t h t h e m a n b u t t h e y d i d
f i n d s o m e t h i n g w r o n g w i t h h i s d a d
. Th e y f o u n d t h a t h i s d a d w h e n a
y o u n g m a n h a d b e e n a c c u s e d o f d r u n k e n d r i v i n g a n d t h e d r u n k e n
d r i v i n g h a d o c c u r r e d o n a b i c y c l e
. No w , i s t h a t t h e t y p e o f m a n t h a t
y o u w a n t u s t o g e t r i d o f i n t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t ?
Th e c o n s e n s u s o f t h e r e p o r t e r s p r e s e n t a n d o f t h e n a t i o n a l t e l e -
v i s i o n a u d i e n c e w a s , p r e s u m a b l y , No , t h a t ' s
n o t
t h e t y p e o f m a n
w e w a n t y o u t o g e t r i d o f
. " M o s t o f t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s y o u a r e
t a l k i n g a b o u t , a t l e a s t t h o s e w h i c h g r e w o u t o f S e n a t o r M c Ca r t h y ' s
c h a r g e s b e g i n n i n g i n F e b r u a r y , 1 9 5 0 , " a s k e d a n o t h e r r e p o r t e r ,
" h a v e o c c u r r e d w h i l e y o u h a v e b e e n i n c h a r g e o f t h e s e c u r i t y w o r k
o f t h e De p a r t m e n t , h a v e n ' t t h e y ? " H u m e l s i n e
:
W e l l , m o s t o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s g r o w i n g o u t o f S e n a t o r M c Ca r t h y ' s
c h a r g e s o c c u r r e d b e f o r e Ie v e n g o t i n t h i s b u s i n e s s b e c a u s e h e h a s t a k e n
2 1 4

M CCARTH Y AND H IS
ENEM IES
o l d n a m e s t h a t h a v e b e e n g o n e o v e r a n d d r e d g i n g [ s i c ] t h e m u p a n e w .
Im e a n , h e i s r i d i n g p i g g y - b a c k o n t h e 8 o t h Co n g r e s s c o m m i t t e e t h a t
m a d e t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n a n d
c l e a r e d t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t . [ It a l i c s
a d d e d . ]
W h e n a s k e d w h e t h e r a n y o n e i n t h e De p a r t m e n t w a s f u r n i s h i n g
M c Ca r t h y w i t h m a t e r i a l , H u m e l s i n e w e n t o u t o f h i s w a y t o i s s u e
a w a r n i n g t o a l l S t a t e De p a r t m e n t p e r s o n n e l : " Id o n ' t k n o w . . .
[ b u t ] i f Ic a t c h a n y o n e t h a t i s f e e d i n g h i m i n f o r m a t i o n , Ia m a f r a i d
t h e y w o n ' t b e i n t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t a n y l o n g e r . "
On M a r c h z 5 , 1 9 5 2 , a f e w m o n t h s a f t e r t h i s b r o a d c a s t , t h e p r i n -
c i p a l s i n t h e c o n t r o v e r s y , e x c l u d i n g o n l y M r . Ac h e s o n , m e t f a c e t o
f a c e
. As u b c o m m i t t e e o f t h e S e n a t e Co m m i t t e e o n Ap p r o p r i a t i o n s
h a d t a k e n u p t h e q u e s t i o n o f l o y a l t y a n d s e c u r i t y i n t h e S t a t e De -
p a r t m e n t
. H u m e l s i n e a n d S n o w a n d v a r i o u s o f t h e i r a s s o c i a t e s h a d
a p p e a r e d t o r e p r e s e n t t h e De p a r t m e n t . Th e Co m m i t t e e , c o m p o s e d
o f S e n a t o r s M c K e l l a r , El l e n d e r , H i l l , K i l g o r e , M c Cl e l l a n , B r i d g e s ,
S a l t o n s t a l l , F e r g u s o n a n d M c Ca r t h y , w a s h e a d e d b y S e n a t o r M c -
Ca r r a n .
Th e Co m m i t t e e ' s h e a r i n g s o n l o y a l t y a n d s e c u r i t y i n t h e S t a t e
De p a r t m e n t r u n s t o s e v e r a l h u n d r e d p a g e s a n d , e v e n i n c l u d i n g t h e
e x p a r t e h e a r i n g s o f t h e Ty d i n g s Co m m i t t e e h e l d s o m e t w o y e a r s
e a r l i e r , t h e y c o n s t i t u t e t h e m o s t e x h a u s t i v e i n q u i r y i n t o S t a t e De -
p a r t m e n t s e c u r i t y p r a c t i c e s t h a t a n y Co m m i t t e e o f Co n g r e s s h a s
e v e r c o n d u c t e d . W e s h a l l , t h e r e f o r e , e x a m i n e t h e m h e r e a t s o m e
l e n g t h .
Th e i n t e r r o g a t o r s d i d n o t n e g l e c t t h e e a r l y p h a s e s o f t h e S t a t e
De p a r t m e n t ' s s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m . W h a t , a s k e d S e n a t o r M c Ca r t h y ,
h a d b e c o m e o f t h e e m p l o y e e s w h o m S e c r e t a r y B y r n e s , i n h i s 1 9 4 6
l e t t e r t o Co n g r e s s m a n S a b a t h , h a d d e s c r i b e d a s u n f i t f o r c o n -
t i n u e d e m p l o y m e n t w i t h t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t b e c a u s e t h e i r l o y -
a l t y w a s q u e s t i o n a b l e ? H u m e l s i n e d i d n o t h a v e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a t
h a n d , a n d h a d t o s e t h i s r e s e a r c h e r s t o d i g o u t t h e f a c t s
. H e l a t e r
s u m m a r i z e d t h e f i n d i n g s a s f o l l o w s :
In v e s t i g a t i o n s b y t h e s c r e e n i n g c o m m i t t e e [ u n d e r B y r n e s ] , i n c l u d -
i n g t h o s e s p o t c h e c k e d a n d t h o s e r e v i e w e d a f t e r f u l l i n v e s t i g a t i o n , r e -
s u l t e d i n 3 4 1 d i s a p p r o v a l s . Of t h e s e
3 4 z
c a s e s , 4 6, a s s t a t e d a b o v e , a f t e r
r e c e i v i n g f u l l c l e a r a n c e , a r e s t i l l e m p l o y e d b y t h e De p a r t m e n t
. Of t h e
r e m a i n i n g 2 9 5 c a s e s t w o w e r e d i s c h a r g e d u n d e r t h e M c Ca r r a n r i d e r .
CONF RONTATION

2 1 5
Th e r e m a i n i n g 2 9 3 p e r s o n s w e r e r e m o v e d t h r o u g h v a r i o u s t y p e s o f
p e r s o n n e l a c t i o n
. ' [ It a l i c s h e r e a n d t h r o u g h o u t t h i s c h a p t e r a r e a d d e d . ]
Th i s m a k e s e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g r e a d i n g i f w e g o b a c k t w o y e a r s
a n d e x a m i n e a S t a t e De p a r t m e n t m e m o r a n d u m t o t h e Ty d i n g s
Co m m i t t e e . Th e m e m o r a n d u m s u m m a r i z e d t h e f a t e o f t h e B y r n e s '
b o a r d f i n d i n g s a s f o l l o w s :
In v e s t i g a t i o n s b y t h e s c r e e n i n g c o m m i t t e e , i n c l u d i n g t h o s e s p o t
c h e c k e d a n d t h o s e r e v i e w e d a f t e r f u l l e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , r e s u l t e d i n 3 4 1 .
" d i s a p p r o v a l s . " Of t h e s e 3 4 1 c a s e s , 5 8 , a f t e r r e c e i v i n g f u l l c l e a r a n c e ,
a r e s t i l l e m p l o y e d b y t h e d e p a r t m e n t . Of t h e r e m a i n i n g
2 8 3 c a s e s t w o
w e r e d i s c h a r g e d u n d e r t h e M c Ca r r a n r i d e r , r e f e r r e d t o h e r e a f t e r . Th e
r e m a i n i n g 2 8 1 p e r s o n s w e r e r e m o v e d t h r o u g h v a r i o u s t y p e s o f p e r s o n -
n e l a c t i o n . 2
Af t e r t w o y e a r s o f d e n o u n c i n g M c Ca r t h y , a n d t o u t i n g t h e e f f i -
c i e n c y o f i t s s e c u r i t y d i v i s i o n , t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t , i n o t h e r w o r d s ,
g a v e t h e S e n a t e Co m m i t t e e a p a r a g r a p h f r o m a n o l d m e m o r a n -
d u m , f r e s h e n e d u p a b i t w i t h s o m e n e w a r i t h m e t i c - a n d e v e n
f a i l e d t o n o t i c e t h a t i t s m a n i c u r e d f i g u r e s p r o v e d h o w t r u l y i t s s e -
c u r i t y p r o g r a m h a d b e e n d e f e c t i v e . Co n s i d e r w h a t t h e t w o p a r a -
g r a p h s , t a k e n t o g e t h e r , s a y : In 1 9 5 0 t h e De p a r t m e n t a s s u r e s t h e
Ty d i n g s Co m m i t t e e a n d t h e Am e r i c a n p e o p l e t h a t t h e e n t i r e
B y r n e s l i s t h a s b e e n t h o r o u g h l y i n v e s t i g a t e d ;t h a t t h e s e c u r i t y
r i s k s h a v e b e e n w e e d e d o u t ;a n d t h a t o f t h e p e r s o n s i n q u e s t i o n
o n l y 5 8 r e m a i n - c o m p l e t e l y t r u s t w o r t h y e m p l o y e e s w h o h a v e r e -
c e i v e d " f u l l c l e a r a n c e . " Tw o y e a r s l a t e r i t t e l l s a n o t h e r S e n a t e
c o m m i t t e e t h a t t h e e n t i r e B y r n e s l i s t h a s b e e n t h o r o u g h l y i n v e s t i -
g a t e d ;t h a t t h e s e c u r i t y r i s k s h a v e b e e n w e e d e d o u t ;a n d t h a t o f
t h e p e r s o n s i n q u e s t i o n o n l y 4 6r e m a i n - c o m p l e t e l y t r u s t w o r t h y
e m p l o y e e s w h o h a v e r e c e i v e d " f u l l c l e a r a n c e . " At t h e v e r y o u t s e t
o f h i s c a m p a i g n a g a i n s t t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t , M c Ca r t h y h a d
a s k e d f o r a f u l l r e p o r t o n t h e B y r n e s l i s t . No t h i n g t o w o r r y a b o u t
t h e r e , t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t h a d e x p l i c i t l y a n s w e r e d : On l y 5 8 o f
t h e m a r e s t i l l a r o u n d a n d t h e y a r e a l l r i g h t , t a k e o u r w o r d f o r i t .
B u t t h e De p a r t m e n t w a s a p p a r e n t l y p r o m p t e d t o g o b a c k a n d t a k e
a s e c o n d l o o k ;a n d t w e l v e o f t h e 5 8 d i d n o t s u r v i v e t h a t s e c o n d
l o o k . Ne e d l e s s t o s a y , t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t d i d n o t a c k n o w l e d g e
i t s a d m i t t e d t w e l v e d e l i n q u e n c i e s ;i t d i d n o t e v e n b r i n g i n a n e w
p h r a s e m a k e r t o p l e a d i t s c a s e
.
Th e Co m m i t t e e a s k e d : H a d t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t i n t h e e n t i r e
h i s t o r y o f t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s l o y a l t y p r o g r a m e v e r f o u n d a g a i n s t , a n d
2 1 6

M CCARTH Y AND H IS
ENEM IES
s e p a r a t e d , a n y o n e a s a l o y a l t y r i s k ? An s w e r
: No . * H o w e v e r , f o r
t h e f i r s t t i m e i n i t s h i s t o r y , t h e L o y a l t y S e c u r i t y B o a r d h a d g o n e
s o f a r a s t o r u l e t h a t s o m e b o d y - t h r e e e m p l o y e e s , t o b e e x a c t - w a s
a l o y a l t y r i s k . B u t t h e t h r e e w e r e n o t o u t y e t
: t h e a d v e r s e d e c i s i o n s
w e r e b e i n g a p p e a l e d
. W h a t i s m o r e , a v e r i t a b l e p u r g e w a s i n t h e
o f f i n g . F o r b e f o r e t h e y e a r ( 1 9 5 2 ) w a s o v e r , t h e B o a r d w a s t o f i n d
t e n s e c u r i t y r i s k s ;a n d t h e p r e c e d i n g y e a r i t h a d f o u n d s i x s e c u r i t y
r i s k s . * * Th e De p a r t m e n t h a d f o u n d o n l y o n e s e c u r i t y r i s k - M c Ca r -
t h y ' s Ca s e No . 5 3 i n c i d e n t a l l y - i n 1 9 4 8 , o n e i n 1 9 4 9 , a n d t w o i n
1 9 5 0 .
S i n c e t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s b a n o n s e c u r i t y i n f o r m a t i o n d o e s n o t p r e -
c l u d e t h e f u r n i s h i n g o f s t a t i s t i c a l - a s o p p o s e d t o p e r s o n a l - d a t a ,
t h e a u t h o r s r e q u e s t e d t h e s e c u r i t y d i v i s i o n o f t h e De p a r t m e n t t o
r e l e a s e t h e d a t e s o n w h i c h t h e p e r s o n s d i s m i s s e d a s l o y a l t y o r
s e c u r i t y r i s k s b e t w e e n 1 9 4 8 a n d 1 9 5 2 h a d b e e n h i r e d . Th e i n f o r m a -
t i o n i s , t o s a y t h e l e a s t , s t a r t l i n g .
Th e o n e e m p l o y e e s e p a r a t e d i n 1 9 5 o h a d j o i n e d t h e De p a r t m e n t
i n 1 9 4 4
. Of t h e f i v e p e r s o n s s e p a r a t e d i n 1 9 5 1 , o n e h a d b e e n h i r e d
i n 1 9 3 3 , t w o i n 1 9 4 6, a n d o n e e a c h i n 1 9 4 8 a n d 1 9 4 9 . Of t h e n i n e
s e p a r a t e d i n 1 9 5 2 , o n e e a c h h a d b e e n h i r e d i n
1 9 3 5 , 1 9 4 2 1 9 4 4 ,
1 9 4 5 1
9 4 7 , 1 9 4 8 , a n d 1 9 4 9 , a n d t w o i n 1 9 4 6
. In o t h e r w o r d s : a l l
I5
w e r e e m p l o y e d b y t h e De p a r t m e n t a t t h e t i m e M c Ca r t h y b e -
g a n t o c r i t i c i z e De p a r t m e n t s e c u r i t y p r a c t i c e s !
No w w h a t a r e w e t o t h i n k o f t h i s ? Th a t t h e e m p l o y e e s i n q u e s -
t i o n j o i n e d t h e Co m m u n i s t P a r t y i n 1 9 5 1 a n d 1 9 5 2 , h a v i n g b e e n ,
u p t o t h a t m o m e n t , u n i m p e a c h a b l y p a t r i o t i c De p a r t m e n t e m p l o y -
e e s ? Th a t t h e F B Ih a d n e g l e c t e d , o v e r a p e r i o d o f y e a r s , t o t r a n s m i t
a v a i l a b l e d e r o g a t o r y e v i d e n c e t o De p a r t m e n t s e c u r i t y o f f i c i a l s ? Or ,
t h a t t h e De p a r t m e n t w a s f i n a l l y p r o m p t e d
t o a c t o n e v i d e n c e i t
h a d p o s s e s s e d a l l a l o n g ? Cl e a r l y , t h e l a s t o f t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s i s
t h e o n l y c o n v i n c i n g o n e .
On e t h i n g , a t l e a s t , i s c e r t a i n : In 1 9 5 0 , w h e n S t a t e De p a r t m e n t
o f f i c i a l s w e r e s o v o c i f e r o u s l y a s s e r t i n g t h e De p a r t m e n t ' s i n v i o l a b l e
s e c u r i t y , a t l e a s t 1 5 p e r s o n s w h o m i t w a s i t s e l f f i n a l l y t o c l a s s i f y a s
o f d o u b t f u l l o y a l t y o r r e l i a b i l i t y , w e r e s t i l l i n i t s r a n k s . It i s i m p o s -
s i b l e , d u e t o t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s b a n , t o a s c e r t a i n j u s t h o w m a n y o f
J o h n S t e w a r t S e r v i c e h a d , t o b e s u r e , r e c e n t l y b e e n f i r e d a s a l o y a l t y
r i s k
;b u t o n l y a f t e r t h e Ci v i l S e r v i c e L o y a l t y Re v i e w B o a r d h a d o v e r r u l e d t h e
De p a r t m e n t b o a r d a n d o r d e r e d h i s o u s t e r .
* * Th e r e i s n o w a y o f t e l l i n g h o w m a n y o f t h e s e l o y a l t y a n d s e c u r i t y r i s k s
w e r e a m o n g t h e t w e l v e o n t h e B y r n e s l i s t w h o , a c c o r d i n g t o H u m e l s i n e ' s
r e p o r t , h a d b e e n r e m o v e d b e t w e e n 1 9 5 0 - 5 2 .
CONF RONTATION

2 1 7
t h e s e p e r s o n s M c Ca r t h y h a d n a m e d t o t h e Ty d i n g s Co m m i t t e e .
W e d o k n o w , h o w e v e r , t h a t h e h a d n a m e d s o m e o f t h e m . *
In a n y c a s e , w h a t c l e a r l y s t a n d s o u t f r o m t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s i s t h e
s o f t n e s s o f t h e De p a r t m e n t ' s s e c u r i t y a t t i t u d e a t a t i m e w h e n i t w a s
p r e t e n d i n g t o b e h a r d . An d t h i s i s c o n f i r m e d b y w h a t w e l e a r n
f r o m o t h e r s o u r c e s .
H i r a m B i n g h a m , f o r m e r Re p u b l i c a n S e n a t o r f r o m Co n n e c t i c u t ,
r e p l a c e d S e t h Ri c h a r d s o n a s h e a d o f t h e Ci v i l S e r v i c e L o y a l t y Re -
v i e w B o a r d o n t h e 3 r d o f J a n u a r y , 1 9 5 1 . On F e b r u a r y 1 3 a n d 1 4 ,
h e c o n v e n e d t h e B o a r d t o d i s c u s s , a m o n g o t h e r t h i n g s , t h e S t a t e
De p a r t m e n t
. Th e m i n u t e s o f t h i s m e e t i n g r e a c h e d S e n a t o r M c -
Ca r t h y , w h o b r o u g h t t h e m t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e Ap p r o p r i a t i o n s
Co m m i t t e e :
" It h i n k i t i s f a i r t o s a y , " B i n g h a m o b s e r v e d , " t h a t t h e S t a t e De -
p a r t m e n t , a s y o u k n o w , h a s t h e w o r s t r e c o r d o f a n y d e p a r t m e n t i n
t h e a c t i o n o f i t s L o y a l t y B o a r d
. . . . Th e L o y a l t y B o a r d , i n a l l t h e
c a s e s t h a t h a v e b e e n c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t , h a s n o t
f o u n d a n y o n e - s h a l l Is a y , ` g u i l t y u n d e r o u r r u l e s . It i s t h e o n l y
B o a r d w h i c h h a s a c t e d t h a t w a y . "
It q u i c k l y b e c a m e c l e a r t h a t B i n g h a m w a s n o t a l o n e i n t h i s v i e w .
S a i d o n e o f h i s c o l l e a g u e s :
. . .
Id o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r p o s i t i o n a t a l l , b e c a u s e a l t h o u g h t h e i r
b o a r d h a s n o t h e l d t h e i r p e o p l e i n e l i g i b l e u n d e r t h e l o y a l t y t e s t , w h o
s h o u l d h a v e b e e n h e l d i n e l i g i b l e u n d e r t h a t t e s t , t h e y h a v e p l e n t y o f
p o w e r t o r e m o v e t h e m a s a s e c u r i t y r i s k
. W h y h a v e n ' t t h e y e x e r c i s e d i t ?
Th e y h a v e n ' t e x e r c i s e d i t , i n s p i t e o f a l l t h e s e a r c h l i g h t s t h a t h a v e b e e n
t u r n e d u p o n t h e m .
Th e f o l l o w i n g e x c h a n g e , i n i t i a t e d b y a f o u r t h m e m b e r o f t h e
B o a r d , f u r t h e r c l a r i f i e s t h e p i c t u r e :
B OARD M EM B ER. W h a t a r e y o u g o i n g t o d o w h e n t h e a t t o r n e y w h o i s
p r e s e n t i n g t h e c h a r g e s a c t s a s t h o u g h h e w e r e t h e a t t o r n e y f o r t h e i n -
c u m b e n t ? Ir e a d i o o p a g e s o f a r e c o r d w h e r e t h e t h r e e m e m b e r s o f t h e
B o a r d w e r e a c t i n g a s a t t o r n e y s f o r t h e e m p l o y e e
. . . .
Ex Ec u Ti v ES ECRETARY.
Oh , y o u ' r e t a l k i n g a b o u t t h e S t a t e De p a r t -
m e n t
. Th e y ' r e t a k i n g t h e a t t i t u d e t h a t t h e y ' r e t h e r e t o c l e a r t h e e m -
p l o y e e a n d n o t t o p r o t e c t t h e g o v e r n m e n t
. W e ' v e b e e n a r g u i n g w i t h
t h e m s i n c e t h e p r o g r a m s t a r t e d
.
ANOTH ERM EM B ER. Th a t b r i n g s u p a q u e s t i o n t h a t h a s b e e n o n m y
m i n d a l i t t l e . . . . Ih a v e b e e n d i s t u r b e d a b o u t t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t -
t h e i r r e m a r k a b l e r e c o r d o f n e v e r h a v i n g f i r e d a n y b o d y f o r l o y a l t y , a n d
S e e " AVi n d i c a t i o n . "
2 1 8

M CCARTH Y AND H IS ENEM IES


y e t w e d o n o t h i n g a b o u t i t a s f a r a s t h e B o a r d i s c o n c e r n e d . Ih a v e b e e n
t r o u b l e d a b o u t w h e t h e r o r n o t w e o w e t h e d u t y o f h a v i n g s o m e b o d y
c a l l t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e P r e s i d e n t , f o r e x a m p l e , t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e
p r o g r a m s i m p l y d o e s n o t w o r k i n t h a t De p a r t m e n t a n d l e t h i m w o r r y
a b o u t i t . It s e e m s t o m e w e a s s u m e m o r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w h e n w e s i t
b a c k ( a s w e h a v e d o n e ) f o r t h r e e y e a r s a n d k n o w t h a t t h e c o u n t r y
r e s t s i n a f a l s e s e n s e o f s e c u r i t y t h a t w e a r e l o o k i n g a f t e r t h e i r i n t e r e s t s
h e r e w h e n w e k n o w d a r n w e l l t h a t i t i s c o m p l e t e l y i n e f f e c t i v e i n o n e o f
t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t d e p a r t m e n t s o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t , a n d Iw o n d e r
w h e t h e r w e o u g h t t o s a y a n y t h i n g t o a n y b o d y a b o u t i t
.
M r . B i n g h a m r e m i n d e d h i s c o l l e a g u e s t h a t h e h a d r e c e n t l y
s p o k e n t o t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e a n d h a d s a i d t o h i m : " Yo u ' v e g o t
t o t e l l t h e L o y a l t y B o a r d m e m b e r s [ o f t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t ] t o
b e h a v e t h e m s e l v e s
. " An d M r . Ac h e s o n , h e r e p o r t e d , h a d p r o m i s e d
t o d o s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h i s .
W h e n t h e Co m m i t t e e c o n f r o n t e d H u m e l s i n e w i t h t h i s j u d g -
m e n t o f h i s d i v i s i o n ' s p e r f o r m a n c e b y m e m b e r s o f t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s
Ce n t r a l L o y a l t y B o a r d , h e a n s w e r e d i n e f f e c t : If t h e B o a r d i n d e e d
f e l t t h a t t h i n g s w e r e a l l t h a t b a d , w h y h a d i t n o t p r e - e m p t e d j u r i s -
d i c t i o n o v e r t h e a l l e g e d l o y a l t y r i s k s i n t h e De p a r t m e n t a n d - a s i t
w a s e n t i t l e d t o d o u n d e r i t s o w n r e g u l a t i o n s - o r d e r e d t h e i r o u s t e r ?
S i n c e t h e y h a d d o n e s o i n o n l y o n e c a s e ( t h a t o f J o h n S t e w a r t
S e r v i c e ) , * d i d n ' t t h i s m e a n t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n w a s n o t q u i t e a s
s e r i o u s a s i t h a d b e e n p a i n t e d b y a b u n c h o f o v e r w r o u g h t g e n t l e -
m e n ?
No t , l e t u s n o t e , a b a d a n s w e r . Th e Ci v i l S e r v i c e B o a r d d i d u n -
q u e s t i o n a b l y h a v e t h e a u t h o r i t y t o o v e r r u l e t h e De p a r t m e n t ;a n d
t h e q u e s t i o n d o e s a r i s e w h y , g i v e n t h e v e h e m e n c e w i t h w h i c h t h e
B o a r d m e m b e r s s p o k e o f t h e De p a r t m e n t , t h e y d i d n o t r e g u l a r l y
i n v o k e t h a t a u t h o r i t y . M c Ca r t h y , h o w e v e r , w a s r e a d y w i t h a n a n -
s w e r . F o r o n e t h i n g , u n t i l 1. 9 5 1 t h e B o a r d h a d b e e n r e s t r i c t e d b y
P r e s i d e n t i a l d e c r e e t o t h e " r e a s o n a b l e g r o u n d s " s t a n d a r d
;f o r a n -
o t h e r , i t h a d a m i l l s t o n e a r o u n d i t s n e c k
: S e t h Ri c h a r d s o n w a s i t s
c h a i r m a n . '
Ne i t h e r o f M c Ca r t h y ' s p o i n t s h e r e w a s b y a n y m e a n s i d l e
. Th e
r e a s o n a b l e g r o u n d s f o r m u l a s a d d l e d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f t h e p r o -
g r a m w i t h d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m s , a s w e h a v e s u b m i t t e d i n a n e a r l i e r
c h a p t e r . F o r t h a t r e a s o n , a f e w d a y s a f t e r h e s u c c e e d e d Ri c h a r d s o n
* S i x m o n t h s l a t e r , t h e L o y a l t y Re v i e w B o a r d a c t e d a g a i n , r e v e r s i n g t h e
S t a t e De p a r t m e n t o n J o h n Ca r t e r Vi n c e n t . In
1 7
i n s t a n c e s , t h e B o a r d e x p r e s s e d
d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e De p a r t m e n t ' s h a n d l i n g o f a c a s e , a n d o r d e r e d t h e m
r e o p e n e d
( H e a r i n g s , p . 4 62 ) .
CONF RONTATION

2 1 9
a s B o a r d Ch a i r m a n , B i n g h a m r e q u e s t e d P r e s i d e n t Tr u m a n t o r e -
v i s e t h e s t a n d a r d . As f o r t h e a t t i t u d e o f Ri c h a r d s o n ' s B o a r d - a n d
M c Ca r t h y ' s p o i n t a b o u t Ri c h a r d s o n h i m s e l f - i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o q u a r -
r e l w i t h . Du r i n g h i s t e n u r e , t h e Re v i e w B o a r d o v e r r u l e d a g r e a t
m a n y d e c i s i o n s o f s u b o r d i n a t e b o a r d s . * B u t t h e f a c t t h a t t h e d e c i -
s i o n s r e v e r s e d w e r e d e c i s i o n s a g a i n s t e m p l o y e e s s u g g e s t s p r e -
c i s e l y t h e k i n d o f b i a s M c Ca r t h y a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e Re v i e w B o a r d
w h i l e Ri c h a r d s o n w a s Ch a i r m a n . ( Th e r e w e r e o f c o u r s e n o r e v e r -
s a l s o f S t a t e De p a r t m e n t d e c i s i o n s , b e c a u s e n o n e o f t h e m w e n t
a g a i n s t e m p l o y e e s w h i l e Ri c h a r d s o n w a s c h a i r m a n . )
" Ir e g r e t t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f a n y g o v e r n m e n t e m p l o y e e , " Ri c h -
a r d s o n o n c e t o l d a n e d i t o r o f t h e
Ne w Re p u b l i c ( F e b r u a r y 4 ,
1 9 5 2 ) .
" It ' s a t e r r i b l e p e n a l t y t o b e c a l l e d d i s l o y a l . Th a t ' s w h y t h e
B o a r d h a s l e a n e d b a c k i n t h e w a y i t h a s
. " Th u s i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g
t o f i n d h i m w r i t i n g t o M r s
. Ro o s e v e l t , o n De c e m b e r 6, 1 9 4 9 , t h a t
t h e " p e n a l t y o f a d i s l o y a l t y d i s c h a r g e i s s o d i s a s t r o u s t h a t t h e
L o y a l t y Re v i e w B o a r d h a s i n c l i n e d t o w a r d r e s o l v i n g a l l d o u b t s
i n f a v o r o f a n i n v o l v e d e m p l o y e e . "
Or c o n s i d e r h o w t h e Di r e c t o r
o f P e r s o n n e l o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g Of f i c e t e s t i f i e d i n Au g u s t
1 9 5 3 ( b e f o r e t h e M c Ca r t h y Co m m i t t e e ) a s t o w h y Ed w a r d Ro t h s -
c h i l d , a G P Oe m p l o y e e , h a d b e e n c l e a r e d d e s p i t e a b u n d a n t e v i -
d e n c e t h a t h e w a s a m e m b e r o f
t h e Co m m u n i s t P a r t y :
Tr y CH AIRM AN. L e t m e a s k y o u t h i s : t h e o t h e r d a y [ i n e x e c u t i v e
s e s s i o n ] a s Ir e c a l l y o u s a i d y o u r b o a r d o p e r a t e d u n d e r t h e g e n e r a l
r u l e - It h i n k t h a t i s a n e x a c t q u o t e - t h e g e n e r a l r u l e t h a t m e r e m e m -
b e r s h i p i n t h e Co m m u n i s t P a r t y w a s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o b a r a w o r k e r u n -
d e r y o u r l o y a l t y p r o g r a m . Is t h a t t h e g e n e r a l r u l e u n d e r w h i c h y o u
o p e r a t e ?
M R. H r n s L EY. Th a t i s t r u e . Iw e n t f u r t h e r , s i r , i f Im a y t a k e a n o t h e r
m o m e n t , a n d t o l d y o u t h a t S e t h Ri c h a r d s o n g a v e u s t h e p h i l o s o p h y b e -
h i n d t h a t . H e g a v e u s a l o n g - w i n d e d s t o r y a b o u t t h e f a c t t h a t s o m e t i m e
a g o h e w a n t e d t o b e c o m e a m e m b e r o f t h e IOOF [ Od d F e l l o w s ] a n d
h e h a d n o k n o w l e d g e o f t h e c h a r t e r a n d b y l a w s , a n d h e w a n t e d t o b e a
m e m b e r o f t h e IOOF n o t b e c a u s e o f i t s c h a r t e r a n d b y l a w s , b u t b e -
c a u s e i t h a s a n i c e l i b r a r y o f b o o k s h e w a n t e d t o r e a d
. H e s a i d [ t h e r e -
f o r e t h a t ] i t w a s t h e p u r p o s e
o f t h e m e m b e r s h i p [ i . e . , i n t h e Co m m u n i s t
P a r t y ] , w h y y o u b e l o n g e d , t h a t w a s i m p o r t a n t
. Th a t w a s h i s e x p l a n a -
t i o n . H e w a s o u r g u i d e . ' [ It a l i c s a d d e d . ]
* S e e Th e F e d e r a l L o y a l t y - S e c u r i t y P r o g r a m , b y
El e a n o r B o n t e c o u ( Co r -
n e l l , 1 9 5 3 ) ,
p . 5 7
. No t o r i o u s a m o n g t h e e m p l o y e e s s o r e s c u e d w a s W i l l i a m
Re m i n g t o n , w h o m t h e B o a r d e x o n e r a t e d i n
1 9 4 9 ,
r e v e r s i n g a n a g e n c y d e t e r -
m i n a t i o n .
2 2 0

M CCARTH Y
AND H IS ENEM IES
S e t h Ri c h a r d s o n w a s p e r h a p s a l w a y s a l i t t l e t e r r i f i e d w i t h h i s
a u t h o r i t y . " Yo u k n o w , " h e o n c e s a i d , " t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t i s t h e
f i r s t d e p a r t m e n t i n t h e g o v e r n m e n t
. W h e n Tr u m a n w a l k e d u p t o
Co n g r e s s t h e o t h e r d a y Ac h e s o n w a s t h e r e n e x t t o
h i m . . . . W e l l ,
Ia l w a y s f e l t t h a t t h e y f e l t c h a g r i n e d t h a t a n y b o d y e l s e - e s p e c i a l l y
j u s t a b o a r d i n t h e Ci v i l S e r v i c e Co m m i s s i o n - s h o u l d h a v e t h e p o w -
e r t o c h e c k u p o n S t a t e . Th e y a l w a y s s e e m e d t o s a y : ` Yo u l e t u s r u n
t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t
. ' " 5
No w o n d e r t h a t S e n a t o r M c Ca r r a n ' s J u d i c i a r y Co m m i t t e e d e -
c i d e d t o s i t o n Ri c h a r d s o n ' s s u g g e s t e d a p p o i n t m e n t a s c h a i r m a n o f
t h e S u b v e r s i v e Ac t i v i t i e s Co n t r o l B o a r d s e t u p u n d e r t h e M c Ca r r a n
Ac t , a n d t h u s e a s e d h i m a l o n g t o w a r d r e t i r e m e n t f r o m p u b l i c l i f e
.
Th e r e i s , h o w e v e r , a f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e Ce n t r a l B o a r d ' s
r e c o r d
: i t n e v e r h a d j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r s e c u r i t y ( a s d i s t i n c t f r o m
l o y a l t y ) r i s k s
. Th u s , i t c o u l d l e g i t i m a t e l y i n t e r e s t i t s e l f o n l y i n t h e
m o r e b l a t a n t c a s e s
;a n d t h e s e , o f c o u r s e , i t h a d t o r e v i e w u n d e r t h e
" r e a s o n a b l e
g r o u n d s " s t a n d a r d . Ri c h a r d s o n r e m i n d e d M r s
. Ro o s e -
v e l t o f t h i s i n t h e l e t t e r m e n t i o n e d a b o v e :
"
.
. . a s y o u m a y b e
a w a r e , t h e L o y a l t y Re v i e w B o a r d w a s n o t c l o t h e d w i t h a n y p o w e r
w h a t e v e r i n r e l a t i o n t o s e c u r i t y m a t t e r s . Ou r o w n h a i r s h i r t , i s t h e
q u e s t i o n o f l o y a l t y
. . . . " H i r a m B i n g h a m u n d e r s t o o d t h i s
. In a n s w e r
t o t h e q u e s t i o n , " W h y i s n ' t y o u r B o a r d e m p o w e r e d t o c o n s i d e r t h e
s e c u r i t y r i s k ? " B i n g h a m a n s w e r e d , 6
" B e c a u s e t h e P r e s i d e n t , i n t h e
l a s t p a r a g r a p h o f Ex e c u t i v e Or d e r 9 8 3 5 , s a y s , ` Yo u w i l l h a v e n o t h -
i n g t o d o w i t h s e c u r i t y c a s e s . ' . . . "
" W o u l d n ' t i t b e b e t t e r i f [ y o u r B o a r d d i d b o t h ] . .
. ? "
" It w o u l d b e m u c h b e t t e r , i n m y o p i n i o n . . . . "
In s u m , t h e n , i t a p p e a r s t h a t B i n g h a m ' s Ce n t r a l B o a r d , t o t h e
e x t e n t i t w a s n o t e n g a g e d i n t h r o w i n g s t o n e s f r o m a g l a s s h o u s e ,
w a s c r i t i c i z i n g t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t ' s p r a c t i c e s i n t h e
s e c u r i t y r i s k
f i e l d i n w h i c h ( a s H u m e l s i n e w e l l k n e w ) i t w a s p o w e r l e s s t o
i n t e r v e n e
. B u t i t a p p e a r s f u r t h e r t h a t t h e B o a r d , e v e n w i t h B i n g -
h a m a s c h a i r m a n , a n d w i t h t h e r e v i s e d s t a n d a r d , a n d d e s p i t e i t s
a v o w e d a l a r m o v e r De p a r t m e n t l o y a l t y p r a c t i c e s , s i m p l y l e t
t h i n g s s l i d e - e x c e p t , o f c o u r s e , i n t h e c a s e s o f S e r v i c e a n d Vi n c e n t
.
Th a t t h e B o a r d d i d n o t m o v e t o o u s t e i t h e r Ed w a r d Ro t h s c h i l d o r
H a l d o r e H a n s o n i s e v i d e n c e o f i t s l e t h a r g y
. B i n g h a m , w h o a f t e r
a l l w a s a Tr u m a n a p p o i n t e e , s e e m s t o h a v e b e e n a l i t t l e o n t h e
d i f f i d e n t s i d e w h e n i t c a m e r i g h t d o w n t o o v e r r u l i n g ( a s d i s t i n c t
f r o m s i m p l y c r i t i c i z i n g ) t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t - a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s
n o e v i d e n c e o f t h e k i n d o f o b s e q u i o u s n e s s o n h i s p a r t t h a t h i s p r e d -
e c e s s o r s h o w e d t o w a r d t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t
.
CONF RONTATION

2 2 1
Th e Ci v i l S e r v i c e B o a r d d i d n o t ( f o r a n u m b e r o f r e a s o n s w e
h a v e m e n t i o n e d , a n d p e r h a p s f o r o t h e r s w e k n o w n o t o f ) f o r c e
t h e De p a r t m e n t t o a c t o n a l l i t s l o y a l t y r i s k s
. S t i l l a n d a l l , t h e r e i s
n o g e t t i n g a r o u n d t h e f a c t t h a t v a r i o u s B o a r d m e m b e r s , i n c l u d i n g
i t s c h a i r m a n a n d i t s e x e c u t i v e s e c r e t a r y , f e l t s t r o n g l y i n
1 9 5 1 t h a t
t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t w a s j e o p a r d i z i n g Am e r i c a ' s s e c u r i t y
. An d
i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t , i n t h e t w o y e a r s f o l l o w i n g t h e B o a r d ' s i n d i c t -
m e n t o f t h e De p a r t m e n t , t h e De p a r t m e n t ' s s e c u r i t y d i v i s i o n d i d
r o o t o u t f o u r t i m e s a s m a n y s e c u r i t y a n d l o y a l t y r i s k s a s d u r i n g t h e
p r e c e d i n g t h r e e y e a r s
.
J u s t a s l i g h t i s t h r o w n o n t h e Ce n t r a l B o a r d ' s a c t i v i t i e s b y w h a t
w e k n o w o f S e t h Ri c h a r d s o n , s o l i g h t i s t h r o w n o n t h e De p a r t -
m e n t ' s L o y a l t y S e c u r i t y B o a r d b y w h a t w e k n o w o f t h e m i n d a n d
m a n n e r s o f i t s c h a i r m a n , G e n e r a l Co n r a d S n o w
. H i s s t a t e m e n t s
b e f o r e t h e Ap p r o p r i a t i o n s Co m m i t t e e , a n d e l s e w h e r e , s h o w h i m
u p a s a w e l l - m e a n i n g b l u n d e r e r , w i t h o u t a n y c l e a r i d e a o f w h a t
t h e w h o l e t h i n g w a s a b o u t .
Ta k e h i s s p e e c h a t G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n U n i v e r s i t y o n Oc t o b e r
2 5 , 1 9 5 1 , a n d h i s s p e e c h b e f o r e t h e H a r v a r d Cl u b o n No v e m b e r
1 7 ,
1 9 5 1 . H i s t o p i c o n b o t h o c c a s i o n s w a s " L o y a l t y i n t h e S t a t e De p a r t -
m e n t " ;h i s c l e a r p u r p o s e , o n b o t h , w a s t o d i s c r e d i t M c Ca r t h y a n d
t o r e a s s u r e h i s l i s t e n e r s a b o u t t h e De p a r t m e n t ' s s e c u r i t y d i v i s i o n
. *
W h e n S n o w c a m e b e f o r e t h e Co m m i t t e e , S e n a t o r M c Ca r r a n
w a n t e d t o k n o w w h e t h e r t h e s p e e c h e s p u t f o r w a r d m e r e l y t h e p e r -
s o n a l v i e w s o f G e n e r a l S n o w , o r w h e t h e r t h e y a r g u e d t h e o f f i c i a l
" l i n e " o f t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t . " Yo u w e r e s p e a k i n g a s a n i n d i v i d -
u a l i n t h i s c a s e ? " M c Ca r r a n a s k e d . " Ye s , s i r , " S n o w a n s w e r e d .
B u t i t d e v e l o p e d t h a t t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t h a d p r i n t e d a n d
c i r c u l a r i z e d t h e s p e e c h e s
;t h a t G e n e r a l S n o w ' s s t a f f h a d h e l p e d
h i m p r e p a r e t h e m
;a n d t h a t t h e De p a r t m e n t h a d c l e a r e d b o t h
m a n u s c r i p t s f o r d e l i v e r y
. S n o w h a d s a i d i n o n e o f t h e s p e e c h e s , " I
c a n s p e a k o n l y f o r t h e De p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e a n d f o r t h e p e r i o d
1 9 4 7
t o t h e p r e s e n t . " An d t h i s s e e m e d t o t h e Co m m i t t e e d i f f i c u l t
t o s q u a r e w i t h w h a t S n o w w a s n o w t e l l i n g i t . " Yo u s t a t e t h e r e , "
s a i d M c Ca r r a n , " t h a t y o u a r e s p e a k i n g f o r t h e De p a r t m e n t o f
S t a t e . " " Ye s
;t h a t i s r i g h t . " B u t h a d h e n o t j u s t t e s t i f i e d , a s k e d
S e n a t o r F e r g u s o n , t h a t h e s p o k e o n l y a s a p r i v a t e c i t i z e n ? S n o w
:
" Th a t i s r i g h t
. " S e n a t o r M c Ca r r a n a n d h i s c o l l e a g u e s b e c a m e
c u r i o s e r a n d c u r i o s e r :
* Th e t w o a d d r e s s e s a r e p r i n t e d i n f u l l i n
S e n a t e Ap p r o p r i a t i o n s , H e a r i n g s
f o r ( f i s c a l )
. 1 9 5 3 , p p .
5 0 2 - 1 2 .
Th e p a g e r e f e r e n c e s t h a t o c c u r b e l o w i n t h e
b o d y o f t h e t e x t r e f e r t o t h e s e h e a r i n g s .
2 2 2

M CCARTH YANDH IS ENEM IES


S ENATORM CCARRAN. Yo u s a y t h a t y o u a r e s p e a k i n g a s a n o f f i c i a l o f
t h e De p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e ?
M R. S NOW . I
d o n o t w a n t t o g e t c o n f u s e d w i t h t h e i s s u e t h a t y o u h a v e
j u s t r a i s e d .
S ENATORM CCARRAN.
Yo u t o l d y o u r p e o p l e -
M R. S NOW . I w a s s a y i n g t h a t Iw a s s p e a k i n g
a b o u t t h e De p a r t m e n t
o f S t a t e .
S ENATORF ERG U S ON. Th a t i s n o t w h a t y o u s a y . Yo u s a y : " Is p e a k o n l y
f o r
t h e De p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e f o r t h e p e r i o d 1 9 4 7 t o t h e p r e s e n t . "
M R
. S NOW . Th a t i s r i g h t . Th e w o r d " f o r " i n b o t h c a s e s h a s t h e s a m e
i m p l i c a t i o n . Iw a s n o t s p e a k i n g f o r t h e De p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e i n a n y d i f -
f e r e n t s e n s e t h a n Iw a s s p e a k i n g f o r t h e p e r i o d 1 9 4 7 t o d a t e .
S ENATORF ERG U S ON. No w , w a i t a m i n u t e . Yo u a r e a l a w y e r , a r e y o u
n o t ?
M R. S NOW . Ye s S i r .
S ENATORF ERG U S ON
. An d y o u u s e w o r d s i n t h e i r p r o p e r m e a n i n g ?
M R. S NOW
. I t r y t o .
S ENATORF ERG U S ON
. No w , w h e n y o u s a y t h a t y o u s p e a k f o r t h e De -
p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e , y o u a r e t h e
s p o k e s m a n f o r t h e De p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e ?
M R. S NOW . I
m i g h t b e s o c o n s t r u e d . W h a t Im e a n t t h e r e w a s - w h e n
Is a i d t h a t Is p e a k f o r
t h e De p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e , i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c a s e
Im e a n t t h a t Iw a s s p e a k i n g a b o u t
t h e De p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e a n d a b o u t
t h e p e r i o d 1 9 4 7 t o t h e p r e s e n t
. Th e w o r d " f o r " t h e r e -
S ENATORF ERG U S ON. I a m n o t s p e a k i n g a b o u t t h e p e r i o d . Yo u s a y
t h a t y o u a r e s p e a k i n g f o r t h e De p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e f o r a c e r t a i n p e r i o d
o f t i m e
.
M R. S NOW . I a m s p e a k i n g i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e De p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e o n l y .
S ENATORF ERG U S ON. Th a t i s n o t w h a t y o u s a i d .
M R
. S NOW . I s a i d " f o r , " b u t w h a t Im e a n t w a s " w i t h r e l a t i o n t o . "
S ENATORM c CARRAN. An d t h i s s p e e c h w a s e v i d e n t l y c e n s o r e d , p a s s e d
u p o n , a n d a p p r o v e d b e f o r e y o u g a v e i t ?
M R. S NOW . I
t h i n k i t w a s ;y e s s i r . [ p p
. 4 7 7 - 7 8 . ]
An d s o o n - u n t i l t h e Co m m i t t e e c o n c l u d e d t h a t S n o w h a d i n -
d e e d b e e n s p e a k i n g a s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e De p a r t m e n t ;a n d
t h i s , o f c o u r s e , g a v e t h e s p e e c h a d d e d s i g n i f i c a n c e .
S n o w ' s t w o a d d r e s s e s d i f f e r e d o n l y s l i g h t l y
. In h i s f i r s t s p e e c h ,
S n o w h a d s a i d :
S i n c e De c e m b e r 1 7 , 1 9 4 7 , w h e n t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s l o y a l t y p r o g r a m w a s
i m p l e m e n t e d . . .
t h e L o y a l t y S e c u r i t y B o a r d o f t h e De p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e
h a s h a d b e f o r e i t o v e r
5 0 0 c a s e s o f S t a t e De p a r t m e n t e m p l o y e e s w h o
h a v e b e e n i n v e s t i g a t e d f o r l o y a l t y b y t h e F e d e r a l B u r e a u o f In v e s t i g a -
t i o n - t h e F B I- a n d n o t o n e c a s e h a s b e e n f o u n d o f a p r e s e n t Co m -
m u n i s t w o r k i n g i n t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t
. Ov e r t h a t p e r i o d e i g h t e m -
p l o y e e s h a v e b e e n h e l d t o b e s e c u r i t y r i s k s . . .
. Ic a n n o t d i s c u s s i n d i -
v i d u a l c a s e s . [ p . 5 0 2 . ]
CONF RONTATION

2 2 3
In s h o r t , G e n e r a l S n o w r e v e a l e d o n Oc t o b e r
2 5 , 1 9 5 1 ,
t h a t i n a
p e r i o d o f t h r e e a n d o n e - h a l f y e a r s , t h e L o y a l t y S e c u r i t y B o a r d h a d
f o u n d n o l o y a l t y r i s k s a n d e i g h t
s e c u r i t y r i s k s .
In h i s s e c o n d a d d r e s s ( No v e m b e r
1 1 , 1 9 5 1 ) ,
h e d e a l t r a t h e r d i f -
f e r e n t l y w i t h t h i s a s p e c t o f h i s B o a r d ' s r e c o r d
:
Du r i n g t h e w h o l e p e r i o d - J u n e
1 9 4 7
t o t h e p r e s e n t , t h e B o a r d o f
w h i c h Ia m Ch a i r m a n h a s a d j u d i c a t e d 5 9 4 c a s e s
;a n d h a s f o u n d a d -
v e r s e l y o n b o t h l o y a l t y a n d s e c u r i t y g r o u n d s i n n u m e r o u s c a s e s - Ic a n -
n o t g i v e s t a t i s t i c s . [ p . 5 0 8 . ]
No w i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , G e n e r a l S n o w
c o u l d h a v e g i v e n s t a t i s t i c s ,
j u s t a s h e h a d d o n e t h r e e w e e k s e a r l i e r
: P r e s i d e n t Tr u m a n ' s b a n
d o e s n o t e x t e n d t o s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n
. W h a t i s m o r e , f a r f r o m
f i n d i n g a d v e r s e l y o n " b o t h " l o y a l t y a n d s e c u r i t y g r o u n d s i n " n u -
m e r o u s c a s e s , " t h e B o a r d h a d y e t t o m a k e i t s
f i r s t a d v e r s e l o y a l t y
d e t e r m i n a t i o n !It w a s t w o m o n t h s
a f t e r t h i s s p e e c h w a s d e l i v e r e d
( o n J a n u a r y 2 4 , 1 9 5 2 )
t h a t a l o y a l t y r i s k w a s u n c o v e r e d b y t h e
L o y a l t y S e c u r i t y B o a r d .
B u t h o w s h o u l d o n e a c c o u n t f o r S n o w ' s r a d i c a l c h a n g e i n e m -
p h a s i s ? In t h e f i r s t s p e e c h , h e t e l l s h i s a u d i e n c e ( c i t i n g s t a t i s t i c s )
t h a t s e c u r i t y r i s k s i n t h e De p a r t m e n t h a v e b e e n f e w a n d f a r b e -
t w e e n . In t h e s e c o n d , h e t e l l s h i s a u d i e n c e ( w i t h h o l d i n g s t a t i s t i c s )
t h a t t h e a d v e r s e f i n d i n g s o f h i s B o a r d h a v e b e e n " n u m e r o u s
. " H a d
S n o w d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e p u b l i c r e a c t i o n t o h i s f i r s t s p e e c h w a s
d i f f e r e n t f r o m w h a t h e h a d a n t i c i p a t e d ? Th a t , f a r f r o m i n s p i r i n g
c o n f i d e n c e b y c i t i n g t h e s m a l l
n u m b e r o f a d v e r s e d e t e r m i n a t i o n s
t h e B o a r d h a d m a d e , t h e s p e e c h c a u s e d w i d e s p r e a d d i s m a y t o a
p u b l i c c o n v e r s a n t w i t h t h e s u c c e s s o f Co m m u n i s t p e n e t r a t i o n o f
t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t ? W h e r e u p o n , i n h i s s e c o n d e f f o r t , h e a b a n -
d o n e d t h i s l i n e i n f a v o r o f s o m e t h i n g l e s s a c c u r a t e b u t b i g g e r
s o u n d i n g ? Th e S e n a t o r s , r e g r e t t a b l y , d i d n o t s p o t t h e a n o m a l y
;a n d
G e n e r a l S n o w w a s n o t q u e s t i o n e d a b o u t i t . H e n c e i t i s p o s s i b l e
o n l y t o g u e s s w h a t c a u s e d h i m t o s w i n g a r o u n d s o a b r u p t l y .
L e t u s c o n s i d e r a n o t h e r a s p e c t o f t h e t w o s p e e c h e s . G e n e r a l
S n o w h a d m a d e i t c l e a r i n b o t h o f t h e m t h a t h e w a s s p e a k i n g o f
t h e p e r i o d s i n c e
1 9 4 7 , i
. e
. t h e p e r i o d d u r i n g w h i c h h e h a d b e e n
h e a d o f t h e De p a r t m e n t ' s L o y a l t y S e c u r i t y B o a r d
. Th i s , a m o n g
o t h e r t h i n g s , p e r m i t t e d h i m t o e x p l o i t t h e H i s s c a s e ( u n d e r h i m ,
s a i d S n o w , H i s s w o u l d n o t " h a v e b e e n e m p l o y e d b y [ t h e De p a r t -
m e n t ] . . .
f o r a d a y a f t e r [ h i s ] . . . a c t s w e r e d i s c o v e r e d " ) , a n d y e t
g i v e i t a w i d e b e r t h .
2 2 4

M CCARTH YANDH IS ENEM IES


Is h o u l d l i k e t o l i m i t t h e f i e l d o f i n q u i r y t o t h e l i m i t s o f m y o w n
c o m p e t e n c y . . . . Ia m s u r e t h a t y o u w o u l d m u c h p r e f e r t h a t Is p e a k
o f m a t t e r s w i t h i n m y o w n k n o w l e d g e , r a t h e r t h a n s p e c u l a t e o n w h a t
m a y o r m a y n o t h a v e o c c u r r e d i n t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t d u r i n g t h e h e c -
t i c d a y s o f w a r , u n d e r H u l l , S t e t t i n i u s , a n d B y r n e s , a n d u n d e r s e c u r i t y
p r o g r a m s p r e v i o u s t o t h a t s e t u p b y S e c r e t a r y M a r s h a l l i n J u n e ,
1 9 4 7 -
. . . Im e n t i o n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l y b e c a u s e e v e r y t i m e Id i s c u s s t h e p r o -
g r a m w h i c h Ih a v e h e l p e d a d m i n i s t e r f o r o v e r 4 y e a r s , s o m e o n e w a n t s
t o a r g u e t h e c a s e o f Al g e r H i s s , a n d Ik n o w n o m o r e a b o u t t h e H i s s c a s e
t h a n a n y o n e e l s e w h o h a s r e a d t h e n e w s p a p e r s
. . . . [ p . 5 0 8 . ]
H i s s w a s a b a d c u s t o m e r , a l l r i g h t , b u t , G e n e r a l S n o w c o n c l u d e d ,
" M y p o i n t i s t h a t o n e s w a l l o w d o e s n o t m a k e a s u m m e r , n o r d o e s
t h i s H i s s c a s e m a k e o u t a n i n f i l t r a t i o n o f t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t b y
Co m m u n i s t s
. " Th e Co m m i t t e e , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t a c i t l y a d o p t e d
a n o t h e r v i e w , n a m e l y , t h a t t h e c h a i r m a n o f t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t ' s
L o y a l t y S e c u r i t y B o a r d o u g h t
t o k n o w m o r e a b o u t t h e H i s s c a s e
t h a n w h a t h a d a p p e a r e d i n t h e n e w s p a p e r s , a n d c e r t a i n l y o u g h t
t o k n o w a s m u c h a b o u t i t a s w a s p u b l i c k n o w l e d g e
. Ye t t h e m o r e
S n o w t a l k e d , t h e m o r e e v i d e n t i t b e c a m e t h a t h e k n e w l e s s a b o u t
i t t h a n a w e l l - i n f o r m e d n e w s p a p e r r e a d e r
. W h e n r e m i n d e d t h a t
r e p o r t s a b o u t H i s s h a d b e e n s u b m i t t e d t o t h e De p a r t m e n t b y B e r l e
a n d b y t h e F B Iy e a r s b e f o r e 1 9 4 7 , h i s r e c o l l e c t i o n s w e r e v a g u e
.
W h e n p r e s s e d a b o u t H i s s ' c o n t a c t s i n t h e De p a r t m e n t a n d a b o u t
t h e p e r s o n s w i t h w h o m H i s s h a d m o s t c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d , h e h a d
n o t h i n g t o c o n t r i b u t e . An d t h e d e m o n s t r a t e d f a c t t h a t t h e r e h a d
i n f a c t b e e n a s e c o n d , a t h i r d , a n d e v e n a t e n t h s w a l l o w t o h e l p
m a k e t h e s u m m e r h a d n e v e r c r o s s e d h i s m i n d
.
An d i f n o n e o f t h i s w a s c a l c u l a t e d t o q u e l l t h e Co m m i t t e e ' s
a n x i e t i e s , S n o w ' s e s t i m a t e o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e H i s s c a s e ( a s
e x p r e s s e d i n t h e f i r s t o f h i s t w o s p e e c h e s ) c o u l d o n l y m u l t i p l y
t h e m :
" Th e H i s s c a s e a n d t h e c a s e o f J u d i t h Co p l o n i n t h e De p a r t -
m e n t o f J u s t i c e , "
h e h a d s a i d , " h a v e d o n e m o r e h a r m i n t e r m s o f
p u b l i c c o n f i d e n c e t h a n a n y h a r m H i s s o r Co p l o n e v e r d i d i n t h e
d e l i v e r y o f c l a s s i f i e d p a p e r s . "
To j u d g e f r o m a f e w s c a t t e r e d c o m m e n t s , p u b l i c r e a c t i o n t o
t h i s s t a t e m e n t w a s n o t f a v o r a b l e
. Th e Ne w Yo r k J o u r n a l Am e r i c a n ,
f o r e x a m p l e , i n a n e d i t o r i a l e n t i t l e d , " S t r a n g e Th e o r y "
7 c o m -
m e n t e d , " If t h i s [ s t a t e m e n t b y S n o w ] m e a n s a n y t h i n g a t a l l , i t
m e a n s t h a t t h e m a n c h a r g e d w i t h d e t e r m i n i n g t h e l o y a l t y o f m e n
a n d w o m e n e m p l o y e d a t t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l o f F e d e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l -
i t y b e l i e v e s t h e r e i s m o r e h a r m i n c a t c h i n g c r i m i n a l s t h a n i n l e t t i n g
CONF RONTATION

2 2 5
t h e m h a v e c o m p l e t e f r e e d o m t o d o t h e i r u t m o s t t o d e s t r o y t h e
c o u n t r y . "
No t h i n g o f t h e s o r t , s a i d S n o w i n h i s s e c o n d s p e e c h ;n o t h i n g h e
h a d e v e r s a i d c o u l d b e c o n s t r u e d t o m e a n t h a t h e " d e p l o r e d t h e
p r o s e c u t i o n o f H i s s . No t h i n g c o u l d b e f u r t h e r f r o m t h e f a c t . W h i l e
Id e p l o r e t h e u n d o u b t e d h a r m , i n t e r m s o f l o s s o f p u b l i c c o n f i d e n c e
i n t h e De p a r t m e n t t h a t t h e p u b l i c d i s c l o s u r e o f H i s s ' a c t s h a s
d o n e , Ia m , o f c o u r s e , e n t i r e l y i n f a v o r o f p u b l i c p r o s e c u t i o n o f
i l l e g a l a c t i o n s . "" ( p
. 5 0 8 . )
Th e Co m m i t t e e d u l y n o t e d G e n e r a l S n o w ' s a m p l i f i c a t i o n s i n h i s
s e c o n d s p e e c h , b u t i t p e r s i s t e d i n a s k i n g t h e G e n e r a l t h e s t i l l u n a n -
s w e r e d q u e s t i o n , W h i c h h a s d o n e m o r e
h a r m - H i s s ' e x p o s u r e o r
H i s s ' t r e a c h e r y ? S e n a t o r M c Ca r t h y t o o k t h e l e a d
:
S ENATORM CCARTH Y
.
Yo u s a y : " Th e H i s s c a s e a n d t h e c a s e o f J u d i t h
Co p l o n i n t h e De p a r t m e n t o f j u s t i c e h a s d o n e m o r e h a r m i n t e r m s o f
p u b l i c c o n f i d e n c e t h a n a n y h a r m H i s s o r Co p l o n e v e r d i d i n t h e d e -
l i v e r y o f c l a s s i f i e d p a p e r s . " No w , b y t h a t y o u m e a n t h a t t h e e x p o s u r e
o f t h e m d i d t h e d a m a g e r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r s p y i n g ?
M R. S NOW . No , s i r . W h a t Im e a n t b y t h a t w a s t h a t t h e d a m a g e
w h i c h t h e y d i d b y b e i n g t r a i t o r s t o t h e i r c o u n t r y h a d d o n e m o r e
d a m a g e .
M c Ca r t h y , b a f f l e d , t u r n e d t o a c o l l e a g u e
: " S e n a t o r F e r g u s o n ,
It h i n k w e h a v e d i f f e r e n t s p e e c h e s
. " S e n a t o r F e r g u s o n : " I k n o w
w e h a v e d i f f e r e n t s p e e c h e s
. " G e n e r a l S n o w t r i e d a g a i n : " W h a t I
m e a n t t o e m p h a s i z e w a s t h e i n f i n i t e d a m a g e t h a t b o t h H i s s a n d
Co p l o n d i d b y b e i n g t r a i t o r s t o t h e i r c o u n t r y
. Th a t i s w h a t Ii n -
t e n d e d t o e m p h a s i z e , t h a t t h e i n f i n i t e d a m a g e w h i c h t h e y d i d b y
b e c o m i n g t r a i t o r s t o t h e i r c o u n t r y w a s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e d a m a g e
t h e y c o u l d h a v e d o n e b y b e i n g s p i e s . "
S e n a t o r M c Ca r r a n t o o k a d e e p b r e a t h
: " . . . Is i t n o t c l e a r t h a t
w h a t y o u w e r e s a y i n g t h e r e w a s t h a t t h e h a r m w a s d o n e b y t h e
p u b l i c
e x p o s u r e o f H i s s a n d Co p l o n r a t h e r t h a n b y t h e i r
s p y i n g
a c t i v i t i e s ? "
S n o w f i n a l l y c a p i t u l a t e d :
M R. S NOW . I
m u s t a d m i t , S e n a t o r , t h a t t h e l a n g u a g e t h a t Iu s e d m u s t
h a v e b e e n s u b j e c t t o m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n b e c a u s e i t w a s m i s i n t e r p r e t e d
n o t o n l y b y y o u , s i r , b u t b y t h e p u b l i c .
G e n e r a l S n o w n o w s e r v e s t h e Ei s e n h o w e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a s t h e S t a t e
De p a r t m e n t ' s l e g a l a d v i s e r t o t h e B u r e a u o f F a r Ea s t e r n Af f a i r s
.
2 2 6

M CCARTH Y AND H IS ENEM IES


S ENATORM CCARRAN. An y o n e w o u l d c o n s t r u e i t t h e w a y t h e S e n a t o r
i s c o n s t r u i n g i t
. A6- y e a r - o l d c h i l d w o u l d . . . .
M R. S NOW . . . . I
h a d n o s u c h i n t e n t i o n .
S ENATOR M c CARTH Y
. W o u l d y o u n o t t h i n k t h a t t h e n o r m a l p e r s o n
w o u l d s o i n t e r p r e t t h a t ?
M R. S NOW . I
a m a f r a i d t h a t t h e n o r m a l p e r s o n m i g h t , b e c a u s e i t h a s
b e e n s o i n t e r p r e t e d . * [ p p
. 4 7 5
- 7 6 . ]
Th e Co m m i t t e e c a m e f i n a l l y t o t h e a n i m a d v e r s i o n s a b o u t M c -
Ca r t h y a n d M c Ca r t h y i s m i n S n o w ' s s p e e c h e s , b u t s o o n f o u n d i t s e l f
d e a l i n g w i t h m a t t e r s o f f a r g r e a t e r m o m e n t t h a n w h e t h e r o r n o t
M c Ca r t h y h a d b e e n m a l i g n e d .
G e n e r a l S n o w h a d d e f i n e d M c Ca r t h y i s m i n h i s s p e e c h a s f o l l o w s
:
Th i s i s M c Ca r t h y i s m - t h e m a k i n g o f b a s e l e s s a c c u s a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g
t h e l o y a l t y a n d i n t e g r i t y o f p u b l i c o f f i c e r s a n d e m p l o y e e s , b y a p e r s o n
w h o i s h i m s e l f i n h i g h p u b l i c o f f i c e a n d w h o u s e s h i s o f f i c e a t o n e a n d
t h e s a m e t i m e a s a p l a t f o r m f r o m w h i c h t o s h o u t h i s a c c u s a t i o n s a n d a s
a s c r e e n t o p r o t e c t h i m s e l f f r o m a c t i o n f o r d e f a m a t i o n . Th e p u r p o s e o f
i t a l l i s , o f c o u r s e , n o t t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , b u t p o l i t i c a l a d v a n c e m e n t i n
a p e r i o d o f p u b l i c t e n s i o n a n d e x c i t e m e n t . [ p . 5 0 3 . ]
Ag a i n s t w h o m , M c Ca r t h y w a n t e d t o k n o w , h a d h e m a d e b a s e -
l e s s a c c u s a t i o n s ? S n o w r a n f o r c o v e r . " Ic a n n o t , " h e r e p l i e d , " d i s -
c u s s i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s u n d e r t h e p r o h i b i t i o n Il a b o r u n d e r
.
[ s i c ] "
M c Ca r t h y t h e n t r i e d a d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h . Yo u h a v e j u s t f i n i s h e d
t e l l i n g u s i n a n o t h e r c o n n e c t i o n , M c Ca r t h y r e m i n d e d S n o w , t h a t
5 4 d i s l o y a l c a s e s w e r e a l l o w e d t o r e s i g n u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n a n d
t h a t t h r e e o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s h a d b e e n f o u n d t o b e d i s l o y a l o r a r e i n
t h e p r o c e s s o f a p p e a l
. Th a t , b y a s t r a n g e c o i n c i d e n c e m a k e s 5 7 ,
d o e s i t n o t ? ( p
. 4 8 1 ) Co u l d i t b e , M c Ca r t h y w o n d e r e d o u t l o u d ,
t h a t t h e s e 5 7 t a l l y w i t h t h e 5 7 o n t h e o r i g i n a l M c Ca r t h y l i s t ? No ,
a n s w e r e d G e n e r a l S n o w , t h e y w e r e " n o t t h e s a m e i n d i v i d u a l s " -
w h i c h m i g h t h a v e b e e n w e l l e n o u g h h a d h e n o t , a f e w s e c o n d s
l a t e r , c o n f e s s e d t h a t h e d i d n o t k n o w t h e n a m e s o f t h e 5 4 w h o h a d
r e s i g n e d !
M c Ca r t h y p o u n c e d :
. . . M r . Ch a i r m a n , Iw a n t t o c a l l t h e c h a i r m a n ' s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e
s t a t e m e n t s m a d e b y t h i s w i t n e s s
. [ Tu r n i n g t o S n o w ] It h i n k y o u s h o u l d
In f i n a l l y a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h a t a " n o r m a l " p e r s o n w o u l d s o i n t e r p r e t
t h e s e r e m a r k s , G e n e r a l S n o w h a d c o m e a l o n g w a y
. F o r h e h a d w r i t t e n t o
t h e e d i t o r s o f t h e j o u r n a l Am e r i c a n ( p p
. 5 4 0 - 4 1 ) a f e w m o n t h s b e f o r e : " J u s t
h o w y o u c o u l d t o r t u r e m y s p e e c h
. . . t o m e a n [ w h a t y o u w r o t e a b o u t i t ] . . .
i s a m y s t e r y t o m e . "
CONF RONTATION

2 2 7
b e s w o r n n o w . . . . H e m a d e t h e s t a t e m e n t a m i n u t e a g o t h a t t h e 5 7
i n d i v i d u a l s w h o s e n a m e s [ Ig a v e ] . . . w e r e n o t t h e s a m e a s t h e 5 7 w h o
e i t h e r r e s i g n e d o r w e r e f o u n d d i s l o y a l . No w h e s a y s , " Id o n o t k n o w
w h o t h e
5 4
w e r e . Id o n o t k n o w w h a t t h e i r n a m e s w e r e
. "
No w , e i t h e r y o u a r e l y i n g M r . S n o w , w h e n y o u s a i d t h a t y o u d i d n o t
k n o w w h o t h e y w e r e , o r y o u w e r e l y i n g t o u s w h e n y o u s a i d t h e y w e r e
d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e 5 7 t h a t M c Ca r t h y n a m e s
. Yo u c a n n o t b e t e l l i n g t h e
t r u t h a t b o t h t i m e s . Do e s n o t t h a t f o l l o w a s t h e n i g h t f o l l o w s t h e d a y ?
M R. S NOW . No , i t d o e s n o t .
M R. H U M EL S INE
. [ i n t e r r u p t i n g ] Id o n o t t h i n k t h a t i s f a i r . . . G e n e r a l
S n o w . . .
w o u l d n o t k n o w a n y t h i n g a b o u t t h e 5 4 w h o r e s i g n e d w h e n
u n d e r l o y a l t y i n v e s t i g a t i o n
. H e w o u l d n o t h a v e a n y t h i n g t o d o w i t h t h e
5 4 r e s i g n a t i o n s .
S ENATORM c CARTH Y. Th e n h e m u s t n o t l i e t o u s i f h e d o e s n o t k n o w
a n y t h i n g a b o u t i t . M r . S n o w j u s t g o t t h r o u g h s a y i n g t h a t t h e 5 4 w e r e
n o t t h e 5 4 o n M c Ca r t h y ' s l i s t , a n d n o w y o u s a y y o u c o u l d n o t p o s s i b l y
k n o w . *
IP - 4 8 1
. ]
M c Ca r t h y r e v e r t e d t o h i s r e q u e s t t h a t S n o w m e n t i o n a n i n s t a n c e
f r o m M c Ca r t h y ' s Ty d i n g s l i s t i n s u p p o r t o f h i s c h a r g e t h a t M c Ca r -
t h y h a d m a d e " b a s e l e s s a c c u s a t i o n s
. "
"
An d t h i s t i m e S n o w a t -
t e m p t e d m o m e n t a r i l y t o m e e t t h e c h a l l e n g e
:
M R
. S NOW . As Ir e c a l l , H a l d o r e H a n s o n w a s o n t h a t l i s t
.
S ENATORM CCARRAN. W h a t i s t h a t ?
M R. S NOW . As Ir e c a l l -
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. M r . S n o w s a y s t h a t H a l d o r e H a n s o n i s o n t h a t
l i s t
.
B u t i m m e d i a t e l y , G e n e r a l S n o w r e t r e a t e d .
M R. S NOW . No w , Ic a n n o t a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s a b o u t h i s c a s e
.
S ENATORM CCARTH Y
. Yo u r p o s i t i o n i s t h a t Im a d e b a s e l e s s a c c u s a -
t i o n s a g a i n s t H a l d o r e H a n s o n
. H a v e y o u e v e r r e a d w h a t Is a i d a b o u t
H a l d o r e H a n s o n ?
M R. S NOW . It h i n k s o , y e s
.
S ENATORM CCARTH Y
. Yo u h a v e ?
M R. S NOW . Ye s .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y
. [ W h a t Ih a v e s a i d a b o u t H a n s o n ] . . . i s h e r e i n
t h e d o c u m e n t
. W i l l y o u t a k e t h a t a n d t e l l m e w h a t i n i t a r e b a s e l e s s
a c c u s a t i o n s ?
* As i t h a p p e n s , G e n e r a l S n o w w a s c o r r e c t i n h i s g u e s s t h a t t h e t w o s e t s
o f n a m e s w e r e n o t i d e n t i c a l
: w e h a v e s e e n i n t h e s e c t i o n o n t h e Ty d i n g s
S a g a , t h a t o n l y 1 8
o f M c Ca r t h y ' s c a s e s h a d b e e n s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e De -
p a r t m e n t a s o f J a n u a r y , 1 9 5 3
.
2 2 8

M CCARTH Y AND
H IS ENEM IES
M R. S NOW
. Ic a n n o t d o t h a t , Is a y , w i t h o u t d i s c u s s i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l
c a s e . . .
. Ic a n n o t d i s c u s s t h e c a s e o f H a l d o r e H a n s o n , M r
. Ch a i r m a n ,
w i t h o u t g o i n g i n t o t h e s u b s t a n c e
.
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. . .
. L e t u s f o r g e t y o u r f i l e s a n d l o o k a t t h i s a n d
s e e i f y o u c a n t e l l u s a n y t h i n g w h i c h i s b a s e l e s s o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e i n -
f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c
. In o t h e r w o r d s , t a k e t h e p u b l i c i n -
f o r m a t i o n .
M R. S NOW
. Id o n ' t k n o w o f a n y i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c
.
Id o k n o w s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e f i l e s a n d Ic a n n o t d i s c u s s t h e m
.
S ENATORM CCARRAN
. No w , t h e r e i s a p e c u l i a r s i t u a t i o n h e r e , M r
.
S n o w
. Yo u c a n g o o u t t o t h e p u b l i c a n d a c c u s e a m e m b e r o f t h e Co n -
g r e s s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f f a l s i f y i n g a n d y o u c a n c a l l h i m b y a c e r -
t a i n n a m e . Yo u c a l l i t M c Ca r t h y i s m
. No w , y o u c o m e b e f o r e t h i s c o m -
m i t t e e , a n d w h e n y o u a r e c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n y o u g o u n d e r
c o v e r t h a t y o u c a n n o t d i s c l o s e .
M R. S NOW
. . . . Th e o n l y i n f o r m a t i o n Ih a v e a b o u t H a n s o n i s f r o m
m y f i l e s
. Id o n o t k n o w h i m p e r s o n a l l y
. Th e o n l y i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t I
h a v e a b o u t h i m i s f r o m m y f i l e s .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y
. . . . M r . H u m e l s i n e , m a y Ia s k y o u a q u e s t i o n ?
. . . L e t m e a s k y o u t h i s
: In v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t M r . S n o w h a s p u b l i c l y
s t a t e d a n d n o w b e f o r e t h e c o m m i t t e e s t a t e s , t h a t t h e c h a r g e s . . . a g a i n s t
H a n s o n a r e b a s e l e s s , d o y o u t h i n k h e i s c o m p e t e n t t o a c t a s c h a i r m a n o f
t h e b o a r d t o h e a r t h e e v i d e n c e a n d d e c i d e w h e t h e r t h e c h a r g e s a r e
v a l i d , o r n o t , k e e p i n g i n m i n d t h a t t h e H a n s o n c a s e i s n o w p e n d i n g b e -
f o r e M r
. S n o w ' s B o a r d ? Do y o u t h i n k t h a t h e i s d i s q u a l i f i e d f r o m h i s
j o b a s t h e r e s u l t o f t h i s ?
M R. H IM EL S INE
. Ob v i o u s l y , It h i n k t h e g e n e r a l i s c o m p e t e n t t o p e r -
f o r m t h e d u t y o r Iw o u l d n o t h a v e h i m i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r a s s i g n m e n t .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y
. W i l l y o u t r y t o a n s w e r m y q u e s t i o n ?
M R. H u M EL S INE
. W h a t i s y o u r q u e s t i o n a g a i n ?
S ENATORM CCARTH Y
. L e t u s n a r r o w i t d o w n . W h e n M r . S n o w s a y s
t h a t t h e c h a r g e s a g a i n s t M r
. H a n s o n a r e b a s e l e s s , w a s M r . H a n s o n ' s
c a s e p e n d i n g b e f o r e t h e B o a r d a s o f [ t h a t d a y ? ]
. . . d o e s n o t t h a t d i s -
q u a l i f y h i m f r o m s i t t i n g o n t h a t c a s e a n d d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t
t h e c h a r g e s a c t u a l l y a r e b a s e l e s s ?
S ENATORM CCARRAN. In o t h e r w o r d s , i t i s a p r e c o n c e i v e d c o n c l u s i o n
.
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. Ye s .
S ENATORM CCARRAN. Is t h a t w h a t y o u m e a n ?
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. Ye s . Yo u a r e a l a w y e r , M r
. H u m e l s i n e . W o u l d
y o u n o t s a y t h a t M r . S n o w i s d i s q u a l i f i e d ?
M R. H u M EL S INE. Iw o u l d h a v e t o l o o k i n t o t h a t q u e s t i o n f u r t h e r a n d
g i v e y o u a n a n s w e r t o i t , S e n a t o r
. Ic a n n o t o n t h a t b a s i s g i v e y o u a n
a n s w e r .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. Yo u m e a n t h a t w h e n a m a n p u b l i c l y s t a t e s t h a t
t h e c h a r g e s a g a i n s t M r . Xo f Co m m u n i s t a f f i l i a t i o n s o r c o n n e c t i o n s -
w h e n h e p u b l i c l y s t a t e s t h a t t h o s e c h a r g e s a r e b a s e l e s s , a n d c o n d e m n s
t h e m a n w h o m a k e s t h e m , c a n y o u n o w t e l l u s w h e t h e r o r n o t y o u
CONF RONTATION

2 2 9
t h i n k t h a t d i s q u a l i f i e s h i m f r o m s i t t i n g o n a b o a r d a n d m a k i n g a d e c i -
s i o n o n i t ?
M R. H U M EL S INE
. Iw o u l d h a v e t o d e c i d e w h e t h e r h e i s r i g h t , o r n o t ;
w h e t h e r t h e c h a r g e s a r e b a s e l e s s .
S ENATORM CCAR= . Al l r i g h t .
S ENATORM CCARRAN. [ S n o w ] i s t h e o n e w h o d e c i d e s
. H e h a s a l r e a d y
d e c i d e d t h a t t h e y a r e b a s e l e s s . Do y o u n o t s e e t h e p o s i t i o n y o u a r e i n ? *
[ P P -
4 8 2 - 8 7 . ]
S n o w b e g a n r e a d i n g a s u m m a r y o f M c Ca r t h y ' s i n d i c t m e n t o f
H a n s o n , a n d a g r e e d t h a t t h e f i r s t f e w c h a r g e s w e r e n o t , i n p o i n t o f
f a c t , " b a s e l e s s . " B u t a f t e r a f e w m i n u t e s ' r e a d i n g , S n o w o b j e c t e d :
" Th e n e x t a l l e g a t i o n i s t h a t h e [ H a n s o n ] s p e n t s e v e r a l y e a r s i n t h e
Co m m u n i s t a r m y i n Ch i n a w r i t i n g s t o r i e s a n d t a k i n g p i c t u r e s
w h i c h t h e Co m m u n i s t s h e l p e d h i m s m u g g l e o u t o f t h e c o u n t r y
. I
c a n n o t c o m m e n t o n t h a t w i t h o u t a r e f e r e n c e t o t h e f i l e s
. "
S ENATORM CCARTH Y
. Yo u c a n a n s w e r t h a t b y r e f e r r i n g t o h i s [ H a n -
s o n ' s o w n ] b o o k [ H u m a n e En d e a v o r ] ,
M r . S n o w . H a v e y o u r e a d h i s
b o o k ?
M R. S NOW . Ih a v e n o t r e a d h i s b o o k
.
S ENATORM c CARTH Y
. An d y o u a r e p a s s i n g o n h i m ?
M R
. S NOW . Th a t i s r i g h t . [ p . 4 9 1 . ]
At l a s t S n o w f i n i s h e d h i s p e r u s a l o f t h e p r e c i s o f M c Ca r t h y ' s
s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t H a n s o n
. H e w a s n o t a b l e t o s i n g l e o u t o n e c h a r g e
t h a t w a s c l e a r l y " b a s e l e s s . "
Th e Co m m i t t e e m o v e d t o o t h e r m a t t e r s
. W h a t , i t a s k e d , a b o u t
S n o w ' s s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h e r e w e r e n o k n o w n Co m m u n i s t s i n t h e
S t a t e De p a r t m e n t ? H a d t h e r e b e e n , G e n e r a l S n o w a n s w e r e d , " t h e
F B Iw o u l d h a v e f o u n d o u t a b o u t i t
. Th e F B Ir e p o r t s w o u l d c o m e
t o m y b o a r d , a n d m y b o a r d w o u l d p a s s o n i t
. "
" J u s t a m i n u t e , " M c Ca r t h y s a i d
: " L e t u s n o t s t a r t g i v i n g t h e F B I
t h e b l a m e f o r t h i s
. Yo u h a v e t h e P o s n i a k c a s e , M r
. S n o w , b e f o r e
y o u
. Th a t c a s e w a s c a l l e d t o y o u r a t t e n t i o n b y m e
. Is e n t y o u c o p i e s
o f 1 2
F B Ir e p o r t s
. Ip u t t h o s e r e p o r t s i n t h e Co n g r e s s i o n a l Re c o r d
.
Yo u r b o a r d c l e a r e d h i m b y a s p l i t d e c i s i o n o f 3
[ 2 ? ] t o 1 . . . .
Yo u
It w a s s u b s e q u e n t l y r e v e a l e d ( p
. 4 , 9 3 )
t h a t t h e H a n s o n c a s e n o l o n g e r
l a y , a s o f t h i s m o m e n t , b e f o r e t h e L o y a l t y S e c u r i t y B o a r d
. B u t t h e q u e s t i o n
r e m a i n s w h e t h e r i t w a s H a n s o n ' s c a s e t h a t
S n o w
h a d i n m i n d o n Oc t o b e r 2 5 ,
1 9 5 1
w h e n h e m a d e h i s f i r s t s p e e c h o n M c Ca r t h y i s m a n d w h e t h e r t h e c a s e
l a y b e f o r e t h e B o a r d a t t h a t t i m e
.
2 3 0

M CCARTH YANDH IS ENEM IES


h a d b e f o r e y o u e v i d e n c e t h a t h e h a d b e e n a m e m b e r o f t h e Co m -
m u n i s t P a r t y
. Yo u h a v e h a d b e f o r e y o u e v i d e n c e t h a t h e w a s l i v i n g
i n t h e s a m e a p a r t m e n t w i t h a m a n k n o w n t o t h e F B Ia s a n i n d i -
v i d u a l w h o w a s r e c r u i t i n g Co m m u n i s t s p i e s . Th a t i s i n y o u r f i l e ,
M r . S n o w . No w w h y d o y o u t e l l u s t h a t n o e v i d e n c e h a s e v e r c o m e
b e f o r e y o u r b o a r d t h a t y o u h a d a Co m m u n i s t i n t h e S t a t e De p a r t -
m e n t ? . . . No w , y o u j u s t g o t t h r o u g h s a y i n g t h a t i f t h e r e w a s a
Co m m u n i s t , t h e F B Iw o u l d n o t i f y y o u . "
M R. S NOW . Th a t i s r i g h t .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. No w , w h a t m o r e n o t i f i c a t i o n c a n t h e F B Ig i v e
y o u t h a n w h a t t h e y g a v e y o u i n t h e P o s n i a k c a s e w h e r e t h e r e w e r e i z
i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , Ic a n n o t s a y .
M R. S NOW . Ic a n n o t d i s c u s s t h e P o s n i a k c a s e , Ia m s o r r y . Iw o u l d
h a v e t o h a v e t h e f i l e b e f o r e m e .
S ENATORM CCARRAN. Yo u a l w a y s c o m e t o a d e a d e n d . Yo u c o m e t o
t h e p o i n t w h e r e w e c a n n o t g o f u r t h e r .
M R. S NOW . Th a t i s r i g h t . [ p p . 4 8 9 - 9 0 . ]
Af t e r a l u n c h e o n r e c e s s , G e n e r a l S n o w r e t u r n e d . H e c a m e b a c k
w i t h a d e f i n i t e p l a n o f a c t i o n
. H e w o u l d o u t l i n e , h e t o l d t h e Co m -
m i t t e e , f i v e s t a t e m e n t s t h a t h a d b e e n m a d e o v e r t h e y e a r s b y M c -
Ca r t h y , o n t h e b a s i s o f w h i c h h e f e l t e n t i t l e d t o c a l l M c Ca r t h y , i n
e f f e c t , a l i a r . H e h a d c i t e d t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s i n h i s s e c o n d s p e e c h .
Th e f i r s t o f t h e s e , i t t u r n e d o u t , w a s S e n a t o r M c Ca r t h y ' s s t a t e -
m e n t a t W h e e l i n g o n F e b r u a r y 9 , 1 9 5 0 : " I h a v e h e r e i n m y h a n d a
l i s t o f 2 0 5 - a l i s t o f n a m e s t h a t w e r e k n o w n t o t h e S e c r e t a r y o f
S t a t e a s b e i n g m e m b e r s o f t h e Co m m u n i s t P a r t y a n d w h o n e v e r -
t h e l e s s a r e s t i l l w o r k i n g a t s h a p i n g p o l i c y i n t h e S t a t e De p a r t -
m e n t . " ( p .
4 9 4 - )
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. M r . S n o w , y o u a r e a w a r e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e
i n v e s t i g a t o r s f o r t h e G i l l e t t e - M o n r o n e y c o m m i t t e e w e n t t o W h e e l i n g ,
W e s t Vi r g i n i a , a n d c o m p l e t e l y d i s p r o v e d w h a t y o u h a v e s a i d ?
M R. S NOW . Ia m n o t a w a r e o f t h a t .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. Di d y o u n o t r e a d t h a t i n t h e p a p e r ?
M R. S NOW . No , s i r .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. . . . Yo u s a y " b a s e l e s s " ;t h a t m y s t a t e m e n t w a s
b a s e l e s s . . . . Iw o u l d l i k e t o r e a d t w o p a r a g r a p h s i n t o t h e r e c o r d f r o m
t h e s t a t e m e n t b y t h e In v e s t i g a t o r f o r t h e G i l l e t t e - M o n r o n e y c o m m i t t e e .
H e s a i d : " M y j o b i n W h e e l i n g It h o u g h t w a s t o f i n d t h e f a c t s , t o f i n d
w h e t h e r , a s S e n a t o r B e n t o n c h a r g e d , M c Ca r t h y h a d s a i d t h a t h e h a d
l i s t s o f 2 0 5 Co m m u n i s t s i n t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t , o r w h e t h e r , a s S e n a -
t o r M c Ca r t h y m a i n t a i n e d , h e h a d s a i d h e h a d a l i s t o f
5 7
i n d i v i d u a l s ,
CONF RONTATION

2 3 1
e i t h e r m e m b e r s o f o r l o y a l t o t h e Co m m u n i s t s [ s i c ]
. W h i l e i n W h e e l -
i n g , It h o r o u g h l y i n t e r v i e w e d a l a r g e n u m b e r o f w i t n e s s e s w h o w e r e i n a
p o s i t i o n t o k n o w w h a t S e n a t o r M c Ca r t h y h a d s a i d
. Ev e r y o n e o f
t h o s e w i t n e s s e s s a v e o n e s u p p l i e d i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h c a s t g r a v e d o u b t
a n d s u s p i c i o n o n S e n a t o r B e n t o n ' s s t o r y a n d s u b s t a n t i a l l y c o r r o b o r a t e d
S e n a t o r M c Ca r t h y ' s a c c o u n t o f t h e f a c t s . " [ p p . 4 8 8 ,
5 3 2
. Th e i n v e s t i g a -
t o r w a s M r . Da n B u c k l e y . S e e a b o v e , " Th e F i r s t Ch a r g e s . " ]
G e n e r a l S n o w w e n t o n t o t h e s e c o n d o f M c Ca r t h y ' s f i v e a l l e g e d l y
f a l s e s t a t e m e n t s - i . e . , a s t a t e m e n t t h a t , s a i d S n o w , M c Ca r t h y m a d e
o n t h e S e n a t e f l o o r o n F e b r u a r y 9 , 1 9 5 0 : " I h a v e i n m y h a n d 5 7
c a s e s o
f i n d i v i d u a l s w h o w o u l d a p p e a r t o b e e i t h e r c a r d - c a r r y i n g
m e m b e r s o r c e r t a i n l y l o y a l t o t h e Co m m u n i s t P a r t y , b u t w h o n e v -
e r t h e l e s s a r e s t i l l h e l p i n g t o s h a p e o u r f o r e i g n p o l i c y . "
Ac t u a l l y , M c Ca r t h y h a d m a d e n o s u c h s t a t e m e n t o n t h e S e n a t e
f l o o r o n t h e d a t e S n o w m e n t i o n e d . S n o w p r e s u m a b l y h a d i n m i n d
t h e W h e e l i n g s p e e c h ( M c Ca r t h y ' s v e r s i o n ) , w h i c h M c Ca r t h y r e -
p e a t e d o n t h e f l o o r o f t h e S e n a t e o n F e b r u a r y 2 0 , 1 9 5 0 . In a n y c a s e ,
S n o w w a s n o t f a m i l i a r e n o u g h w i t h t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e M c Ca r t h y
c o n t r o v e r s y t o n a i l t h e S e n a t o r d o w n o n h i s m o s t v u l n e r a b l e s t a t e -
m e n t , t h a t m a d e a t S a l t L a k e Ci t y o n F e b r u a r y 1 0 , 1 9 5 0 , t o t h e
e f f e c t t h a t h e k n e w o f 5 7 " c a r d - c a r r y i n g Co m m u n i s t s " i n t h e De -
p a r t m e n t
. M c Ca r t h y c h a l l e n g e d S n o w ( w h o s e a s s i s t a n t s , a t l e a s t ,
k n e w t h e i d e n t i t y o f M c Ca r t h y ' s c a s e s ) t o n a m e n a m e s b y w a y o f
s h o w i n g t h a t t h e s t a t e m e n t
( " 5 7
. . . i n d i v i d u a l s w h o w o u l d a p p e a r
t o b e e i t h e r c a r d - c a r r y i n g m e m b e r s o r c e r t a i n l y l o y a l t o t h e Co m -
m u n i s t P a r t y " ) w a s b a s e l e s s . S n o w a g a i n d e c l i n e d , o n t h e g r o u n d s
t h a t t h e r e g u l a t i o n s f o r b a d e h i m t o d i s c u s s t h e p e r s o n s c o n c e r n e d .
" Th e t h i r d s t a t e m e n t [ G e n e r a l S n o w c o n t i n u e d ] w a s m a d e o n
M a y 6, 1 9 5 0 , i n Ch i c a g o , t h a t t h e l o y a l t y f i l e s i n t h e De p a r t m e n t
w e r e ` s k e l e t o n , ' ` p u r g e d , ' a n d ` p h o n y . " ' " Th a t w a s f u r t h e r d e v e l -
o p e d o n M a y 1 5 , a t At l a n t i c Ci t y , [ S n o w c o n t i n u e d ] w h e n h e
[ M c Ca r t h y ] s a i d t h e y h a d b e e n ` r i f l e d '
;o n J u n e 9 a t M i l w a u k e e ,
w h e n h e s a i d t h e y w e r e ` r a p e d , ' ` d e n u d e d , ' a n d ` t a m p e r e d w i t h ' ;
a n d o n J u l y 1 2 , 1 9 5 0 , w h e n h e s a i d t h e y h a d b e e n ' s t r i p p e d
. " '
Th e s e a l l e g a t i o n s o f M c Ca r t h y a r e d i s c u s s e d i n s o m e d e t a i l i n
t h e Ap p e n d i x
. F o r p r e s e n t p u r p o s e s , w e c a n c o n t e n t o u r s e l v e s w i t h
e x c e r p t s f r o m t h e r e s u l t i n g g i v e - a n d - t a k e b e t w e e n M c Ca r t h y a n d
S n o w :
S ENATORM CCARTH Y.
[ Yo u s a y t h a t m y ] s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h e S t a t e
De p a r t m e n t f i l e s h a d b e e n r i f l e d i s o n e o f t h e " b a s e l e s s " a n d " u n -
2 3 2

M CCARTH YANDH IS ENEM IES


p r o v e d " c h a r g e s . Ar e y o u a w a r e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e w e r e s u b m i t t e d
t o t h e Ty d i n g s Co m m i t t e e t h e s t a t e m e n t s o f f o u r S t a t e De p a r t m e n t
e m p l o y e e s , o n e o f B u r n e y Th r e a d g i l l , w h o i s i n t h e F B I
;a n o t h e r o n e
o f P a u l S u l l i v a n , w h o i s i n t h e F o r e i g n S e r v i c e S c h o o l a t G e o r g e t o w n ,
a n d t w o o t h e r S t a t e De p a r t m e n t e m p l o y e e s ?
Th e y s t a t e t h a t t h e y p e r s o n a l l y h a d b e e n e n g a g e d o v e r a p e r i o d o f
m o n t h s i n s t r i p p i n g f r o m t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t f i l e s a n y m a t e r i a l w h i c h
w o u l d a d v e r s e l y r e f l e c t u p o n a m a n ' s l o y a l t y o r h i s m o r a l s .
Ar e y o u a w a r e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h o s e s t a t e m e n t s h a v e b e e n p u t i n t h e
r e c o r d ?
M R. S NOW . Ia m n o t a w a r e o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s t o w h i c h y o u r e f e r .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. . . . Ar e y o u a w a r e o f t h e f a c t t h a t w e h a v e
t h o s e s t a t e m e n t s ?
M R. S NOW . No , s i r .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. Yo u n e v e r h e a r d o f t h e m ?
M R. S NOW . Ne v e r h e a r d o f t h e m ;n e v e r s a w t h e m
.
S ENATORM CCARTH Y
. As c h a i r m a n o f t h e L o y a l t y B o a r d , d o y o u n o t
t h i n k y o u h a v e t h e d u t y t o c h e c k t h o s e a f f i d a v i t s ?
M R. S NOW
. F i r s t , Iw o u l d h a v e t o k n o w a b o u t t h e m t o h a v e t h e d u t y
t o c h e c k t h e m
. Ik n e w n o t h i n g a b o u t t h e m , a s Is a y .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. Yo u n e v e r h e a r d o f t h e m ?
M R. S NOW
. Ne v e r h e a r d o f t h e m .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. B e f o r e y o u m a d e t h e s p e e c h w h i c h w a s O
. K . ' d
b y t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t d i d y o u t r y t o f i n d o u t w h a t e v i d e n c e Ih a d
g i v e n t h a t t h e f i l e s w e r e r i f l e d ?
M R. S NOW . Is t i l l d o n ' t b e l i e v e t h e f i l e s w e r e r i f l e d .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. Id o n o t c a r e w h a t y o u b e l i e v e
. Ia s k e d y o u a
q u e s t i o n . B e f o r e y o u m a k e t h e s t a t e m e n t s u c h a s y o u m a d e i n t h e
s p e e c h , t h a t M c Ca r t h y w a s a l i a r b e c a u s e h e c l a i m e d t h e f i l e s w e r e
r i f l e d , d o y o u n o t t h i n k y o u h a v e a d u t y t o c h e c k a n d s e e w h a t e v i d e n c e
Ih a d p r e s e n t e d o f r i f l i n g ?
M R. S NOW
. H o w c o u l d If i n d w h a t e v i d e n c e y o u h a d , S e n a t o r ?
S ENATORM CCARTH Y
. W h a t e v i d e n c e Ih a d p u b l i c l y p r e s e n t e d t o t h e
Ty d i n g s Co m m i t t e e .
M R. S NOW
. Id i d n ' t k n o w a n y t h i n g a b o u t i t a n d d i d n ' t k n o w y o u p r e -
s e n t e d i t .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. Yo u d i d n o t a n s w e r m y q u e s t i o n
. Yo u w e n t o u t
t o Ch i c a g o a n d s a i d M c Ca r t h y i s a l i a r b e c a u s e h e s a i d t h e f i l e s w e r e
r i f l e d .
M R. S NOW
. Ye s , s i r .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. M y q u e s t i o n i s t h i s
: B e f o r e y o u c a l l m e a l i a r
o n t h a t , d o y o u n o t t h i n k y o u h a d a d u t y t o c h e c k w i t h t h e Ty d i n g s
Co m m i t t e e a n d s e e w h a t e v i d e n c e Ih a d p r e s e n t e d o f t h e r i f l i n g , a n d
c h e c k o n t h e v e r a c i t y o f t h e m e n w h o g a v e t h e s t a t e m e n t s ?
M R. S NOW . . .
. Iw a s s o c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h e f i l e s h a d n e v e r b e e n r i f l e d
t h a t Ih a d n o p r e s e n t i m e n t [ s i c ] o f a n y d u t y t o i n v e s t i g a t e w h a t t h e
b a s i s o f y o u r s p e e c h w a s
. [ p p
. 4 9 5 -
9 7 .
1
CONF RONTATION

2 3 3
G e n e r a l S n o w ' s a n s w e r s a r e e x t r a o r d i n a r y i n m o r e w a y s t h a n
o n e . Th e y r e v e a l n o t o n l y t h e w a n t o n n e s s o f S t a t e De p a r t m e n t
c r i t i c i s m o f M c Ca r t h y , b u t a l s o G e n e r a l S n o w ' s t o t a l i g n o r a n c e o f
a n i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h e Ty d i n g s i n v e s t i g a t i o n - w h i c h w a s h e l d
s e v e r a l y e a r s a f t e r h i s 1 9 4 7 p o i n t o f r e c a l l . An d t h e Ty d i n g s i n q u i r y
w a s c e r t a i n l y a s t r a t e g i c e v e n t i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e S t a t e De p a r t -
m e n t ' s s e c u r i t y d i v i s i o n .
Th e f o u r t h " l i e " S n o w h a d i n m i n d ( a n d t h e l a s t o n e w e s h a l l
d i s c u s s ) * w a s " [ M c Ca r t h y ' s c h a r g e ] m a d e o n Ap r i l 2 o , i n h i s a d -
d r e s s b e f o r e t h e Am e r i c a n S o c i e t y o f Ne w s p a p e r Ed i t o r s i n W a s h -
i n g t o n , i n w h i c h h e s a i d : ` Th e P r e s i d e n t ' s o w n S e c u r i t y B o a r d , '
w h i c h , h e s a i d , h a d l i s t e d 2 0 5 p e r s o n s a s b a d s e c u r i t y r i s k s , w a s
g o t t e n r i d o f b y S e c r e t a r y Ac h e s o n ` i n f a v o r o f a w e a k e r b o a r d . " '
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. On e o f t h e m e n o n t h a t o r i g i n a l b o a r d w a s
[ Ro b e r t ] B a n n e r m a n ;i s t h a t r i g h t ?
M R
. S NOW . Id o n ' t k n o w w h o w a s o n t h e o r i g i n a l b o a r d . It w a s b e f o r e
m y t i m e .
S ENATORM c CARTH Y. Do y o u k n o w w h e t h e r [ J . An t h o n y ] P a n u c h
w a s o n i t ?
M R. S NOW . Id o n ' t k n o w .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. Do y o u k n o w w h o g o t r i d o f B a n n e r m a n ?
M R. S NOW . Id o n ' t k n o w a n y t h i n g a b o u t t h a t e x c e p t t h e b o a r d w e n t
o u t o f e x i s t e n c e b e f o r e w e c a m e i n u n d e r S e c r e t a r y M a r s h a l l .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. B u t B a n n e r m a n a n d P a n u c h w e r e t h e m e n h a v -
i n g t o d o w i t h s e c u r i t y i n t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t . Yo u k n o w t h a t , d o
y o u n o t ?
M R. S NOW . Th a t w a s b e f o r e m y t i m e .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. Yo u a r e t a l k i n g a b o u t t h i n g s b e f o r e y o u r t i m e
.
Yo u k n o w t h o s e a r e t h e m e n w h o n a m e d t h e 2 8 4 a n d t h e y s a i d t h e y a r e
u n f i t t o s e r v e . Yo u k n o w t h a t , d o y o u n o t ?
M R. S NOW . Ye s , Ik n o w t h e y h a d p r e p a r e d a l i s t t h a t t h e y s a i d w o u l d
n o t b e e m p l o y e d c o n t i n u o u s l y [ s i c ] b y t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t
.
S ENATORM CCARTH Y
. An d y o u k n o w t h a t t h o s e m e n d i d d i s a p p e a r
f r o m t h e De p a r t m e n t b e f o r e y o u r b o a r d t o o k o v e r , d o y o u n o t ?
M R. S NOW . No ;Id o n o t k n o w t h a t .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. Yo u d o n o t k n o w w h e t h e r t h e y d i d , o r n o t ?
M R. S NOW . No
;Id o n o t k n o w t h a t .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y
. Do y o u s a y Il i e d w h e n Is a i d Ac h e s o n h a d
g o t t e n r i d o f t h e m ?
* Th e f i f t h : M c Ca r t h y , s a i d S n o w , h a d f a l s e l y c l a i m e d t h a t a r e c o m m e n d a -
t i o n b y Al g e r H i s s h a d i n " d o z e n s o f c a s e s " b e e n e n o u g h t o " c o m p l e t e l y
c l e a r " De p a r t m e n t e m p l o y e e s
. B u t S n o w c h o s e n o t t o p r e s s t h i s p o i n t - p e r -
h a p s b e c a u s e h e w a s a t a l l t i m e s a d a m a n t a b o u t h i s i g n o r a n c e o f a l l e v e n t s
p r i o r t o J u n e o f 1 9 4 7 ( b y w h i c h t i m e H i s s h a d l e f t t h e De p a r t m e n t )
.
2 3 4

M CCARTH YANDH IS ENEM IES


M R. S NOW . Ye s .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. Ac h e s o n w a s i n t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t i n 1 9 4 6,
w a s h e ?
M R
. S NOW
. Ib e l i e v e h e w a s U n d e r S e c r e t a r y
.
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. Do y o u k n o w ?
M R. S NOW . Ic a n f i n d o u t .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. Yo u m a d e t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t y o u a r e o b j e c t i n g
t o m y s t a t e m e n t t h a t Ac h e s o n h a d g o t t e n r i d o f t h e m . Do y o u k n o w
w h a t h i s j o b w a s a t t h a t t i m e ?
M R. S NOW . H e w a s t h e As s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y a t t h a t t i m e .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. Yo u k n o w t h a t B a n n e r m a n a n d P a n u c h a r e n o
l o n g e r t h e r e , d o y o u n o t ?
M R. S NOW . Id o n ' t k n o w t h a t ;n o .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. In o t h e r w o r d s , y o u r t e s t i m o n y n o w i s t h a t y o u
d o n o t k n o w w h o w a s o n t h a t b o a r d ;y o u d o n o t k n o w w h e t h e r Ac h e s o n
g o t r i d o f t h e m ;y o u d o n o t k n o w w h o f i r e d t h e m ;n e v e r t h e l e s s , y o u
s a y , M c Ca r t h y l i e d b e c a u s e M c Ca r t h y s a i d Ac h e s o n f i r e d t h e m
. Is
t h a t a c o r r e c t r e s u m e o f y o u r t e s t i m o n y ?
M R. S NOW . Ye s
. [ p p
. 4 9 9 - 5
0 0 . ]
H e r e t h e n i s a s h o r t s u m m a r y o f w h a t G e n e r a l S n o w d i d
n o t
k n o w : ( 1 )
Th e s e c u r i t y b o a r d i n q u e s t i o n d i d n o t c o m p l e t e i t s
m i s s i o n i n 3 - 9 4 6 ;i t c o n t i n u e d t o o p e r a t e u n t i l J u n e o f 1 9 4 7 , w h e n
i t g a v e w a y t o G e n e r a l S n o w ' s B o a r d - w h i c h d e v e l o p e d i n De c e m -
b e r , 1 9 4 7 , i n t o t h e p r e s e n t L o y a l t y S e c u r i t y B o a r d
. ( 2 ) B a n n e r -
m a n w a s n o t o n l y a m e m b e r o f t h a t B o a r d b u t i t s e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r ,
a n d c o n t i n u e d i n t h i s f u n c t i o n u n t i l h i s s e p a r a t i o n f r o m t h e De -
p a r t m e n t i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1
9 4 7
. ( 3 ) Ac h e s o n w a s U n d e r S e c r e t a r y -
n o t As s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y - o f S t a t e u n t i l h e r e s i g n e d i n J u n e o f 1 9 4 7
.
( 4 ) M a r s h a l l b e c a m e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e i n J a n u a r y o f 1 9 4 7 w h e n
t h e s o - c a l l e d B a n n e r m a n b o a r d h a d n o t y e t c e a s e d t o o p e r a t e
.
( 5 ) U n t i l J a n u a r y 1 9 4 7 , t h e e n t i r e s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m o f t h e S t a t e
De p a r t m e n t w a s u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f J . An t h o n y P a n u c h
.
On t h e p o i n t w h e t h e r o r n o t B a n n e r m a n a n d P a n u c h w e r e
f i r e d - t h e c r u x o f t h e m a t t e r a t i s s u e - Ca r l i s l e H u m e l s i n e i n t e r -
v e n e d t o a s s u r e t h e Co m m i t t e e t h a t n e i t h e r o f t h e m h a d b e e n d i s -
m i s s e d
. " Iw o u l d n o t w a n t t h e r e c o r d t o s h o w t h a t , b e c a u s e t h a t i s
n o t a f a c t . Ne i t h e r M r
. P a n u c h , w h o h a p p e n s t o b e a v e r y c l o s e
p e r s o n a l f r i e n d o f m i n e , n o r M r
. B a n n e r m a n , f o r w h o m Ih a v e t h e
h i g h e s t r e g a r d - h e i s w e l l a n d f a v o r a b l y k n o w n t o m e - n e i t h e r o f
t h o s e w a s f i r e d
. Th e y b o t h l e f t o f t h e i r o w n a c c o r d
. "
No w j u s t t o k e e p t h e r e c o r d s t r a i g h t , a n d t o c h e c k
e n p a s s a n t o n
H u m e l s i n e ' s k n o w l e d g e a n d /o r v e r a c i t y , w e m a y p a u s e t o n o t e
CONF RONTATION

2 3 5
w h y t h i s q u e s t i o n s e e m e d t o t h e S e n a t o r s w o r t h p o n d e r i n g ;a n d
w h e t h e r , i n f a c t , B a n n e r m a n a n d P a n u c h w e r e f i r e d . B a n n e r m a n
w a s s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t e a r l y i n 1. 9 4 7 ;a n d w h i l e
i t i s n o t k n o w n w h e t h e r h e w a s f i r e d , h i s d e p a r t u r e c e r t a i n l y c o i n -
c i d e d w i t h a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x o d u s o r r e a s s i g n m e n t o f p e o p l e w h o
e n t e r t a i n e d v i e w s l i k e h i s o w n o n t h e l o y a l t y - s e c u r i t y i s s u e ;a n d
h i s d e p a r t u r e w a s l a t e r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s u d d e n p a r a l y s i s o f t h e
De p a r t m e n t ' s s e c u r i t y d i v i s i o n . B u t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e d e p a r t u r e
o f J . An t h o n y P a n u c h , t h e f a c t s a r e a v a i l a b l e . On t h e 2 5 t h o f J u n e ,
1 9 5 3 , h e p r e s e n t e d t o t h e S e n a t e In t e r n a l S e c u r i t y Co m m i t t e e h i s
o w n a c c o u n t o f h i s s e p a r a t i o n
.
M R. CH AIRM AN. W i l l y o u t e l l u s a b o u t y o u r d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e S t a t e
De p a r t m e n t , w h e n t h a t w a s c o n s u m m a t e d ?
M R. P ANU CH . I w a s d i s m i s s e d i n s t a n t l y . Iw i l l g i v e y o u t h e d a t a o n
i t . . . . M r . B y r n e s r e s i g n e d ] i n J a n u a r y . M y s u p e r i o r , M r . Ru s s e l l , i m -
m e d i a t e l y t e n d e r e d h i s r e s i g n a t i o n , w h i c h w a s a c c e p t e d , t o c l e a r t h e
d e c k s f o r G e n e r a l M a r s h a l l , a n d It e n d e r e d m y r e s i g n a t i o n t o M r .
B y r n e s
. It o l d h i m Iw a n t e d t o g e t o u t b e c a u s e m y l i f e w o u l d n ' t b e
w o r t h a n i c k e l a f t e r t h e n e w t e a m t o o k o v e r
.
M R. CH AIRM AN. W h y d o y o u s a y t h a t , M r
. P a n u c h ?
M R. P ANU CH . I w a s a v e r y u n p o p u l a r m a n i n t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t .
M R. CH AIRM AN.
W h y ?
M R. P ANU CH . W e l l , o n a c c o u n t o f t h e i s s u e s t h a t Ih a v e t e s t i f i e d
a b o u t
.
H o w e v e r , P a n u c h w e n t o n , B y r n e s p e r s u a d e d h i m t o s t a y o n
i n t h e De p a r t m e n t t o g u i d e G e n e r a l M a r s h a l l o n t h e De p a r t m e n t a l
m a t t e r s o f w h i c h h e h a d e x p e r t k n o w l e d g e . P a n u c h c o n s e n t e d ,
t h o u g h h e w e n t t h r o u g h t h e f o r m a l i t y o f s u b m i t t i n g h i s r e s i g n a -
t i o n :
M R. P ANU CH . . . . W h e n G e n e r a l M a r s h a l l c a m e f r o m H a w a i i , S e c r e -
t a r y B y r n e s d i d t a l k t o h i m a n d Iw a s t o l d t h a t " G e n e r a l M a r s h a l l
w a n t s t o s e e y o u , t a l k t o y o u i m m e d i a t e l y , a n d h e w a n t s t o h a v e y o u
s t a y o n . "
Th e n e x t d a y Iw a s t o l d b y a n e w s p a p e r m a n t h a t Iw a s s l a t e d t o g e t
t h e f u l l t r e a t m e n t , a n d If o u n d o u t t h a t S e c r e t a r y Ac h e s o n , w h o w a s
t h e n U n d e r S e c r e t a r y Ac h e s o n , w h o w a s e x p e c t e d t o b e U n d e r S e c r e -
t a r y f o r G e o r g e M a r s h a l l d u r i n g a n i n t e r i m p e r i o d u n t i l U n d e r S e c r e -
t a r y L o v e t t c o u l d c o m e o v e r f r o m t h e W a r De p a r t m e n t , w o u l d n o t
t o l e r a t e m y b e i n g a r o u n d t h e De p a r t m e n t
.
S ENATORW AL K ER. W h o w a s t h i s ? De a n Ac h e s o n w o u l d n o t t o l e r a t e
y o u r b e i n g a r o u n d t h e De p a r t m e n t ?
M R
. P ANU CH . If h e w e r e U n d e r S e c r e t a r y u n d e r G e o r g e M a r s h a l l ;
2 3 6

M CCARTH YANDH IS ENEM IES


y e s . . . .
U n d e r S e c r e t a r y Ac h e s o n c a l l e d m e i n t o h i s o f f i c e , a n d w e h a d
a c o n v e r s a t i o n a n d h e s a i d , " J o e , y o u a n d Ih a v e n ' t g o t t e n a l o n g v e r y
w e l l , " a n d h e s a i d " No w G e n e r a l M a r s h a l l h a s a s k e d m e t o t a k e o v e r
h e r e a s U n d e r S e c r e t a r y u n t i l M r
. L o v e t t c o m e s o v e r a n d It o l d h i m
t h a t Iw o u l d d o s o o n l y o n c o n d i t i o n t h a t Iw o u l d h a v e c o m p l e t e
c h a r g e o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e De p a r t m e n t a n d , a s y o u a n d Id o n ' t
s e e e y e t o e y e o n v a r i o u s m a t t e r s , Iw o u l d l i k e y o u r r e s i g n a t i o n
. "
S o It o l d h i m Ih a d a l r e a d y t e n d e r e d m y r e s i g n a t i o n t o S e c r e t a r y
M a r s h a l l , a n d h e s a i d , " Re a l l y ? " An d Is a i d " Ye s
. . . . It w a s o n e o f
t h e s i m p l e o n e s : " Ir e s i g n a t y o u r p l e a s u r e , Ac t i n g S e c r e t a r y f o r Ad -
m i n i s t r a t i o n . "
. . . Ac h e s o n . .
. r e a c h e d o u t a ( p r e p a r e d ) l e t t e r a c c e p t i n g m y r e s i g -
n a t i o n , s i g n e d b y G e n e r a l M a r s h a l l , e f f e c t i v e a s o f t h e c l o s e o f b u s i n e s s
t h a t d a t e , w h i c h u n d e r De p a r t m e n t r u l e s , w a s i o m i n u t e s l a t e r
.
S u c h w e r e t h e t r i b u l a t i o n s o f G e n e r a l Co n r a d S n o w . H e h a d
s h o w n h i m s e l f t o b e i g n o r a n t o f d a t a t h a t h a d a c r u c i a l b e a r i n g
n o t o n l y o n h i s s p e c i f i c c h a r g e s a g a i n s t M c Ca r t h y , b u t o n t h e w o r k
o f t h e d i v i s i o n i n w h i c h h e w a s p l a y i n g a v i t a l l y i m p o r t a n t r o l e .
H i s h u m i l i a t i o n c o u l d h a r d l y h a v e b e e n m o r e c o m p l e t e . " W o u l d
y o u m a k e t h i s s p e e c h o v e r a g a i n ? " S e n a t o r F e r g u s o n a s k e d h i m .
" Oh , n o ;c e r t a i n l y n o t , " h e a n s w e r e d
. S e n a t o r M c Ca r t h y v o l u n -
t e e r e d h i s o w n s u m m a r y , w h i c h i n c l u d e d s o m e o f t h e m o s t p e n e -
t r a t i n g r e m a r k s h e h a s m a d e o n t h e l o y a l t y - s e c u r i t y p r o b l e m
:
Im a y s a y , i n f a i r n e s s t o M r . S n o w , It h i n k Iu n d e r s t a n d h i s r e a s o n i n g
b e t t e r t h a n s o m e o f h i s f r i e n d s d o . H e i s t h e s o n o f a j u d g e ;h i s g r a n d -
f a t h e r w a s a j u d g e
. Iu n d e r s t a n d t h e y w e r e k i n d l y m e n . It h i n k t h a t h e
f e e l s t h a t h e i s i n e f f e c t t r y i n g c r i m i n a l c a s e s ;t h a t h e m u s t g i v e e v e r y -
o n e t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e d o u b t , a n d i f t h e r e a r e a n y d o u b t s w h i c h c a n b e
r e s o l v e d i n f a v o r o f t h e e m p l o y e e , h e r e s o l v e s t h e m i n f a v o r o f t h e
e m p l o y e e .
It i s t h e k i n d l y t h i n g t o d o , b u t m a k e s h i m c o m p l e t e l y i n c o m p e t e n t
t o a c t a s h e a d o f t h a t b o a r d .
Id o n o t a c c u s e y o u o f b e i n g a n e v i l m a n , M r
. S n o w , b u t w a t c h i n g
t h e r e s u l t s t h a t c o m e f r o m y o u r b o a r d , Ia m t r y i n g t o f i n d o u t w h a t
p r o m p t s y o u . An d Ih a v e t a l k e d w i t h s o m e o f y o u r f r i e n d s . Th e g e n e r a l
r e p o r t t h a t w e g e t i s t h a t y o u a r e a k i n d l y i n d i v i d u a l w h o j u s t d i s l i k e s
s e e i n g a m a n l o s e h i s j o b .
Th e b u l k o f t h e Co m m i t t e e ' s q u e s t i o n s , h o w e v e r , w e r e d i r e c t e d
n o t a t S n o w b u t a t Ca r l i s l e H u m e l s i n e
. H u m e l s i n e p r o v e d a d i f -
f i c u l t w i t n e s s - n o t b e c a u s e h e w a s a r r o g a n t ( f e w b u r e a u c r a t s a r e
w h e n d e a l i n g w i t h a n a p p r o p r i a t i o n s c o m m i t t e e ) , b u t b e c a u s e o f
h i s r e m a r k a b l e c a p a c i t y f o r m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g e v e r y q u e s t i o n p u t
CONF RONTATION

2 3 7
t o h i m b y t h e Co m m i t t e e , a n d f o r c o m i n g u p w i t h a n s w e r s s o o b -
l i q u e a s t o p u z z l e a l l w i t h i n e a r s h o t . H i s t e s t i m o n y i s a n e x a m p l e
o f t h e s o r t o f W a s h i n g t o n i a n a t h a t o n c e c a u s e d S e n a t o r Do u g l a s
t o w e e p n o i s i l y o n t h e f l o o r o f t h e S e n a t e a f t e r s t r u g g l i n g w i t h
t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s b u d g e t .
S e n a t o r M c Ca r t h y a t t e m p t e d t o f i n d o u t f r o m H u m e l s i n e
w h e t h e r t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t B o a r d h a d f o l l o w e d t h e p r a c t i c e o f
" s i t t i n g o n " l o y a l t y c a s e s - i . e
. , p o s t p o n i n g a l m o s t i n d e f i n i t e l y a
f i n a l a d j u d i c a t i o n o f t h e m - s o a s t o p r e v e n t t h e Ce n t r a l B o a r d f r o m
a s s u m i n g a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h e m
. M c Ca r t h y k n e w p r e t t y w e l l t h a t
H u m e l s i n e w o u l d n e v e r a d m i t a n y s u c h t h i n g
;s o h e t r i e d t o g e t a t
t h e p r o b l e m f r o m a d i f f e r e n t a n g l e
: Di d t h e Ce n t r a l B o a r d h a v e
t h e p o w e r t o p r e - e m p t j u r i s d i c t i o n b e f o r e f i n a l a d j u d i c a t i o n o f a
c a s e b y a n a g e n c y b o a r d ? An d , i f s o , t h e s i g n i f i c a n t q u e s t i o n a r o s e
:
d i d i t d o s o a s a m a t t e r o f p r a c t i c e ?
S ENATORM c CARTH Y.
Is t h e r e a n y t h i n g t o t h e s u s p i c i o n o n t h e p a r t
o f s o m e t h a t y o u [ t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t ] h o l d s o m e o f t h e s e c a s e s
i n d e f i n i t e l y a f t e r s u s p e n s i o n b e c a u s e t h e Re v i e w B o a r d c a n n o t g e t
t h e m u n t i l y o u g e t t h r o u g h w i t h t h e m ? In o t h e r w o r d s , i f y o u h o l d t h e
B r u n a u e r c a s e i n d e f i n i t e l y , t h e Re v i e w B o a r d n e v e r c a n s e e i t , c a n t h e y ?
M R. H U M EL S INE. Th e Re v i e w B o a r d c a n n o t p o s t a u d i t [ ( a ) i t c a n ;
( b ) h o w i s t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n r e l e v a n t ? ] b u t t h e Re v i e w B o a r d c o u l d a n d
h a s t h e a u t h o r i t y a t a n y t i m e , a s Iu n d e r s t a n d i t , t o t a k e t h e c a s e o u t
o f o u r h a n d s a n d h a n d l e i t t h e m s e l v e s .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y
.
H a s t h a t e v e r b e e n d o n e ?
M R. H U M EL S INE. Ye s , s i r ;i t h a s b e e n d o n e i n t w o c a s e s
.
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. In w h a t c a s e s ?
M R. H U M EL S INE. Th e y t o o k t h e S e r v i c e c a s e a n d o n e o t h e r c a s e , t w o
c a s e s .
S ENATORF ERCU S ON. B e f o r e y o u w e r e t h r o u g h w i t h t h e m ?
M R. H U M EL S INE. No , s i r ;a f t e r t h e y h a d b e e n s e n t o v e r t o t h e m
.
S ENATOR
F ERG U S ON . W h y d o y o u n o t a n s w e r t h e S e n a t o r ' s q u e s t i o n ?
S ENATORM CCARTIIY. W h y d o y o u n o t
t r y t o a n s w e r m y q u e s t i o n ? It
i s l i k e p u l l i n g t e e t h
. Is h o u l d n o t h a v e t o a s k s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s , i n o r d e r
t o g e t t h e t r u t h
. Ia s k e d y o u w h e t h e r t h e Re v i e w B o a r d h a d e v e r t a k e n
a c a s e a w a y f r o m y o u .
M R. H U M EL S INE. Th e y h a v e i n t h a t s e n s e .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. No w , y o u h e a r d m y q u e s t i o n
.
M R. H U M EL S INE. Ye s .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y
. YOU s a i d t h e B r u n a u e r c a s e w a s p
e n d i n g .
M R. H U M EL S INE. Th a t i s r i g h t .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. W a s b e i n g p r o c e s s e d
.
M R. H U M EL S INE
. Ye s , s i r .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y
. M y q u e s t i o n w a s : Ca n t h e Re v i e w B o a r d g e t
2 3 8

M CCARTH YANDH IS ENEM IES


t h i s c a s e u n t i l y o u f i n i s h i t
. Yo u s e e , t h e r e i s a s e r i o u s s u s p i c i o n o n t h e
p a r t o f s o m e - w i l l y o u l i s t e n t o m e ?
M R. H U M EL S INE.
Ye s .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y.
Th e r e i s a s u s p i c i o n o n t h e p a r t o f s o m e , i n c l u d -
i n g m y s e l f , t h a t y o u h o l d s o m e o f t h e s e c a s e s i n d e f i n i t e l y a n d w a i t u n t i l
y o u g e t t h r o u g h a n d m a k e a d e c i s i o n , k n o w i n g t h a t t h e Re v i e w B o a r d
n e v e r d o e s c o m e o v e r a n d p i c k u p a c a s e u n t i l y o u h a v e f i n i s h e d w i t h i t
.
Yo u s a i d t h e y c o u l d d o t h a t , a n d Ia s k e d t o n a m e o n e c a s e i n w h i c h
t h e y h a v e d o n e i t
. Yo u s a i d t h e S e r v i c e c a s e .
M R. H U M EL S INE.
Ye s , s i r .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y.
B u t y o u s a i d t h a t y o u h a d f i n i s h e d t h e S e r v i c e
c a s e .
M R. H U M EL S INE.
It w a s o v e r t h e r e f o r p o s t a u d i t i n g . B u t a s Iu n d e r -
s t a n d r u l e
1 4
o f t h e B o a r d , t h e y c a n t a k e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f a c a s e a t a n y
t i m e .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y.
Do y o u k n o w o f a s i n g l e c a s e w h e r e t h e y h a v e
e v e r d o n e t h a t ?
M R
. H U M EL S INE [ f i n a l l y !]
. Th e y h a v e n o t t a k e n j u r i s d i c t i o n i n a c a s e
u p t o t h i s t i m e u n t i l i t h a s g o n e t o t h e m f o r p o s t a u d i t
. [ p p
. 4 5 5 - 5
6
.. ]
Or t a k e t h e e f f o r t o f t h e Co m m i t t e e t o g e t t o t h e b o t t o m o f t h e
De p a r t m e n t ' s s u s p e n s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s a n d p r o c e d u r e s
. H u m e l s i n e
w a s a s k e d
: Do t h e De p a r t m e n t ' s r u l e s c a l l f o r a n e m p l o y e e ' s s u s -
p e n s i o n w h e n t h e c h a r g e s a r e f i r s t b r o u g h t a g a i n s t h i m , o r o n l y a f -
t e r a n a d v e r s e d e t e r m i n a t i o n h a s b e e n h a n d e d d o w n b y t h e L o y a l -
t y S e c u r i t y B o a r d ? In o t h e r w o r d s , d o e s a n a c c u s e d e m p l o y e e h a v e
a c c e s s t o s e c r e t m a t e r i a l w h i l e h i s c a s e i s p e n d i n g ? If s o , i s t h i s
w i s e ?
S u s p e n s i o n , i t w a s l e a r n e d f i n a l l y , w a s n o t m a n d a t o r y a t a n y
s t a g e o f t h e l o y a l t y - s e c u r i t y p r o c e s s
. * Th a t i s t o s a y , n e i t h e r t h e
P r e s i d e n t ' s Ex e c u t i v e Or d e r , n o r t h e r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e L o y a l t y
Re v i e w B o a r d , n o r P u b l i c L a w 7 3 3 - a s t h e l a t t e r h a d b e e n c o n -
s t r u e d - r e q u i r e d t h a t a t s u c h a n d s u c h a s t a g e a n a c c u s e d e m -
p l o y e e m u s t b e s u s p e n d e d
. On l y w h e n i n v e s t i g a t i o n h a d a b s o l u t e l y
e s t a b l i s h e d a n e m p l o y e e ' s p r e s e n t m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e Co m m u n i s t
P a r t y , o r i n a n y o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n b e n t o n o v e r t h r o w i n g t h e
g o v e r n m e n t b y f o r c e , d i d s u s p e n s i o n - a n d , i n d e e d , f i r i n g - b e c o m e
m a n d a t o r y u n d e r s e c t i o n 9 Ao f t h e H a t c h Ac t ( a n d u n d e r v a r i o u s
a p p r o p r i a t i o n s r i d e r s f o r b i d d i n g t h e e x p e n d i t u r e o f p u b l i c f u n d s
t o p a y t h e s a l a r i e s o f e m p l o y e e s b e l o n g i n g t o s u c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s ) .
S o m u c h f o r t h e De p a r t m e n t ' s r e g u l a t i o n s o n t h e s u b j e c t . Th e
* Th i s w a s e s t a b l i s h e d o n l y a f t e r i n t e r m i n a b l e w r a n g l i n g , i n t h e c o u r s e
o f w h i c h H u m e l s i n e a d m i t t e d h i s o w n c o n f u s i o n o n t h e s u b j e c t . ( p p
. 4 4 7
f f . , p
. 9 8 9 ) .
CONF RONTATION

2 3 9
Co m m i t t e e , h o w e v e r , w a s m o r e i n t e r e s t e d i n i t s
p r a c t i c e s
.
Th i s i s
w h a t i t l e a r n e d : If a n e m p l o y e e f e l l u n d e r s u s p i c i o n r e s u l t i n g
f r o m i n f o r m a t i o n o r a l l e g a t i o n s a b o u t h i m t h a t h a d c o m e t o t h e
s e c u r i t y o f f i c e ' s a t t e n t i o n , a f u l l f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n w a s o r d e r e d ,
i n m o s t c a s e s t o b e c o n d u c t e d b y t h e F B I . Af t e r t h a t f i e l d i n v e s t i -
g a t i o n t h e s e c u r i t y o f f i c i a l s d e c i d e d w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e r e w a s s u f -
f i c i e n t a d v e r s e e v i d e n c e t o w a r r a n t f u r t h e r p r o b i n g . If t h e y w e r e
s a t i s f i e d t h a t c e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s n e e d e d c l a r i f i c a t i o n , t h o s e q u e s -
t i o n s w e r e f o r w a r d e d t o t h e e m p l o y e e . U p o n r e c e i p t o f h i s r e p l y ,
t h e s e c u r i t y o f f i c e d e t e r m i n e d w h e t h e r t o l e t i t g o a t t h a t o r p r o -
c e e d t o t h e n e x t s t e p o n t h e s e c u r i t y l a d d e r . In t h e l a t t e r e v e n t , t h e
e m p l o y e e r e c e i v e d a f o r m a l " l e t t e r o f c h a r g e s , " a n d w a s a f t e r -
w a r d g i v e n a h e a r i n g b y t h e L o y a l t y S e c u r i t y B o a r d .
No w , G e n e r a l S n o w h a d s a i d i n h i s s p e e c h t h a t o n l y w h e n t h e r e
w a s " r e a s o n a b l e d o u b t " o f a n y e m p l o y e e ' s l o y a l t y o r r e l i a b i l i t y d i d
h e r e c e i v e a l e t t e r o f c h a r g e s . M c Ca r t h y w e n t o n f r o m t h e r e :
S ENATORM c CARTm [ a d d r e s s i n g M r . H u m e l s i n e ] . M r . S n o w s a y s
t h a t l e t t e r s o f c h a r g e s a r e f i l e d
o n l y w h e n t h e r e i s r e a s o n a b l e d o u b t
t h e r e i s a l o y a l t y o r s e c u r i t y r i s k .
M R. H U M EL S INE. Ye s , s i r
.
S ENATORM CCAR= . . . . Ia m w o n d e r i n g n o w , i f y o u c a n t e l l u s , a f -
t e r y o u h a v e d e c i d e d t h e r e i s r e a s o n a b l e d o u b t o f a m a n ' s l o y a l t y o r
s e c u r i t y , e v e n t h o u g h h e m a y b e u l t i m a t e l y c l e a r e d , w h y d o y o u n o t
d e n y h i m a c c e s s t o t o p - s e c r e t m a t e r i a l u n l e s s h e i s a t l e a s t c l e a r e d .
M R. H U M EL S INE. W e h a v e n o t d e c i d e d a t t h i s p o i n t w h e t h e r t h e r e i s
r e a s o n a b l e d o u b t a s t o t h e m a n ' s s e c u r i t y a n d l o y a l t y . At a l a t e r s t a g e
i s w h e r e t h a t p a r t i c u l a r d e t e r m i n a t i o n m i g h t b e m a d e . At t h i s s t a g e i t
i s d e t e r m i n e d t h a t w e c a n n o t c l e a r t h i s c a s e u p w i t h o u t h a v i n g a f o r m a l
h e a r i n g .
S ENATORM c CARr m . Ij u s t r e a d t o y o u w h a t G e n e r a l S n o w h a d t o
s a y . Ia s k y o u i f y o u a g r e e w i t h t h i s . H e s a y s , o n p a g e 6o f h i s s p e e c h ,
" It i s o n l y i n c a s e s w h e r e t h e r e i s r e a s o n a b l e d o u b t a s t o l o y a l t y o r s e -
c u r i t y r i s k t h a t a c a s e c o m e s o n f o r h e a r i n g . " M y q u e s t i o n i s t h i s : If
y o u h a v e r e a s o n a b l e d o u b t a b o u t a m a n ' s l o y a l t y o r h i s s e c u r i t y , w h y
d o y o u s t i l l g i v e h i m a c c e s s t o s e c r e t m a t e r i a l ?
M R. H U M EL S INE. If w e h a v e a r e a s o n a b l e d o u b t a s t o a m a n ' s s e c u r i t y
o r r e a s o n a b l e d o u b t a s t o a m a n ' s l o y a l t y , w e s u s p e n d h i m .
S ENATORM c CARTIW . If y o u h a v e r e a s o n a b l e d o u b t , y o u f i l e c h a r g e s ?
M R. H U M EL S INE. At t h a t p o i n t y o u c a n n o t h a v e d o u b t o r y o u c a n
h a v e d o u b t . It d e p e n d s o n t h e s i t u a t i o n . . . . [ p p . 4 1 1 , 4 1 2 . ]
Al l t h a t e m e r g e d f r o m t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s a n d t e r g i v e r s a t i o n s o f
G e n e r a l S n o w a n d M r . H u m e l s i n e w a s t h i s : t h e De p a r t m e n t w o u l d
2 4 0 M CCARTH Y AND H IS ENEM IES
n o t s u s p e n d a n e m p l o y e e u n l e s s t h e r e w a s " r e a s o n a b l e d o u b t a s
t o t h e m a n ' s s e c u r i t y a n d l o y a l t y " ;b u t n e i t h e r w o u l d i t f i l e a l e t t e r
o f c h a r g e s u n l e s s t h e r e w a s " r e a s o n a b l e d o u b t a s t o t h e m a n ' s s e -
c u r i t y a n d l o y a l t y " ;t h u s , a c c o r d i n g t o i n e x o r a b l e r u l e s o f l o g i c ,
t h e r e a s o n f o r f i l i n g a l e t t e r o f c h a r g e s a g a i n s t a m a n w a s i p s o
f a c t o t h e s a m e r e a s o n t h a t r e q u i r e d h i s s u s p e n s i o n . Ye t i t p r o v e d
i m p o s s i b l e t o m a k e M r . H u m e l s i n e u n d e r s t a n d , m u c h l e s s a c k n o w l -
e d g e , t h i s s i t u a t i o n .
S e n a t o r M c Ca r t h y w e n t b a c k t o t h e s u b j e c t a t a l a t e r m e e t i n g
o f t h e Co m m i t t e e , u s i n g t h i s t i m e t h e d i r e c t e s t p o s s i b l e a p p r o a c h .
H e a s k e d G e n e r a l S n o w : " L e t u s t a k e t h e t h r e e c a s e s t h a t y o u
h a v e f o u n d a g a i n s t - y o u f o u n d [ o n ] d i s l o y a l t y . Th a t i s m u c h m o r e
s e r i o u s t h a n b e i n g a b a d s e c u r i t y r i s k . B u t a f t e r l e t t e r s o f c h a r g e s
h a v e b e e n f i l e d o n t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s , a n d u n t i l y o u r b o a r d h a s h e l d
t h e h e a r i n g , Iu n d e r s t a n d t h a t i f t h e y a r e i n t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t
t h e y c a n m o v e a r o u n d f r e e l y , a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h p e o p l e h a n d l i n g
s e c r e t m a t e r i a l a n d p e r h a p s h a v i n g a c c e s s t o c l a s s i f i e d m a t e r i a l
t h e m s e l v e s . Is t h a t n o t a n e x t r e m e l y d a n g e r o u s s i t u a t i o n ? "
G e n e r a l S n o w a n s w e r e d t h i s q u e s t i o n w i t h p e r h a p s t h e s u p r e m e
p a r a l o g i s m o f t h e y e a r
:
It m i g h t b e i n s o m e c a s e s . Id o n o t t h i n k t h a t i n e i t h e r o f t h e t h r e e
c a s e s t o w h i c h y o u r e f e r t h a t t h a t w a s s o h o w e v e r
.
Th e t h r e e c a s e s
w e r e q u i t e i n n o c u o u s - a p p e a r i n g o n t h e s u r f a c e . It w a s n o t u n t i l w e g o t
i n t o t h e h e a r i n g a n d h e a r d t h e c a s e s t h a t w e a r r i v e d a t a n y c o n c e p t i o n
t h a t s u s p e n s i o n w a s d e s i r a b l e .
In s h o r t , t h e Co m m i t t e e w a s n e v e r a b l e t o s q u e e z e o u t o f t h e
S t a t e De p a r t m e n t s p o k e s m e n a n i n t e l l i g i b l e a c c o u n t o f De p a r t -
m e n t p o l i c y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s u s p e n s i o n o f s u s p e c t e m p l o y e e s .
Ye t a t t h e t i m e t h e Co m m i t t e e m e t , g o De p a r t m e n t e m p l o y e e s h a d
b e e n i n l o y a l t y c h a n n e l s " o v e r " t w o m o n t h s . J u s t h o w l o n g o v e r
t w o m o n t h s ? H u m e l s i n e w a s a s k e d . An a v e r a g e o f 7 . 2 m o n t h s . Of
c o u r s e , t h e r e i s n o w a y o f k n o w i n g h o w m a n y o f t h e e m p l o y e e s
w h o w e r e u l t i m a t e l y f o u n d t o b e s e c u r i t y r i s k s h a d b e e n s u s p e n d e d
d u r i n g t h e l o n g p e r i o d i n w h i c h t h e i r c a s e s h a d b e e n p e n d i n g
. B u t
t h e s u s p i c i o n i s s t r o n g t h a t m a n y o f t h e m w e r e n o t ;f o r i n t h e e n t i r e
h i s t o r y o f t h e De p a r t m e n t ' s l o y a l t y s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m , o n l y 2 9 e m -
p l o y e e s ( o u t o f 8 o o c a n d i d a t e s ) h a d b e e n s u s p e n d e d w h i l e " i n
c h a n n e l s " 1 ( p p
. 5 2 3 , 9 9 8 , 9 9 9 .
)
P e r h a p s t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t l i n e o f i n q u i r y t h e Co m m i t t e e p u r -
s u e d h a d t o d o w i t h t h e c r i t e r i a g o v e r n i n g t h e De p a r t m e n t ' s d e c i -
s i o n s a s t o w h e t h e r o r n o t a n e m p l o y e e w a s a l o y a l t y o r a s e c u r i t y
r i s k . W h a t , t h e Co m m i t t e e a s k e d , w e r e t h e o p e r a t i n g s t a n d a r d s i n
d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r " r e a s o n a b l e d o u b t " e x i s t e d a s t o t h e l o y a l t y
o r r e l i a b i l i t y o f a n e m p l o y e e ?
S e n a t o r M c Ca r t h y l e d o f f . " L e t u s a s s u m e , " h e s a i d ,
t h a t a m a n i s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h f o u r o r f i v e o r s i x Co m m u n i s t f r o n t s
.
W o u l d y o u c o n s i d e r t h a t s u f f i c i e n t g r o u n d s t o h o l d a g a i n s t h i m u n d e r
t h e l o y a l t y p r o c e d u r e ?
M R. H U M EL S INE. Th a t w o u l d p l a c e h i m i n t h e l o y a l t y c h a n n e l s
.
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. Yo u d i d n o t g e t m y q u e s t i o n
. W o u l d y o u h o l d
a g a i n s t s u c h a m a n u n d e r t h e l o y a l t y p r o c e d u r e ?
M R. H U M EL S INE. I d o n ' t k n o w h o w Ic a n a n s w e r t h a t q u e s t i o n
. W h a t
y o u d o i s l o o k a t a f e l l o w ' s r e c o r d
. It m a y b e t h a t h e m a y h a v e b e e n a
m e m b e r o f o n l y o n e f r o n t o r g a n i z a t i o n , b u t a s u f f i c i e n t a m o u n t o f m a t e -
r i a l i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h a t o n e w o u l d m a k e h i m a l o y a l t y c a s e
. Id o n ' t
t h i n k y o u c a n g o o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e n u m b e r
. It i s a m a t t e r o f d e g r e e .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y.
In o t h e r w o r d s , y o u t h i n k t h e n u m b e r m a y n o t
b e i m p o r t a n t .
M R. H U M EL S INE
. It m a y , o r i t m a y n o t b e .
M c Ca r t h y u p p e d t h e a n t e .
S ENATORM c CARTH Y. L e t u s s a y t h a t Iw o r k i n t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t
a n d t h a t Ih a v e a f f i l i a t i o n s w i t h , s a y 2 0 o r 2 5 o r g a n i z a t i o n s n a m e d a s
Co m m u n i s t f r o n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s .
Ca n y o u c o n c e i v e o f a n y c i r c u m s t a n c e
u n d e r w h i c h Is h o u l d t h e n b e c l e a r e d ?
M R. H U M EL S INE. I w o u l d h a v e t o l o o k a t t h e c a s e .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. Ev e n t h o u g h Ib e l o n g t o
2 5 Co m m u n i s t f r o n t s
y o u w o u l d s t i l l l o o k a t t h e c a s e ?
M R. H U M EL S INE. I
t h i n k i n f a i r n e s s Iw o u l d h a v e t o l o o k a t t h e c a s e
.
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. Yo u w o u l d w h a t ?
M R. H U M EL S INE.
In f a i r n e s s , Iw o u l d h a v e t o l o o k a t t h e c a s e
. Id o
n o t t h i n k i t w o u l d b e f a i r f o r m e t o a n s w e r t h a t q u e s t i o n w i t h o u t g o i n g
i n t o t h e f a c t s
. On t h a t b a s i s , Iw o u l d w a n t t o l o o k a t t h e c a s e
. M a y b e
t h e p e r s o n h a s g o t t e n i n t o t h a t s i t u a t i o n f o r a n y o n e o f a n u m b e r o f
r e a s o n s . Iw o u l d n o t k n o w
.
M c Ca r t h y , o f c o u r s e , w a s i n t e r e s t e d i n w h a t " r e a s o n " w o u l d s a t -
i s f y t h e De p a r t m e n t t h a t a p e r s o n w h o h a d " g o t t e n i n t o t h a t s i t u a -
t i o n " w a s b l a m e l e s s
b e y o n d a r e a s o n a b l e d o u b t . As
h e p u t i t , w h a t
w e r e s o m e o f t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h i c h , i n t h e c a s e o f a n e m p l o y e e
w h o j o i n e d 2 5 Co m m u n i s t f r o n t s , w o u l d s a t i s f y t h e De p a r t m e n t ' s
s e c u r i t y o f f i c e r s t h a t n o r i s k w a s e n t a i l e d i n k e e p i n g h i m o n ?
2 4 2 M CCARTH Y AND H IS ENEM IES
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. . . . Yo u w o u l d s a y t h a t e v e n t h o u g h y o u k n e w
Ib e l o n g e d t o 2 5 Co m m u n i s t f r o n t s , t h a t i n a n d o f i t s e l f w o u l d n o t b e
s u f f i c i e n t t o o r d e r m e d i s c h a r g e d ? Yo u w o u l d s t i l l w a n t t o e x a m i n e t h e
c a s e f u r t h e r ?
M R. H u v EL s i NE. S u r e , Iw o u l d w a n t t o e x a m i n e t h e c a s e . . . .
S ENATORM CCARRAN. L e t m e a s k y o u t h i s , M r . H u m e l s i n e : W h e r e t h e
De p a r t m e n t o f j u s t i c e , a c t i n g u n d e r t h e l a w , d e c l a r e s a n o r g a n i z a -
t i o n t o b e s u b v e r s i v e , y o u w o u l d n o t t a k e i s s u e w i t h t h a t ?
M R. H U M EL S INE. Oh , n o , s i r : Ia m n o t t a k i n g i s s u e w i t h t h a t .
S ENATORM CCARRAN. Re g a r d i n g t h e q u e s t i o n p u t t o y o u b y t h e S e n -
a t o r f r o m W i s c o n s i n , i f a m a n b e l o n g e d t o 2 3 s u b v e r s i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s
a s d e c l a r e d b y t h e De p a r t m e n t o f j u s t i c e , y o u w o u l d n o t c l e a r h i m f o r
l o y a l t y , w o u l d y o u ?
M R. H 1 M EL S INE. Iw o u l d w a n t t o l o o k i n t o t h e w h o l e c a s e a n d f i n d
o u t w h e n h e g o t i n t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s s u r r o u n d -
i n g t h e p a r t i c u l a r c a s e . Im e a n i t i s n o t a d e f i n i t e c a s e , a n d i t i s h a r d
t o s a y .
M c Ca r t h y a c c e p t e d t h e i m p l i e d c h a l l e n g e :
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. L e t u s m a k e i t a d e f i n i t e c a s e
. L e t u s a s s u m e
t h a t y o u k n o w t h a t Ih a v e b e l o n g e d t o 2 3 o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t a t t h e
t i m e [ Ij o i n e d t h e m ] w e r e s u b v e r s i v e a n d h a v e b e e n d e c l a r e d s u b -
v e r s i v e b y t h e At t o r n e y G e n e r a l
. W o u l d y o u s a y t h a t y o u w o u l d l o o k
i n t o t h e c a s e b e f o r e y o u w o u l d d i s c h a r g e m e ?
M R. H U M EL S INE. Iw o u l d w a n t t o s e e w h a t y o u r m o t i v e s w e r e a n d
w h y y o u b e l o n g e d t o t h e m .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y
. Th e m e r e b e l o n g i n g t o 2 3 s u b v e r s i v e o r g a n i z a -
t i o n s a t t h e t i m e t h e y w e r e s u b v e r s i v e , a n d d e c l a r e d s o b y t h e At t o r n e y
G e n e r a l , y o u w o u l d n o t c o n s i d e r i n a n d o f i t s e l f a s s u f f i c i e n t f o r d i s -
c h a r g e ?
M R. H U M EL S INE. Iw o u l d c e r t a i n l y p u t t h a t c a s e i n l o y a l t y c h a n n e l s ,
a n d Iw o u l d w a n t t o f i n d o u t - Iw o u l d e x a m i n e t h e r e c o r d r i g h t a w a y
a n d i f t h e r e c o r d s h o w e d t h a t y o u w e r e a l o y a l t y r i s k Iw o u l d w a n t t o
s u s p e n d y o u .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y
. It h i n k i t i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o g e t y o u r a t t i t u d e
o n t h i s . . .
. It i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o k n o w w h a t t h o s e o f y o u w h o a r e
r u n n i n g t h i s p r o g r a m c o n s i d e r [ a ] d i s l o y a l t y [ r i s k ] o r [ a ] b a d s e c u r i t y
[ r i s k ] a n d f o r t h a t r e a s o n i t i s e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t t o g e t y o u r a n s w e r
t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t y o u w o u l d n o t c o n s i d e r m e m b e r s h i p i n 2 3 s u b v e r s i v e
o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t a r e d e c l a r e d s u b v e r s i v e - y o u w o u l d n o t c o n s i d e r
m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e m i n a n d o f i t s e l f s u f f i c i e n t t o d i s c h a r g e m e
. If t h a t
i s y o u r a t t i t u d e t h a t e x p l a i n s t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t t h e u n u s u a l
w o r k i n g s o f t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t L o y a l t y B o a r d
.
M R. H U M EL S INE
. Th a t i s n o t m y a t t i t u d e , t h o u g h , S e n a t o r
.
CONF RONTATION

2 4 3
S ENATORM CCARTH Y
. Yo u s a y t h a t y o u w o u l d w a n t t o l o o k i n t o t h e
o r g a n i z a t i o n .
M R. H U M EL S INE. Iw o u l d s a y t h a t Iw o u l d w a n t t o e x a m i n e t h e m
. It
m a y b e , f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t s o m e o n e i s c h a r g e d w i t h h a v i n g b e l o n g e d
t o 2 3 s u b v e r s i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d m a y b e h e d i d n o t b e l o n g t o a n y o f
t h e m . Th a t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e
. It i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t h a t c o u l d h a p p e n .
No w , t h a t i s f a r f e t c h e d , b u t i t i s p o s s i b l e .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. M y q u e s t i o n d i d n o t s a y t h a t b e l o n g i n g t o t h e
2 3 o r g a n i z a t i o n s w a s c h a r g e d .
M y q u e s t i o n s a i d t h a t h e b e l o n g e d t o
t h e m .
M R. H U M EL S INE. S u p p o s e Im a d e t h e s t a t e m e n t s o m e m o r n i n g t h a t
M r . S o a n d S o b e l o n g e d t o 2 3 s u b v e r s i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s
t h a t h a d b e e n s u b v e r s i v e a n d t h a t h a d b e e n s o d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e j u s -
t i c e De p a r t m e n t . Ih a v e m a d e t h a t s t a t e m e n t a s a p r i v a t e c i t i z e n
. W e l l ,
t h e t h i n g Iw o u l d w a n t t o d o i s t o f i n d o u t w h e t h e r t h a t i s t h e f a c t ,
b e c a u s e y o u h a v e t o o p e r a t e t h i s p r o g r a m b a s e d o n f a c t s , n o t o n i n s i n u -
a t i o n o r a l l e g a t i o n .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y[ w e a r i l y , w e a s s u m e ] . L e t u s a s s u m e t h a t y o u
h a v e
e s t a b l i s h e d t h e f a c t - Iw o u l d l i k e t o g e t y o u r a t t i t u d e o n t h i s p r o -
g r a m - l e t u s a s s u m e t h a t y o u h a v e
e s t a b l i s h e d t h e f a c t , i t i s n o t h e a r s a y
b u t r a t h e r y o u h a v e e s t a b l i s h e d
t h e f a c t t h a t Ih a v e b e l o n g e d t o 2 3 o r -
g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t h a v e b e e n d e c l a r e d s u b v e r s i v e . Ih a v e b e l o n g e d t o t h e m
a t a t i m e w h e n t h e y w e r e s u b v e r s i v e . B e f o r e y o u w o u l d o r d e r m e d i s -
c h a r g e d , y o u w o u l d s t i l l w a n t t o l o o k f u r t h e r i n t o t h e c a s e ?
M R
. H U M EL S INE. Iw o u l d w a n t t o f i n d o u t a l l t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s c o n -
n e c t e d w i t h t h e c a s e b e f o r e It o o k a c t i o n .
S ENATORM c CARRAN[ i n t e r v e n i n g w i t h a f o u r t h q u a l i f i c a t i o n ]
. L e t u s
a d d o n e m o r e e l e m e n t t o t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l s i t u a t i o n
. If i t w a s e s t a b l i s h e d
t h a t h e k n e w w h e n h e b e l o n g e d t o t h e m t h a t t h e y w e r e s u b v e r s i v e ,
w o u l d y o u t h e n -
M R. H U M EL S INE. Th e r e i s n o d o u b t a b o u t i t , S e n a t o r .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. Yo u s a i d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d b e n o d o u b t a b o u t i t .
Yo u m e a n t h a t y o u w o u l d o r d e r h i m d i s c h a r g e d ?
M R. H U M EL S INE. If h e k n e w
t h o s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s w e r e s u b v e r s i v e , I
w o u l d c e r t a i n l y d i s c h a r g e h i m .
S ENATORM CCARTH Y. G o o d . [ p p
. 3 9 3 - 9 5 . 1
S e n a t o r M c Ca r t h y w a s p r o b a b l y t o o e x h a u s t e d t o g o f u r t h e r i n t o
t h e m a t t e r . H e d i d n o t b r i n g t o H u m e l s i n e ' s a t t e n t i o n t h e f a c t t h a t
w h a t h e h a d j u s t f i n i s h e d s a y i n g v i r t u a l l y c o m m i t t e d h i m t o a
s t a n d a r d o f e l i g i b i l i t y w h i c h t h e De p a r t m e n t h a d n o m i n a l l y d e -
s e r t e d a s i n a d e q u a t e s e v e n y e a r s e a r l i e r ! F o r H u m e l s i n e h a d i m -
p l i e d t h a t n o t h i n g s h o r t o f p r o o f o f a n e m p l o y e e ' s e v i l i n t e n t i o n s
w o u l d b r i n g h i s d i s m i s s a l a s a l o y a l t y r i s k . H u m e l s i n e h a d s a i d , i n
e f f e c t , t h a t t h e De p a r t m e n t s t o o d r e a d y t o b e p e r s u a d e d t h a t a
2 4 4

M CCARTH YANDH IS ENEM IES


j o i n e r o f 2 3 Co m m u n i s t f r o n t s , a l r e a d y c i t e d a s s u b v e r s i v e a t t h e
t i m e h e a f f i l i a t e d h i m s e l f w i t h t h e m , h a d s a t i s f a c t o r y r e a s o n s f o r
h a v i n g j o i n e d t h e m . *
Th i s m a y a p p e a r t o b e a h a s t y i n d i c t m e n t o f H u m e l s i n e . B u t
n o t e t h a t H u m e l s i n e d i d n o t s a y , " No t h i n g s h o r t o f a d i s c o v e r y t h a t
s u c h a p e r s o n w a s i n s t r u c t e d t o j o i n 2 5 Co m m u n i s t f r o n t s b y t h e
F e d e r a l B u r e a u o f In v e s t i g a t i o n o r b y s o m e f e d e r a l s e c u r i t y a g e n c y
w o u l d s a t i s f y u s t h a t h e w a s n o t a l o y a l t y r i s k , " o r a n y s u c h t h i n g
.
Ra t h e r , h e s t r e s s e d a g a i n a n d a g a i n t h a t t h e c a s e w o u l d h a v e t o b e
" g o n e i n t o " - a n d h e p e r s e v e r e d w i t h t h i s a n s w e r u n t i l S e n a t o r M c -
Ca r r a n b r o k e t h e c a m e l ' s b a c k b y a s k i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e d i s -
c o v e r y t h a t t h e e m p l o y e e i n t e n d e d
s u b v e r s i o n w o u l d b r i n g a c t i o n
f r o m t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t ' s s e c u r i t y o f f i c e
.
S e n a t o r M c Ca r t h y m i g h t w e l l h a v e a s k e d M r
. H u m e l s i n e t w o
p o i n t e d q u e s t i o n s : ( I)
In t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l s i t u a t i o n d e s c r i b e d ,
w h a t s o r t o f e v i d e n c e i s s u f f i c i e n t t o p e r s u a d e t h e S t a t e De p a r t -
m e n t t h a t t h e e m p l o y e e i n q u e s t i o n " k n e w " t h e 2 3 Co m m u n i s t
f r o n t s h e j o i n e d t o b e s u b v e r s i v e ? ( z ) W h a t h a s h a p p e n e d t o t h e
" r e a s o n a b l e d o u b t " s t a n d a r d t o w h i c h t h e De p a r t m e n t i s o s t e n -
s i b l y c o m m i t t e d ? a n d ( 3 ) If t h a t s t a n d a r d i s o p e r a t i v e , m u s t n o t
t h e e m p l o y e e w h o h a d b e l o n g e d t o 2 3 Co m m u n i s t f r o n t s b e p r e -
s u m e d t o h a v e b e l o n g e d t o t h e m
b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e Co m m u n i s t
f r o n t s ? Ye t H u m e l s i n e c o m e s c l o s e t o i m p l y i n g t h a t n o s u c h p r e -
s u m p t i o n g u i d e d t h e De p a r t m e n t o r a t l e a s t t h a t n o s u c h p r e s u m p -
t i o n g u i d e d h i m , t h e De p a r t m e n t ' s t o p s e c u r i t y o f f i c e r .
Th e De p a r t m e n t , i n s h o r t , h a d e v i d e n t l y n o t m a d e m u c h p r o g -
r e s s i n t h e f i v e y e a r s t h a t h a d e l a p s e d s i n c e a n As s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y
h a d b e e n c o n f r o n t e d b y t h r e e S e n a t o r s w i t h e v i d e n c e t h a t o n e o f
h i s s e c r e t a r i e s w a s a Co m m u n i s t
. B u t " Ik n o w
s h e i s n o t a Co m -
m u n i s t , " h e h a d t o l d t h e S e n a t o r s
. " Il o o k e d h e r s t r a i g h t i n t h e e y e
a n d a s k e d h e r , ` Ar e y o u a Co m m u n i s t ? ' a n d s h e s a i d ,
' No . " "
* W e a r e n o t d e a l i n g , o f c o u r s e , w i t h
r e f o r m e d Co m m u n i s t s , b u t r a t h e r
w i t h p e r s o n s w h o i n s i s t t h a t a t n o t i m e w e r e t h e y p r o - Co m m u n i s t
.
CH AP TERXII
Cl o s i n g Ra n k s
: S o m e P r o p o s a l s
f o r t h e Ci v i l S e r v i c e
F
ORNEARL Y
t h r e e d e c a d e s a h a n d f u l o f p r o p h e t s - a n Am e r i c a n
Re s i s t a n c e - t r i e d t o a l e r t t h e n a t i o n t o t h e Co m m u n i s t t h r e a t ;
a n d f o u g h t a l o n e l y a n d c o s t l y f i g h t
. Af t e r t h e S e c o n d W o r l d
W a r , i n t h e d a w n o f a n e w r e a l i s m a b o u t i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s ,
t h e s e p r o p h e t s b e g a n t o g e t a h e a r i n g
;f o r i t h a d b e c o m e a p p a r e n t
t h a t n o t h i n g b u t t h e i n t e g r i t y o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s s t o o d b e t w e e n
t h e S o v i e t U n i o n a n d w o r l d d o m i n a t i o n
. B u t i t w a s o n l y w h e n o n e
s p y s c a n d a l a f t e r a n o t h e r r o c k e d t h e n a t i o n t h a t t h e Am e r i c a n
Re s i s t a n c e e n l i s t e d r e c r u i t s i n s i z a b l e n u m b e r s a n d f i x e d o u r a t t e n -
t i o n o n t h e p r o b l e m o f Co m m u n i s t i n f i l t r a t i o n
. B y 1 9 5 0 , a g e n u i n e
m o b i l i z a t i o n w a s u n d e r w a y
. An d S e n a t o r M c Ca r t h y - h a v i n g f a i r -
l y r e c e n t l y b e e n m o b i l i z e d h i m s e l f - b e c a m e o n e o f i t s l e a d e r s
.
W h y h a v e w e f o c u s e d a t t e n t i o n o n t h e r e c o r d o f S e n a t o r M c -
Ca r t h y r a t h e r t h a n o n t h a t o f t h e o t h e r m o b i l i z a t i o n l e a d e r s ? B e -
c a u s e i t i s p r e d i c t a b l e t h a t , i f M c Ca r t h y ' s e n e m i e s a r e s u c c e s s f u l
i n d i s c r e d i t i n g h i m , t h e m o b i l i z a t i o n w i l l l o s e m o m e n t u m a n d ,
p e r h a p s , g r i n d t o a d e a d h a l t
. Th u s w e h a v e a n a l y z e d M c Ca r t h y ' s
p e r f o r m a n c e i n g e n e r o u s d e t a i l a n d h a v e t r i e d t o e v a l u a t e i t , c o m -
m e n d i n g h i m w h e r e w e t h i n k h e o u g h t t o b e c o m m e n d e d , a n d
c e n s u r i n g h i m w h e r e w e t h i n k h e o u g h t t o b e c e n s u r e d . B u t w e
h a v e p r e s s e d o u r a n a l y s i s u n d e r c e r t a i n i m p o r t a n t l i m i t a t i o n s :
W e h a v e e x a m i n e d M c Ca r t h y , f o r t h e m o s t p a r t , i n t h e l i g h t o f
t h e b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h e s o c i e t y h e i s s e e k i n g t o m o b i l i z e .
It i s n o w t i m e t o s a y t h a t , i n o u r o p i n i o n , s o m e o f t h e s e a s s u m p -
t i o n s a r e i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e e m e r g e n c y
. W e d o n o t , w e h a s t e n t o
a d d , a t t r i b u t e a s i m i l a r v i e w t o M c Ca r t h y . H e h a s o f t e n a c t e d a s
i f h e q u e s t i o n e d t h e s e r v i c e a b i l i t y o f s o m e o f o u r s o c i e t y ' s p r e m -
i s e s i n t h e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n ;b u t h e h a s n e v e r
s a i d s o . H e h a s n o t ,
a t a n y s t a g e i n h i s h u r l y - b u r l y c a m p a i g n a g a i n s t s u b v e r s i o n ,
2 4 6 M CCARTH YANDH IS ENEM IES
p a u s e d t o a r t i c u l a t e a n e w p h i l o s o p h y o f n a t i o n a l m o b i l i z a t i o n .
Th e l a c k o f a n a r t i c u l a t e p h i l o s o p h y o f n a t i o n a l m o b i l i z a t i o n i s t h e
c o u n t r y ' s g r e a t e s t s i n g l e h a n d i c a p i n i t s d u e l w i t h Co m m u n i s m .
F o r w e a r e n o t w i n n i n g t h i s f i g h t . In t e r n a t i o n a l Co m m u n i s m
t h r i v e s i n c r e a s i n g l y w i t h e a c h p a s s i n g y e a r . M o s t o f t h e i s s u e s i n -
v o l v e d i n o u r a p p a l l i n g f a i l u r e t h e a u t h o r s l e a v e , w i l l i n g l y e n o u g h ,
t o o t h e r b o o k s b y o t h e r w r i t e r s w h o m t h e m o b i l i z a t i o n m a y i n d u e
c o u r s e e n l i s t . W e s h a l l h e r e a d d r e s s o u r s e l v e s t o o n e p r o b l e m w i t h
w h i c h J o e M c Ca r t h y h a s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d h i m s e l f
: H o w c a n
t h e Am e r i c a n p e o p l e m a k e s u r e t h a t t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t i s
m a n n e d b y p e r s o n n e l a b l e a n d e a g e r t o d e s t r o y t h e e n e m y ? Th i s
i s b y n o m e a n s a m i n o r a s p e c t o f t h e t o t a l p r o b l e m
. F o r a s l o n g a s
t h e w a r a g a i n s t t h e S o v i e t U n i o n i s a c o l d w a r , o u r f i r s t - l i n e t r o o p s
a r e t h e w o r k i n g s t a f f o f t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t
;a n d s u c c e s s o r f a i l -
u r e i n o u r d u e l w i t h Co m m u n i s m h i n g e s t o a g r e a t e x t e n t o n t h e
a b i l i t y a n d e a g e r n e s s o f t h e s e m e n t o m a t c h t h e w i t s a n d t h e
s i n g l e - m i n d e d n e s s o f t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n t h e K r e m l i n .
Th o s e w h o h a v e b e e n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e c u r i t y i n t h e S t a t e De -
p a r t m e n t s e e m t o h a v e f o r m u l a t e d p r o g r a m s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s w i t h
t h r e e p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e s i n m i n d . Th e y h a v e s o u g h t t o g e t r i d o f
p e r s o n s w h o s e e m p l o y m e n t i n t h e De p a r t m e n t m i g h t j e o p a r d i z e
t h e s e c u r i t y o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s
. Th e y h a v e s o u g h t t o s h i e l d f r o m
s o c i a l i g n o m i n y a n d f r o m t h e h a z a r d s o f u n e m p l o y m e n t p e r s o n s
w h o s e d i s m i s s a l w a s i n t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t
. An d t h e y h a v e s o u g h t
i n t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s t o a c c o m m o d a t e t h e p h i l o s o p h y t h a t t h e c i v i l
s e r v a n t h a s , o t h e r t h i n g s b e i n g e q u a l , a " r i g h t t o h i s j o b "
;a n d t h a t
t h e r e f o r e h i s j o b m a y n o t b e t a k e n a w a y f r o m h i m w i t h o u t a q u a s i -
l e g a l a d j u d i c a t i o n o f h i s c l a i m t o i t .
No w i t s e e m s t o u s t h a t , i n s e e k i n g t o r e a l i z e a l l t h r e e o f t h e s e
o b j e c t i v e s a t o n e a n d t h e s a m e t i m e , t h e s e c u r i t y o f f i c e r s h a v e
f a i l e d t o a c c o m p l i s h a n y o n e o f t h e m
. Th e y h a v e f a i l e d n o t n e c e s -
s a r i l y f o r l a c k o f t r y i n g , b u t b e c a u s e t h e t h r e e o b j e c t i v e s a r e i n
c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s i n c o m p a t i b l e
. It i s p o s s i b l e , a s w e s h a l l h e r e a f t e r
b e a r g u i n g , t o a c h i e v e t h e f i r s t a n d t h e s e c o n d o f t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s
s i d e b y s i d e
;b u t t h e y t e n d t o b e a c h i e v e d o n l y a t t h e e x p e n s e o f
t h e t h i r d .
P ROTECTING TH EG OVERNM ENT
S e c u r i t y o f f i c i a l s i n v a r i a b l y p r e f a c e t h e i r p u b l i c l e c t u r e s o n t h e
G o v e r n m e n t ' s s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m w i t h s u c h a p o t h e g m s a s " n a t i o n a l
CL OS ING RANK S

2 4 7
s e c u r i t y m u s t c o m e f i r s t " o r , " a g o v e r n m e n t j o b i s a p r i v i l e g e n o t a
r i g h t " - b o t h o f t h e m p r i n c i p l e s w i t h w h i c h w e a r e i n a g r e e m e n t
.
Th e y g o o n , h o w e v e r , t o t a l k a b o u t t h e p r e s e n t s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m
( o r i t s e a r l i e r v e r s i o n u n d e r Tr u m a n ) a s t h o u g h i t r e f l e c t e d t h e s e
p r i n c i p l e s ;w h i l e w e s u b m i t t h a t , i n i m p o r t a n t r e s p e c t s , i t d o e s n o t
.
An o t h e r w a y o f s a y i n g " n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y m u s t c o m e f i r s t " i s t o
s a y : W h e n e v e r t h e i n t e r e s t s o f g o v e r n m e n t s e c u r i t y c o n f l i c t w i t h
t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e e m p l o y e e - i . e . , h i s e a r n i n g p o w e r , h i s v o c a t i o n a l
p r e f e r e n c e s - t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e e m p l o y e e m u s t g i v e w a y . Th e
p r i n c i p l e d o e s n o t e x c l u d e a t t e m p t s t o r e c o n c i l e t h e t w o i n t e r e s t s ;
a n d i t m o s t c e r t a i n l y d o e s n o t i m p l y t h a t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e e m -
p l o y e e a r e i n s i g n i f i c a n t . B u t i t d o e s h o l d t h a t t h e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n
m u s t n o t b e a c h i e v e d a t t h e e x p e n s e o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s i n t e r e s t ;
a n d t h a t , w h e r e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n c a n n o t b e a c h i e v e d , t h e i n t e r e s t s o f
t h e g o v e r n m e n t s h a l l b e g i v e n
e x c l u s i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n .
Te s t e d t h i s w a y , t h e Tr u m a n L o y a l t y P r o g r a m a n d ( t h o u g h t o
a l e s s e r e x t e n t ) t h e Ei s e n h o w e r S e c u r i t y P r o g r a m a r e d e f e c t i v e i n
a t l e a s t t h r e e p a r t i c u l a r s : ( a ) t h e y a s s i g n t h e d e c i s i o n a s t o w h a t
c o n s t i t u t e s t h e s e c u r i t y i n t e r e s t o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o t h e w r o n g
p e o p l e ;( b ) t h e y s t i p u l a t e p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h i n a n d o f t h e m s e l v e s
o b s t r u c t a s i n g l e - m i n d e d a t t e n t i o n t o t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s i n t e r e s t ;a n d
( c ) t h e y r e s t o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m d e a l s o n l y
w i t h a c t u a l o r p o t e n t i a l t r a i t o r s . Th e s e d e f e c t s a r e f u n d a m e n t a l .
Th e c o r r e c t a p p r o a c h t o g o v e r n m e n t s e c u r i t y i n s e n s i t i v e a g e n -
c i e s l i k e t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t i s , i n o u r o p i n i o n , e m b o d i e d i n t h e
M c Ca r r a n Ri d e r ( 1 9 4 6) . Th e Ri d e r f l a t l y a u t h o r i z e s t h e S e c r e -
t a r y o f S t a t e " i n h i s a b s o l u t e d i s c r e t i o n " t o t e r m i n a t e t h e e m p l o y -
m e n t o f a n y De p a r t m e n t o f f i c e r o r e m p l o y e e " w h e n h e s h a l l d e e m
s u c h t e r m i n a t i o n n e c e s s a r y o r a d v i s a b l e i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f
t h e n a -
t i o n a l s e c u r i t y . "
Th e Ri d e r e m b r a c e s t h e a x i o m t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s i n t e r e s t
m u s t c o m e f i r s t a n d p o i n t s t h e w a y - e x p l i c i t l y i n s o m e r e s p e c t s , i m -
p l i c i t l y i n o t h e r s - t o a s u i t a b l y h a r d p r o g r a m f o r e n f o r c i n g s e c u r -
i t y i n s e n s i t i v e g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s . It p r o v i d e s t h a t t h e De p a r t -
m e n t i t s e l f m u s t d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r a n e m p l o y e e s a t i s f i e s i t s s e c u r -
i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s . It i m p l i e s t h a t t h e d i s m i s s a l o f e m p l o y e e s w h o
f a i l t o m e e t t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s m u s t b e s u m m a r y i n n a t u r e , t h e r e
b e i n g n o r e f e r e n c e t o t r a d i t i o n a l j u r i s p r u d e n t i a l s a f e g u a r d s . An d ,
b y f o c u s i n g o n " t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y , " i t ( a g a i n b y
i m p l i c a t i o n ) d i s c o u r a g e s t h e n o t i o n t h a t d i s l o y a l t y o r s u s p e c t e d
d i s l o y a l t y a r e t h e o n l y b a s e s o n w h i c h e m p l o y e e s m a y b e s e p a r a t e d .
Th e P r e s i d e n t ' s L o y a l t y P r o g r a m i s s o m e t i m e s l o o k e d u p o n a s
2 4 8

M CCARTH Y AND H IS ENEM IES


a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e Ri d e r , b e c a u s e i t e s t a b l i s h e d c e r t a i n p r o -
c e d u r e s f o r a d j u d i c a t i n g a n e m p l o y e e ' s f i t n e s s . Ac t u a l l y , h o w e v e r ,
i t r e p u d i a t e d t h e Ri d e r ' s a p p r o a c h t o t h e p r o b l e m . B y a s s i g n i n g
t o a b o a r d o f
l a y m e n t h e a u t h o r i t y t o d e t e r m i n e a n e m p l o y e e ' s f i t -
n e s s , t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s p r o g r a m c a l l e d f o r " j u d g m e n t b y o n e ' s p e e r s "
r a t h e r t h a n j u d g m e n t b y p e r s o n s w i t h a c l a i m t o t h e e x p e r t i s e s u c h
j u d g m e n t c a l l s f o r . Th e M c Ca r r a n Ri d e r i m p l i c i t l y a c k n o w l e d g e d
t h e e x i s t e n c e o f e x p e r t i s e i n m a t t e r s o f l o y a l t y a n d s e c u r i t y : i t c o n -
f e r r e d u p o n t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e h i m s e l f t h e p o w e r t o d e c i d e s e -
c u r i t y c a s e s . An d b y n o t s e t t i n g u p a b o a r d o f l a y m e n t o o v e r s e e
t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f s t i p u l a t e d p r o c e d u r e s , t h e Ri d e r m a x i m i z e d
t h e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t h e w i l l t u r n f o r a d v i c e t o t h e o n l y p e r s o n s w h o
d e a l , d a y i n a n d d a y o u t , w i t h s e c u r i t y m a t t e r s - i . e . , t o t h e De p a r t -
m e n t ' s o w n s e c u r i t y s t a f f . Th i s s t a f f c o n s i s t s , t h e o r e t i c a l l y a t l e a s t ,
o f e x p e r t s - e x p e r t s o n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e Co m m u n i s t m o v e m e n t a n d
o n i t s m e t h o d s o f i n f i l t r a t i o n ;e x p e r t s a l s o i n t h e i r k n o w l e d g e o f
t h e p a r t i c u l a r s e c u r i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e De p a r t m e n t .
On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e De p a r t m e n t ' s L o y a l t y
S e c u r i t y B o a r d , a s w e l l a s t h o s e o f t h e Ci v i l S e r v i c e ' s L o y a l t y Re -
v i e w B o a r d , w e r e q u a l i f i e d p r i m a r i l y b y t h e i r c i v i c r e s p e c t a b i l i t y
.
Th e r e i s n o r e a s o n t o s u p p o s e t h a t t h e s e m e n - l a w y e r s , b u s i n e s s
m e n , d i p l o m a t s ( i n t h e c a s e o f t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t B o a r d ) * - a r e
f i t t o e v a l u a t e w i t h a n y s p e c i a l a c u i t y i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o t h e
Co m m u n i s t c o n s p i r a c y , o r e v e n t o a d j u d g e t h e p a r t i c u l a r s e n s i t i v -
i t y o f a g i v e n S t a t e De p a r t m e n t p o s t . Th e r a t i o n a l e f o r s t a f f i n g t h e
l o y a l t y b o a r d s w i t h l a y m e n i s d i r e c t l y t r a c e a b l e t o t h e c o m m o n l a w
n o t i o n t h a t t h e e n d s o f j u s t i c e a r e b e s t s e r v e d w h e n a n u n b i a s e d
t r i b u n a l o f a v e r a g e c i t i z e n s d e c i d e s w h e t h e r a n a c c u s e d i s g u i l t y
o r i n n o c e n t . B u t j u s t i c e , w e a r e s a y i n g , i s n o t t h e m a j o r o b j e c t i v e
h e r e .
As e c o n d s e r i o u s d e f i c i e n c y o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l o y a l t y - s e c u r i t y
p r o g r a m i s i t s i n s i s t e n c e u p o n q u a s i - j u d i c i a l p r o c e d u r e s
. Th i s t e n d s
t o i n j e c t f a c t o r s i n t o f i t n e s s - d e t e r m i n a t i o n s w h i c h d i s t r a c t t h e t r i -
b u n a l f r o m t h e o n l y t a s k i t h a s a n y b u s i n e s s c o n s i d e r i n g - p r o t e c t -
i n g t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t .
L e t u s b e v e r y c l e a r a b o u t t h i s . W e a r e s a y i n g t h a t i t i s n o t t h e
f u n c t i o n o f a s e c u r i t y b o a r d t o g i v e t h e e m p l o y e e h i s " d a y i n c o u r t " ;
h i s " s i d e o f t h e s t o r y " s h o u l d b e h e a r d , b u t t h e h e a r i n g o f i t h a s a
l i m i t e d f u n c t i o n o f e n l i g h t e n i n g t h e g o v e r n m e n t . Th e f u n c t i o n i s
* U n d e r t h e Ei s e n h o w e r p r o g r a m , t h e " l e a d i n g c i t i z e n s " f r o m o t h e r
De -
p a r t m e n t s s i t o n a De p a r t m e n t ' s S e c u r i t y B o a r d . S e e b e l o w .
CL OS ING RANK S

2 4 9
t o
p r o v i d e t h e g o v e r n m e n t w i t h f a c t s ,
o t h e r w i s e u n a v a i l a b l e t o i t ,
w h i c h m a y h e l p s e c u r i t y o f f i c e r s i n d e c i d i n g w h e t h e r t h e e m p l o y e e
i s q u a l i f i e d t o r e t a i n h i s j o b . An e m p l o y e e ' s c a s e s h o u l d b e " h e a r d , "
n o t b e c a u s e h e s t a n d s t o g a i n b y t h e h e a r i n g , b u t b e c a u s e t h e g o v -
e r n m e n t n e e d s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n h e p o s s e s s e s .
No w i t i s c l e a r t h a t f o r m a l b o a r d h e a r i n g s a r e n o t n e c e s s a r y f o r
t h e p u r p o s e o f e l i c i t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ;a n i n t e r v i e w w i t h s e c u r i t y
o f f i c e r s w i l l a c h i e v e t h i s p u r p o s e w e l l e n o u g h . B u t b e y o n d t h i s
t h e r e a r e a f f i r m a t i v e r e a s o n s w h y f o r m a l h e a r i n g s , a t w h i c h t h e
e m p l o y e e i s p e r m i t t e d t o a r g u e h i s c a s e t h r o u g h l e g a l c o u n s e l a n d
t h r o u g h t h e t e s t i m o n y o f f r i e n d l y w i t n e s s e s , t e n d t o d i s t r a c t a t t e n -
t i o n f r o m t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s i n t e r e s t s . S u c h h e a r i n g s , p r e c i s e l y b e -
c a u s e t h e y s u g g e s t a n a l o g i e s w i t h t h e j u d i c i a l p r o c e s s , v e r y n a t u r -
a l l y a s s u m e t h e c h a r a c t e r o f a c o n t e s t b e t w e e n t h e De p a r t m e n t
a n d t h e e m p l o y e e . G i v e n t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r e p o s s e s s i o n s o f m e n
a n d w o m e n w h o w e r e b r o u g h t u p o n An g l o - S a x o n j u r i s p r u d e n c e ,
i t i s p r e d i c t a b l e t h a t " j u s t i c e " t o " l i t i g a n t s " w i l l b e t h e c e n t r a l
t h e m e o f a l o y a l t y b o a r d p r o c e e d i n g . An d t h i s , i n t u r n , m a k e s t h e
b o a r d ( a s S e t h Ri c h a r d s o n o f t h e L o y a l t y Re v i e w B o a r d h a s s a i d
h i m s e l f ) " l e a n o v e r " b a c k w a r d s t o f a v o r t h e e m p l o y e e . Th e l e g a l
p a r a p h e r n a l i a , m e a n t t o a s s u r e f a i r a d j u d i c a t i o n o f d i s p u t e s b e -
t w e e n t w o p a r t i e s e q u a l l y p r i v i l e g e d i n t h e e y e s o f t h e l a w , o u g h t
n o t t o a p p l y t o p r o c e e d i n g s w h o s e c l e a r p u r p o s e i s t o s a f e g u a r d ,
a t w h a t e v e r c o s t t o t h e p a r t y o f t h e s e c o n d p a r t , t h e i n t e r e s t s o f
t h e p a r t y o f t h e f i r s t p a r t .
Th e l o y a l t y - s e c u r i t y t y p e h e a r i n g a l s o t e n d s t o f a v o r t h e e m -
p l o y e e b e c a u s e i t i s , i n e f f e c t , a n e x p a r t e p r o c e e d i n g , - i . e . , e x p a r t e
t h e e m p l o y e e . Th e " S t a t e ' s c a s e , " a s Co n r a d S n o w o n c e d e s c r i b e d
t h e c h a r g e s a g a i n s t t h e e m p l o y e e s , i s n o t o r a l l y a r g u e d a t t h e s e
h e a r i n g s ;i t c o n s i s t s i n w r i t t e n i n f o r m a t i o n u n c o v e r e d b y t h e i n -
v e s t i g a t i n g a g e n c i e s . W h i l e , i n d e e d , t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e b o a r d
m a y d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s t o t h e e m p l o y e e a b o u t t h i s o r t h a t i t e m , t h e r e
i s n o " a d v o c a t e " p r e s e n t t o p r e s s t h e De p a r t m e n t ' s " c a s e
. " On t h e
o t h e r h a n d , t h e e m p l o y e e ' s c a s e i s a " l i v e o n e "
: h e i s t h e r e h i m s e l f ;
h i s s i d e o f t h e d i s p u t e i s p r e s e n t e d b y l e g a l c o u n s e l
;a n d f r i e n d l y
w i t n e s s e s a r e c a l l e d i n b y h i m .
B u t b y f a r t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t c o n s e q u e n c e o f u s i n g j u d i c i a l
d e v i c e s i n s e t t l i n g t h e q u e s t i o n o f a m a n ' s f i t n e s s f o r g o v e r n m e n t
s e r v i c e i s t h e " p r e s u m p t i o n o f i n n o c e n c e
. " W e h a v e d i s c u s s e d t h i s
p r e s u m p t i o n a n d i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e Ty d i n g s
i n v e s t i g a t i o n ;a n d w e s a w t h e r e t h a t i t m a y w e l l t u r n o u t t o b e t h e
2 5 0

M CCARTH Y AND H IS ENEM IES


c o n t r o l l i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n d e t e r m i n i n g a n e m p l o y e e ' s f i t n e s s u n -
d e r a l o y a l t y - s e c u r i t y t y p e p r o g r a m
. P h i l i p J e s s u p , f o r e x a m p l e ,
c o u l d n o t b e c o n s i d e r e d a s e c u r i t y r i s k b e c a u s e t h e p r e s u m p t i o n o f
i n n o c e n c e w a s a f a c t o r i n t h e e q u a t i o n . Th i s w a s u n a v o i d a b l e , f o r
i t i s u n r e a l i s t i c t o a s s u m e t h a t a n a d j u d i c a t i o n o f a m a n ' s " i n n o -
c e n c e " o r " g u i l t " c a n b e m a d e i n t h i s c o u n t r y u n r e l a t e d t o o u r
t r a d i t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e t h a t a m a n m u s t b e p r e s u m e d i n n o c e n t u n t i l
h e i s p r o v e n g u i l t y
. In d e e d , t h e p r e s u m p t i o n a r i s e s e v e n w h e r e
t h e a t t e m p t i s m a d e t o p r e v e n t i t s i n t r u s i o n
. F o r e v e n u n d e r t h e
c o n f i n i n g " r e a s o n a b l e d o u b t " s t a n d a r d , t h e d e c i s i o n a s t o w h e t h e r
t h e r e i s a d o u b t i s i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e p r e s u m p t i o n .
Th e p r e s u m p t i o n o f i n n o c e n c e w i l l r e m a i n t h e m a j o r b a r r i e r i n
t h e w a y o f a n e f f e c t i v e s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m a s l o n g a s f i t n e s s a d j u d i -
c a t i o n s r e s e m b l e c r i m i n a l t r i a l s .
Th e Ei s e n h o w e r Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m o f f e r s l i t t l e
h o p e o f c i r c u m v e n t i n g t h e h a z a r d s w e h a v e b e e n d i s c u s s i n g . U n -
d e r i t , t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t h a s s e t u p a S e c u r i t y H e a r i n g B o a r d ;
w h i c h m e a n s t h a t i t w i l l c o n t i n u e t o h o l d h e a r i n g s b e f o r e a q u a s i -
j u d i c i a l t r i b u n a l w h i c h , o f n e c e s s i t y , w i l l l o o k a f t e r t h e " r i g h t s "
o f t h e e m p l o y e e . Tr u e , t h e n e w r e g u l a t i o n s c o n t a i n o n e c o n s i d e r -
a b l e i m p r o v e m e n t : u n d e r Tr u m a n t h e L o y a l t y S e c u r i t y B o a r d
( i n t h e o r y a t l e a s t ) h a d t h e l a s t s a y ;* w h i l e u n d e r t h e n e w d i s -
p e n s a t i o n , t h e B o a r d i s m e r e l y t o h a n d d o w n " a d v i s o r y d e c i s i o n s . "
Th e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e m a y n o w , i f h e s o w i s h e s , t u r n t o e x p e r t s
f o r g u i d a n c e a s t o w h e t h e r o r n o t t o f o l l o w t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s
o f t h e l a y m e n B o a r d . If h e d o e s s o o f t e n e n o u g h , t h e B o a r d , h a p -
p i l y , w i l l c e a s e t o b e f u n c t i o n a l ;a n d i n t h e c o u r s e o f t i m e i t s u s e -
l e s s n e s s m a y e v e n b e a c k n o w l e d g e d . F o r , i n d e e d , s u c h a B o a r d
m u s t b e e i t h e r a b o l i s h e d o r e v i s c e r a t e d i f a n a p p r o p r i a t e l y s i n g l e -
m i n d e d a p p r o a c h t o g o v e r n m e n t s e c u r i t y i s o u r d e s i r e , a s i t i s
o u r n e e d .
Th e h a r d n e s s w e a r e u r g i n g c a n n o t , o f c o u r s e , b e g e n e r a t e d b y
a g o v e r n m e n t e d i c t ;a g o v e r n m e n t e d i c t i s m o r e l i k e l y t o r e s u l t
f r o m a c h a n g e i n t h e p u b l i c a t t i t u d e t o s e c u r i t y i n g o v e r n m e n t
r a t h e r t h a n
p r o d u c e i t . B u t s t a t u t e r e g u l a t i o n s t h a t e n c o u r a g e s u c h
h a r d n e s s c a n o b v i o u s l y b e h e l p f u l . If w e t r u l y a c c e p t t h e t h e o r y
t h a t " a g o v e r n m e n t j o b i s a p r i v i l e g e n o t a r i g h t " t h e n w e m u s t
* Ac h e s o n o v e r r u l e d i t t w i c e ;t h e L o y a l t y Re v i e w B o a r d o v e r r u l e d i t
t w i c e . Ac h e s o n o v e r r u l e d a d v e r s e d e c i s i o n s b y t h e B o a r d : t h e De p a r t m e n t ' s
r e g u l a t i o n s d i d n o t p r o v i d e f o r a n a p p e a l t o t h e S e c r e t a r y f r o m a d e c i s i o n
f a v o r a b l e t o t h e e m p l o y e e .
CL OS ING
B ANK S

2 5 1
a d o p t m e t h o d s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g a n e m p l o y e e ' s f i t n e s s t h a t a r e b e t -
t e r s u i t e d t o a n a d j u d i c a t i o n o f a " p r i v i l e g e " t h a n t o a n a d j u d i c a -
t i o n o f a " r i g h t . ""
B u t t h e r e i s y e t a n o t h e r r e a s o n - p e r h a p s t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t o f
a l l - w h y t h e o l d a p p r o a c h h a s n o t a n d c o u l d n o t h a v e g i v e n u s
t h e s o r t o f s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m w e r e q u i r e . Th e g o v e r n m e n t h a s p r o -
c e e d e d o n t h e n o t i o n t h a t a n e m p l o y e e m u s t c o m e u n d e r a r e a -
s o n a b l e s u s p i c i o n o f b e i n g , i f y o u w i l l , a w i c k e d m a n ( w i c k e d
e n o u g h t o s e r v e a s a n a g e n t f o r a n e n e m y g o v e r n m e n t ) b e f o r e h e
c a n p r o p e r l y b e s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t
. In o t h e r
w o r d s , b y e q u a t i n g b a d s e c u r i t y w i t h g r e a t e v i l w e t e n d t o g o a f t e r
t h e l a t t e r a n d t h u s f a i l t o c o p e w i t h t h e f o r m e r
.
Th e n a t u r e o f t h e p r e d i c a m e n t s h o w s u p p r e s s i n g l y w h e n y o u
d i s c u s s t h e l o y a l t y p r o g r a m s w i t h t h e Ve r y B r i g h t L i b e r a l
. Yo u
h a v e o n l y t o s t a t e t h a t " J o h n J o n e s i s a l o y a l t y r i s k , " a n d t h e p a t
q u e s t i o n i s f o r t h c o m i n g , " W h a t d e f i n i t i o n o f l o y a l t y h a v e y o u i n
m i n d ? " Yo u a r e , o f c o u r s e , t o c o n s i d e r y o u r s e l f r o u t e d u n l e s s y o u
c o m e u p w i t h a n u n a s s a i l a b l e d e f i n i t i o n . An d a v e r y g o o d d e f i n i -
t i o n i s , i n d e e d , h a r d t o c o m e b y .
An y d e f i n i t i o n o f l o y a l t y t h a t c a l l s f o r u n c o n d i t i o n a l a l l e g i a n c e
t o t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i s o b v i o u s l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y
:
m o s t o f u s r e c o g n i z e a n a t u r a l l a w t h a t s u p e r s e d e s t h e a r t i f a c t s o f
m a n a n d e v e n c o m p e l s u s , o n o c c a s i o n , t o d i s o b e y o u r g o v e r n -
m e n t . No r i s t h e n e x t d e f i n i t i o n t h a t s u g g e s t s i t s e l f m u c h b e t t e r
:
t o d e f i n e l o y a l t y a s a n a t t i t u d e t h a t h a s t h e " b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e
U n i t e d S t a t e s ( a s d i s t i n c t f r o m t h o s e o f a f o r e i g n p o w e r ) a t h e a r t
. "
Th e d i f f i c u l t i e s , h e r e a g a i n , a r e o b v i o u s : W h o i s t o s a y Ow e n L a t -
t i m o r e d i d n o t b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w o u l d
b e s e r v e d b y a l l o w i n g As i a t o g o Co m m u n i s t ? Or t h a t W i l l i a m
F o s t e r l i e s w h e n h e a f f i r m s h i s b e l i e f t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w i l l
b e b e t t e r o f f w h e n i t i s g o v e r n e d b y s o v i e t s ?
Th e L i b e r a l , i n o t h e r w o r d s , i s o n h i s t y p e o f " f i r m g r o u n d , " a n d
h e w i l l t a k e u s e v e r y t i m e w e a g r e e t o m e e t h i m o n t h a t q u i c k -
s a n d
. B u t t h i s d o e s n o t m e a n h e i s r i g h t a n d w e a r e w r o n g . It
m e a n s , r a t h e r , t h a t t h e l o y a l t y - s e c u r i t y v o c a b u l a r y i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e
t o t h e p r o b l e m i n h a n d . Th e s u b j e c t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n c a l l e d l o y a l t y
i s v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y , a n d i s t h u s a p o o r y a r d s t i c k b y
w h i c h t o e s t i m a t e f i t n e s s f o r g o v e r n m e n t e m p l o y m e n t . Th e l o y a l t y
c o n c e p t i s u n s e r v i c e a b l e , b e c a u s e i t c a n n o t a t t h e m a r g i n d i f f e r e n -
t i a t e t h e L a t t i m o r e s a n d F o s t e r s f r o m , s a y , t h e L o d g e s a n d Du l -
l e s e s , a n d t h u s i t q u i t e o b v i o u s l y f a i l s t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n t h o s e
2 5 2

M CCARTH Y AND H IS
ENEM IES
w h o a r e a n d t h o s e w h o a r e n o t f i t t o m a k e a n d e x e c u t e p o l i c y . B u t
b e y o n d b e i n g u n s e r v i c e a b l e , t h e c o n c e p t i s i r r e l e v a n t ;f o r w h e n
w e l o o k c l o s e l y a t t h e m a t t e r , w e f i n d w e a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t a l k i n g ,
n o t a b o u t " W h o i s l o y a l ? " b u t a b o u t
" W h o f a v o r s t h o s e p o l i c i e s
t h a t a r e i n t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t a s w e s e e i t ? "
In s h o r t , w h e n w e d i s c u s s t h e n e e d f o r a t i g h t s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m
i n t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t i n l o y a l t y - s e c u r i t y t e r m s , w e a r e a p t t o
f o r g e t t h e b a s i c r e a s o n w h y w e n e e d o n e
. W e d o n o t , o f c o u r s e ,
w a n t t r a i t o r s w o r k i n g i n s e n s i t i v e g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s
. B u t t h e
r e a s o n w e d o n ' t w a n t t r a i t o r s w o r k i n g t h e r e i s t h a t t h e y t e n d t o
f r u s t r a t e Am e r i c a ' s d e f e n s e a g a i n s t t h e S o v i e t U n i o n
. W e i n t e n d t o
e l i m i n a t e t r a i t o r s n o t s o m u c h b e c a u s e t r e a s o n i s w i c k e d b u t b e -
c a u s e i t g e t s i n t h e w a y o f Am e r i c a n i n t e r e s t s
. It i s t h e a d v a n c e -
m e n t o f Am e r i c a n i n t e r e s t s t h a t a p r o p e r l y c o n c e i v e d s e c u r i t y
p r o g r a m h a s t o c o n s i d e r a n d t o g u a r a n t e e . Co n s e q u e n t l y , t h e m a n
w h o f r u s t r a t e s Am e r i c a n p o l i c y w i t h o u t w i c k e d i n t e n t i s n o l e s s
o b j e c t i o n a b l e t h a n t h e m a n w h o f r u s t r a t e s i t w i t h w i c k e d i n t e n t .
L e t u s a s s u m e t h a t Ow e n L a t t i m o r e , J o h n S t e w a r t S e r v i c e , J o h n
Ca r t e r Vi n c e n t - o r a n y o f a d o z e n o t h e r s w h o c o m e t o m i n d - h a v e
h a d t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s c o n s i s t e n t l y a t h e a r t . Ye t i s
t h e d a m a g e t h e y d i d t o Am e r i c a n i n t e r e s t s l e s s e n e d a s i n g l e b i t
b y o u r c o n c e d i n g t h e i r g o o d i n t e n t ?
Th i s b r i n g s u s t o s o m e u n p l e a s a n t t r u t h s . W h e n w e s p e a k o f
p e r s o n n e l w h o f r u s t r a t e t h e a d v a n c e m e n t o f Am e r i c a n i n t e r e s t s
w e s p e a k o f a g r o u p t h a t i n c l u d e s s o m e m e n w h o a r e n o t t r a i t o r s ;
m e n w h o s e o n l y f a u l t m a y b e t h a t t h e y a r e i n c o m p e t e n t p o l i t i c a l
a n a l y s t s , m e n o f b a d j u d g m e n t . An d i f t h e u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e o f t h e
s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m i s t o r e m o v e f r o m g o v e r n m e n t s e r v i c e a l l w h o
f r u s t r a t e t h e a d v a n c e m e n t o f Am e r i c a n i n t e r e s t s , t h e m e r e l y i n -
c o m p e t e n t m e n m u s t g o o u t a l o n g w i t h t h e t r a i t o r s . L e t t h e l a t t e r ,
i f t h e y c a n b e i d e n t i f i e d , p a y s o m e s t i f f p r i c e o v e r a n d a b o v e t h e
l o s s o f t h e i r j o b s . B u t l e t u s a g r e e t h a t t h e f o r m e r w i l l h a v e t o l o s e
t h e i r j o b s .
In a w o r d : o u r s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m m u s t b e d e s i g n e d t o e l i m i n a t e
p e r s o n n e l w h o , o n t h e b a s i s o f p a s t p e r f o r m a n c e o r p r e s e n t a t t i -
t u d e s , w i l l p r e d i c t a b l y h i n d e r o u r c a u s e ,
w h e t h e r t h i s b e t h e i r
c o n s c i o u s a i m o r n o t . Is t h e e m p l o y e e , g i v e n h i s p a s t p e r f o r m a n c e ,
l i k e l y t o a d v a n c e t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ? Th i s i s t h e
o n l y f e a s i b l e s t a n d a r d b y w h i c h t o d e t e r m i n e t h e f i t n e s s o f a S t a t e
De p a r t m e n t e m p l o y e e t o c o n t i n u e i n a p o s t i n w h i c h h e c a n i n f l u -
e n c e p o l i c y .
CL OS ING RANK S

2 5 3
j
Th e L i b e r a l ' s a n s w e r t o t h i s i s e a s y t o a n t i c i p a t e
. H e w i l l s t r i k e a
p o s t u r e o f h u m i l i t y , i n v o k e t h e a x i o m o f h u m a n f a l l i b i l i t y , a n d a s k ,
w h o ,
p r a y t e l l , c a n s a y w h i c h p o l i c y i s i n t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t ? W h o
i s t o s a y t h a t o n e m a n ' s a n a l y s i s a n d j u d g m e n t a r e s o u n d a n d a n -
o t h e r ' s u n s o u n d ? Ev e n a s s u m i n g w e
s h o u l d
d i s m i s s e m p l o y e e s
w h o s e j u d g m e n t i s p r e d i c t a b l y b a d ( h e w i l l g o o n ) , w e w o u l d
h a v e t o b e a b l e t o s a y w i t h u t m o s t c o n f i d e n c e t h a t J o n e s h a s a
l o n g r e c o r d o f m a k i n g " b a d " j u d g m e n t s
;a n d t h i s , i n t h e n a t u r e o f
t h e c a s e , w e c o u l d n e v e r d o
. F o r w e c a n s a y , p e r h a p s , t h a t h i s
u d g m e n t s h a v e h a d u n f o r t u n a t e c o n s e q u e n c e s i n t h e l o n g p u l l
;
b u t J o n e s h a d t o m a k e t h e m i n t h e l i g h t o f w h a t w a s k n o w n a n d
k n o w a b l e a t a n o t h e r m o m e n t i n t i m e
. In s h o r t , t h e L i b e r a l w i l l
h a v e n o n e o f o u r a p o d i c t i c a l t a l k a b o u t " b a d j u d g m e n t " b e c a u s e ,
h e i n s i s t s , i t i n v o l v e s t h e a s s e r t i o n o f o u r o w n i n f a l l i b i l i t y
.
No w t h e L i b e r a l i s q u i t e r i g h t i n s a y i n g t h a t w e c a n n o t a l w a y s
p a s s u p o n t h e m e r i t s o f p a s t j u d g m e n t s w i t h a b s o l u t e c e r t i t u d e .
B u t t o s a y t h a t , t h e r e f o r e , w e c a n n o t e v a l u a t e p a s t p o l i c y r e c o m -
m e n d a t i o n s s o a s t o d e c i d e w h e t h e r w e w a n t J o n e s t o d r a w u p
f u t u r e p o l i c y i s t o t a l k n o n s e n s e
. W e r e p u d i a t e t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e
n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t i s s o v a g u e , a n d g o o d j u d g m e n t e x e r c i s e d o n i t s
b e h a l f s o e l u s i v e , t h a t w e a r e n e v e r i n a p o s i t i o n t o s a y w h i c h
m a n ' s j u d g m e n t e n d a n g e r s t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t . An d w e r e j e c t t h e
m y s t i f i c a t i o n i n v o l v e d i n t h e L i b e r a l ' s o t h e r g a m b i t - n a m e l y , t h e
q u e r y : w h o ,
a f t e r a l l , i s t o s a y a t a n y p a r t i c u l a r m o m e n t w h a t t h e
n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t i s ?
B e a r i n g i n m i n d t h a t t h e L i b e r a l i s s e l d o m s o d e m u r e w h e n a s -
s e r t i n g h i s o w n
o p i n i o n s , l e t u s r e m e m b e r t h a t u n d e r o u r s y s t e m
o f g o v e r n m e n t d e c i s i o n s a s t o w h a t t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t i s , a n d
w h i c h p e r s o n s a r e o n t h e r e c o r d l i k e l y t o f o r m u l a t e a n d e x e c u t e a
f o r e i g n p o l i c y t h a t w i l l a d v a n c e i t , a r e m a d e b y t h e p e o p l e a c t i n g
t h r o u g h t h e i r e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . Th e r e w o u l d s e e m t o b e
n o t h i n g b i z a r r e i n t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e m e n e l e c t e d t o p u t i n t o e f f e c t
a c e r t a i n p o l i c y s h o u l d b e t h e o n e s t o d e c i d e w h a t k i n d o f p r o f e s -
s i o n a l w o r k e r s a r e e q u i p p e d t o c a r r y o u t t h a t p o l i c y . Ye t m a n y w h o
w o u l d n e v e r c h a l l e n g e a P r e s i d e n t ' s r i g h t t o s e l e c t h i s o w n S e c r e -
t a r y o f S t a t e ( o r t h e S e c r e t a r y ' s r i g h t , i n t u r n , t o s e l e c t h i s o w n
p r i n c i p a l a s s i s t a n t s ) s t o p s h o r t o f w h a t s e e m s t o f o l l o w a s a m a t t e r
o f c o u r s e : t h a t a l l e m p l o y e e s w h o s e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o u c h u p o n
t h e m a k i n g o f p o l i c y , b u t w h o s e d e m o n s t r a t e d v i e w s a n d a t t i t u d e s
o n c r i t i c a l i s s u e s a r e a t h w a r t t h e Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s , s h o u l d b e s u m -
m a r i l y s e n t o n t h e i r w a y .
2 5 4
M CCARTH YANDH IS ENEM IES
P ROTECTING TH EEM P L OYEE
P r e s i d e n t Tr u m a n a d v e r t i s e d h i s l o y a l t y p r o g r a m a s o n e d e -
s i g n e d t o a c h i e v e t w o g o a l s - t h a t o f p r o t e c t i n g t h e g o v e r n m e n t
a n d t h a t o f p r o t e c t i n g i t s e m p l o y e e s . Th e f i r s t g o a l , a s w e h a v e
s e e n t h r o u g h o u t t h i s b o o k , w a s n o t a c h i e v e d . Th e s e c o n d w a s
a c h i e v e d i n t h e s e n s e t h a t g o v e r n m e n t e m p l o y e e s w e r e g i v e n a
h i g h d e g r e e o f j o b s e c u r i t y - i n o t h e r w o r d s , t o t h e e x t e n t t h e f i r s t
g o a l w a s n o t a c h i e v e d . B u t e v e n a s r e g a r d s t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f e m -
p l o y e e s w h o d i d l o s e t h e i r j o b s , t h e p r o g r a m h a d c o n s p i c u o u s d e -
f e c t s . W e a r e s p e a k i n g o f t h e b l i g h t i n g o f p e r s o n a l r e p u t a t i o n s ,
w h i c h t h e g o v e r n m e n t i s o b l i g e d t o a v o i d , w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e .
Th e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f t h e Tr u m a n p r o g r a m u n d o u b t e d l y a p p r e -
c i a t e d t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f s h i e l d i n g d i s c h a r g e d e m p l o y e e s f r o m
p u b l i c e x p o s u r e . Ou t o f t h e h u n d r e d s o f p e r s o n s s e p a r a t e d f r o m
g o v e r n m e n t s e r v i c e u n d e r t h e f e d e r a l l o y a l t y p r o g r a m s i n c e 3 - 9 4 7 ,
o n l y a h a n d f u l a r e k n o w n t o t h e p u b l i c - a n d s o m e o f t h o s e i d e n t i -
f i e d
t h e m s e l v e s b y t a k i n g p u b l i c e x c e p t i o n t o t h e a d v e r s e d e c i s i o n s
o f t h e l o y a l t y b o a r d s . S o m e o t h e r s b e c a m e i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e c o u r s e
o f p u b l i c d i s p u t e s a b o u t t h e s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m
. S o m e l e a k s , h o w -
e v e r , d i d o c c u r
;a n d i n s o m e o t h e r i n s t a n c e s , w h e r e t h e De p a r t -
m e n t w a s s u c c e s s f u l i n k e e p i n g t h e p u b l i c u n i n f o r m e d , w e m u s t
s u p p o s e t h a t a n e m p l o y e e ' s f r i e n d s a n d c l o s e a s s o c i a t e s w e r e i n a
p o s i t i o n t o f i n d o u t o r g u e s s t h e r e a s o n s f o r h i s s e p a r a t i o n
. At a n y
r a t e , s o m e r e p u t a t i o n s h a v e s u f f e r e d f r o m t h e g o v e r n m e n t l o y a l t y
p r o g r a m ;a n d t h e f a u l t l i e s n o t s o m u c h w i t h t h e s e c u r i t y o f f i c i a l s ,
w h o t r i e d h a r d , a s w i t h t h o s e w h o d r e w u p t h e r u l e s o f t h e g a m e
.
Th e f i r s t m i s t a k e m a d e b y t h e a u t h o r s o f t h e Tr u m a n p r o g r a m
i s t h e i r w a y o f d e s c r i b i n g a p e r s o n f o u n d u n f i t t o w o r k f o r t h e g o v -
e r n m e n t - i . e . , a s a " l o y a l t y r i s k
. " Th e l o y a l t y - d i s l o y a l t y c r i t e r i o n i s
u n s e r v i c e a b l e , a s w e h a v e s e e n , f r o m t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o i n t o f
v i e w ;i t s c o n s e q u e n c e s a r e e v e n m o r e u n f o r t u n a t e f o r t h e e m -
p l o y e e . Th e g o v e r n m e n t c a n , i f i t s e e s f i t , w a l k a r o u n d t h e p h i l o -
s o p h i c a l o b s t a c l e s a n d u s e t h e t e r m " d i s l o y a l " a s m e r e l y m e a n i n g
" d i s l o y a l t o t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a s t h e g o v e r n m e n t
u n d e r s t a n d s t h e s e i n t e r e s t s
. " B u t t h e e m p l o y e e i s n o t i n a p o s i t i o n
t o p l e a d p h i l o s o p h i c a l n i c e t i e s . Th e p u b l i c c a n n o t b e c o u n t e d o n
t o i n q u i r e i n t o t h e s e m a n t i c s o f t h e t e r m " d i s l o y a l t y . " No m a t t e r
h o w i t i s e x p l a i n e d , " d i s l o y a l t y " e v o k e s t h e m o s t i n v i d i o u s i m a g e s
CL OS ING RANK S

2 5 5
i n e v e r y b o d y ' s m i n d ;i t o c c u p i e s , q u i t e s i m p l y , t h e t o p n i c h e i n t h e
h i e r a r c h y o f p u b l i c s i n s .
No r w a s i t p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l t o t h e e m p l o y e e ' s r e p u t a t i o n
t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t d a r k l y l a b e l l e d h i m a " l o y a l t y r i s k " i n s t e a d
o f a f f i r m a t i v e l y c h a r g i n g h i m w i t h d i s l o y a l t y . F o r o n e t h i n g , t h e
p u b l i c ( i f i t h e a r s o f t h e m a t t e r a t a l l ) i s n o t l i k e l y t o d i s t i n g u i s h
b e t w e e n t h e " r i s k " a n d t h e " s u r e " c a s e . F o r a n o t h e r , t h e g o v e r n -
m e n t ' s s t a n d a r d s a r e s u c h a s t o i n v i t e s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t t h e e m -
p l o y e e w a s a g o o d d e a l m o r e t h a n a r i s k
;f o r t o b e a " r i s k " i s a s b a d
a s y o u e v e r c a n g e t i n t h e De p a r t m e n t
. If G e o r g i M a l e n k o v h a d
a d e s k t h e r e , t h e w o r s t t h a t t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t L o y a l t y B o a r d
c o u l d c a l l h i m ( a s s u m i n g i t f o u n d a g a i n s t h i m ) w o u l d b e a " l o y -
a l t y r i s k . "
Th e l o y a l t y p r o g r a m , i n o t h e r w o r d s , a d o p t e d s t a n d a r d s f o r a d -
j u d i c a t i n g a n e m p l o y e e ' s f i t n e s s t h a t a r e a l i e n a n d r e p u g n a n t t o
o u r j u r i s p r u d e n c e . In t h e i n t e r e s t s o f n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y , i t a d o p t e d ,
q u i t e p r o p e r l y , t h e t h e o r y t h a t , a l t h o u g h a m a n m a y b e i n n o c e n t
b e f o r e t h e l a w , h e m a y n o n e t h e l e s s f a l l s h o r t o f m e e t i n g t h e
m u c h m o r e s t r i n g e n t s t a n d a r d s f o r g o v e r n m e n t e m p l o y m e n t . B u t
t h e n , h a v i n g a r r a n g e d t h i n g s s o t h a t J o n e s w o u l d b e f o u n d w a n t -
i n g b y a l o y a l t y b o a r d , a l t h o u g h h e m i g h t e a s i l y h a v e s u r v i v e d t h e
s a m e c h a r g e s i n a c o u r t o f l a w , i t p r o c e e d e d t o p i n o n h i m a l a b e l
e v e r y b i t a s d a m a g i n g t o h i s r e p u t a t i o n a s a n y c o n t a i n e d i n t h e
v o c a b u l a r y o f c r i m e .
An d w h a t w o r k e d a g a i n s t t h e e m p l o y e e i n t h i s r e g a r d w a s ,
i r o n i c a l l y , t h e e l a b o r a t e p r o c e d u r e s t h a t w e r e c a r e f u l l y d e s i g n e d ,
a n d e x p e n s i v e l y e x e c u t e d , t o p r o t e c t h i m . F o r l e a k s w e r e n o r m a l l y
t r a c e a b l e t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i n v e s t i g a t e d e m p l o y e e b e c a m e i n -
v o l v e d i n p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h c o u l d n o t b e c o n c e a l e d f r o m h i s i m m e -
d i a t e a s s o c i a t e s . H o w e v e r t i g h t - l i p p e d a n d e v a s i v e t h e s e c u r i t y
o f f i c i a l s m i g h t b e , t h e p r o c e d u r a l m i l l u s u a l l y b e t r a y e d t h e f a c t
t h a t a n e m p l o y e e w a s i n l o y a l t y o r s e c u r i t y t r o u b l e .
Of c o u r s e , n o s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m c a n s o o p e r a t e a s t o p r e c l u d e
t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e " s e c u r i t y r i s k " w i l l g e t p u b l i c l y i d e n t i f i e d .
B u t Tr u m a n d i d n o t g o f a r e n o u g h i n p r o t e c t i n g t h e e m p l o y e e i n
t h i s r e s p e c t . An d o u t o f t h e p a s t p e r f o r m a n c e , c e r t a i n r e m e d i e s
s u g g e s t t h e m s e l v e s .
Th e f i r s t i s t o d o a w a y w i t h t h e f o r m a l h e a r i n g . An d t h i s , a s w e
m a y h a v e s h o w n , w o u l d s e r v e t h e i n t e r e s t s o f b o t h - g o v e r n m e n t
a n d e m p l o y e e
. B u t s o m e t h i n g s t i l l m o r e d r a s t i c i s n e c e s s a r y : t h e
2 5 6

M CCARTH YANDH IS ENEM IES


d i s t i n c t i o n t h e Tr u m a n p r o g r a m m a d e b e t w e e n e m p l o y e e s w h o
a r e u n d e s i r a b l e f o r s e c u r i t y o r l o y a l t y r e a s o n s , a n d e m p l o y e e s w h o
a r e u n d e s i r a b l e f o r o t h e r r e a s o n s m u s t b e e r a s e d . Th e S t a t e De -
p a r t m e n t o u g h t t o d i s m i s s t h e s e c u r i t y r i s k a n d t h e " p o l i c y m i s f i t "
t h e s a m e w a y i t d i s m i s s e s a n e m p l o y e e w h o i s h a b i t u a l l y l a t e f o r
w o r k . An d , f o r p u b l i c c o n s u m p t i o n , t h e De p a r t m e n t o u g h t t o h a v e
a s t o c k p h r a s e c o v e r i n g a l l s e p a r a t i o n s
. ( Th e Ei s e n h o w e r Ad m i n -
i s t r a t i o n s e e m s , i n t h i s r e g a r d , t o b e m o v i n g i n t h e r i g h t d i r e c t i o n .
Th e r e i s r e a s o n t o s u p p o s e t h a t m a n y o r a l l o f t h e 1 , 4 5 6s e c u r i t y
r i s k s w h o h a d b e e n d i s c h a r g e d f r o m e x e c u t i v e a g e n c i e s a s o f Oc t o -
b e r 1 9 5 3 , w e r e a t t h e t i m e o f t h e i r s e p a r a t i o n c a m o u f l a g e d a s
" r i f l e d " [ " Re d u c t i o n In F o r c e " ] c a s e s
;a n d t h u s , f r i e n d s a n d a s s o -
c i a t e s o f t h e d i s m i s s e d e m p l o y e e s a t t r i b u t e d t h e i r s e p a r a t i o n t o
g o v e r n m e n t e c o n o m i e s . W h e t h e r t h i s p r o c e d u r e i s t o b e a p e r -
m a n e n t f e a t u r e o f t h e Ei s e n h o w e r s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m i t i s t o o e a r l y
t o s a y . )
B u t t o e r a s e t h e d i s t i n c t i o n a t t h e s e p a r a t i o n s t a g e i s n o t t o
e l i m i n a t e i t a l t o g e t h e r , s i n c e t h e s e c u r i t y r i s k w i l l h a v e g o n e
t h r o u g h c e r t a i n s c r e e n i n g p r o c e d u r e s t h a t t h e l a t e - t o - w o r k e m -
p l o y e e h a s n o t . In d e e d , b y a d v o c a t i n g t h a t s e c u r i t y e x p e r t s m o -
n o p o l i z e t h e h a n d l i n g o f s e c u r i t y r i s k c a s e s , w e h a v e r e t a i n e d a n
o b s t a c l e t o t h e e q u a l i z a t i o n o f s e c u r i t y c a s e s a n d o t h e r c a s e s . B u t w e
a l s o p r o p o s e t h a t a s e a r l y a s p o s s i b l e i n t h e p r o c e s s - a t t h e i n s t a n t
t h e s e c u r i t y e x p e r t s h a v e r u l e d t h a t a n e m p l o y e e s h o u l d b e s e p a -
r a t e d - t h e r i s k s h o u l d b e " t h r o w n " i n t o a c o m m o n c h a n n e l w i t h a l l
o t h e r e m p l o y e e s a b o u t t o l e a v e t h e De p a r t m e n t f o r s u n d r y r e a s o n s .
Th e s e p r o p o s a l s h a v e a t w o f o l d a d v a n t a g e . Co n s c i e n t i o u s s e c u r -
i t y p e r s o n n e l a r e m o r e l i k e l y t o e x e c u t e a h a r d s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m i f
e v e r y t h i n g h a s b e e n d o n e t o l i g h t e n t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r t h e s e p a -
r a t e d e m p l o y e e
. Th e y f e e l l e s s t e m p t e d t o i n d u l g e t h e " p r e s u m p -
t i o n o f i n n o c e n c e " i f t h e y a r e n o l o n g e r f o r c e d t o a d j u d i c a t e
" g u i l t " ;a n d i f t h e p u b l i c h a s n o l o n g e r a r e a s o n t o r e g a r d s e p a r a -
t i o n f r o m a s e n s i t i v e a g e n c y a s e v i d e n c e o f s u c h a n a d j u d i c a t i o n
.
On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e p l i g h t o f t h e s e p a r a t e d e m p l o y e e i s i n d e e d
m i t i g a t e d .
Th e r e r e m a i n s t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t s o m e p e r s o n s d e s e r v e t o h a v e
t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n s b l i g h t e d : t h e c o m m u n i t y s h o u l d b e i n f o r m e d t h a t
t h e l o y a l t y o f a d i s m i s s e d d e p a r t m e n t e m p l o y e e w a s i n q u e s t i o n -
s o t h a t h e d o e s n o t l a n d a n e v e n m o r e s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n i n Am e r i -
c a n s o c i e t y t h a n t h a t w h i c h h e h a s f o r c i b l y l o s t
. An d t h e i d e a t h a t
s o m e p e o p l e d e s e r v e t o h a v e t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n s b l i g h t e d i s , w e b e -
CL OS ING B ANK S

2 5 7
l i e v e , w i d e l y h e l d
. H o w e v e r t h a t m a y b e , w e a r e b e t t e r o f f l e a v -
i n g m a t t e r s o f j u d g m e n t a n d r e t r i b u t i o n t o P r o v i d e n c e
. Th e f u n c -
t i o n o f a s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m i s t o g e t m i s f i t s o u t o f g o v e r n m e n t - n o t
t o p e r s e c u t e t h e m . *
No d o u b t , t h e n o t i o n t h a t a s e c u r i t y r i s k o u g h t t o b e e x p o s e d s o
t h a t t h e c o m m u n i t y c a n p r o t e c t i t s e l f i s a n o t i o n o f s o m e m e r i t
.
Th e p o i n t i s t h a t a n a d v e r s e s e c u r i t y f i n d i n g s h o u l d n o t b e r e g a r d e d
a s a p o s i t i v e p r o o f o f a m a n ' s d i s p l a c e d a l l e g i a n c e
;a n d a n a d v e r s e
a d j u d i c a t i o n o f a p e r s o n ' s f i t n e s s f o r g o v e r n m e n t e m p l o y m e n t i s
n o t a n d s h o u l d n o t b e r e g a r d e d a s a p r e j u d g m e n t o f h i s f i t n e s s
f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n n o r m a l c o m m u n i t y l i f e
. If w e w a n t t h e g o v e r n -
m e n t t o s u p p l y s t r i c t e r s t a n d a r d s i n p r o t e c t i n g i t s e l f t h a n w e a r e
w i l l i n g t o i n c o r p o r a t e i n t o o u r j u r i s p r u d e n c e g e n e r a l l y , w e o u g h t
t o b e s a t i s f i e d t o c o n c l u d e n o t h i n g m o r e f r o m t h e d i s m i s s a l o f a
g o v e r n m e n t e m p l o y e e t h a n t h a t h e i s n o t q u a l i f i e d f o r t h e p a r t i c u -
l a r j o b h e w a s h o l d i n g .
J OB S ECU RITY
Th e p r o t e s t s a g a i n s t t h e d i s m i s s a l o f g o v e r n m e n t e m p l o y e e s o n
l o y a l t y o r s e c u r i t y g r o u n d s a r e b e c o m i n g r a r e
;a n d n o t b e c a u s e
t h i s i s t h e c a l l o u s " Ag e o f Co n f o r m i t y , " b u t s i m p l y b e c a u s e t h e
p u b l i c , i n c l u d i n g m a n y L i b e r a l s , b e g a n t o g r a s p t h e e l e m e n t a r y
f a c t t h a t t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s u p e r s e d e s a n y i n d i v i d u a l ' s j o b p r i v -
i l e g e s
. B u t t h e p u b l i c i s n o t , i t s e e m s , p r e p a r e d t o c o m e t o t h e
s a m e c o n c l u s i o n a b o u t w h a t w e h a v e c a l l e d t h e " p o l i c y m i s f i t , "
t h e g o v e r n m e n t e m p l o y e e w h o g e t s i n t h e w a y o f t h e c o l d w a r b e -
c a u s e h e h o l d s a t t i t u d e s a n d o p i n i o n s t h a t , h o w e v e r r e s p e c t a b l e ,
i n c a p a c i t a t e h i m f r o m c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f c u r r e n t
U n i t e d S t a t e s o b j e c t i v e s
.
On e r e a s o n f o r t h i s b i a s i s c l e a r : i n o u r s o c i e t y , a m a n ' s j o b i s
d e e m e d o n e o f h i s m o s t p r e c i o u s p o s s e s s i o n s
. Th e f a c t t h a t " j o b
s e c u r i t y " h a s b e e n t h e u n d e r l y i n g t h e m e i n o n e n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n
c a m p a i g n a f t e r a n o t h e r s h o w s h o w z e a l o u s l y Am e r i c a n s l o o k u p o n
t h e i r j o b " r i g h t s . " Th e p a s s i o n a t e a t t a c h m e n t o f s o m e c i v i c o r g a n -
i z a t i o n s t o t h e i d e a o f a p e r m a n e n t a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r s e r v i c e
i n g o v e r n m e n t i n d i c a t e s t h e s a m e t e n d e n c y . No r d o w e o u r s e l v e s
* Th e s o l i c i t u d e p r o p e r i n m o s t c l a s s e s o f s e c u r i t y r i s k s i s , o f c o u r s e , n o t
i n d i c a t e d w h e n a m a n h a s c o m m i t t e d e s p i o n a g e o r h a s p e r j u r e d h i m s e l f
.
B u t s u c h a m a n i s t h e p r o p e r c o n c e r n o f t h e j u s t i c e De p a r t m e n t - n o t t h e
S t a t e De p a r t m e n t .
2 5 8

M CCARTH YANDH IS ENEM IES


w i s h t o a p p e a r i n d i f f e r e n t t o t h e n e e d f o r a p r o f e s s i o n a l c i v i l s e r v -
i c e - a c a r e e r t h a t a b l e y o u n g Am e r i c a n s c a n e n t e r w i t h c o n f i d e n c e
.
B u t t h e e s s e n t i a l q u e s t i o n i s n o t w h e t h e r t h e r e s h o u l d b e a p r o -
f e s s i o n a l a n d p e r m a n e n t Ci v i l S e r v i c e , b u t w h e t h e r , i n o u r d e t e r -
m i n a t i o n t o a c h i e v e s u c h a s e r v i c e , w e h a v e d e f e a t e d o u r o w n
p u r p o s e s b y g i v i n g g o v e r n m e n t e m p l o y e e s ( a ) a k i n d o f j o b s e c u r -
i t y t h a t f e w o t h e r s i n o u r s o c i e t y e n j o y , ( b ) a k i n d o f j o b s e c u r i t y
t h a t g o e s f a r b e y o n d w h a t r e a s o n c a n j u s t i f y , a n d ( c ) a k i n d o f j o b
s e c u r i t y t h a t u n d e r m i n e s r a t h e r t h a n e n h a n c e s t h e e f f i c i e n c y a n d
t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m o f t h e c i v i l s e r v i c e
. Th e r e f o r e t h e q u e s t i o n i s
w o r t h a s k i n g w h y g o v e r n m e n t w o r k e r s s h o u l d n o t b e t r e a t e d t h e
s a m e w a y t h e c o m m u n i t y t r e a t s o t h e r c l e r i c a l a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l
w o r k e r s
. W h y s h o u l d g o v e r n m e n t j o b s n o t b e r e l a t e d t o t h e l e g i t -
i m a t e d a y - t o - d a y n e e d s o f t h e c o n s u m e r s o f g o v e r n m e n t
( i . e . , t h e
e l e c t o r a t e ) , j u s t a s o t h e r j o b s d e p e n d o n t h e d a y - t o - d a y c o n s u m e r
n e e d s a s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e m a r k e t p l a c e ? In d e e d , i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e
l e g i t i m a c y o f d i s c h a r g i n g g o v e r n m e n t a l m i s f i t s , t h e b u r d e n w o u l d
s e e m t o l i e n o t o n t h o s e w h o w o u l d d o a w a y w i t h s p e c i a l p r o t e c -
t i o n f o r t h e g o v e r n m e n t e m p l o y e e , b u t o n t h o s e w h o w o u l d g r a n t
h i m e x t r a o r d i n a r y p r i v i l e g e s
.
S e v e n t y y e a r s a g o , t h e a u t h o r s o f t h e Ci v i l S e r v i c e Ac t a d v a n c e d
p e r s u a s i v e a r g u m e n t s i n b e h a l f o f s e c u r i t y o f t e n u r e f o r t h e g o v -
e r n m e n t e m p l o y e e . Ci v i l s e r v a n t s , t h e y s a i d i n e f f e c t , a r e i n a d i f -
f e r e n t c a t e g o r y f r o m o t h e r e m p l o y e e s i n t h a t t h e y c a n d i s c h a r g e
t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n s t o t h e i r
u l t i m a t e e m p l o y e r s o n l y i f t h e y s t a n d i n
a p e c u l i a r p r o t e c t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e i r i m m e d i a t e
e m p l o y e r .
Th e i r u l t i m a t e e m p l o y e r s a r e t h e n a t i o n ;b u t t h e i r i m m e d i a t e e m -
p l o y e r , f o r w h o m t h e y p e r f o r m t h e m a n i f o l d c l e r i c a l , m a n a g e r i a l ,
a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f
p o l i c y , i s t h e p o l i t i c a l p a r t y i n p o w e r . An d t h e l a t t e r d e p e n d s
u p o n p a t r o n a g e a s a m e a n s o f o b t a i n i n g a n d m a i n t a i n i n g p o l i t i c a l
a d v a n t a g e . Th u s , i f l e f t t o i t s o w n d e v i c e s , t h e i m m e d i a t e e m p l o y e r
w i l l a c t a s t h o u g h t h e p r i m a r y q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r g o v e r n m e n t e m -
p l o y m e n t w e r e p a r t y l o y a l t y r a t h e r t h a n c o m p e t e n c e
;a n d a s a
r e s u l t , e m p l o y e e s w h o c a n n o t m e e t t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t w i l l , w i t h
e a c h i n c o m i n g Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n , b e d i s c h a r g e d - t o t h e g r e a t i n j u r y
o f t h e n a t i o n . If , t h e n , t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e u l t i m a t e e m p l o y e r - t h e
n a t i o n - a r e t o b e g i v e n f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h e p o w e r o f t h e i m m e -
d i a t e e m p l o y e r ( t h e p o l i t i c a l p a r t y i n p o w e r ) t o d i s c h a r g e e m -
p l o y e e s m u s t b e r e s t r i c t e d
. Th e s o l u t i o n t o w h i c h a l l t h i s p o i n t s ,
s o t h e a r g u m e n t r u n s , i s t o d r a w p e r s o n s o f d e m o n s t r a t e d p r o f e s -
s i o n a l c o m p e t e n c e i n t o t h e Ci v i l S e r v i c e a n d g u a r a n t e e t h e i r
t e n u r e .
B u t t h i s r a t i o n a l e , i t w i l l b e s e e n i f w e r e c a l l w h e r e t h e a r g u -
m e n t s t a r t e d , r e s t s o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t c i v i l s e r v a n t s a r e n o t
i n v o l v e d i n p o l i c y b u t m e r e l y p e r f o r m r o u t i n e f u n c t i o n s
. Th e c o n -
c l u s i o n t o w h i c h i t l e a d s i s , t h e r e f o r e , n o b e t t e r t h a n t h e a s s u m p -
t i o n ;o r a t l e a s t c a n b e a p p l i e d o n l y w h e r e t h e a s s u m p t i o n i s v a l i d
.
W h e r e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f a g o v e r n m e n t e m p l o y e e c a r r y h i m
i n t o t h e p o l i c y - m a k i n g a r e a , t h e w h o l e a r g u m e n t f a i l s . P e r m a n e n t
t e n u r e f o r s u c h a n e m p l o y e e i n v i t e s a s i t u a t i o n w h e r e p o l i c i e s r e -
p u d i a t e d a t t h e p o l l s b y t h e " u l t i m a t e " e m p l o y e r l i v e o n f o r e v e r
i n t h e d e p a r t m e n t s .
If t h i n g s h a d w o r k e d o u t i n , s a y , t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t , a s o u r
l e g i s l a t o r s o f s e v e n t y y e a r s a g o e x p e c t e d t h e m t o w o r k o u t , p o l i c y
w o u l d b e m a d e , e x c l u s i v e l y , b y t h e S e c r e t a r y a n d h i s p r i n c i p a l
a s s i s t a n t s , n o n e o f w h o m i s a m e m b e r o f t h e Ci v i l S e r v i c e o r t h e
F o r e i g n S e r v i c e . B u t p o l i c y i s o f t e n m a d e a n d i n e v i t a b l y i n f l u e n c e d
a t m u c h l o w e r l e v e l s , a n d t h e r e f o r e b y c a r e e r p e r s o n n e l
. P o l i c y i s
m a d e b y a n Ed w a r d P o s n i a k , p u t t i n g t h e c a s e f o r Co m m u n i s t
Cz e c h o s l o v a k i a b e f o r e a De p a r t m e n t l i a i s o n c o m m i t t e e ; o r b y
Ol i v e r Ed m u n d Cl u b b , d r a f t i n g m e m o r a n d a f o r t h e S e c r e t a r y t h a t
r e f l e c t n o t o n l y t h e k n o w l e d g e a n d e x p e r i e n c e i n v i r t u e o f w h i c h
Cl u b b w a s c h i e f o f t h e Ch i n a De s k , b u t a l s o h i s v i e w s o n Co m m u -
n i s m a n d t h e f u t u r e o f Ch i n a . P o s n i a k ' s a n d Cl u b b ' s p e r s o n a l v i e w s
a r e t h e m o r e l i k e l y t o i n f l u e n c e p o l i c y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e a s s u m e d
t o s p e a k o u t o f e x p e r t i s e r a t h e r t h a n p a r t i s a n p e r s u a s i o n . Th e
m o d e r n b u s i n e s s o f t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t i s , i n a w o r d , o f s u c h
c h a r a c t e r t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l i n e b e t w e e n p o l i c y a n d r o u t i n e f u n c -
t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t i f n o t i m p o s s i b l e t o d r a w .
W o r s e s t i l l , m a n y U . S . c i v i l s e r v a n t s a r e n o l o n g e r e x p e c t e d , a n d
n o l o n g e r t r y , t o m a i n t a i n t h e a t t i t u d e o f p o l i c y i m p a r t i a l i t y t h a t
t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w c a l l e d f o r . In a n e r a o f p a s s i o n a t e i d e o l o g i c a l
t e n s i o n s t h e y b e c o m e , u n a v o i d a b l y , m i l i t a n t d e f e n d e r s o f p a r -
t i c u l a r p o l i c i e s
. G e o r g e K e n n a n , f o r e x a m p l e , w a s a n " i m p a r t i a l "
F o r e i g n S e r v i c e Of f i c e r w h e n h i s n a m e s t o o d f o r t h e P o l i c y o f
Co n t a i n m e n t . J o h n S t e w a r t S e r v i c e a n d J o h n Ca r t e r Vi n c e n t w e r e
n o t , i n t h e o r y , p o l i c y m a k e r s , y e t t h e y s u p p o r t e d a n i d e n t i f i a b l e
p o l i c y t o w a r d Ch i n a ;i f t h e y w e r e s t i l l i n t h e De p a r t m e n t , i t i s
c l e a r t h a t t h e y w o u l d f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o m a k e c o m m o n c a u s e w i t h
t h e Ei s e n h o w e r Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n . Ch a r l e s B o h l e n , a l s o a " c a r e e r
m a n , " i s k n o w n a s a d e f e n d e r o f t h e Ya l t a Ag r e e m e n t t o s u c h a n
2 60

M CCARTH YANDH IS ENEM IES


e x t e n t t h a t s e v e r a l S e n a t o r s h a d l e g i t i m a t e d o u b t s a b o u t h i s a b i l i t y
t o s e r v e a s Ei s e n h o w e r ' s Am b a s s a d o r t o S o v i e t Ru s s i a .
Th a t " i t w o r k s i n En g l a n d " i s n o a n s w e r a t a l l . B r i t i s h c i v i l
s e r v a n t s a r e f a r m o r e c a r e f u l t h a n o u r s t o m a i n t a i n a t t i t u d e s o f ,
a n d a r e p u t a t i o n f o r , i m p a r t i a l i t y a n d , i n f a c t , i n d i f f e r e n c e i n p o l i c y
m a t t e r s . Th e B r i t i s h f o r e i g n o f f i c e r s e e m s c o m p e t e n t a n d w i l l i n g ,
o n e d a y t o d r a f t m e a s u r e s d e s i g n e d t o i m p l e m e n t a Co n s e r v a t i v e
g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l i c y o f h o l d i n g o n t o In d i a , a n d t h e n e x t d a y , t o
d r a f t f o r a L a b o r g o v e r n m e n t t h e m e a s u r e s b y w h i c h In d i a m a y
b e t u r n e d o v e r t o t h e In d i a n s . It m a y b e d e s i r a b l e t h a t S t a t e De -
p a r t m e n t e m p l o y e e s a c t i n t h e B r i t i s h w a y a n d a c q u i r e t h e
B r i t i s h s k i l l o f r e p r e s s i n g o r a v o i d i n g s t r o n g c o n v i c t i o n s . Th e
p o i n t i s t h a t Am e r i c a n c i v i l s e r v a n t s d o n o t d o t h i s . An d t h e y c a n -
n o t e x p e c t t o h a v e i t b o t h w a y s : t o a c t a s p o l i c y - m a k e r s f r o m d a y
t o d a y , a n d t o b e t r e a t e d a s i m p a r t i a l j a n i t o r s w h e n a n o t h e r p a r t y
c o m e s t o p o w e r .
Ob v i o u s l y , a n i n c o m i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s h o u l d b e f o r c e d , b y i n -
s i s t e n t p r e s s u r e f r o m p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n t e r e s t e d i n p r e s e r v i n g t h e
Ci v i l S e r v i c e , t o g o a s f a r a s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h i t s m a n d a t e i n a v o i d -
i n g t h e e v i l s o f t h e s p o i l s s y s t e m . B u t t h e r e i s a t r a n s c e n d e n t c o m -
m i t m e n t p o s t u l a t e d i n t h e Am e r i c a n p h i l o s o p h y o f g o v e r n m e n t :
t h e p r e m i s e s o f d e m o c r a c y d e m a n d t h a t t h e e l e c t o r a t e b e e n t i t l e d
t o e m p l o y c i v i l s e r v a n t s w h o w i l l e x e c u t e p o l i c i e s t h e e l e c t o r a t e
w a n t s u n d e r t a k e n . An d t h e p r e m i s e s o f r e p u b l i c a n i s m i n s i s t t h a t
a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n h o l d i n g t h e p o p u l a r m a n d a t e m u s t h a v e t h e a u -
t h o r i t y t o i m p l e m e n t t h a t m a n d a t e .
Th i s i s n o t t o s u g g e s t , b y a n y m e a n s , t h a t t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t
s h o u l d e m b a r k o n a w h o l e s a l e p u r g e o f i t s p e r s o n n e l a f t e r e a c h
n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n . Th e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f De p a r t m e n t e m p l o y e e s
a r e u n d o u b t e d l y f l e x i b l e o r d i s p a s s i o n a t e e n o u g h t o c a r r y o u t ,
m o s t f a i t h f u l l y , t h e p o l i c i e s o f a n y Am e r i c a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . B u t
t h o s e w h o a r e s e r i o u s l y c o m m i t t e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c y m u s t n o
l o n g e r c l a i m t e n u r e i m m u n i t y .
Af i n a l p o i n t : a l l p r e s e n t c i v i l s e r v a n t s a r e p a r t i e s t o a n i m p l i e d
c o n t r a c t t h a t t h e i r e m p l o y m e n t w i l l n o t b e t e r m i n a t e d e x c e p t u n -
d e r s t a n d a r d s w h i c h w e r e i n e f f e c t a t t h e t i m e t h e y g o t t h e i r j o b s .
Th u s , a n d w i t h o u t d o u b t , c o m p e n s a t i o n i s i n o r d e r f o r t h o s e w h o
a r e t o l o s e t h e i r j o b s b e c a u s e t h e s t a n d a r d s h a v e c h a n g e d : t h e
g o v e r n m e n t m u s t b e p r e p a r e d t o m a k e g e n e r o u s f i n a n c i a l p r o v i -
s i o n s f o r e m p l o y e e s d i s m i s s e d u n d e r t h e n e w s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m , a n d
p a y m e n t s f r o m t h e g o v e r n m e n t s h o u l d n o t c e a s e u n t i l t h e e m -
CL OS ING RANK S

2 6 1
p l o y e e f i n d s a n e w j o b , w i t h c o m p a r a b l e e c o n o m i c r e t u r n , e l s e -
w h e r e i n t h e c o m m u n i t y .
It i s p e r h a p s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o d i s c u s s , i n d e t a i l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e
m i n u t i a e o f t h e s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m w e h a v e i n m i n d
. B u t w e o w e a
g e n e r a l i n d i c a t i o n h o w i t w o u l d w o r k i n t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t
s h o u l d t h e q u a s i - j u d i c i a l l o y a l t y - s e c u r i t y b o a r d s b e a b o l i s h e d a n d
s h o u l d t h e De p a r t m e n t ' s s e c u r i t y o f f i c e h a n d l e " s e c u r i t y r i s k s "
a n d " p o l i c y m i s f i t s " s o l e l y f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e g o v e r n -
m e n t ' s i n t e r e s t .
1 .
Th e p r e l i m i n a r y a d v i s o r y d e c i s i o n s a s t o w h e t h e r a S t a t e De -
p a r t m e n t e m p l o y e e i s a " s e c u r i t y r i s k " o r a " p o l i c y m i s f i t " w o u l d
b e m a d e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , b y t h e s e c u r i t y a n d t h e p o l i c y - m a k i n g o f -
f i c e r s o f t h e De p a r t m e n t . Th e f i n a l d e c i s i o n o n s e c u r i t y c a s e s w o u l d
b e m a d e b y t h e c h i e f s e c u r i t y o f f i c e r o f t h e De p a r t m e n t , o n " p o l i c y
m i s f i t s " b y t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e o r h i s d e s i g n e e .
2 . Th e m e n w h o m a k e t h e p r e l i m i n a r y d e t e r m i n a t i o n s h o u l d b e
q u a l i f i e d b y e x p e r t k n o w l e d g e o f b o t h Co m m u n i s m a n d o f c u r r e n t
De p a r t m e n t p o l i c y
. Th e i r u p - t o - d a t e c o n v e r s a n c e w i t h t h e l a t t e r
w o u l d , o f c o u r s e , b e a s s u r e d o n l y i f t h e y r e c e i v e d r e g u l a r b r i e f i n g s
f r o m a r e a o f f i c e s .
3
. Da t a o n s e c u r i t y c a s e s w o u l d b e s u p p l i e d b y t h e F B I, b y De -
p a r t m e n t i n v e s t i g a t o r s , a n d b y o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i v e a g e n c i e s
;a n d ,
a s i s t h e c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e , t h e d i s c o v e r y o f
a n y d e r o g a t o r y d a t a
w o u l d w a r r a n t t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e s e c u r i t y o f f i c e
. On " p o l i c y m i s -
f i t s , " t h e d a t a w o u l d b e f u r n i s h e d b y t h e r e l e v a n t As s i s t a n t S e c r e -
t a r y
. Th e d e c i s i o n a s t o w h e t h e r a p o l i c y c a s e s h o u l d b e c a l l e d t o
t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e s e c u r i t y o f f i c e w o u l d b e m a d e w i t h r e f e r e n c e
t o t h e d e c i s i v e s t a n d a r d - n a m e l y , i s t h e r e a r e a s o n a b l e d o u b t t h a t
t h e e m p l o y e e i s c a p a b l e o f w o r k i n g e f f e c t i v e l y o n b e h a l f o f t h e
r e s o l v e d De p a r t m e n t p o l i c i e s ?
4
. If , h a v i n g g i v e n t h e b e n e f i t o f e v e r y d o u b t t o t h e g o v e r n m e n t ,
t h e s e c u r i t y o f f i c e r s c o n c l u d e f r o m t h e a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t
t h e p e r s o n i n v o l v e d m a y b e a n " u n d e s i r a b l e " f r o m e i t h e r t h e s e c u r -
i t y o r t h e p o l i c y s t a n d p o i n t , t h e y
w o u l d n o t i f y t h e e m p l o y e e o f t h i s
f a c t a n d o f t h e s p e c i f i c r e a s o n s w h i c h p r o m p t e d t h e i r d e c i s i o n
.
Th e e m p l o y e e s h o u l d t h e n a p p e a r f o r a n i n t e r v i e w . In s e c u r i t y
c a s e s , s u s p e n s i o n o f t h e e m p l o y e e s h o u l d f o l l o w a u t o m a t i c a l l y
u p o n p r e f e r m e n t o f c h a r g e s . *
5
. Th e e m p l o y e e w o u l d b e i n v i t e d t o s u b m i t t o t h e s e c u r i t y
* Th i s i s t h e r e c e n t De p a r t m e n t p r a c t i c e .
2 62

M CCARTH Y AND H IS ENEM IES


o f f i c e a n y a f f i d a v i t s o r d o c u m e n t s t h a t m a y s h e d l i g h t o n h i s s e c u r -
i t y o r h i s p o l i c y s t a t u s .
6 . Th e s o l e a i m o f t h e i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e e m p l o y e e w o u l d b e
t o e l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t m i g h t s h e d l i g h t o n h i s f i t n e s s , s e c u r i t y
o r p o l i c y a p t i t u d e , a s t h e c a s e m a y b e .
7 . W h e n i t h a s o b t a i n e d a l l a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e
e m p l o y e e , t h e s e c u r i t y o f f i c e w o u l d d e t e r m i n e d i r e c t l y w h e t h e r
t h e e m p l o y e e r e t a i n s h i s j o b . Th e s o l e s t a n d a r d f o r j u d g i n g t h e
s e c u r i t y r i s k : i s t h e e m p l o y m e n t o f t h i s p e r s o n , b e y o n d a r e a s o n -
a b l e d o u b t , c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y ?
Th e s o l e s t a n d a r d f o r j u d g i n g t h e p o l i c y r i s k : i s t h e e m p l o y e e
s u i t e d t o i m p l e m e n t t h e p o l i c i e s a s e n u n c i a t e d b y t h e S e c r e t a r y
o f S t a t e ?
8 . In t h e e v e n t o f a n a d v e r s e d e c i s i o n a n d s u b s e q u e n t t e r m i n a -
t i o n o f e m p l o y m e n t , e v e r y e f f o r t w o u l d b e m a d e t o w i t h h o l d f r o m
t h e p u b l i c t h e e f f e c t i v e r e a s o n f o r t h e e m p l o y e e ' s s e p a r a t i o n .
Th e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e s h o u l d l e t h i s c h i e f s e c u r i t y o f f i c e r h a v e
t h e f i n a l s a y i n s e c u r i t y c a s e s . W e p r o p o s e t h i s b e c a u s e t h e c h a n c e s
a r e o v e r w h e l m i n g l y a g a i n s t t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e b e i n g q u a l i f i e d
t o p a s s j u d g m e n t o n s u c h c a s e s
. Th e S e c r e t a r y i s n o t , a n d o u g h t
n o t t o b e , c h o s e n b y t h e P r e s i d e n t f o r h i s e x p e r i e n c e a n d s h r e w d -
n e s s i n c o p i n g w i t h Co m m u n i s t i n f i l t r a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , o r f o r h i s
a b i l i t y t o g r a s p t h e c o m p l e x s i g n i f i c a n c e o f d i v e r s e Co m m u n i s t
a f f i l i a t i o n s . H i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o u g h t t o b e p r i m a r i l y t h o s e o f t h e
s t a t e s m a n s k i l l e d i n f i e l d s a l t o g e t h e r d i f f e r e n t f r o m s e c u r i t y e n -
f o r c e m e n t
. F r o m a p r a c t i c a l s t a n d p o i n t , t o m a k e t h e S e c r e t a r y r e -
v i e w e v e r y f i n d i n g o f h i s c h i e f s e c u r i t y o f f i c e r i s a b s u r d f o r h e
o b v i o u s l y c a n n o t d i s c h a r g e a n y s u c h t i m e - c o n s u m i n g d u t y
. H e
w o u l d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , d e s i g n a t e t h e j o b t o s o m e o n e e l s e ;a n d s i n c e
t h e p e r s o n t o w h o m h e
o u g h t
t o d e s i g n a t e i t i s t h e De p a r t m e n t ' s
c h i e f e x p e r t o n s e c u r i t y p r o b l e m s , a n d s i n c e t h e c h i e f e x p e r t i s
p r e s u m a b l y t h e o f f i c e r w h o h a n d e d d o w n a n a d v e r s e d e c i s i o n i n
t h e f i r s t p l a c e , n o t h i n g i s t o b e g a i n e d b y i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z i n g a r o u n d
r o b i n .
Th e s e a r g u m e n t s , c l e a r l y , d o n o t a p p l y t o t h e p o l i c y r i s k s . In
t h e s e c a s e s t h e S e c r e t a r y i s e m i n e n t l y q u a l i f i e d t o i n t e r v e n e a n d
t o d e c i d e h i m s e l f .
W e h a v e a r g u e d t h a t t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t i s t h e b e s t j u d g e o f
t h e f i t n e s s o f e m p l o y e e s e n g a g e d i n i m p l e m e n t i n g i t s p o l i c i e s
. B u t
i t d o e s n o t f o l l o w f r o m t h i s t h a t t h e De p a r t m e n t , o r a n y o t h e r
CL OS ING RANK S

2 63
s e n s i t i v e a g e n c y , w i l l a s a m a t t e r o f c o u r s e u n d e r t a k e a h a r d s e c u r -
i t y p r o g r a m . No r s h o u l d t h e p u b l i c o r Co n g r e s s t a k e i t a s a m a t t e r o f
f a i t h t h a t s u c h a s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m w i l l t a k e c a r e o f i t s e l f
. Th e
e v e n t s o f t h e p a s t f e w y e a r s , i f t h e y e s t a b l i s h n o t h i n g e l s e , e s t a b -
l i s h t h e w i s d o m o f Co n g r e s s i o n a l s u p e r v i s i o n o f s e c u r i t y i n t h e
s e n s i t i v e a g e n c i e s
. Th e s t a k e s a r e t o o h i g h , t h e d a n g e r s o f l a s s i t u d e
i n m a t t e r s o f s e c u r i t y t o o g r e a t , f o r Co n g r e s s t o a s s u m e u n q u e s -
t i o n i n g l y t h a t t h e e x e c u t i v e d e p a r t m e n t s k e e p t h e i r h o u s e s c l e a n .
Th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f a l l s o n Co n g r e s s .
Co n g r e s s m u s t , t h e r e f o r e , h a v e r e a d y a c c e s s t o t h e d a t a w i t h o u t
w h i c h i n t e l l i g e n t s e c u r i t y e v a l u a t i o n i n t h e s e n s i t i v e e x e c u t i v e
d e p a r t m e n t s i s i m p o s s i b l e . No t h i n g i n r e c e n t p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y c a n
q u i t e m a t c h t h e f u t i l i t y o r t h e h u m i l i a t i o n t h a t Co n g r e s s s u f f e r e d
w h e n , d u r i n g t h e Tr u m a n Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n , i t t r i e d t o l i v e o n i n f o r -
m a t i o n s c r a p s t o s s e d t o i t b y a r r o g a n t b u r e a u c r a t s
. Th i s i s n o t t o
o v e r l o o k t h e r e a l i t y o f a d i l e m m a t h e Ex e c u t i v e f a c e s a s c u s t o d i a n
o f s e c u r i t y d a t a : i t c a n n o t r e l e a s e t h e d a t a i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y , a s
t h i s c o u l d d a m a g e b o t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l s c o n c e r n e d a n d t h e m a -
c h i n e r y b y w h i c h t h e d a t a a r e o b t a i n e d ;b u t o n t h e o t h e r h a n d ,
i t c a n n o t w i t h h o l d d a t a w i t h o u t p r e v e n t i n g t h e Co n g r e s s f r o m
d o i n g i t s d u t y .
Th e Tr u m a n w a y o f r e s o l v i n g t h e d i l e m m a ( b y d i s r e g a r d i n g
Co n g r e s s a n d p r o t e c t i n g l o y a l t y - s e c u r i t y s u s p e c t s a t w h a t e v e r
p r i c e ) c l e a r l y w i l l n o t d o . No r i s a n a d e q u a t e s o l u t i o n t o b e f o u n d
a t t h e o t h e r e x t r e m e , i . e . , b y g i v i n g a l l Co n g r e s s m e n e a s y a c c e s s t o
a l l s e c u r i t y d a t a
: t h i s w o u l d b e t a n t a m o u n t t o o p e n i n g t h e s e c u r i t y
f i l e s t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . Th u s , a s t a n d i n g j o i n t c o m m i t t e e o f
b o t h h o u s e s s h o u l d b e c r e a t e d , p a t t e r n e d o n t h e Co m m i t t e e o n
At o m i c En e r g y , w h i c h w o u l d b e f u r n i s h e d c o p i e s o f a l l s e c u r i t y
i n f o r m a t i o n i n e x e c u t i v e f i l e s * a n d w o u l d b e e n j o i n e d b y Co n -
g r e s s t o k e e p t h e d a t a c o n f i d e n t i a l .
S u c h a s t a n d i n g c o m m i t t e e ' s j o b w o u l d b e , q u i t e s i m p l y , t o
c o n d u c t a c o n t i n u o u s s u r v e y o f s e c u r i t y m a n a g e m e n t i n g o v e r n -
m e n t . It w o u l d n o t , o f c o u r s e , b e e m p o w e r e d t o o v e r r u l e t h e f i n d -
i n g s b y a g e n c y o f f i c e r s ;b u t i t w o u l d f e e l f r e e t o d i s c u s s l o y a l t y -
s e c u r i t y a c t i o n s w i t h t h e m , a d v o c a t i n g a c h a n g e i n p r o c e d u r e
h e r e , a r e v e r s a l o f a f i n d i n g t h e r e , a s t h e s i t u a t i o n i n d i c a t e d .
Th e S e c u r i t y Co m m i t t e e w o u l d m a k e p e r i o d i c r e p o r t s t o Co n -
g r e s s o n s e c u r i t y p r a c t i c e s i n t h e s e v e r a l a g e n c i e s . S h o u l d a r e p o r t
Ex c e p t i n g , o f c o u r s e , t h e n a m e s o f c o n f i d e n t i a l i n f o r m a n t s , t h e i d e n t i t i e s
o f F B Ip e n e t r a t o r s o f t h e Co m m u n i s t P a r t y , a n d s u c h - l i k e i n f o r m a t i o n .
2 64

M CCARTH Y AND H IS ENEM IES


i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m o f a g i v e n a g e n c y w a s b e i n g
c o n d u c t e d u n s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , Co n g r e s s s h o u l d b e l e f t t o c o p e w i t h
t h e s i t u a t i o n b y p u t t i n g p r e s s u r e o n t h e P r e s i d e n t , b y e x e r c i s i n g
i t s p o w e r o v e r t h e a p p r o p r i a t i o n s , o r b y c a r r y i n g t h e i s s u e t o t h e
p e o p l e .
Th e Co n g r e s s i o n a l S e c u r i t y Co m m i t t e e h e r e e n v i s a g e d i s n o
f o o l - p r o o f d e v i c e f o r e n s u r i n g h a r d s e c u r i t y p r a c t i c e s ;n o r i s s u c h
a d e v i c e t o b e f o u n d a n y w h e r e e l s e . P e r h a p s t h e m o s t n o t a b l e d e -
f e c t o f t h e c o m m i t t e e p r o p o s a l i s t h a t i t f a i l s t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e
s o r t o f s i t u a t i o n t h a t h a r a s s e d M c Ca r t h y i n 1 9 5 0 . Th e Ty d i n g s
Co m m i t t e e ( a n a d h o c
Co n g r e s s i o n a l S e c u r i t y Co m m i t t e e n o t u n -
l i k e t h e o n e w e a r e p r o p o s i n g ) e n d e d u p e n c o u r a g i n g l a x s e c u r i t y
p r a c t i c e s ;a n d M c Ca r t h y ' s e f f o r t s t o m a k e i t b e h a v e p r o v e d f u t i l e .
Th e Ty d i n g s Co m m i t t e e , t o b e s u r e , w a s e n c o u r a g e d t o p l a y i t s
o b s t r u c t i v e r o l e b y t h e v i r t u a l Ex e c u t i v e m o n o p o l y o f s e c u r i t y
d a t a ;b u t a l s o , a s w e h a v e s h o w n , i t n e e d e d n o e n c o u r a g e m e n t .
S o w h e r e i s a r e c o u r s e ? U n d e r t h e Am e r i c a n p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m ,
t h e r e i s n o g u a r a n t e e t h a t a f u t u r e c o m m i t t e e w i l l n o t b e t r a y i t s
m a n d a t e , a n d i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , o t h e r t h a n t h e f o r c e w h i c h g e n -
e r a t e d t h e r e c e n t Am e r i c a n m o b i l i z a t i o n : t h e i n d i v i d u a l Co n g r e s s -
m a n w h o h a s e n o u g h d e v o t i o n t o t h e c o m m o n w e a l t o r a i s e s o m e
h e l l w h e n i t i s b e i n g v i o l a t e d - a n d t h e s e n s i t i v i t y o f t h e v o t i n g
p u b l i c t o t h a t k i n d o f h e l l - r a i s i n g
.
P ARTTH REE
CH AP TERXIII
S e n a t o r M c Ca r t h y ' s M e t h o d
In t r o d u c t i o n
T
o
AP P ROVE o f S e n a t o r M c Ca r t h y ' s " a i m s " i s c o n s i d e r e d i n c i v -
i l i z e d c i r c l e s t h e m a x i m u m c o n c e s s i o n a n y o n e c a n m a k e t o
M c Ca r t h y i s m a n d s t i l l h a n g o n , i f p r e c a r i o u s l y , t o h i s v i r t u e
.
Ev e r y o n e , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , m u s t a g r e e t h a t S e n a t o r M c Ca r t h y ' s
" m e t h o d " i s a b h o r r e n t , h e n c e t h e c o m m o n , s t o p - l o s s p h r a s e , " I
a p p r o v e o f S e n a t o r M c Ca r t h y ' s a i m s , b u t Id i s a p p r o v e o f h i s
m e t h o d . "
An a n a l y s i s o f S e n a t o r M c Ca r t h y ' s " m e t h o d " i s n o t e a s y , p r i -
m a r i l y b e c a u s e h i s m e t h o d i s s o v a r i o u s l y d e f i n e d
. No s i n g l e v o l u m e
c o u l d a d e q u a t e l y e x a m i n e a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i m p u t e d t o i t ,
a n d a l l t h e o b j e c t i o n s m a d e a g a i n s t i t
. Ag r e a t d e a l o f c o n f u s i o n ,
w h a t i s m o r e , s e e m s t o b e s e t M c Ca r t h y ' s c r i t i c s w h e n t h e y t a l k
a b o u t w h a t t h e y c a l l M c Ca r t h y ' s " m e t h o d
. " An d s i n c e M c Ca r t h y ' s
c r i t i c s p r e t t y w e l l r u l e t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s i n d u s t r y , t h e y h a v e
e n m e s h e d t h e p u b l i c i n t h e i r o w n h e c t i c c o n f u s i o n .
F o r i n s t a n c e , " d a m a g i n g t h e r e p u t a t i o n s o f i n n o c e n t p e o p l e " i s
t a l k e d a b o u t a s a n a s p e c t o f M c Ca r t h y ' s " m e t h o d " ;y e t i t i s c l e a r
t h a t w h i l e d a m a g e t o a r e p u t a t i o n m a y
r e s u l t f r o m M c Ca r t h y ' s
p r a c t i c e o f h i s m e t h o d , t h e r e s u l t w o u l d n o t a p p e a r t o b e a p a r t
o f t h e
m e t h o d . Ag a i n , t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f " t h o u g h t c o n t r o l " i s o f t e n
s p o k e n o f a s a " m e t h o d " o f M c Ca r t h y
;b u t w h i l e a m e a s u r e o f
" t h o u g h t c o n t r o l , " o r " c o n f o r m i t y , " i s i n d e e d b e i n g s o u g h t b y M c -
Ca r t h y i s m ( a s w e s h a l l s e e i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r ) , t h i s w o u l d a p p e a r
t o b e a p r o x i m a t e
e n d o f M c Ca r t h y i s m , n o t a p a r t o f M c Ca r t h y ' s
m e t h o d .
On c e a g a i n , M c Ca r t h y ' s c o n s t a n t u r g i n g o f t h e " c o n s p i r a -
t o r i a l v i e w o f h i s t o r y " t o e x p l a i n t h e r e v e r s a l s o f t h e W e s t i n i t s c o l d
w a r w i t h t h e S o v i e t U n i o n - a s w e l l a s h i s i m p u t a t i o n o f p r o - Co m -
m u n i s t m o t i v a t i o n s t o s o m e o f h i s c r i t i c s - a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f
M c Ca r t h y ' s m e t h o d o n l y i f i t c a n b e e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t h e d o e s n o t
2 68

S ENATORM CCARTH Y' S M ETH OD


b e l i e v e w h a t h e i s s a y i n g . Th u s , s h o u l d M c Ca r t h y t e l l t h e Am e r i -
c a n p e o p l e t h a t Al g e r H i s s i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e t e r m s o f t h e Ya l t a
Ag r e e m e n t , w e w o u l d n e e d t o a s k o u r s e l v e s , Do e s M c Ca r t h y a c -
t u a l l y b e l i e v e t h i s t o b e s o ? If h e d i d ( a s i n t h e a b s e n c e o f c o n -
t r a r y e v i d e n c e w e s h o u l d h a v e t o a s s u m e ) , t h e n h i s s a y i n g s o
w o u l d a m o u n t t o n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n h i s o w n e v a l u a t i o n o f h i s t o r y -
t o b e c r i t i c i z e d , p e r h a p s , a s i g n o r a n t , o v e r - s i m p l i f i e d , o r s i m p l y
m i s t a k e n - a n d h a s n o t h i n g w h a t e v e r t o d o w i t h h i s m e t h o d
. On t h e
o t h e r h a n d , i f i t c o u l d b e s h o w n t h a t M c Ca r t h y d i d n o t
h i m s e l f
b e l i e v e w h a t h e s a i d , t h e n h i s m a k i n g s u c h a c h a r g e w o u l d i n d e e d
b e a p a r t o f h i s m e t h o d , h i s i m m e d i a t e e n d b e i n g , l e t u s s a y , t o
f r i g h t e n t h e Am e r i c a n p e o p l e , o r t o e m b a r r a s s t h e p o l i t i c a l p a r t y
t h a t c o u n t e n a n c e d Al g e r H i s s .
In o t h e r w o r d s , a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f a n t i - M c Ca r t h y l i t e r a t u r e a n d
j o u r n a l i s m r e v e a l s t h a t u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g o f M c Ca r t h y ' s " m e t h o d "
t h e r e i s c o m m o n l y f o u n d a d i s o r d e r l y a r r a y o f i n d i c t m e n t s d i f f i c u l t
t o c l a s s i f y
. L u m p e d t o g e t h e r u n d e r M c Ca r t h y ' s m e t h o d a r e t h e
c o n s e q u e n c e s o f M c Ca r t h y i s m , t h e
e n d s o f M c Ca r t h y i s m a n d ,
e v e n , t h e s p i r i t
o f M c Ca r t h y i s m ( s u s p i c i o n , f e a r , p a r a n o i a , e t c
. ) .
To d i s e n t a n g l e s u c h r a m p a n t c o n f u s i o n c a l l s f o r n o t h i n g l e s s
t h a n d e e p m e t a p h y s i c a l t h e r a p y
. Th i s , l e t t h e r e a d e r r e j o i c e , w e
w i l l n o t a t t e m p t
. W e s h a l l c o n t e n t o u r s e l v e s w i t h m e r e l y i n d i -
c a t i n g t h e n a t u r e o f a v e r y , v e r y c o m p l e x p r o b l e m
. F o r e x a m p l e :
Ar e t h e p r e d i c t a b l e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f a n a c t a n i n t r i n s i c p a r t o f
t h a t a c t , o r a r e t h e t w o s e p a r a b l e ? If M c Ca r t h y d i s c o v e r s t h a t a
S t a t e De p a r t m e n t o f f i c i a l w a s a m e m b e r o f t h e Co m m u n i s t P a r t y
i n
. 1 9 4 5 , a n d t h e r e u p o n e x p o s e s t h a t f a c t , a r e t h e i l l
e f f e c t s o f t h a t
e x p o s u r e , a s f e l t b y t h e b u r e a u c r a t , a p a r t o f M c Ca r t h y ' s m e t h o d ,
o r a r e t h e e x p o s u r e a n d t h e m e a n s o f e x p o s i n g a l o n e h i s m e t h o d ?
Is M c Ca r t h y ' s l o y a l t y r i s k - h u n t i n g a n e n d i n i t s e l f ? Is M c Ca r t h y
l i k e a n a m a t e u r f i s h e r m a n w h o s e g o a l i s n o t s o m u c h t h e s e l l i n g
o r t h e e a t i n g o f t h e f i s h , b u t r a t h e r t h e c a t c h i n g o f i t ? Or i s l o y a l t y
r i s k - h u n t i n g t h e m e a n s t h r o u g h w h i c h M c Ca r t h y s e e k s t o a c h i e v e
a l i m i t e d o b j e c t i v e ( s e c u r i t y i n g o v e r n m e n t ) t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f
w h i c h i n t u r n b e c o m e s a m e a n s o f f u r t h e r i n g a n o t h e r e n d ( Am e r i -
c a ' s v i c t o r y i n h e r w a r a g a i n s t Co m m u n i s m ) i n t u r n a m e a n s o f
i n s u r i n g s t i l l a f u r t h e r e n d a n d s o o n ? S u c h q u e s t i o n s , a n d m a n y
o t h e r s l i k e t h e m , a r e p e r t i n e n t t o a d e f i n i t i v e d i s c u s s i o n o f S e n a t o r
M c Ca r t h y ' s o r a n y o n e e l s e ' s m e t h o d
. B u t t h e y d o , a s w e s a y , i n -
v o l v e a p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r e a t i s e o n m e t h o d
;a n d t h i s i s n o t c o n t e m -
p l a t e d h e r e .
INTRODU CTION

2 69
W e w i l l , r a t h e r , h a v i n g a c k n o w l e d g e d t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e s u b -
j e c t , d i s c u s s o n l y t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f M c Ca r t h y ' s m o d u s o p e r -
a n d i w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e , i n v a r i a b l y , t h e s t a p l e s o f t h e a n t i - M c Ca r -
t h y d i e t . It i s c h a r g e d t h a t ( L ) M c Ca r t h y i m p u g n s p e o p l e ' s l o y a l t y
o n t h e b a s i s o f i n s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e ;h e n c e h e " s m e a r s i n n o c e n t
p e o p l e " ( h e h a s i m p u g n e d L a t t i m o r e ' s l o y a l t y ) ; t h a t ( 2 ) M c Ca r -
t h y e x a g g e r a t e s t h e e v i d e n c e a n d r e g u l a r l y m a k e s u n w a r r a n t e d
s p e c i f i c a c c u s a t i o n s ;t h u s , a l s o , h e i s g u i l t y o f " s m e a r i n g " ( h e h a s
a c c u s e d L a t t i m o r e o f b e i n g t h e " t o p S o v i e t e s p i o n a g e a g e n t " ) ;
t h a t ( 3 ) M c Ca r t h y p u b l i c i z e s c h a r g e s t h a t o u g h t t o b e k e p t s e c r e t
( h e r u n s a r o u n d t h e c o u n t r y q u e s t i o n i n g L a t t i m o r e ' s l o y a l t y )
;
t h a t ( q . ) M c Ca r t h y h i d e s b e h i n d h i s Co n g r e s s i o n a l i m m u n i t y , t h u s
g i v i n g h i s v i c t i m s n o l e g a l c o m e - b a c k ( h e s e e s t o i t t h a t t h o s e o f
h i s c h a r g e s a g a i n s t L a t t i m o r e t h a t a r e a c t i o n a b l e a r e m a d e o n t h e
f l o o r o f t h e S e n a t e ) ; t h a t ( 5 ) M c Ca r t h y c a l l s a l l h i s c r i t i c s Co m -
m u n i s t s i n a n e f f o r t t o d i s c r e d i t t h e m ( h e t u r n s o n t h o s e w h o d i s -
a g r e e w i t h h i m a b o u t L a t t i m o r e a n d c a l l s t h e m p r o - Co m m u n i s t s ) .
Th e s e c h a r g e s f o r m t h e h a r d c o r e o f c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c i s m o f
M c Ca r t h y ' s m e t h o d
. Th e y w i l l b e e x a m i n e d i n a n a t t e m p t t o
t h r o w l i g h t o n t w o q u e s t i o n s : ( i ) H o w h a s M c Ca r t h y i n f a c t
o p e r a t e d ? a n d
( 2 ) Do e s h e d e s e r v e c e n s u r e o r p r a i s e f o r t h e w a y
i n w h i c h h e h a s o p e r a t e d ?
Th e S m e a r i n g o f In n o c e n t P e o p l e
ITIS CERTAINL Y n o t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f M c Ca r t h y t o c o m e f o r w a r d
w i t h d i s p a s s i o n a t e r e c i t a t i o n s o f t h e f a c t s . Ra t h e r , l i k e a n a t t o r -
n e y s u m m i n g u p h i s c a s e f o r t h e j u r y , M c Ca r t h y e m e r g e s a s a n
i n t e r p r e t e r o f t h e f a c t : h e a s s u m e s t h e r o l e o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t
a d v o c a t e .
M c Ca r t h y , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , s e i z e s u p o n i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t t e n d s
t o p o i n t t o d i s l o y a l t y o n t h e p a r t o f a g o v e r n m e n t e m p l o y e e ,
r a i s e s t h e b r o a d i s s u e o f t h e e m p l o y e e ' s l o y a l t y , a n d m a k e s c e r t a i n
c h a r g e s a g a i n s t t h e e m p l o y e e - i . e . , h e c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e e m p l o y e e
a s a " l o y a l t y r i s k , " a s a " p r o - Co m m u n i s t , " a s t h e " p i o n e e r o f t h e
s m e a r c a m p a i g n a g a i n s t Ch i a n g K a i - s h e k , " o r w h a t h a v e y o u . M c -
Ca r t h y ' s c r i t i c s i n s i s t t h a t i t i s a p a r t o f h i s m e t h o d t o d o a l l t h e s e
t h i n g s w i t h o u t s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e t o b a c k h i m u p . Th e y i n s i s t ,
t h a t i s t o s a y , t h a t i n a l m o s t e v e r y i n s t a n c e M c Ca r t h y h a s i n s u f f i -
c i e n t f a c t u a l d a t a , e i t h e r t o c a l l i n t o q u e s t i o n t h e e m p l o y e e ' s l o y -
a l t y , o r t o j u s t i f y h i s p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f t h e e m p l o y e e .
Th u s t h e y c o n c l u d e t h a t h e " s m e a r s i n n o c e n t p e o p l e . "
W e p r o p o s e t o s u r v e y M c Ca r t h y ' s r e c o r d w i t h a v i e w t o a n -
s w e r i n g t h e s e t w o q u e s t i o n s : Do e s t h e e v i d e n c e h e p r e s e n t s j u s t i f y
h i m ( a ) i n r a i s i n g t h e l o y a l t y i s s u e , a n d ( b ) i n u s i n g t h e p a r t i c u l a r
w o r d s t h a t h e u s e s i n m a k i n g h i s c h a r g e s ? L e t u s , h o w e v e r , b e
v e r y c l e a r a s t o w h y t h e s e a r e d i f f e r e n t q u e s t i o n s , a n d
w h y t h e y
b o t h n e e d t o b e a s k e d .
To b e s u r e , M c Ca r t h y d o e s n o t c o m m i t s e p a r a t e l y t h e t w o s i n s
w i t h w h i c h h e i s c h a r g e d
. Ob v i o u s l y h e d o e s n o t a c c u s e a n e m -
p l o y e e o f b e i n g a " p r o - Co m m u n i s t " w i t h o u t a t t h e s a m e t i m e ( d i -
r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y ) r a i s i n g t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e e m p l o y e e ' s l o y a l t y
.
B u t c l e a r l y , w h i l e i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s M c Ca r t h y o u g h t t o b e c e n -
s u r e d f o r h a v i n g u s e d c e r t a i n w o r d s i n d e s c r i b i n g h i s t a r g e t , h e
m a y n e v e r t h e l e s s h a v e b e e n j u s t i f i e d i n r a i s i n g
t h e q u e s t i o n
w h e t h e r h i s t a r g e t i s a l o y a l t y r i s k .
M c Ca r t h y ' s f r i e n d s m a y f e e l w e a r e w a s t i n g t i m e i n f a s t i d i o u s l y
r e c o r d i n g t h e p r e c i s e l a n g u a g e i n w h i c h M c Ca r t h y c o u c h e s h i s
c h a r g e s
. Af t e r a l l , t h e y w i l l s a y , t h e p a r t i c u l a r w o r d s t h a t M c Ca r -
t h y u s e d d o n o t , a n y w a y , s t i c k i n t h e p u b l i c ' s m i n d
;t h e p u b l i c r e -
c a l l s m e r e l y t h a t a m a n ' s a l l e g i a n c e h a s b e e n c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n
. S o
w h y h o l d h i m t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e e x a c t w o r d i n g o f h i s a c c u s a t i o n s ?
An d , a s a m a t t e r o f f a c t , M c Ca r t h y ' s m o s t v i o l e n t c r i t i c s a p p e a r t o
S M EARING OF INNOCENTP EOP L E

2 7 1
t a k e p r e c i s e l y t h i s p o s i t i o n - e x c e p t , o f c o u r s e , w h e r e i t t u r n s o u t
t h a t M c Ca r t h y h a s a p a r t i c u l a r l y g o o d c a s e , i n w h i c h e v e n t t h e y
h o l d M c Ca r t h y t o t h e e x a c t p h r a s e h e u s e d . ( F o r e x a m p l e , a f t e r
Ow e n L a t t i m o r e w a s c l e a r l y s h o w n t o b e a t b e s t a l o y a l t y r i s k ,
t h e y w o u l d n o t l e t M c Ca r t h y f o r g e t t h a t h e h a d c a l l e d L a t t i m o r e
" t h e t o p S o v i e t e s p i o n a g e a g e n t , " n o t s i m p l y a " l o y a l t y r i s k . " ) F o r
t h e m o s t p a r t , h o w e v e r , L i b e r a l t a l k a b o u t " s m e a r i n g " f o c u s e s n o t
s o m u c h o n M c Ca r t h y ' s l a n g u a g e a s o n t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t , h o w -
e v e r h e h a p p e n s t o p h r a s e i t , M c Ca r t h y m a n a g e s t o p u t a p e r s o n ' s
g o o d n a m e u n d e r a c l o u d , a n d t h i s o n t h e b a s i s o f i n s u f f i c i e n t
e v i d e n c e . B e t h a t a s i t m a y , w e i n t e n d t o a n a l y z e M c Ca r t h y ' s
m e t h o d u n d e r b o t h t e s t s , h a r k e n i n g a g a i n t o L o r d Ac t o n ' s c o u n s e l
t h a t o n e s h o u l d t r y t o m a k e o u t f o r o n e ' s o p p o n e n t s a n e v e n s t r o n g -
e r a n d m o r e i m p r e s s i v e c a s e t h a n t h e y p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s .
B u t b e f o r e w e d o t h i s , a w o r d n e e d s t o b e s a i d a b o u t t w o o t h e r
f a s h i o n a b l e t e s t s b y w h i c h w e a r e i n v i t e d t o j u d g e t h e s u f f i c i e n c y
o f M c Ca r t h y ' s e v i d e n c e . W h a t m i g h t b e c a l l e d t h e a b s o l u t e
t e s t
o f w h e t h e r M c Ca r t h y h a s " s m e a r e d " p e o p l e i s p r o p o s e d b y t h e
L i b e r a l ' s q u e s t i o n : Is t h e r e a d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n w h a t a m a n
h a s a c t u a l l y d o n e , o r w h a t a m a n h a s a c t u a l l y t h o u g h t , a n d w h a t
M c Ca r t h y h a s c h a r g e d t h a t m a n w i t h h a v i n g d o n e o r h a v i n g
t h o u g h t ? If t h i s t e s t c o u l d b e a p p l i e d , i t w o u l d s u r e l y b e t h e f i n a l
w o r d a s t o w h e t h e r a " s m e a r " h a s b e e n l e v e l l e d ;b u t i t i s o b v i o u s l y
u n s e r v i c e a b l e f o r p u r p o s e s o f e v a l u a t i n g t h e c h a r g e t h a t a m a n i s
p r o - Co m m u n i s t
. In m o s t o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s t h e t e s t i s i n d e e d s e r v i c e -
a b l e , a n d o f c o u r s e a d v i s a b l e
. If , f o r e x a m p l e , a m a n i s c h a r g e d
w i t h b e i n g a m e m b e r o f t h e Am e r i c a n s f o r De m o c r a t i c Ac t i o n , w e
c a n t e l l w h e t h e r a s m e a r h a s b e e n b o r n s i m p l y b y f i n d i n g o u t
w h e t h e r h e i s a m e m b e r o f t h e Am e r i c a n s f o r De m o c r a t i c Ac t i o n ;
a n d t h i s w e c a n d o e a s i l y e n o u g h b e c a u s e m e m b e r s o f t h e ADAd o
n o t , a s a r u l e , c o n c e a l t h e i r m e m b e r s h i p . B u t o n e o f t h e Co m m u -
n i s t m o v e m e n t ' s g r e a t e s t s i n g l e s t r e n g t h s l i e s i n t h e s k i l l a n d d e t e r -
m i n a t i o n w i t h w h i c h i t
p r e v e n t s s o c i e t y f r o m f i n d i n g o u t w h i c h
c i t i z e n s a r e l o y a l Co m m u n i s t s , a n d t h u s d i s l o y a l c i t i z e n s . Th u s i t
b e c o m e s v e r y d i f f i c u l t i n d e e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r X, i n c a l l i n g Y
a Co m m u n i s t , h a s s m e a r e d h i m
. Th e b e s t w e c a n d o i n t h e c i r c u m -
s t a n c e s i s t o a s k w h e t h e r t h e c h a r g e ( b y w h i c h w e m e a n b o t h t h e
s p e c i f i c a c c u s a t i o n a n d t h e g e n e r a l i m p u g n a t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n ' s
l o y a l t y ) i s
j u s t i f i e d i n t h e l i g h t o f n e c e s s a r i l y c i r c u m s t a n t i a l
e v i -
d e n c e .
In a d d i t i o n t o t h e " a b s o l u t e p r o o f " t e s t , w e m u s t r e j e c t w h a t
2 7 2

S ENATORM CCARTH Y' S M ETH OD


m i g h t b e c a l l e d t h e " l e g a l s u f f i c i e n c y " t e s t . M a n y o f M c Ca r t h y ' s
c r i t i c s a r e g i v e n t o p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t h i s e v i d e n c e i n n e a r l y e v e r y
c a s e i s i n s u f f i c i e n t t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t t h e a c c u s e d h a s b r o k e n t h e
l a w , w h i c h i s u s u a l l y t r u e . B u t t h e y a r e a l s o g i v e n t o s a y i n g t h a t
t h i s i s e v i d e n c e o f M c Ca r t h y ' s i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , w h i c h i s f o o l i s h n e s s .
On l y i n t h e r a r e e x c e p t i o n d o e s M c Ca r t h y e v e n a c c u s e h i s t a r g e t s
o f h a v i n g b r o k e n t h e l a w . B u t h e d o e s i n s i s t , a s a g e n e r a l t h i n g ,
t h a t t h e e v i d e n c e h e o f f e r s i s s u f f i c i e n t t o w a r r a n t t h e d i s m i s s a l o f
h i s t a r g e t s f r o m g o v e r n m e n t s e r v i c e . Th u s , t h o s e w h o q u a r r e l w i t h
M c Ca r t h y o n t h i s s c o r e ( t a k i n g t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t o n l y p r o v e n l a w -
b r e a k e r s s h o u l d b e d i s m i s s e d f r o m t h e g o v e r n m e n t ) s h o u l d a d d r e s s
t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s t o t h o s e w h o d r a f t e d t h e r u l e s f o r g o v e r n m e n t e m -
p l o y m e n t - n o t t o M c Ca r t h y , w h o m e r e l y p l a y s b y t h e s e r u l e s . F o r
b y 1 9 4 7 , a t t h e v e r y l a t e s t , Co n g r e s s a n d b o t h p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s h a d
e x p l i c i t l y e n d o r s e d t h e n o t i o n t h a t g o v e r n m e n t s e r v i c e i s a p r i v -
i l e g e , n o t a r i g h t ;a n d t h a t t h e r e f o r e g o v e r n m e n t p e r s o n n e l m u s t
m e e t s t a n d a r d s a g o o d d e a l m o r e e x a c t i n g t h a n t h o s e s e t f o r t h i n
t h e c r i m i n a l c o d e . J o b s e c u r i t y f o r c i v i l s e r v a n t s w a s t h e r e f o r e t o
d e p e n d n o t o n l y o n t h e i r s t a y i n g o u t s i d e t h e l a w ' s r e a c h , b u t a l s o
o n t h e i r s a t i s f y i n g t h e i r s u p e r i o r s t h a t t h e i r e m p l o y m e n t w a s i n t h e
n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t .
Al l t h i s a p p e a r s t o b e o b v i o u s ;b u t i t a p p a r e n t l y i s n o t , e l s e w e
w o u l d n o t h e a r , s o f r e q u e n t l y , t h a t M c Ca r t h y i s t o b e d a m n e d b e -
c a u s e h e g o e s a f t e r g o v e r n m e n t e m p l o y e e s w i t h o u t a d h e r i n g t o
t h e s t a n d a r d s o f p r o o f r e q u i r e d o f a d i s t r i c t a t t o r n e y g o i n g a f t e r
a t h i e f .
L e t u s g o o n n o w w i t h a r e v i e w o f M c Ca r t h y ' s r e c o r d , k e e p i n g i n
m i n d t h e t w o q u e s t i o n s : Is t h e e v i d e n c e h e p r e s e n t s s u f f i c i e n t ,
t y p i c a l l y , t o j u s t i f y w h a t M c Ca r t h y s a y s a b o u t h i s t a r g e t s ? An d i s
i t s u f f i c i e n t , t y p i c a l l y , t o w a r r a n t h i s c a l l i n g t h e i r l o y a l t y i n t o
q u e s t i o n ?
On t h e w h o l e , M c Ca r t h y ' s a t t a c k s h a v e f o l l o w e d a p a t t e r n . M o s t
o f t e n h e h a s g o n e a f t e r g o v e r n m e n t e m p l o y e e s , o r f o r m e r g o v e r n -
m e n t e m p l o y e e s
. If t h e t a r g e t o f h i s a t t a c k i s s t i l l e m p l o y e d , M c -
Ca r t h y c a l l s f o r h i s d i s m i s s a l
. If h e i s n o l o n g e r e m p l o y e d , h e c a l l s
f o r a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e s e c u r i t y a g e n c y o f t h e De p a r t m e n t i n
w h i c h h e w o r k e d . If h e f i n d s t h e e m p l o y e e h a s n o t e v e n b e e n
p r o c e s s e d ( w h i c h i s o f t e n t h e c a s e ) , h e l e t s t h e w o r l d k n o w t h a t
h e i s f l a b b e r g a s t e d
. If h e f i n d s t h e e m p l o y e e h a s b e e n p r o c e s s e d
S M EARING
OF INNOCENT P EOP L E

2 7 3
a n d c l e a r e d ( w h i c h i s a l s o o f t e n t h e c a s e ) , h e a l s o l e t s t h e w o r l d
k n o w t h a t h e i s f l a b b e r g a s t e d .
M c Ca r t h y ' s c r i t i c s h a v e s o e f f e c t i v e l y p o p u l a r i z e d t h e n o t i o n
t h a t M c Ca r t h y s m e a r s a h a l f d o z e n Am e r i c a n s e v e r y w e e k t h a t t h e
s t a t i s t i c s m a y b e s u r p r i s i n g
: t h e G r a n d In q u i s i t o r o f t h e Tw e n t i e t h
Ce n t u r y h a s p u b l i c l y a c c u s e d , a s o f q u e s t i o n a b l e l o y a l t y o r r e l i -
a b i l i t y , a t o t a l o f 4 6p e r s o n s
. * Of t h e s e 4 6, M c Ca r t h y m e n t i o n e d
t w e l v e " o n l y o n c e , a n d t h e n o n l y t o p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e i r s e c u r i t y
s t a t u s w a s p e n d i n g i n t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t a n d t h a t e l e v e n o f
t h e m h a d n e v e r t h e l e s s n o t b e e n s u s p e n d e d f r o m t h e i r w o r k
.
W i t h r e s p e c t t o t e n t o t h e r s , M c Ca r t h y m e r e l y q u o t e d f r o m
d e r o g a t o r y r e p o r t s d e v e l o p e d b y o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s , w i t h a v i e w
t o p e r s u a d i n g t h e S e n a t e t h a t a t l e a s t a p r i m a f a c i e
c a s e e x i s t e d f o r
q u e s t i o n i n g t h e o p e r a t i n g s t a n d a r d s o f a l o y a l t y p r o g r a m t h a t h a d
c l e a r e d t h e m . W i t h o n e e x c e p t i o n ( Re m i n g t o n ) , l i t t l e p u b l i c a t t e n -
t i o n w a s g i v e n t o t h e s e t e n . Th e y d o n o t , i n s h o r t , c l a s s i f y a s " M c -
Ca r t h y c a s e s " f o r p u r p o s e s o f s h e d d i n g l i g h t o n h i s m e t h o d .
It i s , c o n s e q u e n t l y , o n t h e b a s i s o f c h a r g e s a g a i n s t t w e n t y - f o u r
p e r s o n s , w h o s e c a s e s h e h a s e s p e c i a l l y d r a m a t i z e d , t h a t M c Ca r -
t h y h a s e a r n e d h i s r e p u t a t i o n a s " a w h o l e s a l e p o i s o n e r , a p e r v e r t e d
d e s t r o y e r o f i n n o c e n t r e p u t a t i o n s . " $
To g e t d o w n t o c a s e s : M c Ca r t h y h a s n e v e r s a i d a n y t h i n g m o r e
" F o r t y - s i x i s a s c l o s e a f i g u r e a s d i l i g e n t r e s e a r c h w i l l b e a r o u t
. It i s p o s -
s i b l e , t h o u g h n o t l i k e l y , t h a t M c Ca r t h y h a s a c c u s e d s o m e o n e o r s e v e r a l p e o -
p l e - p e r h a p s i n a n u n p r e s e r v e d c a m p a i g n s p e e c h h e r e o r t h e r e - a n d t h a t w e
a r e u n a w a r e o f t h e a c c u s a t i o n s
. W e n a t u r a l l y e x c l u d e M c Ca r t h y ' s f r e q u e n t
r e f e r e n c e s t o s u c h e s t a b l i s h e d Co m m u n i s t s a s Al g e r H i s s , Ea r l B r o w d e r , G e r -
h a r t Ei s l e r , Ca r l M a r z a n i , G e o r g e S h a w W h e e l e r
e t a l . W e a l s o e x c l u d e , f o r t h e
s a k e o f a c c u r a c y , a c c u s a t i o n s m a d e a f t e r t h e f i r s t o f J a n u a r y , 1 9 5 3
. Th i s p r o -
c e d u r e i s c l e a r l y n o t c a l c u l a t e d t o t i l t t h e s c a l e s i n M c Ca r t h y ' s f a v o r
;f o r n o
o n e w i l l d i s p u t e t h a t M c Ca r t h y h a d b e e n b r a n d e d a s m e a r e r o f i n n o c e n t
p e o p l e w e l l b e f o r e J a n u a r y o f 1 9 5 3 a n d t h a t , i f a n y t h i n g , h i s c o n d u c t a n d
l a n g u a g e h a v e m e l l o w e d s i n c e Ei s e n h o w e r ' s i n a u g u r a t i o n
.
4 b
G e r t r u d e Ca m e r o n , Ne l s o n Ch i p c h i n , Ar p a d Er d o s , J o h n T
. F i s h b u r n ,
S t e l l a G o r d o n , Vi c t o r M
. H u n t , Es t h e r L e s s , Va l L o r w i n , F r a n z L
. Ne u m a n n ,
Ro b e r t Ro s s , S y l v i a S c h i m m e l , a n d F r a n c i s Tu c h s e r
.
f Ro b e r t W L r r e n B a r n e t t , H e r b e r t F i e r s t , H a r o l d G l a s s e r , M a r c i a Ru t h
H a r r i s o n , P a u l L e f a n t i e f f - L e e , Da n i e l M a r g o l i e s , El l a M o n t a g u e , Ol g a Os -
n a t c h , P h i l l i p Ra i n e , W i l l i a m Re m i n g t o n .
$ Th e i n c i d e n t m o s t o f t e n s i n g l e d o u t a s t h e o u t s t a n d i n g e x a m p l e o f M c -
Ca r t h y ' s " r e c k l e s s s m e a r i n g " i s t h a t i n v o l v i n g G e o r g e M a r s h a l l
. H e n c e w e i n -
c l u d e M a r s h a l l i n t h i s f i g u r e
. H o w e v e r , t h e M a r s h a l l e p i s o d e , w h i l e i t t e l l s
u s s o m e t h i n g a b o u t M c Ca r t h y ' s j u d g m e n t , t e l l s u s v e r y l i t t l e a b o u t h i s m e t h -
o d
. In t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , w e w i l l d e a l w i t h i t i n t h e Ap p e n d i x , w h e r e , b y v i r -
t u e o f t h e u n i q u e f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d , i t b e l o n g s .
2 7 4

S ENATOR
M CCARTH Y' S M ETH OD
d a m a g i n g a b o u t L a u c h l i n Cu r r i e , G u s t a v o Du r a n , Th e o d o r e
G e i g e r , M a r y J a n e K e e n e y , Ed w a r d P o s n i a k , H a l d o r e H a n s o n , a n d
J o h n Ca r t e r Vi n c e n t , t h a n t h a t t h e y a r e k n o w n t o o n e o r m o r e
r e s p o n s i b l e p e r s o n s a s h a v i n g b e e n m e m b e r s o f t h e Co m m u n i s t
P a r t y , w h i c h i s i n e a c h o f t h e s e i n s t a n c e s t r u e
. Th e f a c t t h a t t h i s
c h a r g e a g a i n s t H a n s o n a n d Vi n c e n t i s u n d e r w r i t t e n e x c l u s i v e l y b y
L o u i s B u d e n z i s n o t t h e b a s i s o f l e g i t i m a t e c r i t i c i s m o f M c Ca r t h y
;
h e c a n n o t b e c a l l e d a s m e a r e r b e c a u s e h e c h o o s e s t o r e l y o n t h e
i n t e g r i t y o f B u d e n z
. No r i s M c Ca r t h y g u i l t y o f r e c k l e s s c h a r a c t e r
a s s a s s i n a t i o n b e c a u s e h e c h o o s e s t o t a k e t h e w o r d o f t h e S p a n i s h
G o v e r n m e n t a s a g a i n s t G u s t a v o Du r a n ' s
;n o r b e c a u s e h e f i n d s t h e
t e s t i m o n y o f t h e F B Iu n d e r c o v e r a g e n t s o n P o s n i a k ' s m e m b e r s h i p
i n t h e P a r t y m o r e p e r s u a s i v e t h a n P o s n i a k ' s d e n i a l s
. M r . Ro b e r t
M o r r i s , a s s i s t a n t c o u n s e l f o r t h e Ty d i n g s Co m m i t t e e , o f f e r e d t o
p r e s e n t t o t h e Co m m i t t e e " s o m e w i t n e s s e s . . . w h o w i l l t e s t i f y t h a t
[ Th e o d o r e G e i g e r ]
. . . w a s a m e m b e r o f t h e s a m e Co m m u n i s t
P a r t y u n i t a s t h e y w e r e
. . . . " El i z a b e t h B e n t l e y h a s t e s t i f i e d t h a t
L a u c h l i n Cu r r i e w a s a m e m b e r o f a S o v i e t a p p a r a t u s . M a r y J a n e
K e e n e y , h a v i n g b e e n n a m e d a s a c t i n g a s a Co m m u n i s t c o u r i e r ,
w a s d i s m i s s e d f r o m h e r p o s t w i t h t h e U n i t e d Na t i o n s a f t e r a d v e r s e
l o y a l t y r e p o r t s o n h e r w e r e s u b m i t t e d b y t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t ,
a n d h a s s i n c e b e e n c i t e d f o r c o n t e m p t b y t h e In t e r n a l S e c u r i t y
Co m m i t t e e o f t h e S e n a t e .
In s h o r t , M c Ca r t h y c a n n o t , i n o u r o p i n i o n , b e i n d i c t e d a s a
c h a r a c t e r a s s a s s i n f o r c i r c u l a t i n g t h e a b o v e f a c t s a n d f o r t u r n i n g
t h e m i n t o a n a c c u s a t i o n a g a i n s t t h e p e r s o n c o n c e r n e d
. An d i t
r e a d i l y f o l l o w s t h a t , i n t h e l i g h t o f s u c h d a t a , h e w a s f u l l y e n t i t l e d
t o c a l l t h e i r l o y a l t y i n t o q u e s t i o n
.
L a t t i m o r e h a s b e e n i d e n t i f i e d a s a m e m b e r o f t h e Co m m u n i s t
P a r t y b y L o u i s B u d e n z , a n d a s a m e m b e r o f Ru s s i a n M i l i t a r y In t e l -
l i g e n c e b y Al e x a n d e r B a r m i n e ;a n d t h e M c Ca r r a n Co m m i t t e e c l a s -
s i f i e d h i m , i n a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t , a s a " c o n s c i o u s a r t i c u l a t e i n s t r u -
m e n t o f t h e S o v i e t c o n s p i r a c y
. " Th e r e c a n b e n o d e n y i n g , t h e n ,
t h a t M c Ca r t h y w a s j u s t i f i e d i n c a l l i n g L a t t i m o r e ' s l o y a l t y i n t o
q u e s t i o n
.
B u t M c Ca r t h y ' s s p e c i f i c c h a r g e s a g a i n s t L a t t i m o r e w e n t a g o o d
d e a l f u r t h e r t h a n p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e e v i d e n c e t h a t w a s a v a i l a b l e ;
a n d f o r t h i s e x a g g e r a t i o n h e i s i n d e e d c e n s u r a b l e
. H e t o l d t h e Ty d -
i n g s Co m m i t t e e ( i n e x e c u t i v e s e s s i o n , t o b e s u r e ) t h a t L a t t i m o r e
w a s t h e " t o p S o v i e t e s p i o n a g e a g e n t i n Am e r i c a " - a d a r i n g a l l e g a -
t i o n i n t h e l i g h t o f o u r n o t o r i o u s i g n o r a n c e o f t h e h i e r a r c h y o f t h e
S M EARING OF INNOCENTP EOP L E

2 7 5
S o v i e t e s p i o n a g e a p p a r a t u s . Af e w d a y s l a t e r , M c Ca r t h y m o d i f i e d
t h i s c h a r g e , i n a s p e e c h f r o m t h e S e n a t e f l o o r .
( It w a s n o t M c Ca r t h y , o n e m u s t r e m e m b e r , w h o p u b l i c i z e d
L a t t i m o r e a s t h e " t o p Am e r i c a n e s p i o n a g e a g e n t "
;Dr e w P e a r s o n
b r o k e t h e s t o r y t h a t M c Ca r t h y h a d s o d e s c r i b e d L a t t i m o r e i n a
c l o s e d
s e s s i o n o f t h e Ty d i n g s Co m m i t t e e
. It w a s t h u s a f r i e n d a n d
a d m i r e r o f L a t t i m o r e w h o s e t i n m o t i o n L a t t i m o r e ' s " o r d e a l b y
s l a n d e r . " )
Th o u g h M c Ca r t h y ' s e x a g g e r a t i o n i s d e p l o r a b l e , i t c a n h a r d l y b e
m a i n t a i n e d t h a t i t h a s b e e n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e v e r e l y d a m a g i n g
L a t t i m o r e
. G a r s o c i e t y ( a s d i s t i n c t f r o m o u r l a w s ) d o e s n o t a p p e a r
t o a t t a c h m u c h i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n m e m b e r s h i p
i n t h e P a r t y , a n d e s p i o n a g e i n b e h a l f o f t h e P a r t y . J . P e t e r s i s n o t
m o r e d e s p i s e d i n Am e r i c a t h a n F r e d e r i c k Va n d e r b i l t F i e l d . *
To r e t u r n t o t h e i n s t a n c e s i n w h i c h M c Ca r t h y d i d n o t m i s i n t e r -
p r e t o r e x a g g e r a t e : M c Ca r t h y ' s i n s i s t e n c e t h a t J o h n S t e w a r t S e r -
v i c e w a s a l o y a l t y r i s k i s s u p p o r t e d i n e v e r y r e s p e c t . S e r v i c e w a s
n a m e d b y G e n e r a l H u r l e y a s a m e m b e r o f t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t
c a b a l t h a t w a s a t t e m p t i n g t o u n d e r m i n e H u r l e y ' s i n f l u e n c e i n
Ch i n a a n d u r g i n g a p o l i c y e s s e n t i a l l y p r o - Ch i n e s e - Co m m u n i s t . An d
S e r v i c e w a s a r r e s t e d b y t h e F B Io n c h a r g e s o f r e l e a s i n g c l a s s i f i e d
m a t e r i a l t o u n a u t h o r i z e d p e r s o n s . No r i s t h a t a l l : t h e Ci v i l S e r v i c e
L o y a l t y Re v i e w B o a r d u l t i m a t e l y c o n c u r r e d i n M c Ca r t h y ' s j u d g -
m e n t - t o t h e e x t e n t , a t l e a s t , o f r u l i n g t h a t t h e r e w a s a " r e a s o n a b l e
d o u b t " a s t o S e r v i c e ' s l o y a l t y .
Th u s i t c a n n o t b e s a i d t h a t M c Ca r t h y s m e a r e d S e r v i c e e i t h e r i n
t h e w a y h e f r a m e d t h e c h a r g e s a g a i n s t h i m o r i n t h e f a c t t h a t h e
c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n S e r v i c e ' s l o y a l t y
.
Th e s a m e v e r d i c t h o l d s w i t h r e s p e c t t o P r o f e s s o r s S c h u m a n a n d
S h a p l e y . M c Ca r t h y m e r e l y a c c u s e d t h e m o f i n v e t e r a t e p a r t y - l i n i n g
a n d Co m m u n i s t - f r o n t i n g . Of t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s t h e y a r e u n q u a l i f i e d l y
g u i l t y ( a s w e h a v e s e e n i n t h e c h a p t e r o n t h e Ty d i n g s Co m m i t t e e
. )
Of W i l l i a m T. S t o n e , M c Ca r t h y h a s s a i d t h a t h i s " Co m m u n i s t
a c t i v i t i e s a r e l e g i o n
. " W h a t M c Ca r t h y r e f e r s t o i s s e t d o w n i n a
p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r
. An e x t r e m e l y c a u t i o u s m a n m i g h t h a v e s a i d " d u -
b i o u s " i n s t e a d o f " Co m m u n i s t
. " B u t l e t u s r e m e m b e r t h a t t h e S t a t e
De p a r t m e n t s e c u r i t y o f f i c e , a f t e r s t u d y i n g S t o n e ' s r e c o r d a s f a r
Th e r e i s ,
: f c o u r s e , a g r e a t d e a l o f d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n m e m b e r s h i p i n
t h e P a r t y a n d e s p i o n a g e a s f a r a s t h e l a w i s c o n c e r n e d . Th e l a w , h o w e v e r ,
d o e s n o t d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n s m e a r a n d n o n - s m e a r , b u t b e t w e e n w h a t i s
p r o v e d a n d w h a t i s n o t p r o v e d .
2 7 6

S ENATOR M CCARTH Y' S M ETH OD


b a c k a s M a r c h , 3
. 9 4 6, h a d r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t " a c t i o n b e i n s t i t u t e d
t o t e r m i n a t e h i s s e r v i c e s w i t h t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t i m m e d i a t e l y . "
H e l d t o s t r i c t e s t a c c o u n t f o r t h e p h r a s e o l o g y o f h i s c h a r g e , M c Ca r -
t h y p r o b a b l y " s m e a r e d " S t o n e
;b u t i f h e d i d , h e s m e a r e d a m a n
w h o t h r o u g h t h e y e a r s h a d t a k e n l i t t l e p a i n s t o p r o t e c t h i m s e l f
f r o m s u c h c h a r g e s a s w e r e l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t h i m . As f o r t h e s e c o n d
q u e s t i o n w e a r e a s k i n g ( w a s M c Ca r t h y e n t i t l e d t o c a l l S t o n e ' s
l o y a l t y i n t o q u e s t i o n ? ) , t h e De p a r t m e n t s e c u r i t y d i v i s i o n ' s o w n
r e c o m m e n d a t i o n p r o v i d e s t h e o b v i o u s a n s w e r
: Ye s .
J o h n P a t o n Da v i e s h a s b e e n a t a r g e t o f M c Ca r t h y e v e r s i n c e
3. 9 5 0
. M c Ca r t h y q u o t e d G e n e r a l H u r l e y a s h a v i n g a c c u s e d Da v i e s
o f e n c o u r a g i n g , b e h i n d h i s b a c k , a p o l i c y f a v o r a b l e t o t h e Ch i n e s e
Co m m u n i s t s . " Da v i e s h a s b e e n s u i t a b l y r e w a r d e d b y De a n Ac h e -
s o n f o r h i s s e l l - o u t o f a n a l l y , " s a i d M c Ca r t h y t o t h e S e n a t e
.
" Da v i e s [ i s n o w ] . . .
i n W a s h i n g t o n a s a m e m b e r o f t h e S t a t e De -
p a r t m e n t ' s P o l i c y P l a n n i n g Co m m i t t e e , w h e r e h e i s s t r a t e g i c a l l y
p l a c e d t o h e l p f u r t h e r t h e b e t r a y a l h e b e g a n i n Ch u n g k i n g
. " H a r d
t a l k , c e r t a i n l y
. B u t " b e t r a y a l " i s a w o r d t h a t Am e r i c a n p o l i t i c a l
l i n g o w a s u s i n g g e n e r o u s l y l o n g b e f o r e M c Ca r t h y a p p e a r e d ;a n d
w e c a n n o t d e m a n d o f M c Ca r t h y g r e a t e r v e r b a l p r e c i s i o n t h a n i s
c o n s i d e r e d p a r i n h i s m e t i e r
. B u t w e m u s t n o t b e g t h e q u e s t i o n :
M c Ca r t h y u n q u e s t i o n a b l y c o n s i d e r s Da v i e s a s e c u r i t y r i s k
. H e i s
a t l e a s t n o t a l o n e i n q u e s t i o n i n g Da v i e s ' r e l i a b i l i t y
;t h e M c Ca r r a n
Co m m i t t e e f o u n d t h a t Da v i e s " t e s t i f i e d f a l s e l y " o n a m a t t e r " s u b -
s t a n t i a l i n i m p o r t " ' ( i . e . ,
c o n c e r n i n g h i s a l l e g e d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s
t h a t t h e CIAr e t a i n c e r t a i n p e r s o n s k n o w n t o b e Co m m u n i s t s )
.
W e d o n o t b e l i e v e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t e i t h e r M c Ca r t h y ' s s p e c i f i c
c h a r g e s a g a i n s t Da v i e s o r h i s c a l l i n g Da v i e s ' l o y a l t y i n t o q u e s t i o n
w e r e u n r e a s o n a b l e .
M c Ca r t h y ' s c h a r g e s a g a i n s t P h i l i p J e s s u p , Do r o t h y K e n y o n a n d
Es t h e r B r u n a u e r h a v e b e e n t r e a t e d a m p l y i n t h e c h a p t e r o n t h e
Ty d i n g s Co m m i t t e e , w h e r e w e r e a c h e d t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t M c -
Ca r t h y w a s j u s t i f i e d i n b r i n g i n g t h e i r n a m e s i n t o a l o y a l t y p r o b e
.
H o w e v e r , w e a l s o s a w t h e r e t h a t , i n t h e J e s s u p a n d K e n y o n c a s e s ,
M c Ca r t h y w a s g u i l t y , i n t w o i n s t a n c e s , o f g r a t u i t o u s s e n s a t i o n a l -
i s m - e . g
. , h i s s i n g l i n g J e s s u p o u t a s t h e " p i o n e e r " o f t h e a n t i - Ch i a n g
c o n s p i r a c y , a n d h i s c a l l i n g M i s s K e n y o n ' s Co m m u n i s t - f r o n t c o l
..
l e a g u e s h e r " f e l l o w - r e d s . "
S u m m a r i z i n g t h e s e c u r i t y f i l e o n P e v e r i l M e i g s , M c Ca r t h y s a i d
i n F e b r u a r y ,
1
9 5 0 , " S o f a r a s Ik n o w , e v e r y t h i n g i n t h i s i n d i v i d u a l ' s
f i l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t h e i s a c t i v e l y w o r k i n g w i t h a n d f o r t h e Co m m u -
S M EARING OF
INNOCENT P EOP L E

2 7 7
n i s t s . " W h e t h e r t h i s i s s o , a n d t h e r e f o r e w h e t h e r M c Ca r t h y i s
g u i l t y o f h a v i n g s m e a r e d M e i g s , w e d o n o t k n o w , n o t h a v i n g h a d
a c c e s s t o t h e f i l e i n q u e s t i o n . It i s p u b l i c k n o w l e d g e , h o w e v e r , t h a t
s u b s e q u e n t t o M c Ca r t h y ' s c h a r g e s a g a i n s t M e i g s , h e w a s d i s -
c h a r g e d f r o m . t h e Ar m y u n d e r t h e l o y a l t y p r o g r a m
. Th e r e f o r e , t h e
p r e s u m p t i o n i s t h a t M c Ca r t h y ' s q u e s t i o n i n g o f M e i g s ' l o y a l t y w a s
r e a s o n a b l e .
Dr e w P e a r s o n d e f i n i t e l y w a s s m e a r e d b y M c Ca r t h y o n b o t h
c o u n t s ;a n d t h e o n l y d e f e n s e M c Ca r t h y c o u l d p o s s i b l y m a k e
( w h i c h w e d o n o t p r o p o s e t o e n c o u r a g e ) w o u l d r u n i n s u c h t e r m s
a s , " Th o s e w h o l i v e b y t h e s m e a r s h a l l p e r i s h b y t h e s m e a r . "" ( P e a r -
s o n ' s c a s e i s t r e a t e d i n a n o t h e r s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r , w h e r e i t i s
p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t . )
Th i s , t h e n , i s M c Ca r t h y ' s r e c o r d . " As r e g a r d s o n e o f t h e t w o
f u n d a m e n t a l q u e s t i o n s w e h a v e b e e n a s k i n g ( a r e M c Ca r t h y ' s s p e -
c i f i c c h a r g e s w a r r a n t e d i n t h e l i g h t o f h i s e v i d e n c e ? ) , i t i s c l e a r
t h a t h e h a s b e e n g u i l t y o f a n u m b e r o f e x a g g e r a t i o n s , s o m e o f
t h e m r e c k l e s s ;a n d p e r h a p s s o m e o f t h e m h a v e u n j u s t l y d a m a g e d
t h e p e r s o n s c o n c e r n e d b e y o n d t h e m e r e q u e s t i o n i n g o f t h e i r l o y -
a l t y . F o r t h e s e t r a n s g r e s s i o n s w e h a v e n e i t h e r t h e d e s i r e t o d e f e n d
h i m n o r t h e m e a n s t o d o s o . M e a s u r e d a g a i n s t t h e m o r a l c o m m a n d
t h a t p r o s c r i b e s e v e r y w i t t i n g d i v e r g e n c e f r o m t h e t r u t h , t h e y a r e
r e p r e h e n s i b l e . It r e m a i n s o n l y t o b e s a i d t h a t M c Ca r t h y ' s r e c o r d i s
n e v e r t h e l e s s n o t o n l y m u c h b e t t e r t h a n h i s c r i t i c s a l l e g e b u t , g i v e n
h i s m e t i e r , e x t r e m e l y g o o d .
As r e g a r d s t h e o t h e r s t a n d a r d f o r d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r s m e a r i n g
h a s b e e n a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f M c Ca r t h y ' s m e t h o d ( Do e s t h e e v i -
d e n c e M c Ca r t h y p r e s e n t s j u s t i f y c a l l i n g i n t o q u e s t i o n h i s t a r g e t s '
l o y a l t y ? ) , t h e c a s e - b y - c a s e b r e a k d o w n c l e a r l y r e n d e r s a v e r d i c t
e x t r e m e l y f a v o r a b l e t o M c Ca r t h y . W i t h t h e t w o e x c e p t i o n s o f
Dr e w P e a r s o n a n d G e o r g e M a r s h a l l , n o t a s i n g l e p e r s o n w a s a c -
c u s e d b y M c Ca r t h y w h o s e l o y a l t y c o u l d n o t b e q u e s t i o n e d o n t h e
b a s i s o f a m o s t r e s p o n s i b l e r e a d i n g o f o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s . An d t h i s i s
t h e o n l y t e s t t h a t s e e m s t o b e r e l e v a n t f o r d e c i d i n g w h e t h e r M c -
Ca r t h y " h a b i t u a l l y s m e a r s p e o p l e
. " W h e n a m a n ' s l o y a l t y i s q u e s -
t i o n e d , m o r e o f t e n t h a n n o t i t m a k e s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e t o h i m j u s t
h o w a n d i n w h a t t e r m s i t i s q u e s t i o n e d .
* F i v e o f M c Ca r t h y ' s c a s e s a r e n o t d i s c u s s e d b e c a u s e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o n
t h e m i s t o o s c a n t y t o m a k e p o s s i b l e e v e n a p r e l i m i n a r y j u d g m e n t a s t o
w h e t h e r t h e y w e r e s m e a r e d . W e r e f e r t o S t e p h e n B r u n a u e r , L e o n a n d M a r y
K e y s e r l i n g , Da v i d De m a r e s t L l o y d , a n d P h i l l e o Na s h .
2 7 8

S ENATORM CCARTH Y'


S M ETH OD
W e m a y b e w r o n g . B u t i f w e a r e r i g h t i n i n s i s t i n g t h a t t h i s i s t h e
a p t e r t e s t , t h e n t h e r e c o r d c l e a r l y e x o n e r a t e s M c Ca r t h y o f " h a b i t -
u a l c h a r a c t e r a s s a s s i n a t i o n " a n d o f " s m e a r i n g o f i n n o c e n t p e o p l e . "
" Ch a r a c t e r a s s a s s i n a t i o n " i s , o f c o u r s e , a p a r t o f M c Ca r t h y ' s
m e t h o d o n l y i f w e s o c h o o s e t o c a l l t h e e x p o s u r e o f p a s t a c t i v i t i e s
a n d a s s o c i a t i o n s o f g o v e r n m e n t e m p l o y e e s
. M c Ca r t h y h a s t i r e l e s s -
l y c o m b e d t h e r e c o r d s o f p u b l i c s e r v a n t s
;a n d , w h e n t h e e v i d e n c e
h a s w a r r a n t e d i t , a n d Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t r a n s i g e n c e b l o c k e d o t h e r
a l t e r n a t i v e s , h e h a s p u b l i c l y d i s c l o s e d t h e i r p a s t a c t i v i t i e s a n d a s -
s o c i a t i o n s a n d h a s r a i s e d t h e q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r , g i v e n t h e i r r e c o r d s ,
t h e y m e r i t p u b l i c c o n f i d e n c e
. In t h i s , M c Ca r t h y h a s s e r v e d , s o t o
s p e a k , a s a p u b l i c p r o s e c u t o r . H i s c o n c e r n h a s n o t b e e n w i t h e s t a b -
l i s h i n g " g u i l t , " b u t w i t h s e e i n g t o i t t h a t s e c u r i t y p e r s o n n e l a p p l y
s t a n d a r d s s t r i n g e n t e n o u g h t o g i v e t h i s c o u n t r y t h e p r o t e c t i o n i t
n e e d s a g a i n s t w e l l - c a m o u f l a g e d Co m m u n i s t s
.
Th e r o l e o f p u b l i c p r o s e c u t o r i s n e v e r a n e n v i a b l e o n e . H i s c o m -
p e t e n c e i s u s u a l l y j u d g e d , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e n u m -
b e r o f c o n v i c t i o n s h e w i n s . Th e c o u n t e r p a r t o f t h e p u b l i c p r o s e c u -
t o r i n t h e s e c u r i t y f i e l d c a n n o t h o p e f o r s u c h c l e a n - c u t v i n d i c a t i o n s .
At m o s t h e s u c c e e d s i n p e r s u a d i n g t h e " j u r y " - t h e L o y a l t y S e c u r -
i t y B o a r d - t h a t t h e d o u b t a s t o J o n e s ' l o y a l t y o r r e l i a b i l i t y i s " r e a -
s o n a b l e . " An d e v e n t h e n , h e m u s t f a c e t h e v i t u p e r a t i o n o f t h o s e
w h o n o t o n l y d e e m t h e d o u b t u n r e a s o n a b l e , b u t o p e n l y c h a l l e n g e
t h e c o m p e t e n c e o f a n y t r i b u n a l t o a d j u d i c a t e s u c h a q u e s t i o n .
L e t u s r e m e m b e r i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n t h a t i t i s n e v e r p a r t i c u l a r l y
d i f f i c u l t t o o f f e r a p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n o r d e f e n s e f o r a n y s t a n d -
o r a s s o c i a t i o n - t h a t r a i s e s d o u b t s a s t o l o y a l t y o r r e l i a b i l i t y . H o w
o f t e n w e f i n d o u r s e l v e s s y m p a t h i z i n g , s p o n t a n e o u s l y a n d w a r m -
h e a r t e d l y , w i t h t h e w i t n e s s w h o a c c o u n t s f o r h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n
a Co m m u n i s t f r o n t i n t e r m s o f a d e e p l y f e l t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e
h u m a n i t a r i a n o b j e c t i v e s w i t h w h i c h t h a t f r o n t w a s o s t e n s i b l y c o n -
c e r n e d . An d h o w o f t e n w e f a i l t o r e m i n d o u r s e l v e s t h a t , i f t h e
o r g a n i z a t i o n w a s i n f a c t a Co m m u n i s t f r o n t , s o m e b o d y c o n c e r n e d
w i t h i t w a s n ' t s o m u c h c o n c e r n e d w i t h s o c i a l r e f o r m a s w i t h f u r -
t h e r i n g t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e S o v i e t U n i o n , a n d t h a t t h e r e f o r e t h e
f u n c t i o n o f s e c u r i t y a g e n c i e s i s p r e c i s e l y t o l o o k s k e p t i c a l l y a t e x -
p l a n a t i o n s c o m m o n l y a c c e p t e d a s p l a u s i b l e . Th e l a y m a n i s p e r h a p s
e n t i t l e d t o a c c e p t t h e a c c o u n t i n g o f t h e f r o n t - j o i n e r , a n d t o d e s p i s e
t h e " m o r b i d " s u s p i c i o u s n e s s o f t h e p e r s o n w h o d o e s n o t a c c e p t i t .
B u t
n o t
t h e s e c u r i t y a g e n c i e s - a n d n o t a
U n i t e d S t a t e s S e n a t o r
S M EARING OF INNOCENTP EOP L E

2 ' 7 9
w h o f e e l s a v o c a t i o n t o s e e t o i t t h a t t h e y d o t h e i r j o b
. F o r t h e
h a r d f a c t o f t h e m a t t e r i s t h a t t h e s u s p i c i o u s p e r s o n m a y b e t h e
w i s e r p e r s o n . An d b e c a u s e o f b i t t e r e x p e r i e n c e , w e h a v e a d o p t e d
a n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y p o l i c y w h i c h i n s t r u c t s s e c u r i t y p e r s o n n e l t o
b e
s u s p i c i o u s , a n d t o f i n d a g a i n s t t h e i n d i v i d u a l i f s o m u c h a s a r e a -
s o n a b l e d o u b t e x i s t s a s t o h i s r e l i a b i l i t y .
Th e c a s e o f J o h n S t e w a r t S e r v i c e , i f w e m a y d r a g i t u p a g a i n ,
i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p r o b l e m
. M c Ca r t h y h a s b e e n s e v e r e l y c a s t i g a t e d
f o r i m p u t i n g d i s l o y a l t y t o a m a n " w h o s e o n l y c r i m e h a s b e e n b a d
j u d g m e n t
. " S e r v i c e , a n e x p e r i e n c e d Ch i n a h a n d , d i s p a t c h e d f r o m
t h e f i e l d r e p o r t u p o n r e p o r t t o h i s s u p e r i o r s i n t h e De p a r t m e n t o f
S t a t e . Th e s e r e p o r t s a r e o f s u c h c h a r a c t e r a s t o d i s c r e d i t t h e h y p o t h -
e s i s t h a t t h e i r a u t h o r w a s b o t h ( a ) a s h r e w d r e p o r t e r , f a m i l i a r w i t h
Ch i n a , a n d ( b ) a n a n t i - Co m m u n i s t
. Tw o a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s e s
s u g g e s t t h e m s e l v e s : ( a ) S e r v i c e i s n o t a s h r e w d r e p o r t e r
; i . e . , h e
i s c o n g e n i t a l l y n a i v e , o r e l s e h e w a s t e m p o r a r i l y b a m b o o z l e d
;o r
( b ) h e w a s s h r e w d b u t n o t a n a n t i - Co m m u n i s t
. Th e f i r s t e x p l a n a -
t i o n i s t h e m o r e a t t r a c t i v e , b u t t h e s e c o n d i s n o t u n t h i n k a b l e
.
Th e n , o n t o p o f i t a l l , J o h n S e r v i c e g e t s h i m s e l f a r r e s t e d b y t h e
F B If o r t u r n i n g o v e r c l a s s i f i e d i n f o r m a t i o n t o u n a u t h o r i z e d p e r -
s o n s w h o , a s i t h a p p e n e d , w e r e Co m m u n i s t s
. Tw o e x p l a n a t i o n s
a g a i n a r i s e
: ( a ) S e r v i c e d i d n o t d e e m t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t o b e i n a n y
w a y c r i t i c a l , a n d h e n c e h e g r a n t e d h i m s e l f t h e a u t h o r i t y t o r e c l a s -
s i f y c l a s s i f i e d i n f o r m a t i o n ( s o m e t i m e s e x e r c i s e d b y p u b l i c s e r v -
a n t s ) ;o r ( b ) S e r v i c e w i s h e d
t o s u p p l y t h e Co m m u n i s t s w i t h i n f o r -
m a t i o n t o w h i c h t h e y m i g h t n o t o t h e r w i s e h a v e a c c e s s
. Ei t h e r
e x p l a n a t i o n c o u l d a c c o u n t f o r S e r v i c e ' s a c t i o n
. B u t i n t h e c o n t e x t
o f a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l e m e r g e n c y , M c Ca r t h y s t e p s f o r w a r d t o a r g u e
t h a t t h e r e i s a t t h e v e r y l e a s t
a r e a s o n a b l e d o u b t
o f S e r v i c e ' s l o y -
a l t y , a n d t h a t t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e d i s m i s s h i m
.
M c Ca r t h y w a s p e r h a p s n o t a c t i n g g e n e r o u s l y , b u t h e c e r t a i n l y w a s
a c t i n g r e a s o n a b l y .
Th i s , t h e n , i s " M c Ca r t h y ' s m e t h o d
. " No t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e h e c -
t i c a l l y p r o m o t e d p u b l i c i m p r e s s i o n , M c Ca r t h y d o e s n o t m a k e a
* No t e t h e p o l a r i z a t i o n o f v i e w p o i n t s o n s u c h m e n a s Ow e n L a t t i m o r e ,
w h o i s a c c l a i m e d b y s o m e o f h i s a d m i r e r s a s a " n o b l e m a n , a n e a r n e s t , f e a r -
l e s s a n d i n d u s t r i o u s s c h o l a r , " a n d d e n o u n c e d b y M c Ca r t h y a s t h e " t o p S o v i e t
e s p i o n a g e a g e n t i n Am e r i c a
. " Th e r e i s , p e r h a p s , r o o m f o r d i s a g r e e m e n t a b o u t
L a t t i m o r e , b u t t h e a r e a o f c o n t r o v e r s y , a t l e a s t , i s c l e a r
: w e m u s t c h o o s e b e -
t w e e n t h e t w o p r o p o s i t i o n s
: " L a t t i m o r e - i n n o c e n t l y - s w a l l o w e d - t h e - Co m m u -
n i s t - b a i t , h o o k - l i n e - a n d - s i n k e r , " a n d
`
L a t t i m o r e - c o n s c i o u s l y - w a s - o u t - t o - f u r -
t h e r - S o v i e t - i m p e r i a l i s m . "
2 8 0

S ENATOR M CCARTH Y
' S M ETH OD
p r a c t i c e o f f a b r i c a t i n g e v i d e n c e
. H e d o e s , h o w e v e r , m a k e a p r a c -
t i c e o f a c t i n g o n t h e p r o p o s i t i o n - o n w h i c h h e i n s i s t s t h e g o v e r n -
m e n t a l s o a c t - t h a t Al g e r H i s s w a s n o t t h e l a s t o f t h e S o v i e t a g e n t s
i n o u r m i d s t , a n d t h a t H i s s ' c o m r a d e s d o n o t p u b l i c l y p a r a d e
t h e i r a l l e g i a n c e t o t h e S o v i e t U n i o n .
W e h a v e l i k e n e d M c Ca r t h y ' s r o l e t o t h a t o f t h e p r o s e c u t o r ;b u t
l e t u s k e e p i n m i n d t h e h a z a r d s o f c a r r y i n g t h e a n a l o g y t o o f a r . Th e
g r e a t e s t p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o p a g a n d a v i c t o r y t h e Co m m u n i s t s a n d
t h e L i b e r a l s h a v e s c o r e d i n t h i s w h o l e a r e a h a s b e e n t o f o r c e e v e r y -
o n e t o d i s c u s s t h e l o y a l t y - s e c u r i t y i s s u e i n t h e t e r m i n o l o g y o f l a w
.
Th e a u t h o r s o f t h i s b o o k a r e t h e m s e l v e s g u i l t y o f h a v i n g u s e d , i n
t h e p r e c e d i n g p a g e s , t h e o r g a n i c a l l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e i m a g e r y o f t h e
l a w , b e c a u s e o t h e r w i s e t h e y c o u l d n o t j o i n i s s u e w i t h t h e o p p o s i -
t i o n . B u t i t i s p a l p a b l y f o o l i s h t o s p e a k , i n t h e a r e a o f g o v e r n m e n t
s e c u r i t y , o f " d e f e n d a n t " a n d " p r o s e c u t o r , " o f " g u i l t " a n d " i n n o -
c e n c e , " o f " p r o o f , " o f t h e " p r e s u m p t i o n o f i n n o c e n c e , " o f t h e " r i g h t
t o c o n f r o n t o n e ' s a c c u s e r , " o f t h e " r i g h t t o c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n , " o f
" j u d g m e n t b y o n e ' s p e e r s , " a n d t h e r e s t o f i t
. S o l o n g a s w e c o n -
t i n u e t o u s e t h i s t e r m i n o l o g y w e c a n h a r d l y h o p e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e
p r o b l e m a t h a n d , m u c h l e s s t o c o p e w i t h i t
. W e h a v e , i n f a c t , u n d e r -
s t o o d a n d c o p e d w i t h i t j u s t t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t w e h a v e f o u g h t o u r -
s e l v e s f r e e , a t s o m e p o i n t s , f r o m t h e l e g a l i m a g e r y a n d i t s m i s l e a d -
i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s .
It i s a l l t o t h e g o o d t h a t w e m a k e t h e d i s t r i c t a t t o r n e y r e s p e c t
t h e r i g h t s o f t h e a c c u s e d a n d d e p e n d , f o r a v e r d i c t o f " g u i l t y , "
u p o n t h e u n a n i m o u s a p p r o v a l o f t h e j u r y . On l y a t o u r p e r i l d o w e
a b a n d o n s u c h r e v e r e d c u s t o m s . B u t l e t u s n o t b e d e c e i v e d b y c e r -
t a i n s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n t h e r o l e o f a p u b l i c p r o s e c u t o r a n d t h e
r o l e o f a M c Ca r t h y , o r b e t w e e n t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a c c u s e d i n a
m u r d e r t r i a l a n d t h e p o s i t i o n o f a Vi n c e n t i n a s e c u r i t y p r o c e e d i n g .
Th e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e t w o a r e f a r g r e a t e r t h a n t h e s i m i l a r -
i t i e s , a n d t h e y r e f l e c t a l l t h e w i s d o m w e h a v e a c q u i r e d a b o u t h o w
t o d e a l w i t h t h e Co m m u n i s t s i n o u r m i d s t .
Th e e s s e n c e o f M c Ca r t h y - a n d M c Ca r t h y i s m - l i e s t h e n i n
b r i n g i n g t o t h e l o y a l t y - s e c u r i t y p r o b l e m a k i n d o f s k e p t i c i s m w i t h
w h i c h i t h a d n o t b e e n a p p r o a c h e d b e f o r e
. Ot h e r s t o o k i t f o r
g r a n t e d t h a t S e r v i c e b a c k e d t h e Ch i n e s e Co m m u n i s t s a n d g a v e
a w a y c l a s s i f i e d m a t e r i a l b e c a u s e h e w a s f o o l e d . M c Ca r t h y w a s p r e -
p a r e d t o s u p p o s e h e d i d s o b e c a u s e h e w a s p r o - Co m m u n i s t . Ot h e r s
e x p l a i n e d S h a p l e y ' s p a r t y - l i n i n g i n t e r m s o f d e v o t i o n t o w o r l d
S M EARING
OF INNOCENTP EOP L E

2 8 1
p e a c e
;M c Ca r t h y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t d e v o t i o n t o w o r l d Co m m u n i s m
w a s a n a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t m e r i t e d e q u a l t r e a t m e n t
. An d
h e k e e p s o n b e i n g s k e p t i c a l
: i f , a s s o o f t e n h a p p e n s , t h e e v i d e n c e
d o e s n o t c o n c l u s i v e l y e s t a b l i s h e i t h e r h y p o t h e s i s , M c Ca r t h y i s
t h e r e t o i n s i s t t h a t w e c a n n o t a f f o r d t o
a c t
o n a n y b u t t h e h y p o t h -
e s i s t h a t f a v o r s o u r n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y
. M c Ca r t h y w o u l d u n q u e s t i o n -
a b l y a d m i t t h a t S e r v i c e
m i g h t b e i n n o c e n t
;b u t h e w o u l d n e v e r
c o n s e n t t o r e i n s t a t e h i m i n a p o s i t i o n o f p u b l i c t r u s t
.
Th i s i s t h e h e a r t o f M c Ca r t h y ' s m e t h o d
. It i s i n m a n y r e s p e c t s
a s r e v o l u t i o n a r y a s t h e Co m m u n i s t m o v e m e n t i t s e l f - a n d s o i t i s
u n l i k e l y t o c o m m e n d i t s e l f t o p e o p l e s o s h o r t o n k n o w l e d g e , o r
e v e n i n s t i n c t s , a s t o t h e n a t u r e a n d r e s o u r c e s o f t h e S o v i e t c o n s p i r -
a c y a s n o t t o r e a l i z e t h a t w e l i v e i n a n u n b r a v e n e w w o r l d , i n
w h i c h c e r t a i n c h e r i s h e d h a b i t s o f m i n d a r e n o t o n l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e
b u t s u i c i d a l .
Th e P u b l i c i z i n g o f H i s Ch a r g e s
ANOTH ERa s p e c t o f S e n a t o r M c Ca r t h y ' s m e t h o d l i e s i n h i s d e m o n -
s t r a b l e p r e f e r e n c e f o r " c a r r y i n g t o t h e p e o p l e " c e r t a i n c o n t r o v e r -
s i a l i s s u e s t h a t o t h e r s w i s h t o s e e h a n d l e d i n t h e a b s e n c e o f p u b l i c
d e b a t e . Th i s , o f c o u r s e , i s n o t h o w h i s c r i t i c s p u t i t . Th e y s a y t h a t
M c Ca r t h y m e r e l y s e e k s p e r s o n a l p u b l i c i t y
. Th e y s a y t h a t t h e i s s u e s
M c Ca r t h y c o n c e r n s h i m s e l f w i t h a r e b e s t s e t t l e d b y " c o l d , s i l e n t
p r o f e s s i o n a l s " w o r k i n g i n a n a t m o s p h e r e o f s e c r e c y
.
As b i g g o v e r n m e n t h a s e v o l v e d , a g r e a t e r a n d g r e a t e r s h a r e o f
t h e n a t i o n ' s b u s i n e s s h a s i n d e e d b e e n c o n d u c t e d i n s e c r e t
. Al s o ,
a n e v e r - g r o w i n g n u m b e r o f p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s h a v e b e e n m a d e b y t h e
Ex e c u t i v e a n d t h e b u r e a u c r a c y r a t h e r t h a n b y Co n g r e s s
. Th e p e o -
p l e a n d Co n g r e s s , a c q u i e s c i n g o v e r t h e p a s t t w e n t y y e a r s a s t h e
Ch i e f Ex e c u t i v e , h i s Ca b i n e t , a n d t h e e x e c u t i v e a g e n c i e s h a v e
t a k e n o v e r f u n c t i o n s a n d a u t h o r i t y n o r m a l l y r e s e r v e d t o t h e s t a t e
g o v e r n m e n t s a n d t h e n a t i o n a l l e g i s l a t u r e , h a v e l a r g e l y r e n o u n c e d
a c t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e a f f a i r s o f s t a t e . Th e L i b e r a l s , i n g e n e r a l ,
h a v e w a t c h e d t h i s t r e n d w i t h a g o o d d e a l o f s a t i s f a c t i o n .
W e s h a l l n o t a r g u e - o r a t t r i b u t e t o M c Ca r t h y t h e v i e w - t h a t
a l l
t r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t m u s t a t a l l
t i m e s b e m a d e p u b l i c .
Th e r e a r e o f c o u r s e s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n i s b e s t
w i t h h e l d f r o m t h e c i t i z e n r y . An e x a m p l e , p e r h a p s , i s t h a t o f i n -
f o r m e d e s t i m a t e s a s t o t h e s t r i k i n g p o w e r o f o u r a i r f o r c e , t h e
d e l i v e r a b i l i t y o f t h e a t o m b o m b , a n d t h e e v a l u a t e d i n t e n t i o n s a n d
c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e e n e m y .
B u t n o t a l l t h e w i t h h o l d i n g n o w a d a y s i s o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r
. Th e
S t a t e p l a y s w h a t J a m e s M a d i s o n c a l l e d " t h e o l d t r i c k o f t u r n i n g
e v e r y c o n t i n g e n c y i n t o a r e s o u r c e f o r a c c u m u l a t i n g f o r c e i n t h e
g o v e r n m e n t " ;a n d , i n s o d o i n g , d e n i e s t o t h e p e o p l e ( a n d t h e i r
e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ) e s s e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s l e g i t i m a t e l y
t h e i r s
. Tr u m a n ' s p r e s s c e n s o r s h i p o r d e r o f 1 9 5 1 i s p e r h a p s t h e m o s t
b l a t a n t e x a m p l e o f t h i s s o r t o f t h i n g
;a n o t h e r , m o r e r e l e v a n t t o o u r
p r e s e n t i n q u i r y , i s P r e s i d e n t Tr u m a n ' s Ex e c u t i v e Or d e r f o r b i d d i n g
Co n g r e s s m e n a c c e s s t o d a t a o n t h e l o y a l t y o f g o v e r n m e n t p e r -
s o n n e l .
Th e P r e s i d e n t ' s o r d e r , i n e f f e c t , i n s t r u c t e d Co n g r e s s t h a t i n t h e
f u t u r e i t w i l l h a v e t o t a k e b l i n d l y f o r g r a n t e d t h a t t h e e x e c u t i v e
d e p a r t m e n t s a d m i n i s t e r t h e l o y a l t y a n d s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m c o m p e -
t e n t l y a n d t h o r o u g h l y . Tr u m a n r a t i o n a l i z e d h i s a c t i o n i n t e r m s o f
P U B L ICIZING OF H IS CH ARG ES

2 8 3
a n a d m i t t e d l y l a u d a b l e o b j e c t i v e
. F o r i t i s d e s i r a b l e , i n m o s t c a s e s ,
t o i n s u r e p r i v a c y i n t h e p r o c e e d i n g s o f l o y a l t y a n d s e c u r i t y p a n e l s :
e v e n i f a n e m p l o y e e i s e x o n e r a t e d b y s u c h a p a n e l , h e i s s a d d l e d
w i t h t h e s t i g m a o f h a v i n g h a d t o a p p e a r b e f o r e i t ;a n d i f h e i s d i s -
c h a r g e d , h e h a s n o r e c o u r s e , a s S t a t e De p a r t m e n t s e c u r i t y r e g u l a -
t i o n s p o i n t o u t , t o " a n o u t s i d e t r i b u n a l w h i c h c a n p o s i t i v e l y a f f i r m
h i s l o y a l t y . "
B u t w h a t a l l t h i s p r o v e s i s m e r e l y t h a t t h e l e s s i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t
l e a k s o u t a b o u t t h e i d e n t i t y o f p e r s o n s p r o c e s s e d b y t h e l o y a l t y
b o a r d , t h e b e t t e r f o r t h e m . It c e r t a i n l y d o e s n o t d i s p o s e o f t h e
q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r w e , a s a p e o p l e , a r e n o t e n t i t l e d t o k n o w w h e t h e r
o u r s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m i s e f f e c t i v e , w h e t h e r i t i s t h e p r o p e r c o n c e r n
o f Co n g r e s s t c c h e c k o n t h e Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s h a n d l i n g o f t h e s e c u r -
i t y p r o g r a m , a n d t o s p e a k u p w h e n t h e r e a r e r e a s o n s t o b e l i e v e i t i s
b e i n g m i s h a n d l e d .
Th e s e q u e s t i o n s c a n n o t b e d i s m i s s e d b y p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t t h e
Ch i e f Ex e c u t i v e m u s t h i m s e l f a p p e a r b e f o r e t h e p e o p l e , f o r a v o t e
o f c o n f i d e n c e , e v e r y f o u r y e a r s
. Th e p e o p l e c a n n o t p o s s i b l y d e c i d e
w h e t h e r t h e P r e s i d e n t h a s d o n e a s a t i s f a c t o r y j o b i n t h e s e c u r i t y
f i e l d w i t h o u t k n o w i n g a b o u t t h e j o b h e h a s d o n e . If a f l e e t o f o u r
o w n B - 5 o ' s , p i l o t e d b y o u r o w n a v i a t o r s , c a r r y i n g o u r o w n a t o m i c
b o m b s , a t t a c k s De t r o i t , a n d t h e n l a n d s i n S i b e r i a , t h e p e o p l e w i l l
d e d u c e t h a t t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m h a s b e e n s l i p s h o d .
B u t i n t h e a b s e n c e o f s u c h c l u e s , t h e y a r e w i t h o u t d a t a t o m a k e
r e l e v a n t j u d g m e n t s a b o u t g o v e r n m e n t s e c u r i t y e x c e p t a s t h e i r
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a r e i n a p o s i t i o n t o e v a l u a t e s e c u r i t y p e r f o r m a n c e
o n t h e b a s i s o f s p o t c h e c k s a n d s o m e p e r i o d i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f a
m o r e e x h a u s t i n g n a t u r e . Ye t t h e p e o p l e ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s c a n n o t
d o t h e i r d u t y ' w i t h o u t e x a m i n i n g t h e m i n u t e s o f l o y a l t y a n d s e c u r -
i t y h e a r i n g s o n s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l s .
Ea r l y i n 1 - 9 5 0 , S e n a t o r M c Ca r t h y c o n c l u d e d t h a t , o n t h e a v a i l a b l e
e v i d e n c e , t h e s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m , m o s t p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e S t a t e De -
p a r t m e n t , w a s b e i n g i r r e s p o n s i b l y a d m i n i s t e r e d
. As i t t u r n e d o u t
h i s c o n c l u s i o n w a s u n q u e s t i o n a b l y a n d u n a n s w e r a b l y c o r r e c t
. B u t
a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r M c Ca r t h y m a d e h i s f i r s t c h a r g e s , i n F e b -
r u a r y ,
1 9 5 0 ,
t h e P r e s i d e n t , t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t , a n d t h e m a j o r i t y
l e a d e r o f t h e S e n a t e , p u b l i c l y a n d c a t e g o r i c a l l y d e n i e d t h e m
. M c -
Ca r t h y p e r s e v e r e d , a n d t h e p u b l i c s e n t i m e n t h e a r o u s e d u n d o u b t -
e d l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e De m o c r a t i c m a j o r i t y t o a r -
r a n g e a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n
.
2 8 4
S ENATOR M CCARTH Y' S M ETH OD
M o r e o v e r , l e t u s r e m e m b e r t h a t M c Ca r t h y
r e f u s e d , a t f i r s t , t o
r e l e a s e t o t h e p u b l i c t h e n a m e s o f t h e l o y a l t y r i s k s h e h a d i n m i n d
.
On l y w h e n t h e Ty d i n g s Co m m i t t e e h a d r e v e a l e d i t s i n t e n t i o n o f
i n v e s t i g a t i n g n o t S t a t e De p a r t m e n t s e c u r i t y b u t J o e M c Ca r t h y ,
d i d h e b e g i n i n e a r n e s t t o p o u n d n a m e s , d a t e s a n d f i g u r e s i n t o
t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e p e o p l e
. An d l a t e r , w i t h t h e Ty d i n g s Co m -
m i t t e e ' s u n b e l i e v a b l e r e p o r t i n h i s h a n d , M c Ca r t h y t o u r e d t h e
c o u n t r y i n s i s t i n g t h a t t h e Tr u m a n Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n w a s p r o t e c t i n g
l o y a l t y r i s k s i n t h e g o v e r n m e n t , a n d t h a t s o m e t h i n g o u g h t t o b e
d o n e a b o u t i t . Th e p e o p l e r e s p o n d e d
. As a s t a r t e r , t h e y r e t i r e d
S c o t t L u c a s a n d M i l l a r d Ty d i n g s
.
Th o s e w h o , k n o w i n g a l l t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , s t i l l d e n o u n c e M c -
Ca r t h y ' s m e t h o d , m u s t b e p r e p a r e d t o a r g u e t h a t h e s h o u l d h a v e
k e p t s i l e n t a b o u t l o y a l t y r i s k s i n c r i t i c a l g o v e r n m e n t p o s i t i o n s - i n
t h e t e e t h o f h i s d e e p p e r s o n a l c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e y w e r e b e i n g
p r o t e c t e d - b e c a u s e h e s h o u l d h a v e f e l t h i m s e l f b o u n d b y a r b i t r a r y
d e c i s i o n s a s t o w h a t i s s u e s a r e b e s t l e f t t o t h e e x e c u t i v e p r o c e s s
.
B u t M c Ca r t h y i s o f c o u r s e
n o t b o u n d b y s u c h d e c i s i o n s
. H e m a k e s
h i s o w n
. If M c Ca r t h y w e r e t o l e a r n t h e f i g u r e s o n o u r p r o d u c t i o n
o f a t o m b o m b s a n d f e l t t h a t o u r s u p p l y w a s d a n g e r o u s l y l o w , h e
w o u l d p r o b a b l y k e e p s i l e n t , r e a s o n i n g t h a t a s h o r t s u p p l y i s l e s s
d a n g e r o u s t h a n S o v i e t k n o w l e d g e o f i t
. ( M c Ca r t h y ' s r e c o r d f o r
a c t i n g r e s p o n s i b l y i n t h i s a r e a i s , o n t h e w h o l e , e x c e l l e n t
. H e d o e s
n o t a u t o m a t i c a l l y r e a c h f o r a m e g a p h o n e e v e r y t i m e h e i s d i s -
p l e a s e d , h i s n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h e G r e e k s h i p o w n e r s b e i n g a c a s e
i n p o i n t
. No t u n t i l h i s Co m m i t t e e h a d c o n c l u d e d a n a g r e e m e n t
w i t h t h e m t o b a n c o m m e r c i a l t r a f f i c t o Re d Ch i n a d i d M c Ca r t h y
m a k e a n a n n o u n c e m e n t o n t h e s u b j e c t . )
To r e v e r t t o t h e f i r s t q u e s t i o n w e r a i s e d
: i s M c Ca r t h y a b o v e a l l
a p u b l i c i t y s e e k e r , a n d i s h i s t r a f f i c w i t h t h e p e o p l e n o t h i n g m o r e
t h a n h i s w a y o f g r a t i f y i n g a l u s t f o r n a t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n ? Th i s q u e s -
t i o n n e i t h e r M c Ca r t h y ' s f r i e n d s n o r h i s f o e s c a n a n s w e r
. M o t i v e s
o f t h i s s o r t c a n o f c o u r s e b e a d v a n c e d a n d d e f e n d e d t o e x p l a i n t h e
a c t i v i t i e s o f m o s t p u b l i c f i g u r e s
. B u t t h i s i s s t r i c t l y a p a r l o r g a m e .
On l y o n e t h i n g i s c e r t a i n : M c Ca r t h y
r e c e i v e s p u b l i c i t y - m o r e
p u b l i c i t y t h a n a n y Am e r i c a n s a v e t h e P r e s i d e n t . Th e r e a r e s e v e r a l
r e a s o n s f o r t h i s
. M c Ca r t h y d e a l s w i t h s e n s a t i o n a l i s s u e s , a n d s e n s a -
t i o n i s n e w s w o r t h y . An d M c Ca r t h y , d a y i n a n d d a y o u t , d e a l s b o d y
b l o w s t o t h e s o f t u n d e r b e l l y o f Am e r i c a n L i b e r a l s , w h o s e s c r e a m s
o f a n g u i s h a r e s o i n f r e q u e n t ( b y v i r t u e o f t h e i r e n t r e n c h e d p o w e r )
P U B L ICIZING OF H IS CH ARG ES

2 8 5
t h a t w h e n t h e y a r e m a d e t o s c r e a m , t h e o c c a s i o n i s , a g a i n , n e w s -
w o r t h y . An d , o f c o u r s e , h a v i n g o c c u p i e d t h e f r o n t p a g e s f o r s o
l o n g n o w , M c Ca r t h y h a s b e c o m e a n a t i o n a l f i g u r e , a n d t h e p u b l i c
i s c u r i o u s a b o u t n a t i o n a l f i g u r e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e w h o a r e c o n -
t r o v e r s i a l .
B u t t o s a y t h a t b e c a u s e M c Ca r t h y
g e t s p u b l i c i t y , h e d o e s w h a t
h e i s d o i n g s i m p l y b e c a u s e h e
w a n t s p u b l i c i t y , i s a s p e c i o u s p i e c e
o f t e n d e n t i o u s r e a s o n i n g
. ' S u c h i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t t h e m o t i v a t i o n s
o f p u b l i c f i g u r e s c a n o f c o u r s e n e v e r b e c o n c l u s i v e l y r e f u t e d , b u t
s i n c e t h e n e e d . f o r a p u b l i c v e n t i l a t i o n o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s s e c u r i t y
d e r e l i c t i o n s i s n o w f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e p r e s u m p t i o n , i n a w o r l d
s t i l l p r e p a r e d t o c o n c e d e t h a t a c o n c e r n f o r t h e c o m m o n w e a l c a n
b e g e n u i n e , o u g h t t o b e t h a t t h e S e n a t o r w h o m e t t h a t n e e d w a s
m o t i v a t e d b y a d e s i r e t o s e r v e t h e p e o p l e . Ob v i o u s l y , M c Ca r t h y
c a n n o t c a r r y i s s u e s t o t h e p e o p l e w i t h o u t g e t t i n g t h e i r a t t e n t i o n
;
a n d t h e r e i s n o w a y o f f o c u s s i n g t h e p e o p l e ' s a t t e n t i o n o n a n i s s u e
w i t h o u t a t t h e s a m e t i m e d r a w i n g a t t e n t i o n t o o n e s e l f
. In s h o r t ,
M c Ca r t h y m u s t b e j u d g e d o n w h e t h e r h i s p r o g r a m i s c o m m e n d -
a b l e - n o t o n w h e t h e r o n e o f t h e p r o g r a m ' s c o n c o m i t a n t s i s t o k e e p
M c Ca r t h y o n t h e f r o n t p a g e s .
It i s c u r i o u s t h a t w h a t i s w i d e l y t h o u g h t o f a s a c o n t e m p t i b l e
a s p e c t o f S e n a t o r M c Ca r t h y ' s m e t h o d a c t u a l l y a m o u n t s t o n o t h i n g
m o r e t h a n h i s i n t i m a c y w i t h t h e p e o p l e . M c Ca r t h y ' s c o n t i n u o u s
a p p e a l t o t h e p e o p l e s o r e l y a g g r a v a t e s t h e s a m e L i b e r a l s w h o s e
c e r t i f i e d f a i t h i n t h e p e o p l e ' s j u d g m e n t n e v e r e x t e n d s t o t h o s e s i t u -
a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e p e o p l e d i s a g r e e w i t h t h e L i b e r a l s . Th u s , i f
M c Ca r t h y h a d b e e n r e p u d i a t e d a t t h e p o l l s o n a n y o f t h e s e v e r a l
o c c a s i o n s w h e n h e i n v i t e d a p u b l i c v e r d i c t o n h i s a c t i v i t i e s , t h e
L i b e r a l s w o u l d h a v e r u s h e d f o r w a r d t o p r a i s e t h e o v e r a r c h i n g w i s -
d o m o f t h e p e o p l e . H e w a s n o t r e p u d i a t e d ;s o t h e L i b e r a l s t a l k
o u t o f t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e i r m o u t h s . Th e p e o p l e , t h e y t e l l u s , w e r e
s w e p t a w a y b y p r i m i t i v e p a s s i o n s - o f t h e s o r t t h a t n e v e r u n s e t t l e
t h e L i b e r a l s , e x c e p t w h e n t h e y c o n t e m p l a t e M c Ca r t h y
.
* Es t e s K e f a u v e r ' s t e l e v i s i o n c r u s a d e a g a i n s t c r i m e i s , o f c o u r s e , s u s c e p -
t i b l e t o t h e s a m e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . B u t L i b e r a l s w e r e d i s p o s e d t o i n f e r n o b l e
i n t e n t i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n
. K e f a u v e r e x p o s e d t o p u b l i c v i e w p e r s o n s a g a i n s t w h o m
c h a r g e s o f m a l f e a s a n c e i n o f f i c e , b r i b e r y , r a c k e t e e r i n g , t h e f t , g a m b l i n g a n d
m u r d e r , h a d b e e n m a d e o r i n s i n u a t e d . M c Ca r t h y e x p o s e d t o p u b l i c v i e w p e r -
s o n s c h a r g e d w i t h s e r v i n g t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e S o v i e t U n i o n . Th e L i b e r a l s , f o r
r e a s o n s b e s t u n d e r s t o o d b y t h e m s e l v e s , h a v e s y m p a t h i z e d w i t h M c Ca r t h y ' s
v i c t i m s w h i l e w o r r y i n g v e r y l i t t l e a b o u t K e f a u v e r ' s . Ye t i t i s M c Ca r t h y ' s
v i c t i m s w h o m t h e o r d i n a r y p r o c e s s e s o f t h e l a w c l e a r l y c a n n o t r e a c h , a n d f o r
w h o m , t h e r e f o r e , Co n g r e s s i o n a l h e a r i n g s a r e e s p e c i a l l y i n o r d e r .
Th e U s e o f Co n g r e s s i o n a l Im m u n i t y
NOTONL Yd o e s M c Ca r t h y a c c u s e p e o p l e o n i n s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e ,
n o t o n l y d o e s h e t h e n p r o c e e d t o p u b l i c i z e h i s c h a r g e s a g a i n s t
t h e m , h e a l s o p r o t e c t s h i m s e l f f r o m a n y l e g a l r e c o u r s e t h e y m i g h t
h a v e b y h i d i n g u n d e r Co n g r e s s i o n a l i m m u n i t y . S o r u n s a n o t h e r
L i b e r a l i n d i c t m e n t o f M c Ca r t h y ' s m e t h o d .
W e h a v e , t h r o u g h o u t , s t r e s s e d t h e s u b s t a n t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s b e -
t w e e n p r o c e s s e s o f l a w a n d l o y a l t y a c t i o n s , a n d h a v e w a r n e d
a g a i n s t t h e d a n g e r o f a s s i m i l a t i n g t h e t w o . At t h e s a m e t i m e , w e
h a v e o c c a s i o n a l l y r e f e r r e d t o t h e s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n M c Ca r t h y ' s
r o l e a n d t h a t o f a p u b l i c p r o s e c u t o r . S h o u l d w e b e c h a r g e d w i t h
i n c o n s i s t e n c y , o u r a n s w e r w o u l d b e , s i m p l y , t h a t b o t h t h e s i m i l a r -
i t i e s a n d t h e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e t h e r e . In d e e d , M c Ca r t h y h a s a s s u m e d
t h e r o l e o f p u b l i c p r o s e c u t o r - b u t i n a t y p e o f a c t i o n t h a t d o e s n o t
r e a c h t h e c o u r t s a n d t o w h i c h , t h e r e f o r e , t h e r u l e s t h a t g o v e r n
c o u r t a c t i o n s a r e i n a p p l i c a b l e .
On e o f t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n M c Ca r t h y , t h e a n t i - Co m m u n i s t
t r i b u n e , a n d t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l p u b l i c p r o s e c u t o r l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t
b o t h e n j o y a c o n s i d e r a b l e i m m u n i t y a g a i n s t l e g a l a c t i o n f o r l i b e l
a n d s l a n d e r - a n d w o u l d n o t b e a b l e t o
p e r f o r m t h e i r f u n c t i o n s
w i t h o u t s u c h i m m u n i t y . If a p r o s e c u t o r , w h o s e j o b i t i s t o u r g e
t h e j u r y t o r e t u r n a v e r d i c t o f " g u i l t y , " c o u l d b e h e l d l e g a l l y r e -
s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l t h e s t a t e m e n t s h e m a k e s i n t h e c o u r s e o f a t r i a l ,
h e w o u l d b e a t t h e m e r c y o f a l l v i n d i c a t e d d e f e n d a n t s - a n d w o u l d
b e c a r e f u l n o t t o m a k e s t a t e m e n t s t h a t h e n e e d s
t o m a k e t o p l e a d
h i s c a s e
. It i s n o t u n u s u a l f o r t h e p r o s e c u t o r t o s u m u p h i s c a s e b y
i n f o r m i n g t h e j u r y
t h a t t h a t a c c u s e d i s a d e c e i t f u l a n d p r a c t i c e d
l i a r , a f o u l a n d c a l l o u s a d u l t e r e r , a d e g e n e r a t e t h i e f , o r a c o l d -
b l o o d e d , c y n i c a l a n d r u t h l e s s m u r d e r e r . No t i n f r e q u e n t l y t h e p e r -
s o n s o d e s c r i b e d w a l k s o u t o f t h e c o u r t r o o m a f r e e m a n
. F r e e , t h a t
i s , e x c e p t t h a t h e c a n n o t f i l e s u i t a g a i n s t t h e p r o s e c u t i n g a t t o r n e y
f o r s l a n d e r .
Th e p r i v i l e g e s S e n a t o r M c Ca r t h y e x e r c i s e s i n h i s p r e s e n t r o l e
a r e e s s e n t i a l l y t h o s e o f t h e d i s t r i c t a t t o r n e y
. Th e y a r e a l s o t h e p r i v -
i l e g e s t h e f r a m e r s o f o u r Co n s t i t u t i o n
d e l i b e r a t e l y e x t e n d e d t o o u r
n a t i o n a l l e g i s l a t o r s - l e s t
t h e y f a i l , f o r f e a r o f s u b s e q u e n t c o u r t a c -
t i o n , t o s p e a k o u t a g a i n s t p e r s o n s t h e y d e e m t o b e p u b l i c m a l e -
f a c t o r s
.
To f u r n i s h t h e s o r t o f " p r o o f " t h a t w o u l d s a t i s f y a c o u r t t h a t
U S E OF CONG RES S IONAL IM M U NITY

2 8 7
J o h n J o n e s i s p r o - Co m m u n i s t r e m a i n s i n m o s t c a s e s i m p o s s i b l e -
b y d e f i n i t i o n o f Co m m u n i s t c o n d u c t . Of t e n M c Ca r t h y h a s h a d
n o t h i n g t o g o o n b u t a s e t o f f a c t s a m a s s e d b y S t a t e De p a r t m e n t
o r F B Ii n v e s t i g a t o r s , w h i c h s e e m e d t o c o n s t i t u t e s t r o n g p r i m a
f a c i e e v i d e n c e t h a t J o h n J o n e s , c u r r e n t l y w i t h t h e S t a t e De p a r t -
m e n t , i s a l o y a l t y r i s k . Af t e r e x h a u s t i n g o t h e r m e a n s o f g e t t i n g
J o n e s o u t o f t h e De p a r t m e n t , M c Ca r t h y m a k e s a s p e e c h a b o u t
J o n e s o n t h e f l o o r o f t h e S e n a t e . J o n e s p r o m p t l y s a y s h e w i l l s u e
M c Ca r t h y i f h e w i l l w a i v e h i s i m m u n i t y . M c Ca r t h y r e f u s e s t o d o
s o . An d h e m u s t r e f u s e : f o r t o a u t h e n t i c a t e h i s c h a r g e s , M c Ca r t h y
w o u l d h a v e t o f u r n i s h a j u r y w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l i n v e s t i g a t i n g r e -
p o r t s ;a n d n e i t h e r t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t n o r t h e F B Ic a n m a k e
t h e m a v a i l a b l e . B u t f o r h i s i m m u n i t y , M c Ca r t h y w o u l d h a v e t o
p r e s e r v e a d i s c r e e t s i l e n c e a b o u t J o n e s
. In s h o r t , t h e m o n o p o l i z a -
t i o n b y t h e Ex e c u t i v e o f m u c h o f t h e e v i d e n c e r e l e v a n t t o l o y a l t y -
s e c u r i t y c a s e s i s t h e m a j o r d i f f i c u l t y a Co n g r e s s m a n f a c e s i n u p r o o t -
i n g s e c u r i t y r i s k s .
An o t h e r d i f f i c u l t y i s o f c o u r s e t h e r e l u c t a n c e o f Co m m u n i s t s t o
f u r n i s h e v i d e n c e a g a i n s t e a c h o t h e r
. Ac a s e i n p o i n t d e v e l o p e d
f r o m El i z a b e t h B e n t l e y ' s p u b l i c r e i t e r a t i o n , e a r l y i n 1 9 4 9 , o f h e r
i m m u n i z e d c h a r g e b e f o r e t h e H o u s e Co m m i t t e e o n U n - Am e r i c a n
Ac t i v i t i e s t h a t W i l l i a m Re m i n g t o n h a d b e e n k n o w n t o h e r a s a
Co m m u n i s t
. W h e n s h e r e p e a t e d t h e s t a t e m e n t o v e r t h e r a d i o ,
Re m i n g t o n f i l e d s u i t a g a i n s t t h e G e n e r a l F o o d s Co r p o r a t i o n ( t h e
p r o g r a m ' s s p o n s o r ) , t h e Na t i o n a l B r o a d c a s t i n g Co m p a n y , a n d
M i s s B e n t l e y , a s k i n g $ i o o , o o o i n d a m a g e s . M i s s B e n t l e y n a m e d
p e r s o n s w h o h a d k n o w n Re m i n g t o n a s a Co m m u n i s t
;b u t n o n e o f
t h e m s t e p p e d f o r w a r d , a t t h a t t i m e , t o t e s t i f y i n h e r b e h a l f
. Th e
r e s u l t : t h e b r o a d c a s t i n g c o m p a n y a n d t h e s p o n s o r h a d t o p a y
$ i 0 , o o o t o Re m i n g t o n . Ye t a f e w m o n t h s l a t e r , t h e j u s t i c e De p a r t -
m e n t f u r n i s h e d e v i d e n c e - a n d w i t n e s s e s - f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h i n g Re m -
i n g t o n ' s m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e P a r t y . H e w a s c o n v i c t e d f o r p e r j u r y .
M c Ca r t h y , t o o , h a s a l w a y s t o c o n s i d e r t h e Co m m u n i s t s ' c o n s p i r a c y
o f s i l e n c e ;a n d , b u t f o r h i s i m m u n i t y , h e c o u l d n o t g e t o n w i t h
h i s j o b .
At h i r d d i f f i c u l t y f o r M c Ca r t h y ( a n d e v e r y b o d y e l s e w h o a t -
t e m p t s t o e x p o s e l o y a l t y r i s k s ) i s t h a t e v e n w h e n h e i s f o r t u n a t e
e n o u g h t o o b t a i n i n v e s t i g a t i v e r e p o r t s f r o m t h e e x e c u t i v e a g e n c i e s
h e i s n o t a b l e t o p e n e t r a t e t h e s e c r e c y w h i c h p r o t e c t s c o n f i d e n t i a l
i n f o r m a n t s . Ye t m u c h i n f o r m a t i o n i s g i v e n t o t h e F B Ia n d o t h e r
i n v e s t i g a t o r s ;b y i n f o r m a n t s w h o w i l l n o t p e r m i t t h e i r i d e n t i t y t o
2 8 8

S ENATORM CCARTH Y' S M ETH OD


b e r e v e a l e d
. It i s t h e F B I' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o a p p r a i s e t h e r e l i a b i l i t y
o f X- 9 , w h o s t a t e s t h a t J o h n J o n e s i s a m e m b e r o f t h e Co m m u n i s t
P a r t y
. B u t t h i s d o e s n o t h e l p M c Ca r t h y , s i n c e X- 9 i s n o t p r e p a r e d
t o c o m e f o r w a r d a n d r e i t e r a t e h i s a c c u s a t i o n a g a i n s t J o n e s i n a
c o u r t o f l a w . S h o u l d M c Ca r t h y r e v e a l X- 9 ' s t e s t i m o n y a g a i n s t J o n e s ,
w h o i s s t i l l w o r k i n g i n t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t ? Or s h o u l d h e t a k e n o
a c t i o n a t a l l i n o r d e r t o a v o i d c r i t i c i s m f o r " a b u s i n g " Co n g r e s s i o n a l
i m m u n i t y ? Th e q u e s t i o n s , i t s e e m s t o u s , a n s w e r t h e m s e l v e s
.
Ag a i n , t h e r e i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e Co m m u n i s t s a n d t h e p r o - Co m -
m u n i s t s a r e l i t i g i o u s b e y o n d b e l i e f , d e t e r m i n e d , a s a l w a y s , t o m a k e
t h e m o s t o f t h e l e g a l a n d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d e v i c e s f r e e s o c i e t y p u t s a t
t h e i r d i s p o s a l
. L o u i s B u d e n z t e s t i f i e d t o t h e Ty d i n g s Co m m i t t e e
a b o u t a m a j o r p o l i c y d e c i s i o n o f t h e Co m m u n i s t P a r t y , m a d e w h i l e
h e w a s s t i l l m a n a g i n g e d i t o r o f t h e Da i l y W o r k e r
:
. .
Th e Co m m u n i s t P a r t y - a n d t h i s i s s o m e t h i n g t h a t e v e r y o n e s h o u l d
k n o w - a g r e e d t h a t a f t e r t h a t p e r i o d o f 1 9 4 5 , t h a t w i t h t h e c o l d w a r b e -
g i n n i n g , a l l c o n c e a l e d Co m m u n i s t s s h o u l d s u e a n y o n e w h o a c c u s e d
t h e m o f b e i n g Co m m u n i s t s , s u e t h e m f o r l i b e l
. As Al e x a n d e r Tr a c h t e n -
b e r g [ a h i g h o f f i c e r o f t h e Co m m u n i s t c o n s p i r a c y ] w h o m a d e t h e r e -
p o r t , s a i d , " Th i s i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f w i n n i n g t h e l i b e l
s u i t . It i s t o b l e e d w h i t e a n y o n e w h o d a r e s t o a c c u s e a n y o n e o f b e i n g a
Co m m u n i s t , s o t h a t t h e y w i l l b e s h u t u p
. " As a m a t t e r o f f a c t , t h a t b e -
c a m e t h e p o l i c y . 2
B u d e n z t o l d o f a l a w s u i t , u n d e c i d e d a t t h e t i m e h e s p o k e , i n
w h i c h t h e d e f e n d a n t ( w h o h a d c h a r g e d t h e p l a i n t i f f w i t h b e i n g
p r o - Co m m u n i s t ) s t o o d t o l o s e
$ 5 5 , 0 0 0 i n l a w y e r ' s f e e s a l o n e - w i n
o r l o s e .
M o s t r e l e v a n t i n t h i s c o n t e x t a r e t h e o b s t a c l e s t h e g o v e r n m e n t
h a d t o s u r m o u n t i n p r o v i n g w h a t w a s a l t o g e t h e r s e l f - e v i d e n t - t h a t
e l e v e n t o p U
. S . Co m m u n i s t s w e r e b e n t u p o n o v e r t u r n i n g o u r g o v -
e r n m e n t b y f o r c e a n d v i o l e n c e
. It t o o k a n e s t i m a t e d t w o m i l l i o n
d o l l a r s , a n e i g h t m o n t h s ' t r i a l , a m i l i t i a o f l a w y e r s , r o u n d - t h e - c l o c k
c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e F B I, a n d t h e s a c r i f i c e o f s e v e r a l v a l u a b l e u n d e r -
c o v e r a g e n t s , t o p e r s u a d e a j u r y t h a t o u r t o p Co m m u n i s t s w e r e o u t
t o d o s o m e t h i n g t h a t e v e r y i n f o r m e d Am e r i c a n h a s k n o w n f o r o v e r
t w e n t y y e a r s t h e y w e r e b e n t o n d o i n g
. B u t a r e w e t o b e l i e v e t h a t ,
l a c k i n g t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t , i n d i v i d u a l Co n -
g r e s s m e n s h o u l d h a v e r e f r a i n e d o v e r t h e y e a r s f r o m s t a t i n g t h a t
Eu g e n e De n n i s , G u s H a l l , B e n j a m i n Da v i s ,
e t a l . w e r e r e v o l u t i o n -
a r y c o n s p i r a t o r s s o a s n o t t o " a b u s e " Co n g r e s s i o n a l i m m u n i t y ?
U S E OF CONG RES S IONAL IM M U NITY

2 8 9
F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s t h e s h e e r l o s s o f t i m e i n l i t i g a t i o n - a l o s s o f
t i m e n o b u s y m a n c a n a f f o r d
. F o r e x a m p l e , M c Ca r t h y h i m s e l f f i l e d
s u i t i n 1 9 5 2 a g a i n s t t h e S y r a c u s e P o s t - S t a n d a r d ,
c h a r g i n g l i b e l . Af -
t e r n i n e m o n t h s o f p r e - t r i a l h e a r i n g s , d e p o s i t i o n s , b r i e f s , c o n f e r -
e n c e s , a n d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , t h e n e w s p a p e r , a c k n o w l e d g i n g g u i l t ,
g a v e M c Ca r t h y $ 1 6, 5 0 o a s a s e t t l e m e n t . M c Ca r t h y ' s l a w y e r ' s f e e s
( h e t o l d u s ) w e r e r e a s o n a b l e , j u s t o v e r $ 6, o o o . H e t h e r e f o r e c l e a r e d
a b o u t $ Io , o o o w h i c h , a s d a m a g e s , w a s t a x f r e e . W e c o m m e n t e d t o
M c Ca r t h y t h a t s i n c e t h e S y r a c u s e p a p e r h a d n o t s a i d a n y t h i n g
t h a t m a n y o t h e r p a p e r s h a d n o t a l s o s a i d , h e m i g h t m a k e a r a t h e r
h a n d s o m e l i v i n g b y f i l i n g s u i t s a g a i n s t o n e r i c h p a p e r a f t e r a n o t h e r .
H e m i g h t , i n d e e d , M c Ca r t h y r e p l i e d , a n d a d d e d : " B u t Iw o u l d
h a v e t o s t o p b e i n g a S e n a t o r . Ic l e a r e d $ i o , o o o f r o m t h e S y r a c u s e
c a s e , b u t Ia l s o s p e n t w h a t a m o u n t s t o a t o t a l o f t w o m o n t h s o f
m y t i m e i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e s u i t . Ih a v e n ' t g o t t i m e t o f i l e s u i t s
a n d t o k e e p u p w i t h m y w o r k . "
P a r a g r a p h
1 ,
S e c t i o n 6, Ar t i c l e I, o f t h e Co n s t i t u t i o n w a s d e -
s i g n e d t o e n c o u r a g e Co n g r e s s m e n t o s p e a k t h e i r m i n d s . It p r o m i s e s
t h e m t h a t " . . . f o r a n y s p e e c h o r d e b a t e i n e i t h e r h o u s e t h e y s h a l l
n o t b e q u e s t i o n e d i n a n y o t h e r p l a c e . " Th e g u a r a n t e e i s h i g h l y
u t i l i t a r i a n , a n d M c Ca r t h y i s b y n o m e a n s t h e o n l y Co n g r e s s m a n
w h o m i t h a s r e c e n t l y s t o o d i n g o o d s t e a d . S e n a t o r s K e f a u v e r ,
O' Co n o r a n d To b e y w o u l d h a v e b e e n h a r d p u t t o d e f e n d s o m e
o f t h e a c c u s a t i o n s a n d i n n u e n d o e s t h e y a d v a n c e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f
t h e i r e n c y c l o p a e d i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o Am e r i c a n r a s c a l i t y . * Ye t
m o s t o f M c Ca r t h y ' s d e t r a c t o r s w o u l d b e a m o n g t h e f i r s t t o i n s i s t
t h a t t h e K e f a u v e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n w a s i n t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t
.
It s h o u l d , h o w e v e r , b e r e c a l l e d t h a t Co n g r e s s i o n a l i m m u n i t y w a s
w r i t t e n i n t o t h e Co n s t i t u t i o n n o t t o s e r v e t h e Co n g r e s s m e n , b u t t o
s e r v e t h e p e o p l e
. Th e d e c i s i o n o f a n e a r l y ( 1 8 o 8 ) c o u r t s p e c i f i c a l l y
d i r e c t e d a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s : " Th e s e p r i v i l e g e s a r e t h u s s e c u r e d , n o t
w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f p r o t e c t i n g t h e m e m b e r s a g a i n s t p r o s e c u t i o n
f o r t h e i r o w n b e n e f i t , b u t t o s u p p o r t t h e r i g h t s o f t h e p e o p l e , b y
e n a b l i n g t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o e x e c u t e t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e i r o f -
f i c e w i t h o u t f e a r o f p r o s e c u t i o n s , c i v i l o r c r i m i n a l
. " 3
Al l t h i s i s n o t t o s a y , o f c o u r s e , t h a t Co n g r e s s i o n a l i m m u n i t y
a l w a y s s e r v e : , t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t
. L i k e a l l g o o d t h i n g s , i t i s s u b j e c t
* F o r e x a m p l e
: W h y , S e n a t o r To b e y a s k e d W i l l i a m O' Dw y e r , h a d J a m e s
M o r a n a c c o m p a n i e d h i m o n a w a r t i m e v i s i t t o F r a n k Co s t e l l o ' s a p a r t m e n t
" To c a r r y t h e l i t t l e b l a c k b a g ? "
2 9 0

S ENATOR M CCARTH YS M ETH OD


t o i m m o d e r a t e u s e
;a n d , e v e n w h e n e x e r c i s e d w i t h i n n o r m a l l i m i t s ,
i t c a n b e e x p l o i t e d b y e v i l m e n f o r a n t i s o c i a l p u r p o s e s . B u t o n t h e
r e c o r d , n o M c Ca r t h y c r i t i c , i n c h a r g i n g h i m w i t h a b u s e o f Co n -
g r e s s i o n a l i m m u n i t y , a p p e a r s t o b e s p e a k i n g w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o a n y
d e v e l o p e d o r e v e n i n t e l l i g i b l e d o c t r i n e a s t o w h a t c o n s t i t u t e s a b u s e
o f Co n g r e s s i o n a l i m m u n i t y . S o m e a p p e a r t o m e a n m e r e l y t h a t
Co n g r e s s i o n a l i m m u n i t y p r o t e c t s h i s a c t i v i t i e s m o r e e x t e n s i v e l y
t h a n i t s c r e a t o r s c o u l d h a v e i n t e n d e d - i . e . , t h a t M c Ca r t h y t a k e s
r e f u g e i n i t " c o n s t a n t l y
. " It i s , h o w e v e r , e a s y t o s h o w t h a t t h i s i s a
g r o s s e x a g g e r a t i o n . In t h e Ap p e n d i x , w e l i s t , s i d e b y s i d e , t h e m o s t
d a m a g i n g c h a r g e s M c Ca r t h y h a s m a d e , o n t h e f l o o r a n d o f f t h e
f l o o r ;a n d t h e r e a d e r w i l l s e e t h a t i t i s o n t h e r a r e , n o t t h e e v e r y -
d a y , o c c a s i o n t h a t M c Ca r t h y a v o i d s l i t i g a t i o n b y w r a p p i n g h i m -
s e l f i n Co n g r e s s i o n a l i m m u n i t y .
S o m e o f h i s c r i t i c s p o i n t o u t t h a t e v e n w h e n M c Ca r t h y g o e s
t h r o u g h t h e m o t i o n s o f w a i v i n g i m m u n i t y f o r u t t e r a n c e s m a d e o f f
t h e S e n a t e f l o o r , h e h a s n o t a c t u a l l y d o n e s o , b e c a u s e h e i s q u o t i n g ,
o r p a r a p h r a s i n g , p r e v i o u s l y i m m u n i z e d a l l e g a t i o n s . If t h i s i s w h a t
i s m e a n t b y " a b u s e , " t h e p o i n t i s s i l l y . If M c Ca r t h y q u o t e s , o u t -
s i d e t h e S e n a t e , B u d e n z ' i m m u n i z e d s t a t e m e n t t h a t H a l d o r e H a n -
s o n w a s a m e m b e r o f t h e Co m m u n i s t P a r t y , h e i s i n d e e d j u s t a s i m -
m u n e a s i f h e h a d q u o t e d i t i n s i d e t h e S e n a t e - n o t b e c a u s e M c -
Ca r t h y i s a S e n a t o r b u t b e c a u s e B u d e n z t e s t i f i e d b e f o r e a S e n a t e
Co m m i t t e e . B u t w h a t d o M c Ca r t h y ' s c r i t i c s w i s h h i m t o d o ?
S a y , h i m s e l f , i n s o m a n y w o r d s , " H a n s o n i s a Co m m u n i s t b e -
c a u s e Is a y s o ? " S i n c e w h a t M c Ca r t h y k n o w s a b o u t H a n s o n h e
k n o w s v i a B u d e n z , i t w o u l d b e f o o l i s h - a n d m e n d a c i o u s a s w e l l -
f o r h i m t o s a y a n y t h i n g e x c e p t , " a c c o r d i n g t o B u d e n z , H a n s o n w a s
a Co m m u n i s t . " B y d e c r y i n g M c Ca r t h y ' s n o t c a l l i n g H a n s o n a Co m -
m u n i s t o n h i s o w n a u t h o r i t y , h i s c r i t i c s i n e f f e c t t a l k a s i f t h e y
w a n t e d M c Ca r t h y t o c o m m i t a p r e v i o u s l y u n c o m m i t t e d s m e a r
j u s t t o g i v e H a n s o n a c h a n c e t o f i l e s u i t l
Th e d e n i a l s b y M c Ca r t h y ' s v i c t i m s , i t i s f u r t h e r s a i d , n e v e r c a t c h
u p w i t h h i s a c c u s a t i o n s , i n p a r t b e c a u s e Co n g r e s s i o n a l i m m u n i t y
t i l t s t h e s c a l e s t o t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e o f t h e " a c c u s e d
. " S e n a t o r M c -
Ca r t h y s t r i k e s o u t a t J o n e s a n d m a k e s p a g e 1 ; J o n e s r e t o r t s a n d
m a k e s p a g e 1 . 5 . An d J o n e s c a n ' t g e t b a c k a t M c Ca r t h y b e c a u s e M c -
Ca r t h y i s p r i v i l e g e d .
No r m a l l y , t h e p u b l i c f i g u r e h a s , i n d e e d , r e a d i e r a c c e s s t o t h e
n e w s p a g e s . M o s t n e w s p a p e r s , h o w e v e r , a p p e a r t o b e a w a r e o f t h e
i n h e r e n t u n f a i r n e s s o f s u c h m i s m a t c h e d b o u t s a n d t r y t o b a l a n c e
U S EOF CONG RES S IONAL IM M U NITY

2 9 1
t h e s c a l e s . An d w h e n M c Ca r t h y i s t h e a c c u s e r , t h i s a p p e a r s t o b e
e s p e c i a l l y t r u e . No t o n l y , o n t h e r e c o r d , i s t h e r e p l y o f t h e a c c u s e d
g i v e n e q u a l l y p r o m i n e n t t r e a t m e n t i n t h e p a p e r s , i t i s o f t e n m u c h
m o r e e x t e n s i v e , a n d i s o f t e n g i v e n e d i t o r i a l h e l p o n t h e s i d e . Th e
p u b l i c i t y g i v e n t o Ow e n L a t t i m o r e ' s r e b u t t a l w h e n h e a p p e a r e d
b e f o r e t h e Ty d i n g s Co m m i t t e e i n 1 9 5 0 ( t o s a y n o t h i n g o f t h e e x -
t r a v a g a n t e d i t o r i a l r e c e p t i o n o f h i s b o o k , Or d e a l b y S l a n d e r ) i s
a n i n s t a n c e i n p o i n t . B u t L a t t i m o r e , s o m e w o u l d a n s w e r , w a s a
s p e c i a l c a s e
. Th e a u t h o r s h a v e , t h e r e f o r e , e x a m i n e d t h e t r e a t m e n t
g i v e n t o M c Ca r t h y ' s n i n e p u b l i c Ty d i n g s c a s e s b y f i v e n e w s p a p e r s
- t h e Ne w Yo r k Ti m e s , t h e S a n F r a n c i s c o Ch r o n i c l e , t h e W a s h -
i n g t o n P o s t ,
t h e S t . L o u i s P o s t - Di s p a t c h , a n d t h e De s M o i n e s Re g -
i s t e r
. Th e r e s u l t s o f t h i s i n q u i r y a r e d e t a i l e d i n t h e a p p e n d i x . Th e
u p s h o t i s t h a t a l l t h e s e n e w s p a p e r s g a v e e q u a l l y p r o m i n e n t s p a c e
t o t h e r e b u t t a l s a n d , i n s o m e c a s e s , f u r t h e r e d i t o r i a l s p a c e i n w h i c h
t o p a s s o n t h e i r u n f r i e n d l y o p i n i o n s o f M c Ca r t h y .
M c Ca r t h y ' s o w n p o s i t i o n o n t h e u s e o f Co n g r e s s i o n a l i m m u n i t y
i s f a r f r o m c l e a r . H e m u s t o f t e n h a v e r e g r e t t e d t h e i m p a s s i o n e d
p r o m i s e h e m a d e o n t h e e v e n i n g o f F e b r u a r y 2 0 , 1 9 5 0 , w h e n h e
w a s p l e a d i n g f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f w h a t w a s t o b e t h e Ty d i n g s Co m -
m i t t e e . S e n a t o r L u c a s h a d b e e n t r y i n g t o n e e d l e h i m i n t o r e v e a l -
i n g t h e r e a n d t h e n t h e n a m e s o f t h e 5 7 s u p p o s e d Co m m u n i s t s o n
h i s l i s t , a n d h a d s a i d : " Th e S e n a t o r i s p r i v i l e g e d t o n a m e t h e m a l l i n
t h e S e n a t e , a n d i f t h o s e p e o p l e a r e n o t Co m m u n i s t s , h e w i l l b e
p r o t e c t e d . Th a t i s a l l Iw a n t t h e S e n a t o r t o d o . . . . "
Iw i s h t o t h a n k t h e d i s t i n g u i s h e d S e n a t o r f r o m Il l i n o i s f o r h i s v i e w s
[ M c Ca r t h y a n s w e r e d ] , b u t Is h o u l d l i k e t o a s s u r e h i m t h a t Iw i l l n o t
s a y a n y t h i n g o n t h e S e n a t e f l o o r w h i c h Iw i l l n o t s a y o f f t h e f l o o r . On
t h e d a y w h e n It a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e s e c u r i t y w e h a v e o n t h e S e n a t e
f l o o r , o n t h a t d a y Iw i l l r e s i g n f r o m t h e S e n a t e
. An y t h i n g Is a y o n t h e
f l o o r o f t h e S e n a t e a t a n y t i m e w i l l b e r e p e a t e d o f f t h e f l o o r .
Tw o m o n t h s l a t e r , h i s c r i t i c s , p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t h e h a d m a d e
s e v e r a l c h a r g e s i n t h e S e n a t e t h a t h e h a d n o t m a d e o f f t h e f l o o r ,
w e r e d e m a n d i n g t h a t h e e a t h i s w o r d s . Th e b e s t M c Ca r t h y c o u l d
m a n a g e b y w a y o f r e p l y w a s t h i s :
At t h a t t i m e Ia s s u m e d [ I] c o u l d g e t t h e f i l e s
. S i n c e t h e n Ih a v e m a d e
s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t s o m e s i x o r s e v e n i n d i v i d u a l s , f u r n i s h e d d o c u m e n t a r y
p r o o f
. Th e y h a v e a s k e d m e t o m a k e s t a t e m e n t s o f f t h e f l o o r . Ih a v e s a i d
2 9 2

S ENATORM CCARTH Y' S M ETH OD


t h a t Iw i l l d o t h a t w h e n t h e y m a k e t h e i r f i l e s a v a i l a b l e
. . . . W h e n t h e y
m a k e t h o s e f i l e s a v a i l a b l e s o t h e y c a n b e u s e d , t h o s e s t a t e m e n t s w i l l b e
m a d e i n p u b l i c .
On e o f y o u r q u e s t i o n s i s : " W i l l y o u m a k e t h e s t a t e m e n t i n p u b l i c ? "
Th e a n s w e r i s : No . Nu m b e r t w o
: " Ar e y o u g o i n g t o r e s i g n ? " Th e a n -
s w e r i s : No . 4
M c Ca r t h y c e r t a i n l y h a d a p o i n t i n i n s i s t i n g t h a t h e c o u l d n o t
h o p e t o d e f e n d h i m s e l f i n c o u r t w i t h o u t a c c e s s t o f i l e s n o t a v a i l -
a b l e t o h i m i n a l a w s u i t . Ye t h e w o u l d h a v e d o n e w e l l t o h a v e
t a k e n s p e c i f i c n o t e o f t h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n t w o m o n t h s e a r l i e r , w h e n
m a k i n g h i s u n q u a l i f i e d p l e d g e .
M c Ca r t h y ' s p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n , a s e x p r e s s e d t o t h e a u t h o r s , i s t h a t
h e r e g a r d s Co n g r e s s i o n a l i m m u n i t y a s i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o t h e r e s p o n -
s i b l e d i s c h a r g e o f S e n a t o r i a l d u t y ;a n d t h a t n o S e n a t o r h a s a r i g h t ,
m u c h l e s s a d u t y , t o d e p r i v e h i m s e l f o f i t s p r o t e c t i o n . H e i s , h o w -
e v e r , p r e p a r e d t o w a i v e i m m u n i t y o n a l l s t a t e m e n t s h e h a s t h u s
f a r m a d e p r o v i d e d ( 1 ) h e b e g i v e n a c c e s s t o t h e s e c u r i t y f i l e s o f a l l
p e r s o n s w h o m a y s u e h i m , a n d ( z ) t h a t h e b e n o t h e l d l e g a l l y
r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h o s e o f h i s s t a t e m e n t s m a d e i n
e x e c u t i v e s e s s i o n
o r t h o s e h e
w i s h e d t o m a k e i n e x e c u t i v e s e s s i o n b u t d i d n o t b e -
c a u s e t h e Ty d i n g s Co m m i t t e e w o u l d n o t l e t h i m
. In o u r o p i n i o n ,
t h i s p r o v i s o i s e n t i r e l y r e a s o n a b l e
. W e h a v e s e e n ( i n t h e c h a p t e r
o n t h e Ty d i n g s Co m m i t t e e ) h o w s t e a d f a s t l y M c Ca r t h y r e s i s t e d
p r e s s u r e o f v a r i o u s De m o c r a t i c S e n a t o r s t o r e v e a l i n p u b l i c s e s s i o n
t h e n a m e s o f t h e p e r s o n s h e w a s a c c u s i n g , a n d h o w o f t e n h e r e i t e r -
a t e d h i s r e q u e s t t h a t t h e Ty d i n g s H e a r i n g s b e h e l d i n e x e c u t i v e
s e s s i o n
. Co n s e q u e n t l y , h e d o e s n o t a n d s h o u l d n o t r e g a r d h i m s e l f
a s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p u b l i c i t y g i v e n t o t h e n i n e p e r s o n s h e n a m e d
i n o p e n s e s s i o n
a t t h e d i r e c t i o n o f Ty d i n g s a n d h i s c o l l e a g u e s :
K e n y o n , Du r a n , J e s s u p , B r u n a u e r , H a n s o n , S c h u m a n , S h a p l e y ,
S e r v i c e a n d L a t t i m o r e .
B u t , i n o u r o p i n i o n , M c Ca r t h y m i s s e s a n e s s e n t i a l p o i n t
. In t h e
f i r s t p l a c e , m e r e a c c e s s t o t h e f i l e s w o u l d n o t a l w a y s g i v e h i m t h e
a m m u n i t i o n h e n e e d s t o d e f e n d h i m s e l f s u c c e s s f u l l y a g a i n s t l i b e l
s u i t s
. In t h e c a s e o f Ed w a r d P o s n i a k , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e f i l e s w o u l d
r e v e a l t h a t " a n " u n d e r c o v e r a g e n t a n d " a " s e c r e t i n f o r m a n t o f t h e
F B Ik n e w h i m a s a m e m b e r o f t h e Co m m u n i s t P a r t y
. S i n c e n e i t h e r
t h e a g e n t n o r t h e i n f o r m a n t c o u l d b e c o u n t e d o n t o c o m e f o r w a r d
i n M c Ca r t h y ' s d e f e n s e , i t s e e m s h i g h l y i m p r o b a b l e t h a t M c Ca r t h y
c o u l d d e f e n d h i m s e l f s h o u l d P o s n i a k b r i n g s u i t
. S o , t o o , i n t h e
Vi n c e n t a n d H a n s o n c a s e s
. B u d e n z m i g h t b e w i l l i n g t o c o o p e r a t e ,
U S E OF
CONG RES S IONAL IM M U NITY
2 9 3
b u t h i s w o r d w o u l d h a r d l y p a s s a s c o u r t r o o m p r o o f o f t h e i r m e m -
b e r s h i p i n t h e P a r t y - i n d e e d i t w o u l d p r o b a b l y b e r u l e d i n a d m i s -
s i b l e a s h e a r s a y e v i d e n c e .
Ye t , a s w e h a v e a r g u e d a b o v e , P o s n i a k , Vi n c e n t , H a n s o n , a n d
K e n y o n a r e c l e a r l y , u n d e r e x i s t i n g s t a n d a r d s , s e c u r i t y r i s k s
. Th e
i n f o r m a t i o n a g a i n s t t h e m s h o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , h a v e b e e n b r o u g h t t o
l i g h t
. B u t M c Ca r t h y c o u l d b r i n g i t t o l i g h t a n d r e l a t e i t t o t h e
s e c u r i t y p r o b l e m o n l y b e c a u s e o f h i s i m m u n i t y
. F o r h i m t o p r o m -
i s e t o s a y n o t h i n g u n d e r i m m u n i t y t h a t , g i v e n c o u r t r o o m a c c e s s t o
t h e f i l e s , h e i s n o t p r e p a r e d t o r e p e a t o f f t h e f l o o r , i s t o c i r c u m -
s c r i b e h i s f u t u r e u s e f u l n e s s i n a m a n n e r t h e n a t i o n c a n n o t a f f o r d
.
Th e p o s i t i o n w e s h o u l d l i k e t o s e e M c Ca r t h y a d o p t i s t h i s
: " I
a m , i n a m a n n e r o f s p e a k i n g , a p r o f e s s i o n a l h u n t e r o f s e c u r i t y r i s k s
i n g o v e r n m e n t
. Is h a l l c o n t i n u e t o s e a r c h t h e s e c u r i t y r i s k s o u t
u n t i l Ia m s a t i s f i e d t h a t t h e j o b i s d o n e , o r u n t i l Ia m c o n v i n c e d
t h a t t h e Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n i s d o i n g t h e j o b t o m y s a t i s f a c t i o n
. Is h a l l
a t t e m p t t o b e s c r u p u l o u s l y a c c u r a t e - t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t o n e c a n
b e , g i v e n t h e e x e c u t i v e b l a c k o u t o n s e c u r i t y d a t a - a n d r e a s o n a b l e
i n m y j u d g m e n t s
. B u t Ii n t e n d t o s p e n d m y t i m e i n t h e S e n a t e ,
n o t i n t h e c o u r t h o u s e
. Is h a l l t h e r e f o r e a v a i l m y s e l f , u n a p o l o -
g e t i c a l l y , o f t h e i m m u n i t y g r a n t e d m e b y t h e Co n s t i t u t i o n . "" M c -
Ca r t h y h i m s e l f
h a s
s a i d : " . . . t h e f r e e d o m o f S e n a t o r s a n d Co n -
g r e s s m e n t o s p e a k u n p l e a s a n t a n d e m b a r r a s s i n g t r u t h s w i t h o u t
f e a r o f p r o s e c u t i o n i n l a w s u i t s i s a t t i m e s a b u s e d
. Ra t h e r t h a n r e -
m o v e t h i s f r e e d o m o f s p e e c h , i t w o u l d s e e m w i s e r f o r t h e v o t e r s
t o r e m o v e t h o s e w h o a b u s e t h a t f r e e d o m o f s p e e c h . " '
Im p u g n i n g t h e L o y a l t y o f H i s Cr i t i c s
F INAL L Y, s o m e c r i t i c s c o n s i d e r i t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f M c Ca r t h y t h a t
h e i m p u t e s p r o - Co m m u n i s m t o e v e r y o n e h e d i s a g r e e s w i t h . L i k e
m o s t a n t i - M c Ca r t h y c h a r g e s , t h i s o n e i s g r o s s l y e x a g g e r a t e d . U n -
l i k e m a n y o f t h e m , h o w e v e r , i t s t a r t s o u t f r o m s o m e i n c o n t r o v e r t -
i b l e f a c t s .
F o r e x a m p l e , t h e r e i s M c Ca r t h y ' s a t t a c k o n Dr e w P e a r s o n i n
De c e m b e r , 1 9 5 0 . M c Ca r t h y t o l d t h e S e n a t e
:
It a p p e a r s t h a t P e a r s o n n e v e r a c t u a l l y s i g n e d u p a s a m e m b e r o f t h e
Co m u n i s t P a r t y a n d n e v e r p a i d d u e s . . . . [ B u t ] i f t h e l o y a l Am e r i c a n
n e w s p a p e r e d i t o r s a n d p u b l i s h e r s a n d r a d i o s t a t i o n o w n e r s r e f u s e t o
b u y t h i s d i s g u i s e d , s u g a r - c o a t e d v o i c e o f Ru s s i a , t h e m o c k i n g b i r d s w h o
h a v e f o l l o w e d t h e P e a r s o n l i n e w i l l d i s a p p e a r f r o m t h e s c e n e l i k e c h a f f
b e f o r e t h e w i n d . Th e Am e r i c a n p e o p l e c a n d o m u c h t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s
r e s u l t . Th e y c a n n o t i f y t h e i r n e w s p a p e r s t h a t t h e y d o n o t w a n t t h i s
M o s c o w - d i r e c t e d c h a r a c t e r a s s a s s i n b e i n g b r o u g h t i n t o t h e i r h o m e s t o
p o i s o n t h e w e l l o f i n f o r m a t i o n a t w h i c h t h e i r c h i l d r e n d r i n k .
[ W h a t i s m o r e , s a i d M c Ca r t h y , ] Ih a v e d i s c u s s e d t h i s m a n P e a r s o n
w i t h p r a c t i c a l l y e v e r y f o r m e r m e m b e r o f t h e Co m m u n i s t P a r t y w h o m
Ih a v e m e t d u r i n g m y r e c e n t a n d p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f Co m m u n i s t s
i n G o v e r n m e n t . Al m o s t t o a m a n , t h e y w e r e a g r e e d o n a n u m b e r o f
t h i n g s : No . i s Th a t P e a r s o n ' s a l l - i m p o r t a n t j o b . . .
w a s t o l e a d t h e
c h a r a c t e r a s s a s s i n a t i o n o f a n y m a n w h o w a s a t h r e a t t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l
c o m m u n i s m . No . z : Th a t h e d i d t h a t j o b s o w e l l t h a t h e w a s t h e m o s t
v a l u a b l e o f a l l r a d i o c o m m e n t a t o r s a n d w r i t e r s f r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f
t h e Co m m u n i s t P a r t y . No . 3
: In o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n h i s v a l u e , i t w a s
n e c e s s a r y t h a t h e o c c a s i o n a l l y t h r o w p e b b l e s a t c o m m u n i s m a n d Co m -
m u n i s t s g e n e r a l l y , s o a s t o h a v e a f a l s e r e p u t a t i o n o f b e i n g a n t i - Co m -
m u n i s t . 6
Ap a r t f r o m r e c o u n t i n g t h e a i d P e a r s o n h a d g i v e n t o t h e Co m m u -
n i s t s b y h i s s y s t e m a t i c a t t a c k s o n h a r d a n t i - Co m m u n i s t s , M c Ca r -
t h y b a s e d h i s c h a r g e a g a i n s t P e a r s o n o n o n e c o u n t
: P e a r s o n , h e
s a i d , r e t a i n e d a l e g - m a n a n d /o r p r i n c i p a l a s s i s t a n t , n a m e d Da v i d
K a r r , w h o m M c Ca r t h y i d e n t i f i e d a s a m e m b e r o f t h e Co m m u n i s t
P a r t y
. P e a r s o n p r o m p t l y d e n i e d t h a t K a r r w a s o r h a d b e e n a Co m -
m u n i s t
. M c Ca r t h y i m p r e s s i v e l y d o c u m e n t e d h i s a l l e g a t i o n ( 1 )
b y
q u o t i n g f r o m a r e p o r t , d r a w n u p b y t h e o f f i c e o f t h e Ex e c u t i v e
Di r e c t o r a n d Ch i e f Ex a m i n e r o f t h e Ci v i l S e r v i c e Co m m i s s i o n i n
1
9 4 3 w h i c h u n a m b i g u o u s l y a s s e r t e d t h a t K a r r w a s a n a c t i v e Co m -
m u n i s t , a n d ( 2 ) b y c i t i n g t e s t i m o n y f r o m M r
. H o w a r d Ru s h m o r e ,
IM P U G NING TH E L OYAL TY
OF H IS CRITICS

2 9 5
a f o r m e r Co m m u n i s t , t h a t a s a s t a f f m e m b e r o f t h e
Da i l y
W o r k e r
Ru s h m o r e h a d g i v e n K a r r , a l s o o f t h e
Da i l y W o r k e r , a s s i g n m e n t s .
" H e h a d t o s h o w m e h i s p a r t y c a r d t o g e t t h o s e a s s i g n m e n t s , "
Ru s h m o r e h a d a d d e d . ?
W i t h t h i s a n d , a s f a r a s t h e p u b l i c k n e w , *
o n l y t h i s t o g o o n
( i . e . ,
i m p r e s s i v e t e s t i m o n y t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t K a r r w a s , o r h a d b e e n ,
a
Co m m u n i s t , a n d t h a t h e w o r k e d f o r P e a r s o n ) , M c Ca r t h y e n d e d
t i p s a y i n g s u c h t h i n g s a s t h e f o l l o w i n g
:
" Th e r e l a t i o n s h i p [ b e t w e e n P e a r s o n a n d K a r r ] i s s u c h t h a t i t i s d i f f i -
c u l t t o k n o w w h o i s t h e m a s t e r a n d w h o i s t h e s e r v a n t
. " " P e a r s o n
[ i s ] . .
. u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f Da v i d K a r r
" . . . P e a r s o n n e v e r
a c t u a l l y s i g n e d u p a s a m e m b e r o f t h e Co m m u n i s t P a r t y
. . . . H o w e v e r ,
t h a t h a s n o t i n a n y w a y a f f e c t e d h i s v a l u e t o t h e p a r t y
;n o r h a s i t a f -
f e c t e d h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o
f o l l o w t h e o r d e r s o f
Da v i d K a r r . . . . " " On e o f
P e a r s o n ' s e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t t a s k s ,
a s s i g n e d h i m b y t h e Co m m u n i s t
P a r t y , t h r o u g h Da v i d K a r r ,
. . . " e t c
. " S o a g a i n , P e a r s o n w a s a s s i g n e d
t h e
t a s k - a s s i g n e d t h e j o b b y t h e Co m m u n i s t P a r t y ,
t h r o u g h Da v i d
K a r r . . . " e t c . " Ag a i n P e a r s o n i s
a s s i g n e d t h e j o b b y t h e Co m m u n i s t
P a r t y t h r o u g h Da v i d K a r r , . . . "
e t c . " . . . t h e m a n t h r o u g h w h o m P e a r s o n
r e c e i v e s o r d e r s
a n d d i r e c t i o n s f r o m t h e Co m m u n i s t P a r t y i s o n e Da v i d
K a r r . . .
. " " Da v i d K a r r i s t h e c o n n e c t i n g l i n k b e t w e e n Dr e w P e a r s o n a n d
t h e Co m m u n i s t P a r t y .
H e i s t h e m a n w h o a s s i g n s t o P e a r s o n t h e i m p o r -
t a n t t a s k o f c o n d u c t i n g a c h a r a c t e r a s s a s s i n a t i o n o f a n y m a n w h o d a r e s
t o s t a n d i n t h e
w a y o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l Co m m u n i s m
. " [ It a l i c s a d d e d . ]
M c Ca r t h y , i n s h o r t , a c c o m p l i s h e d t h a t r a t h e r i m p r o b a b l e f e a t
:
h e s m e a r e d Dr e w P e a r s o n
.
M u c h h a s b e e n s a i d a b o u t M c Ca r t h y ' s b e h a v i o r i n q u e s t i o n i n g
J a m e s W e c h s l e r o f t h e Ne w Yo r k
P o s t i n t h e c o u r s e o f a n i n v e s t i -
g a t i o n o f t h e S t a t e De p a r t m e n t ' s o v e r s e a s l i b r a r i e s
. On e o f t h e
c h a r g e s a g a i n s t M c Ca r t h y t h a t h a s a r i s e n f r o m t h i s e n c o u n t e r -
t h a t M c Ca r t h y w a s s e e k i n g t o i n t i m i d a t e t h e a n t i - M c Ca r t h y p r e s s
- i s p u r e n o n s e n s e
;* * b u t a f u r t h e r c h a r g e - t h a t M c Ca r t h y w a s a d -
* It w a s n o t y e t p u b l i c k n o w l e d g e t h a t Dr e w P e a r s o n h a d a l s o e m p l o y e d
a n o t h e r n a m e d Co m m u n i s t , An d r e w Ol d e r , w h o m h e h a d k e p t o n e v e n a f t e r
h e w a s e x p o s e d - - b e c a u s e , i n P e a r s o n ' s w o r d s , h e h a d h o p e d t o " c o n v e r t " h i m
.
M r
. J a m e s B u r n h a m n e a t l y d i s p e n s e d w i t h t h i s a l l e g a t i o n i n a n a r t i c l e
i n
Th e F r e e m a n , J u n e
1 5 , 1 9 5 3 ,
w h i c h c o n c l u d e s w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a -
g r a p h s : " No
s a n c t i o n s o f a n y k i n d w e r e i n v o k e d o r c o n t e m p l a t e d a g a i n s t
e i t h e r W e c h s l e r o r t h e n e w s p a p e r w h i c h h e e d i t s
. In t h e h e a r i n g , W e c h s l e r
w a s g i v e n t o t a l l a t i t u d e , m u c h b e y o n d r u l e s t h a t m i g h t l e g a l l y a n d p r o p e r l y
h a v e b e e n i n v o k e d , t o s a y a n y t h i n g h e w a n t e d a t w h a t e v e r l e n g t h h e c h o s e .
H e w a s p e r m i t t e d t o e v a d e a n d a v o i d d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s , t o d e c l a i m a n d d i v e r t ,
2 9 6

S ENATORM CCARTH Y' S M ETH OD


v a n c i n g a b a s i c a l l y u n s u p p o r t a b l e s t a n d a r d f o r t e s t i n g a m a n ' s
l o y a l t y - h a s s o m e s u p e r f i c i a l p l a u s i b i l i t y t o i t , a n d m e r i t s b r i e f
c o n s i d e r a t i o n . M c Ca r t h y t o l d W e c h s l e r :
If e e l t h a t y o u h a v e n o t b r o k e n w i t h Co m m u n i s t i d e a l s . If e e l t h a t y o u
a r e s e r v i n g t h e m v e r y , v e r y a c t i v e l y . W h e t h e r y o u a r e d o i n g i t k n o w -
i n g l y o r n o t , t h a t i s i n y o u r o w n m i n d . . . .
Ih a v e n o k n o w l e d g e a s t o w h e t h e r y o u h a v e a c a r d i n t h e p a r t y . . . .
Yo u r p u r p o r t e d r e f o r m a t i o n d o e s n o t c o n v i n c e m e a t a l l . Ik n o w i f I
w e r e h e a d o f t h e Co m m u n i s t P a r t y a n d Ih a d J i m W e c h s l e r c o m e t o
M o s c o w a n d Id i s c o v e r e d t h i s b r i g h t m a n , a p p a r e n t l y a g o o d w r i t e r , I
w o u l d s a y , " M r . W e c h s l e r , w h e n y o u g o b a c k t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , y o u
w i l l s t a t e t h a t y o u a r e b r e a k i n g w i t h t h e Co m m u n i s t P a r t y , y o u w i l l
m a k e g e n e r a l a t t a c k s a g a i n s t Co m m u n i s m , a n d t h e n y o u w i l l b e o u r
r i n g l e a d e r i n t r y i n g t o a t t a c k a n d d e s t r o y a n y m a n w h o t r i e s t o h u r t a n d
d i g o u t t h e s p e c i f i c t r a i t o r s w h o a r e h u n t i n g o u r [ s i c ] c o u n t r y . " Yo u
h a v e f o l l o w e d t h a t p a t t e r n
.
M c Ca r t h y , i t i s
a l l e g e d , i s a c t u a l l y s a y i n g t h a t i f y o u s u p p o r t
Co m m u n i s t o b j e c t i v e s
y o u a r e , o b v i o u s l y , a Co m m u n i s t , a n d i f y o u
a t t a c k t h e m , t h i s i s a d e c e p t i v e m a n e u v e r , a n d
y o u a r e s t i l l a Co m -
m u n i s t - u n l e s s , o f c o u r s e ,
y o u s u b s c r i b e t o M c Ca r t h y ' s f o r m u l a
f o r a t t a c k i n g t h e m
.
If M c Ca r t h y h a d i n t e n d e d t o s e t u p s u c h a s t a n d a r d a s a g e n e r a l
y a r d s t i c k f o r w e i g h i n g a m a n ' s l o y a l t y , h e w o u l d i n d e e d h a v e e m -
b a r k e d o n a v e n t u r e i n s h e e r i n s a n i t y . F o r s u c h a s t a n d a r d , w i t h
o n e o r a n o t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n , w o u l d i n d i c t a s d i s l o y a l a b s o l u t e l y
e v e r y o n e w h o d i s a g r e e s w i t h M c Ca r t h y ' s b r a n d o f a n t i - Co m m u -
n i s m
. No w M c Ca r t h y m a y s o m e t i m e s b e i m p r e c i s e
;b u t h e a v e n
k n o w s h e i s n o l u n a t i c . It i s o n l y t h e o b s e r v e r w h o
i s d e t e r m i n e d
n o t
t o u n d e r s t a n d M c Ca r t h y w h o , o n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e c o n t e x t i n
t o i n t r o d u c e a w r i t t e n s t a t e m e n t i n a m a n n e r d i r e c t l y c o u n t e r t o t h e e s t a b -
l i s h e d r u l i n g o f t h e c o m m i t t e e a n d t h e S e n a t e , a n d t o d e n o u n c e t h e Ch a i r -
m a n a n d o t h e r m e m b e r s o f t h e n a t i o n ' s h i g h e s t l e g i s l a t i v e b o d y i n a f a s h i o n
t h a t i n m o s t o t h e r c o u n t r i e s w o u l d b e d e e m e d n o t m e r e l y a b o m i n a b l e t a s t e
b u t a c t i o n a b l e a s c o n t e m p t a n d l i b e l . . . .
" W e c h s l e r a n d M c Ca r t h y a r e p o l i t i c a l e n e m i e s . Th e y c o n d e m n e a c h o t h e r
v e r b a l l y i n p u b l i c
. W h e r e i s t h e t h r e a t t o f r e e s p e e c h a n d f r e e p r e s s i n t h a t ?
If M c Ca r t h y i s t r y i n g t o i n t i m i d a t e t h e p r e s s , t h e n w h y i s n o t t h e
P o s t , w i t h
i t s u n r e s t r a i n e d a t t a c k o n w h a t i t d e s c r i b e s a s ` t h e r e a c t i o n a r i e s ' o f Co n g r e s s ,
t o b e c h a r g e d w i t h i n t i m i d a t i n g t h e l e g i s l a t u r e a n d s u b v e r t i n g t h e l e g i s l a t i v e
p r o c e s s ?
" W e c h s l e r c a n h a r d l y b e c o n f u s e d i n h i s m i n d a b o u t a l l t h i s
. F o r h i m a n d
h i s p o l i t i c a l a s s o c i a t e s , ` f r e e p r e s s , ' a n d m o s t o f t h e o t h e r f r e e d o m s , a r e o n l y
c l u b s w i t h w h i c h t o b e a t t h e i r o p p o n e n t s - m e a n s , t h a t i s t o s a y , t o t h e i r e n d s
. "
IM P U G NING TH EL OYAL TYOF H IS CRTTICS

2 9 7
w h i c h t h e a b o v e s t a t e m e n t w a s m a d e , w i l l g o o n t o w r e n c h s u c h
a m e a n i n g o u t o f i t
. M c Ca r t h y w a s n o t , b e i t n o t e d , t a l k i n g a b o u t
j u s t
a n y Am e r i c a n
;h e w a s t a l k i n g a b o u t J a m e s W e c h s l e r , a n a d -
m i t t e d f o r m e r Co m m u n i s t
. H e w a s l a y i n g d o w n a s t a n d a r d o n e
m a y o r m a y n o t e n d o r s e , b u t o n e w e h a v e n o b u s i n e s s c o n f u s i n g
w i t h a s t a n d a r d f o r t e s t i n g t h e b o n a f i d e s o f p e r s o n s w h o d o
n o t
h a v e Co m m u n i s t b a c k g r o u n d s
.
W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e W e c h s l e r s , M c Ca r t h y i s s a y i n g t w o t h i n g s
:
( a ) i t i s n o t u n r e a s o n a b l e t o s u p p o s e t h a t Co m m u n i s t " r e n e g a d e s "
w h o a r e n o w d e m o n s t r a t e d
a n t i - a n t i Co m m u n i s t s , a r e p u l l i n g t h e
w o o l o v e r o u r e y e s
;f o r i t i s c l e a r l y c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t t h e r e a r e m e n
a r o u n d u s w h o , f o r t a c t i c a l r e a s o n s , h a v e b e e n i n s t r u c t e d b y t h e
P a r t y t o f e i g n c o n v e r s i o n i n o r d e r t o a t t e n d m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t o t h e
P a r t y ' s b u s i n e s s
;a n d ( b ) e x - Co m m u n i s t s m u s t t h e r e f o r e b e l o o k e d
a t m o r e s k e p t i c a l l y t h a n o t h e r p e r s o n s w h e n t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e i r
l o y a l t y t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a r i s e s
. Th e y , M c Ca r t h y i s s a y i n g , m u s t
p r o v e t h e i r s i n c e r i t y i n a v e r y p a r t i c u l a r s o r t o f w a y - b y d o i n g
t h e i r e a r n e s t b e s t t o e x p o s e t h e c o n s p i r a c y o f w h i c h t h e y w e r e a
p a r t y ;b y d i s c l o s i n g , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e n a m e s o f t h e i r f o r m e r c o n -
f e d e r a t e s . Th i s i s a s p e c i a l f o r m o f p e n a n c e t h a t M c Ca r t h y i s i n
e f f e c t a s k i n g f o r
. H e m a y h a v e g o n e t o o f a r , b u t h e i s r e a s o n a b l e
i n a p p l y i n g a s t a n d a r d d i f f e r e n t
f r o m t h a t a p p l i c a b l e t o p e r s o n s
i n n o c e n t o f i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e Co m m u n i s t c o n s p i r a c y
.
Ex c e p t i n g h i s a s s a u l t o n Dr e w P e a r s o n , M c Ca r t h y ' s u n w a r r a n t e d
a t t a c k s h a v e b e e n d i r e c t e d , a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y , a t p a r t i c u l a r n e w s -
p a p e r s r a t h e r t h a n i n d i v i d u a l n e w s m e n
. H e i s e s p e c i a l l y f o n d , f o r
e x a m p l e , o f r e f e r r i n g t o t h e W a s h i n g t o n P o s t
a s t h e " W a s h i n g t o n
e d i t i o n o f t h e Da i l y W o r k e r " ; t o t h e
Ne w Yo r k P o s t a s t h e " u p -
t o w n e d i t i o n o f t h e Da i l y W o r k e r " ; t o t h e
M i l w a u k e e J o u r n a l a s
t h e " M i l w a u k e e e d i t i o n . . . " e t c
. Ye t s u c h s t a t e m e n t s a r e m o r e u n -
c o u t h t h a n v i c i o u s
;t h e y c a n p r o b a b l y b e d i s m i s s e d , e v e n , a s j o c u l a r
i n d u l g e n c e s i n w h a t L i f e
m a g a z i n e h a s c a l l e d " g r o i n - a n d - e y e b a l l "
p o l e m i c s
. No t s o , h o w e v e r , s o m e o f t h e m o r e s p e c i f i c c h a r g e s M c -
Ca r t h y h a s a i m e d a t c e r t a i n n e w s p a p e r s .
On o n e o c c a s i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , M c Ca r t h y a d v i s e d c e r t a i n a d v e r -
t i s e r s i n M i l w a u k e e t o w i t h d r a w t h e i r s u p p o r t o f t h e J o u r n a l
. " K e e p
i n m i n d w h e n y o u s e n d y o u r c h e c k s o v e r t o t h e
j o u r n a l , " h e s a i d ,
" [ t h a t ] y o u a r e c o n t r i b u t i n g t o b r i n g i n g t h e Co m m u n i s t P a r t y l i n e
i n t o t h e h o m e s o f W i s c o n s i n
. "
On a n o t h e r , h e w r o t e a b o u t
Ti m e : " Th e r e i s n o t h i n g p e r s o n a l
2 9 8
S ENATORM CCARTH YS M ETH OD
a b o u t m y e x p o s i n g t h e d e p t h t o w h i c h t h i s m a g a z i n e w i l l s i n k i n
u s i n g d e l i b e r a t e f a l s e h o o d s t o d e s t r o y a n y o n e w h o i s h u r t i n g t h e
Co m m u n i s t c a u s e . . . . I f e e l t h a t Ih a v e t h e d u t y t o l e t t h o s e a d v e r -
t i s e r s [ w h o b u y s p a c e i n i t ] k n o w t h a t Ti m e m a g a z i n e p u b l i s h e s
f a l s e h o o d s f o r a p u r p o s e . Th o s e a d v e r t i s e r s , w h o a r e e x t r e m e l y
b u s y i n t h e i r w o r k , a r e e n t i t l e d t o h a v e i t c a l l e d t o t h e i r a t t e n t i o n
i f u n k n o w i n g l y t h e y a r e f l o o d i n g Am e r i c a n h o m e s w i t h Co m m u -
n i s t P a r t y l i n e m a t e r i a l . . . . " 9
( It a l i c s a d d e d . )
An d , i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e M i l w a u k e e J o u r n a l , t h e M a d i s o n Ca p i t a l -
Ti m e s ,
t h e
Ne w Yo r k P o s t , t h e W a s h i n g t o n P o s t , t h e S t . L o u i s
P o s t - Di s p a t c h , a n d t h e P o r t l a n d Or e g o n i a n
a s " c o n s i s t e n t l y p a r a l -
l e l i n g t h e e d i t o r i a l l i n e o f t h e Da i l y W o r k e r , "
M c Ca r t h y w r o t e
: 1 0
Th e y , o f c o u r s e , c r i t i c i z e Co m m u n i s m g e n e r a l l y t o o b t a i n a f a l s e
r e p u t a t i o n o f b e i n g a n t i - Co m m u n i s t . Th e n t h e y g o a l l - o u t t o a s s a s s i -
n a t e t h e c h a r a c t e r a n d d e s t r o y t h e r e p u t a t i o n o f a n y o n e w h o t r i e s t o
d i g o u t t h e r e a l l y d a n g e r o u s u n d e r - c o v e r Co m m u n i s t s
. . . . S o m e w h o
r e a d t h o s e p a p e r s m a y a t f i r s t b l u s h v i o l e n t l y d i f f e r w i t h m e
. H o w e v e r ,
y o u n e e d n o t t a k e m y w o r d . M a k e y o u r o w n d e c i s i o n
. F i r s t c h e c k t h e
e d i t o r i a l p o l i c y w h i c h t h e Da i l y W o r k e r c o n s i s t e n t l y f o l l o w s
. Th e n d e -
t e r m i n e f o r y o u r s e l f t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e a b o v e p a p e r s f o l l o w t h a t
e d i t o r i a l p o l i c y . Do n o t b e d e c e i v e d , h o w e v e r , b y a n y g e n e r a l c o n -
d e m n a t i o n o r t o s s i n g o f p e b b l e s a t Co m m u n i s m g e n e r a l l y
. Th a t i s a
p e r f e c t l y s a f e s p o r t w h i c h w a s i n d u l g e d i n e v e n b y Al g e r H i s s
. Th e t e s t
i s n o t w h e t h e r t h e y a r e w i l l i n g t o c o n d e m n Co m m u n i s m g e n e r a l l y a n d
t h e w e l l - k n o w n , p r e v i o u s l y e x p o s e d Co m m u n i s t s
. Th e t e s t i s w h e t h e r
t h e y f o l l o w a p a t t e r n o f s u p p o r t i n g o r c o n d e m n i n g t h e e x p o s u r e o f t h e
s a c r e d c o w s - t h e d a n g e r o u s , u n d e r - c o v e r Co m m u n i s t s w h o h a v e b e e n
p r o m o t e d t o p o s i t i o n s o f u n t o u c h a b i l i t y b y t h e Co m m u n i s t a n d l e f t -
w i n g p r e s s .
An d t h e r e w e h a v e i t i n M c Ca r t h y ' s o w n w o r d s - t h e r e a s o n i n g
w h i c h , h e f e e l s , j u s t i f i e s h i m i n r e f e r r i n g t o t h e
P o d u n k P o s t
a s t h e
P o d u n k e d i t i o n o f t h e Da i l y W o r k e r .
An d h e h a s r e l i e d o n i t o f t e n
e n o u g h t o w a r r a n t i t s b e i n g t r e a t e d a s a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f h i s
a p p r o a c h - i f n o t , s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , a p a r t o f h i s m e t h o d
.
It w o u l d b e p r e f e r a b l e , f r o m M c Ca r t h y ' s s t a n d p o i n t , i f h e h a d
n e v e r a t t e m p t e d a l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f h i s s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t
t h e s e p a p e r s ' a n d P e a r s o n ' s Co m m u n i s t m o t i v e s
. An y w a y y o u l o o k
a t i t , o f c o u r s e , h e i s i n t h e s e c a s e s g u i l t y o f s m e a r i n g
. H a d t h e y
o c c u r r e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e s t o t h e u n c o u n t e d
s m e a r s a n d u n m a t c h e d v i c i o u s n e s s t h a t a l l t h e s e p e r s o n s a n d n e w s -
p a p e r s h a v e h e a p e d o n M c Ca r t h y t h r o u g h t h e p a s t f e w y e a r s , t h e y
IMPUGNINGTHELOYALTYOFHISCRITICS

299
m i g h t b e u n d e r s t a n d a b l e
. B u t t h e y d i d n o t , a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e y c a n -
n o t b e c l a s s e d w i t h , s a y , l e t t e r s f r o m Mr
. Tr u m a n t o m u s i c c r i t i c s
.
Th i s a s p e c t o f Mc Ca r t h y ' s " m e t h o d " i s t r a c e a b l e t o s e v e r a l u n t e n -
a b l e a s s u m p t i o n s w h i c h , w h i l e t h e y d o n o t u n d e r l i e h i s t h i n k i n g a t
a l l t i m e s , c e r t a i n l y d o s o s o m e t i m e s
. *
ASSUMPTIONA:
On e c a n n o t a t o n e a n d t h e s a m e t i m e v i g o r o u s l y
o p p o s e Co m m u n i s m a n d Mc Ca r t h y
.
Gi v e n a r i g o r o u s l y l o g i c a l f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e , t h i s a s s u m p t i o n i s ,
f a r f r o m b e i n g p a l p a b l y f o o l i s h , r a t h e r s e d u c t i v e . If Mc Ca r t h y ' s
a c t i v i t i e s a r e s e r i o u s l y d a m a g i n g Co m m u n i s m , a s a t l e a s t Mc Ca r -
t h y a n d t h e Co m m u n i s t s a r e c o n v i n c e d , w h y i n d e e d , s h o u l d a n
a n t i - Co m m u n i s t o b j e c t t o t h e m ? B u t t h e m a t t e r i s n o t t h i s s i m p l e :
Mc Ca r t h y s o m e t i m e s f a i l s t o s e e t h a t , w h i l e t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n l y
t h o s e w h o o b j e c t t o h i s a c t i v i t i e s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e a n t i - Co m m u -
n i s t , t h e r e a r e a l s o t h o s e w h o o b j e c t t o t h e m b e c a u s e t h e y d o n ' t
d e e m
t h e m t o ' b e a n t i - Co m m u n i s t , o r b e c a u s e t h e y f e e l t h a t , w h i l e
t h e y h u r t Co m m u n i s m s o m e , t h e y h u r t Am e r i c a n i n s t i t u t i o n s m o r e
.
ASSUMPTION B : Di s t o r t i o n o f t h e
f a c t s a b o u t Mc Ca r t h y i n d i c a t e s
n o t m e r e l y m a l i c e , u n b a l a n c e , n a i v e t e , o r u n s c r u p u l o u s n e s s , b u t
a l s o p r o - Co m m u n i s m .
W h y , Mc Ca r t h y m u s t o f t e n a s k h i m s e l f , s h o u l d m y c r i t i c s d i s -
t o r t a n d f a l s i f y t h e f a c t s a b o u t w h a t Id o , u n l e s s i t i s b e c a u s e t h e y
a r e p r o - Co m m u n i s t s ? B u t Mc Ca r t h y s h o u l d k n o w t h a t i t i s n o t
o n l y t h e Co m m u n i s t s w h o d i s t o r t a n d f a l s i f y i n f o r m a t i o n i n o r d e r
t o d i s c r e d i t p e o p l e w h o m t h e y o p p o s e
. An d m a n y n o n - Co m m u -
n i s t s d o o p p o s e Mc Ca r t h y , h e a v e n k n o w s
. Th e r e f o r e , w h i l e i t i s
u n d e n i a b l e t h a t m a n y - p e r h a p s m o s t - o f Mc Ca r t h y ' s e n e m i e s a r e
g u i l t y o f i m p o n d e r a b l e c r i m e s a g a i n s t j u s t i c e , i t d o e s n o t f o l l o w
t h a t o n e o f t h e s e c r i m e s i s p r o - Co m m u n i s m .
ASSUMPTION C: Al l a n t i - Co m m u n i s t s a r e a g r e e d a s a m a t t e r o f
c o u r s e t h a t " r e - a s o n a b l e d o u b t " o f r e l i a b i l i t y i s s u f f i c i e n t c a u s e f o r
r e m o v i n g e m p l o y e e s f r o m g o v e r n m e n t s e r v i c e ( i . e . , i f y o u d o n ' t
a g r e e , y o u a r e n o t a n t i - Co m m u n i s t ) .
Mc Ca r t h y w o u l d d o w e l l t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e m e r i t s o f h a v i n g a
l o y a l t y p r o g r a m a t a l l
r e m a i n s a l i v e i s s u e w i t h s o m e c l e a r l y a n t i -
* W e s a y " s o m e t i m e s " b e c a u s e Mc Ca r t h y h a s b y n o m e a n s i m p u g n e d t h e
l o y a l t y o f a l l h i s c r i t i c s
. Mc Ca r t h y i s o n r e c o r d a s a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h e e x i s t -
e n c e o f " h o n e s t " c r i t i c i s m
: " Th e r e a r e . . . t h e c o m p l e t e l y h o n e s t n e w s p a p e r
e d i t o r s w h o a r e s i n c e r e l y o p p o s e d t o w h a t Ia m d o i n g . . . . "
( Mc Ca r t h y i s m ,
p . 8 9)
. Mc Ca r t h v ' s f a i l u r e t o a t t a c k s o m e o f h i s m o s t r e l e n t l e s s a n d c o n s p i c u -
o u s c r i t i c s b e a r s o u t t h e f a c t t h a t h e r e s o r t s t o h i s h a v e - y o u - s t o p p e d - f o l l o w i n g -
t h e - p a r t y - l i n e t e c h n i q u e o n r a t h e r s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s
.
300

SENATOR MCCARTHY' SMETHOD


Co m m u n i s t Li b e r a l s
. Mo s t Li b e r a l s , o f c o u r s e , h a v e l o n g s i n c e c o n -
c e d e d
: t h e i r o w n f r o n t m a n , a f t e r a l l p r o m u l g a t e d t h e Lo y a l t y
Or d e r a s f a r b a c k a s i n 1 94 7
. B u t a t o u g h l o y a l t y p r o g r a m , o n e
b a s e d o n t h e " r e a s o n a b l e d o u b t " s t a n d a r d , i s s t i l l b i t t e r l y o p p o s e d
b y a g r e a t m a n y s i n c e r e l y a n t i - Co m m u n i s t Li b e r a l s . An d Mc Ca r -
t h y ' s c o n v i c t i o n - w h i c h w e s h a r e - t h a t o n e c a n n o t b e e f f e c t i v e l y
a n t i - Co m m u n i s t a n d a l s o o p p o s e t h e " r e a s o n a b l e d o u b t " s t a n d a r d
d o e s n o t s u p p o r t t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t o n e c a n n o t b e a n t i - Co m m u -
n i s t a t a l l a n d o p p o s e t h e s t a n d a r d
.
ASSUMPTIOND :
Si n c e a v i g o r o u s s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m i s i n d i s p e n s -
a b l e t o l e g i t i m a t e a n t i - Co m m u n i s m , o p p o s i t i o n t o i t i s p r i m a f a c i e
e v i d e n c e o f p a r t y - l i n i n g
( i n a c l a s s w i t h , s a y , d e c l a r i n g t h e Cz e c h o -
s l o v a k c o u p a " p e o p l e ' s v i c t o r y , " o r a c c u s i n g t h e Un i t e d St a t e s o f
h a v i n g u s e d b a c t e r i o l o g i c a l w a r f a r e i n K o r e a )
.
Th e f a c t t h a t a v i g o r o u s s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m i s g e a r e d t o t h e n a t i o n -
a l i n t e r e s t , w h i l e t h e k i n d t h e Li b e r a l s w a n t i s n o t , r a i s e s i n t e r e s t -
i n g q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e w i s d o m a n d v i s i o n o f t h e Li b e r a l s
; b u t n o t
a b o u t t h e i r l o y a l t y
. Th e i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n a h a r d - h i t t i n g l o y a l t y
p r o g r a m a r e i s s u e s t h a t s e p a r a t e Am e r i c a n s f r o m Am e r i c a n s , n o t
Am e r i c a n s f r o m Co m m u n i s t s
. It i s , i n a n y c a s e , a p r e t t y p r e c a r i o u s
b u s i n e s s t o i m p u t e p r o - Co m m u n i s m t o s o m e o n e o n t h e b a s i s o f t h a t
p e r s o n ' s s t a n d o n a s i n g l e i s s u e
. So m e t i m e s i t w o r k s
. Th e i n f o r m e d
Am e r i c a n w h o a s s e r t s t h a t t h e r e a r e n o c o n c e n t r a t i o n c a m p s i n Ru s -
s i a i s , i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , c o n s c i o u s l y f o l l o w i n g t h e Pa r t y l i n e
. Th e
Am e r i c a n w h o h a s b e e n a r o u n d a l i t t l e a n d y e t s t a t e s t h a t So v i e t
Ru s s i a h a s n o a g g r e s s i v e o r i m p e r i a l i s t i c a m b i t i o n s , c a n a l m o s t b e
c o u n t e d o n t o b e p r o - Co m m u n i s t
. B u t o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e l o y a l t y
p r o g r a m i s n o t s u c h a d e f i n i t i v e t e s t
. Mc Ca r t h y o u g h t t o k n o w t h i s -
" j u s t l i k e a g r o w n m a n , " a s t h e y s a y i n Ok l a h o m a
. Co n s e q u e n t l y , h e
c a n n o t a c c u s e a n e w s p a p e r o f " f o l l o w i n g t h e Pa r t y l i n e " m e r e l y b e -
c a u s e t h a t n e w s p a p e r a d v o c a t e s a t o o t h l e s s s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m
. Th e
m o s t h e c a n d o i s t o s a y t h a t
i n r e s p e c t o f s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m s ,
n e w s -
p a p e r X a n d t h e Co m m u n i s t s a r e s a y i n g o n e a n d t h e s a m e t h i n g -
w h i c h , i n t h i s c a s e , m e a n s e x a c t l y n o t h i n g
.
An d f i n a l l y
ASSUMPTIONE :
Th o s e p e o p l e w h o h a v e t h e i n t e r e s t s
o
f t h e Un i t e d St a t e s a t h e a r t a c t i n s u c h a w a y a s t o a d v a n c e t h o s e
i n t e r e s t s .
Th i s i s t h e m o s t f u n d a m e n t a l l y f a l s e o f a l l Mc Ca r t h y ' s a s s u m p -
t i o n s
; a n d t h e t r a g e d y l i e s l e s s i n t h e f a c t t h a t Mc Ca r t h y s o m e -
t i m e s f a l l s b a c k o n i t , t h a n i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e a s s u m p t i o n s h o u l d
b e f a l s e
. No t o n l y d o d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e h a v e d i f f e r e n t i d e a s a b o u t
IMPUGNING THE LOYALTY OF HIS CRITICS

301
w h a t c o n s t i t u t e s a g o o d s o c i e t y ; t h e w o r l d h a s a l w a y s b e e n
c r o w d e d w i t h p e s t i f e r o u s b l u n d e r e r s w h o a r e i n c a p a b l e o f a c t i n g
i n s u c h a w a y a s t o p r o m o t e e v e n t h e i r o w n i d e a l s o c i e t y , m u c h l e s s
t h e i d e a l s o c i e t y . Th e p r o x i m a t e e n d Mc Ca r t h y m o s t a r d e n t l y
s e e k s - s e c u r i t y o f t h e Ci v i l Se r v i c e a g a i n s t Co m m u n i s t p e n e t r a -
t i o n - i s a l s o s o u g h t b y a l a r g e n u m b e r o f h i s c r i t i c s . An d y e t , m o s t
o f t h e s e c r i t i c s d o g e t i n Mc Ca r t h y ' s w a y e v e r y t i m e h e a t t e m p t s
t o a d v a n c e t h e g o a l w h i c h t h e y a r e s u p p o s e d t o h a v e i n c o m m o n .
Th i s e v i d e n t l y b a f f l e s Mc Ca r t h y , a n d h e s o m e t i m e s f i n d s t h a t
t h e r e i s n o s a t i s f a c t o r y e x p l a n a t i o n e x c e p t t h a t t h e y a r e n o t , a f t e r
a l l , a n x i o u s t o a c h i e v e t h e g o a l t h e y p r o f e s s . It i s a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t
h e k i c k s o v e r t h e t r a c e s a n d p r o c e e d s t o i m p u g n t h e l o y a l t y o f ,
s a y , t h e e d i t o r s o f t h e W a s h i n g t o n Po s t . It w a s p r e c i s e l y t h i s a s -
s u m p t i o n t h a t : p r o m p t e d Mc Ca r t h y t o i m p u g n t h e l o y a l t y o f Ge n -
e r a l Ge o r g e Ma r s h a l l , t o e x p l a i n i n t e r m s o f t r e a s o n a s e r i e s o f
Ma r s h a l l ' s i n t e r n a t i o n a l b l u n d e r s t h a t u n d e n i a b l y r e d o u n d e d t o
t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e Co m m u n i s t s . * An d t h i s h e m u s t n o t d o . Am e r i -
c a n s w o u l d r a t h e r b e c a l l e d d o l t s t h a n t r a i t o r s ; a n d , a l l t h i n g s c o n -
s i d e r e d - t h e l a w , t h e n a t i o n a l e t h i c , o u r t r a d i t i o n - t h e i r p r e f e r -
e n c e s h o u l d b e ! r e s p e c t e d i n s o f a r a s t h e e v i d e n c e p e r m i t s .
Mc Ca r t h y ' s ; s p o r a d i c r e l i a n c e o n t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s , t h i s a s p e c t
o f h i s " m e t h o d " n o t o n l y w e a k e n s h i s c l a i m t o r e s p o n s i b l e c o n d u c t ,
b u t s e r i o u s l y u n d e r m i n e s h i s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Fo r o n e t h i n g , i n c a l l i n g
Dr e w Pe a r s o n a n d t h e Mi l w a u k e e J o u r n a l p r o - Co m m u n i s t , h e
l o s e s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o m a k e t h e f a r m o r e t e l l i n g i n d i c t m e n t o f
t h e m t h a t t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e i n v i t e s ; t h a t , w h a t e v e r t h e i r i n t e n -
t i o n s , t h e y d o a c t i n a w a y t h a t a d v a n c e s t h e f o r t u n e s o f Co m m u -
n i s m . Fo r w h i l e Am e r i c a n s a r e b y n o w f a i r l y i m m u n e t o t h e c l a i m s
o f d o c t r i n a i r e Co m m u n i s m , t h e y a r e s t i l l f e a r f u l l y v u l n e r a b l e t o
t h e b l a n d i s h m e n t s o f a n t i - a n t i - Co m m u n i s m . Mc Ca r t h y h a s d o n e
w e l l t o c o n c e r n h i m s e l f w i t h t h e t h r e a t o f p r o - Co m m u n i s t s i n t h e
Ci v i l Se r v i c e . He w o u l d d o e v e n b e t t e r t o c o n c e r n h i m s e l f , e q u a l l y ,
w i t h t h e t h r e a t o f c i r c u m s p e c t a n t i - Co m m u n i s m . B u t t o d o t h i s ,
h e m u s t f o r c e . h i m s e l f t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e a d h e r e n t s o f s o f t n e s s
i n c o m b a t i n g So v i e t Ru s s i a a r e , f o r t h e m o s t p a r t , p e r s o n s g e n -
u i n e l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e Un i t e d St a t e s
.
Se e Ap p e n d i x , " Th e Ma r s h a l l Ep i s o d e . "
Mc Ca r t h y As Ag a i n s t Hi s Co n t e m p o r a r i e s
FOR J OE MCCARTHY, Ow e n La t t i m o r e i s n o t a " c o n s c i o u s , a r t i c u -
l a t e s p o k e s m a n o f Co m m u n i s m , " b u t Am e r i c a ' s " t o p e s p i o n a g e
a g e n t " ; Ph i l i p J e s s u p i s n o t a n i n e p t s t a t e s m a n w i t h a n u n e x p l a i n e d
r e c o r d o f c o m p l i c i t y w i t h t h e Co m m u n i s t s u b v e r s i o n o f t h e Ch i -
n e s e Na t i o n a l i s t s , b u t t h e " p i o n e e r
o f t h e s m e a r c a m p a i g n a g a i n s t
Ch i a n g K a i - Sh e k , " " t h e o r i g i n a t o r
o f t h e m y t h o f t h e ` d e m o c r a t i c '
Ch i n e s e Co m m u n i s t s "
; t h e St a t e De p a r t m e n t i s n o t l a x , o r e v e n
c r i m i n a l l y n e g l i g e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o l o y a l t y r i s k s , i t i s " i n f e s t e d "
w i t h " 5 7 Ca r d - Ca r r y i n g Co m m u n i s t s " a n d f o u r t i m e s t h i s n u m b e r
o f l o y a l t y r i s k s .
Mc Ca r t h y c a n b e d e p e n d e d o n n o t t o u n d e r s t a t e h i s c a s e , w h i c h
i s w h a t a g r e a t m a n y p e o p l e r e f e r t o w h e n t h e y t a l k a b o u t " Se n a t o r
Mc Ca r t h y ' s m e t h o d
. " On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h i s a s p e c t o f Mc Ca r t h y
a n d h i s m e t h o d m u s t b e j u d g e d w i t h a n e y e t o t h e f a c t t h a t Mc -
Ca r t h y i s a p u b l i c i s t a m o n g p u b l i c i s t s
.
W e w o u l d d o w e l l t o r e m e m b e r t h a t Mc Ca r t h y w a s t w e n t y -
t h r e e , a m b i t i o u s , a n d i m p r e s s i o n a b l e , w h e n Fr a n k l i n Ro o s e v e l t
w a s e l e c t e d Pr e s i d e n t o f t h e Un i t e d St a t e s . Th e p o l i t i c a l t e c h -
n i q u e s o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t Am e r i c a n p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e o f o u r t i m e
m u s t h a v e d a z z l e d a n d i m p r e s s e d h i m - m u c h a s t h e y d a z z l e d a n d
i m p r e s s e d a p e o p l e w h o s e t a s i d e a t r a d i t i o n ( w h i c h t h e y w e r e
l a t e r , r e p e n t a n t p e r h a p s , t o l e g i s l a t e b a c k i n t o e x i s t e n c e ) i n o r d e r
t o s e n d h i m b a c k t o t h e W h i t e Ho u s e a g a i n a n d a g a i n a n d a g a i n .
Fr a n k l i n Ro o s e v e l t c a m p a i g n e d f o r t h e Pr e s i d e n c y f o u r t i m e s . He
d i d n o t s e e h i m s e l f a s r u n n i n g a g a i n s t a p a r t y w h i c h , i n i t s o w n
w a y , w a s t r y i n g t o s e r v e t h e c o u n t r y ; h e p a i n t e d h i s o p p o n e n t s a s
" e c o n o m i c r o y a l i s t s , " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f " g r e e d y a n d s e l f i s h i n t e r -
e s t s
. " Fo r Ro o s e v e l t , a l l m e m b e r s o f t h e Re p u b l i c a n Pa r t y , a l l r e c a l -
c i t r a n t s i n t h e De m o c r a t i c Pa r t y , a n d a l l Su p r e m e Co u r t j u d g e s
o v e r t h e a g e o f 6 5 , w e r e e n e m i e s o f t h e Re p u b l i c . He d r e w a s h a r p
l i n e t h a t s e p a r a t e d h i m a n d h i s f o l l o w e r s f r o m o t h e r Am e r i c a n s .
Th o s e o n h i s s i d e w e r e w i s e p a t r i o t s ; t h o s e o n t h e o t h e r s i d e , s e l f -
c e n t e r e d r a s c a l s . Th e Am e r i c a n p e o p l e , d e p e n d i n g o n h o w t h e y
v o t e d , w e r e e i t h e r f u l f i l l i n g a g l o r i o u s d e s t i n y , o r c o m m i t t i n g
s u i c i d e .
Tw o y e a r s a f t e r J o e Mc Ca r t h y w a s e l e c t e d t o t h e Se n a t e , a n d
t w o y e a r s b e f o r e h e b r o k e i n t o f a m e a s a r e s u l t o f a s p e e c h a b o u t
t h e St a t e De p a r t m e n t , Mc Ca r t h y w i t n e s s e d t h e g r e a t e s t p o l i t i c a l
MCCARTHYASAGAINSTHISCONTEMPORARIES

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u p s e t i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h i s c o u n t r y . In d e f i a n c e o f t h e p r e d i c t i o n s
o f a l m o s t a l l c u r p o l i t i c a l s a g e s , w i t h o n l y t o k e n s u p p o r t f r o m t h e
i n f l u e n t i a l m e m b e r s o f h i s o w n p a r t y , f a c e d w i t h t h e a c t i v e o p p o -
s i t i o n o f t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t h e n a t i o n ' s n e w s p a p e r s , Ha r r y Tr u -
m a n o u t r a n t h e s l i c k f a v o r i t e f r o m Ne w Yo r k a n d w e n t b a c k t o t h e
W h i t e Ho u s e : Fo r f o u r y e a r s .
Mc Ca r t h y , t h e p o l i t i c i a n , c a n b e a s s u m e d t o h a v e s t u d i e d t h e
c a m p a i g n o f 1 94 8 w i t h c a r e . Ha r r y Tr u m a n l a c k e d t h e s u a v i t y o f
h i s p r e d e c e s s o r ; b u t c l e a r l y , h e h a d n o i n t e n t i o n o f d e s e r t i n g Ro o s e -
v e l t ' s b a s i c f o r m u l a , i . e . , t h a t o f p e r s u a d i n g t h e p e o p l e t h a t t h e i r
c h o i c e w a s n o t b e t w e e n t w o m i l d l y d i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , b u t
b e t w e e n u n s c r u p u l o u s h i g h w a y m e n a n d s e l f l e s s p u b l i c s e r v a n t s .
Sa i d Mr . Tr u m a n o f Re p u b l i c a n s , i n t h e w e e k o f Se p t e m b e r z 6
t o Oc t o b e r z , 1 94 8 : " Th e y d o n ' t w a n t u n i t y . Th e y w a n t . . . t h e
k i n d o f u n i t y t h a t b e n e f i t s t h e Na t i o n a l As s o c i a t i o n o f Ma n u f a c -
t u r e r s , t h e p r i v a t e p o w e r l o b b i e s , t h e r e a l e s t a t e l o b b i e s a n d s e l f i s h
i n t e r e s t s . "
Sa i d Mr . Tr u m a n o n Oc t o b e r 1 9, t o t h e In t e r n a t i o n a l La d i e s
Ga r m e n t W o r k e r s : " Th e Re p u b l i c a n s p l a n a r e a l h a t c h e t j o b [ o n
l a b o r ] . . . . Th e Ta f t - Ha r t l e y La w i s o n l y t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e a t -
t a c k s t h e y p l a n . "
On Oc t o b e r 30, i n a f i n a l b l a s t , Mr . Tr u m a n w a r n e d t h e c o u n t r y ,
" Po w e r f u l f o r c e s , l i k e t h o s e t h a t c r e a t e d Eu r o p e a n Fa s c i s t s , a r e
w o r k i n g t h r o u g h t h e Re p u b l i c a n Pa r t y [ t o ] u n d e r m i n e
. . . Am e r i -
c a n d e m o c r a c y
. "
No t o n l y d i d Mr . Tr u m a n w i n t h e e l e c t i o n h a n d s d o w n , h e a l s o
w o n t h e e n t h u s i a s t i c s u p p o r t o f Am e r i c a ' s Li b e r a l s . Th e i r c o n -
s c i e n c e s w e r e u n r u f f l e d b y Tr u m a n ' s i n d i c t m e n t o f t w e n t y m i l l i o n
v o t e r s a s p a w n s o f Fa s c i s m . An d n o t b e c a u s e t h e i r c o n s c i e n c e s
w e r e d e a d ; f o r t h e y w e r e q u i c k l y a r o u s e d e i g h t e e n m o n t h s l a t e r
w h e n Mc Ca r t h y i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e 5 7 Co m m u n i s t s i n t h e
St a t e De p a r t m e n t
.
It i s d i f f i c u l t , m o r e o v e r , t o a r g u e t h a t t h e p o l i t i c a l u t t e r a n c e s o f
t o d a y a r e b a s e r t h a n t h o s e o f y e s t e r d a y . As a m a t t e r o f f a c t , o n e
c o m m e n t a t o r h a s p u b l i c l y b e m o a n e d t h e
d e t e r i o r a t i o n ( m o s t l y i n
t e r m s o f s k i l l a n d c o l o r ) o f m o d e r n i n v e c t i v e . " Hi s a r t i c l e i n Li f e
w a s s u b - t i t l e d , " Th e Ho l l o w Ch a n t Ha s , Al a s , Re p l a c e d t h e V e r b a l
B r i c k b a t . " He b e m o a n s t h e p a s s i n g o f " a n o l d a n d c h e r i s h e d r h e -
t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n : t h e a d h o m i n e m t h r u s t o r v e r b a l b r i c k b a t . . . .
Co u l d s u c h a g e m o f v i l i f i c a t i o n a s Se n a t o r J o h n Ra n d o l p h ' s g r e a t
e f f o r t o f 1 8 26 , ` He s h i n e s a n d s t i n k s l i k e a d e a d m a c k e r e l i n t h e
304

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m o o n l i g h t ' e m e r g e i n t h e d e b a t e s o f t h e p r e s e n t g e n e r a t i o n o f
Co n g r e s s m e n ? " W e a r e r e m i n d e d t h a t Th o m a s Pa i n e s a i d o f
Ge o r g e W a s h i n g t o n t h a t h e w a s " t r e a c h e r o u s i n p r i v a t e f r i e n d s h i p
a n d a h y p o c r i t e i n p u b l i c l i f e . " Th o m a s J e f f e r s o n w a s d e s c r i b e d a s
" a n a t h e i s t , a n a d u l t e r e r a n d a r o b b e r , " w h i l e Li n c o l n w a s c l a s s i -
f i e d , a m o n g o t h e r t h i n g s , a s " Th e b a b o o n p r e s i d e n t , a l o w - b r e d ,
o b s c e n e c l o w n . " Th e o d o r e Ro o s e v e l t , W i l l i a m J e n n i n g s B r y a n ,
Fi o r e l l o La Gu a r d i a , Ge n e r a l Hu g h J o h n s o n , a n d Ha r o l d Ic k e s c o n -
t r i b u t e d h a n d s o m e l y t o t h e g l o s s a r y o f Am e r i c a n i n v e c t i v e . Th u s ,
t h o u g h p e r h a p s l e s s s o t h a n a h u n d r e d y e a r s a g o , p u b l i c l i f e r e -
m a i n s h a z a r d o u s .
Le t u s l o o k a t s h o r t e x t r a c t s f r o m p u b l i c u t t e r a n c e s o f t h r e e c o n -
t e m p o r a r y p u b l i c f i g u r e s , a n d b e g i n w i t h a c l a s s i c - a c a m p a i g n
s p e e c h b y c a n d i d a t e ( n o w Se n a t o r ) Ge o r g e Sm a t h e r s , i n w h i c h h e
i n f o r m s a n a u d i e n c e o f b a c k w o