Abstract: This experiment was performed in order to determine the effects of temperature on the rate of osmosis and the

effects of different types of solutions on Ox blood. It showed us this through the method used, which was osmosis (the diffusion of water). Osmosis observably occurred because there was a change in mass for the dialysis tubing filled with the molasses. This proved that diffusion of water had occurred across the semi-permeable dialysis tubing. This is verified because the weight of the dialysis tubing changed. The results showed us that diffusion occurred differently at different rates of temperature based on degrees of the solution the tubing was placed in. For solution in 1°C water the rate of diffusion was slower then the 60°C water which was much quicker, the dialysis tubing weighed more after osmosis. For the water in dialysis tubing and molasses on the outside the molasses moved from the tubing to the water as shown by the dialysis tubing decreasing in weight. Ox blood in Hypotonic, Hypertonic and Isotonic solutions had different reactions based on the solutions osmolarity. 10 % NaCl crenation (shrink) occurred, normal saline had no effect on cell and distilled water caused hemolysis (bursting of cell) to occur.

Introduction: This experiment was performed to prove that when a solute such as Na+ moves across the selectively permeable membrane it is moving across the concentration gradient which is defined as the gradual difference in concentration of a dissolved substance in a solution between a region of high density and one of lower density. This kind of movement is called diffusion. If you heat up the solution and the temperature increases the kinetic energy (energy in motion) of the molecules, helps them move quicker across the membrane. When no movement can occur across the membrane it is said to be impermeable meaning nothing can pass or move through. Passive transport is the net movement of a solute across a permeable membrane. In this experiment different types of transport were used to show how passive transport occurs in a solution that is either hypotonic meaning the solution has a lower solute concentration outside the cell. An example would be 0.9% NaCl inside the cell. If you had and equal amount of sodium chloride on the outside of the cell the solution would be Isotonic so there would be no movement across the membrane. If the outside of the cell had 90% Na+ and inside the cell had 25% Na+ the cell would be considered to be hypertonic and the cell would eventually crenate (shrink) as the cell lost water to balance the inside and outside of the cell. If the opposite occurred and it was red blood cell It would be know as hemolysis, which is the bursting of the erythrocyte. Osmotic pressure is the pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a semi permeable membrane. The purpose of this lab will show you the different ways solutions can move in and out of a cell creating a Isotonic solution. It will also show

16. 6. 9. Cut off four 20 cm lengths of dialysis tubing and soak them in warm water until you can open them.Submerge the bag of water in the beaker of molasses. Label and set up three beakers of water and one of molasses. . Make a hot pad of paper towel to place the 60°C beaker on. 5. The second water beaker should be at 20° degrees C 4. Inject 15 ml of water into the open end of one of the bags you just made. The bag should be loose and floppy. with the knot at the end of the bag. 14. Submerge one of the bags of molasses in each of the three beakers of water at different temperatures. scissors. Weigh the bags ev 5 minutes for 30 minutes.you what happens to cells when the solutions are hypertonic. Rinse any molasses off and weigh the bags. Tighten the knot so it is at the very end of the tubing. S. 10. 12. with the knot at the end of the bag. Try to avoid air bubbles. 15. beakers. 3. Squeeze any air out of the bag. hot plate or water bath. 13. place the beaker in the 60°C water bath. Procedure: 1. Tie the top of the bag of water as you did the bottom. Inject 15 ml of molasses into the open end of another bag you made. IS. If there is a water bath. have a beaker of boiling water ready to heat up the third beaker as it cools off. ice. Roll the softened edges between your fingers to open the tubing. If there is no water bath. 20. Try to avoid air bubbles. dialysis tubing. 19. 17. and very little tubing sticks out. The third water beaker should be at 60°C. Materials and Methods. II. triple beam balance. hypotonic and Isotonic. One water beaker should have ice in it. Tie one end of the tubing with a single overhand knot. large plastic syringes. centimeter rulers. The instructor may demonstrate the technique of preparing the bags if you need help. The effects on Temperature on the Rate of Osmosis Eye protection. Record the temperature. beaker tongs. Record the results. 2. Be sure to use the beaker tongs to handle hot beakers.Tie the top of the bag of molasses as you did the bottom. 7. thermometers.Repeat for the other two bags of molasses. Record the weight. Weigh the bag of water. The bag should be loose and floppy. Molasses. marking pencils.

Do not throw the dialysis bags in the garbage. or measuring Three test tubes in rack droppers Procedure: (be sure to wear goggles and gloves and follow all blood precautions) A. Measure three ml of normal saline into test tube I C. Can you see these letters through the tubes? I. F. 22. Record Observations J. Place them in the receptacle provided. Gently mix the Ox blood and add 1 drop of Ox blood to each tube. Mark the three test tubes 1. H. Measure three m1 of distilled water into test tube 3 E. pipettes. Save the molasses from your experiment for the next class. B. Materials and Methods: Osmosis Demonstration -living membrane – Ox Blood Ox blood Wax pencil Normal saline 0. Hold the tubes over this page. . Take a drop from each of the test tubes and place on clean slide Be sure to mark the slides 1. K. Gently swirl the tubes to mix. Measure three ml of 10% NaCI into test tube 2 D. Observe and draw the slides under high power.21.9% NaCI Distilled Water Slides and covers lips Gloves 10% NaCI Graduated cylinders. 2 and 3 cover with cover slip.2 and 3. Hold the tubes up to the light and observe. G.

there were possible factors for error in this experiment.8g proving that the applied kinetic energy diffused the water into the molasses at a quicker rate. The tubing may not have been submerged in the beaker for long enough to reach equilibrium. The warmer the water the quicker the rate of diffusion occurred this was indicated in the different times and weights based on temperature. We also used temperature to determine the rate of diffusion of the molasses.6g and the bag in 60°C weighed 28. Using the procedure involving osmosis we were able to calculate the amount of change in the dialysis tubing by measuring the weight of the tubing at different times. Example. the amount of time that was needed for osmosis to occur fully was unknown. the experiment was successful. The . molasses in 1° C water after 20 minutes weighed an average of 23. Additionally.Discussion: The experiment was designed to enable us to calculate the rate of diffusion of the molasses in dialysis tubing in the water at different temperatures. The intent of the experiment was to study osmosis. Osmosis occurred—there was a change in mass of the dialysis tubing filled with molasses. it is possible that this may have had a negative effect on our experiment. Though we presumed that this would not affect the results. changing the weight of the tubing. The fact that the procedure was nonstandard may have had some impact. However. the amount of molasses may have been measured incorrectly and not enough space in the bag for diffusion to occur. This indicates that water diffused across the semi-permeable dialysis tubing. as long as the concentration of the solution in the beaker was lower than that in the tubing. To that effect.

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