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"ATRAGICMISAPPREHENSION"

8 5
it had
b e e n to q u e s tio n the f l atn e s s o f the e ar thin Ro m e o f
the D ar k Ag e s ."(25 )Mr
.L y o n s f o r g e ts thatthe Co p e r n ic an
the o r y w as f ir s tg iv e n to the w o r l din ab o o k w r itte n b y a
Can o n o f the Chu r c h,f in an c e db y tw o Car din al s ,an d
de dic ate dto the Po p e
.The Ho l y Of f ic e b l u n de r e db adl y o v e r
Gal il e o ,b u this c as e is u n iq u e ,f o r this w as the o n l y o c c as io n
o n w hic has c ie n tis tw as f o r c e dto r e tr ac tap u r e l y s c ie n tif ic
p r o p o s itio n u n de r c o m p u l s io n f r o m the Chu r c h
.B u tthe r e
hav e b e e n m an y Gal il e o s c o n de m n e din Ru s s iaf o r "ide o l o g ic al
de v iatio n s "in s c ie n c e
.
Mr
.L y o n s p o in ts o u tthatthe Ts ar s didn o tin te r f e r e in
e v e r y s p he r e o f in te l l e c tu al an dx s the tic e x p r e s s io n "l ik e the ir
s u c c e s s o r s in the K r e m l in ,s o thatthe r e w e r e af e w s an c tu ar ie s
f o r m an as athin k e r an dan ar tis t
."(26 )Au tho r itativ e r e g im e s
ar e n o tn e c e s s ar il y f atal to Ar tan dL ite r atu r e
.Ce r v an te s
w r o te his m as te r p ie c e in the Sp ain o f the In q u is itio n ,b u tthe
Sp an is hIn q u is itio n ,u n l ik e the Ru s s ian Og p u ,didn o tc o n c e r n
its e l f w ithal l as p e c ts o f l if e
.Mo n taig n e ,the ag n o s tic ,w r o te
his Es s ay s in aF r an c e in w hic hhe r e tic s w e r e in te r m itte n tl y
b u r n e d
.Catho l ic p r ie s ts w e r e to r tu r e dan dr ac k e du n de r
El iz ab e th,b u the r au tho r itar ian r e g im e c o in c ide dw iththe
m o s tg l o r io u s e p o c hin En g l is hl ite r atu r e
.Catho l ic s ,Pr o te s tan ts
an dag n o s tic s hav e c ite dp as s ag e s f r o m Shak e s p e ar e to p r o v e
thatShak e s p e ar e w as aCatho l ic ,aPr o te s tan to r an ag n o s tic ,
an dthe r e is p e r hap s am e as u r e o f tr u thin al l thr e e hy p o the s e s
.
The s tate m e n tthatShak e s p e ar e "die dap ap is t"is dis p u te d,
b u titm ay b e tr u e .Itis u n de n iab l e thathe c o n f o r m e dto the
s tate r e l ig io n du r in g his l if e ,an ditis m o r e than p r o b ab l e that
his f aithw as dis tu r b e db y do u b ts
.B e thatas itm ay ,he
e n jo y e daf r e e do m o f s e l f -e x p r e s s io n u n k n o w n in m o de r n
Ru s s ia,f o r Shak e s p e ar e an de tac hm e n tis im p o s s ib l e u n de r the
r e g im e o f Stal in
."To the So v ie tc e n s o r ,"w r ite s Mr .L y o n s ,
"n e u tr al ity is o n e o f the de adl ie s ts in s -e v e r y ar tis tan d
s c ie n tis tm u s ts ho w p r o o f o f ac tiv e s u p p o r to f the o f f ic ial
do g m as
."(27 )HadQ u e e n El iz ab e thb e e n as r u thl e s s as Stal in ,
Shak e s p e ar e w o u l dhav e c e as e dto w r ite .
Al l b r an c he s o f Ru s s ian Ar thav e to s u b m itto the dic tato r -
s hip o f m e dio c r ity
.Sho s tak o v ic h' s p o p u l ar o p e r a An dQ u ie t
8 6

"ATRAGICMISAPPREHENSION"
F l o w s the D o n w as w ide l y p r ais e db y m u s ic c r itic s in
So v ie t
Ru s s iau n til Pr av da s n if f e do u tide o l o g ic al he r e s y in o p e r atic
f o r m al is m ,w he r e u p o n the c r itic s c am e to he e l
.Y u r iOl e s ha,w ho
hadb e e n an ar de n tadm ir e r o f Sho s tak o v ic h' s o p e r a,p r o m p tl y
r e c an te d ."If Ido n o tag r e e w iththe ar tic l e s in
Pr av da ab o u t
ar t,Ihav e n o r ig htto e x p e r ie n c e p atr io tic p l e as u r e in ap p r e -
he n din g the s e m ar v e l l o u s thin g s ,in ap p r e he n din g the ar o m a
o f n o v e l ty ,tr iu m p h,s u c c e s s ,w hic hm e an s s o m u c hto m e an d
w hic hs ho w s thatthe So v ie tU n io n has its o w n dis tin c tiv e l if e ,
thato f ag r e atp o w e r .If Ido n o tag r e e w iththe p ar ty in a
s in g l e p o in t,the w ho l e p ic tu r e o f l if e m u s tb e dim m e df o r m e ,
b e c au s e al l p ar ts ,al l de tail s o f this p ic tu r e ar e b o u n dto g e the r
an dar is e o n e o u to f the o the r ."(28 )On Ap r il io th,
1 9 3 5 ,
the
ar tis tNik r itin w as s u m m o n e db e f o r e the ar tc o m m is s io n w hic h
hadtak e n e x c e p tio n to his p ain tin g ,"Ol dan dNe w ,"a
s y m b o l ic p ic tu r e o f n o g r e atm e r itin w hic hhe r e p r e s e n ts a
V e n u s o f Mil o , a
y o u n g m an an day o u n g g ir l ,w o r k e r s in the
Me tr o b u il din g ,an dan o l dm an
."Whatw e s e e he r e is a
c al u m n y ,"e x c l aim e do n e m e m b e r o f the c o m m is s io n ."Itis
ac l as s -attac k ,in im ic al to the So v ie tp o w e r .The p ic tu r e m u s t
b e r e m o v e dan dthe ap p r o p r iate o r g an iz atio n al m e as u r e s b e
tak e n ."(29 )The p ic tu r e w as r e m o v e d,an dn o do u b tap p r o -
p r iate o r g an iz atio n al m e as u r e s w e r e tak e n .
Itis in s tr u c tiv e to c o m p ar e the tr e atm e n to f the ar tis t
Nik r itin in So v ie tRu s s iaw iththe u r b an e attitu de o f the
V e n e tian In q u is itio n to V e r o n e s e ,w ho s e ir r e v e r e n tp ain tin g
o f the L as tSu p p e r hadc au s e dc o n s ide r ab l e s c an dal .He r e
f o l l o w s an e x tr ac tf r o m his e x am in atio n .
Q .In this Su p p e r o f Ou r L o r dhav e y o u p ain te d an y
atte n dan ts ?
A.Y e s ,m y l o r d .
Q .Whatis the m e an in g o f tho s e m e n dr e s s e din the
Ge r m an f as hio n ,e ac hw ithahal b e r din his han d?
A.We p ain te r s tak e the s am e l ic e n c e thatis p e r m itte dto
p o e ts an dje s te r s
.Ihav e p l ac e dthe s e tw o hal b e r die r s -the
o n e e atin g an dthe o the r dr in k in g -b y the s tair c as e ,to b e
s u p p o s e dr e ady to p e r f o r m an y du ty thatm ay b e r e q u ir e d
o f the m ; itap p e ar e dto m e q u ite f ittin g thatthe m as te r o f
"ATRAGICMISAPPREHENSION"

8 7
s u c haho u s e ,w ho w as r ic han dg r e at(as Ihav e b e e n to l d),
s ho u l dhav e s u c hatte n dan ts .
Q .Thatp e r s o n dr e s s e dl ik e ab u f f o o n ,w ithap ar r o to n
his w r is t-f o r w hatp u r p o s e is he in tr o du c e din to the c an v as ?
A.F o r o r n am e n t,as is u s u al l y do n e .
Q .D o e s itap p e ar to y o u f ittin g thatatOu r L o r d' s L as t
Su p p e r y o u s ho u l dp ain tdr u n k ar ds ,b u f f o o n s ,Ge r m an s ,
dw ar f s ,an ds im il ar in de c e n c ie s ?
A
.No ,m y l o r d .
Q .Why ,the n ,hav e y o u p ain te dthe m ?
A.Ihav e do n e itb e c au s e Is u p p o s e dthatthe s e w e r e n o t
in the p l ac e w he r e the s u p p e r w as s e r v e df r o m
.
As ahan ds o m e c o n c e s s io n to the Ho l y Of f ic e ,V e r o n e s e
ap p e ar s to hav e r e m o v e dam an b l e e din g f r o m the n o s e ,an d
ap air o f s o l die r s in Ge r m an c o s tu m e "hal f dr u n k an din m o s t
q u e s tio n ab l e attitu de s ."B u tthe p ain tin g w as n o tde s tr o y e d,
an dm ay s til l b e s e e n in the Ac c ade m iain V e n ic e .Hadthe
V e n e tian In q u is itio n b e e n as in to l e r an tas the Co m m u n is ts
w ho c o n de m n e dNik itr in ,the p ain tin g w o u l dhav e b e e n
de s tr o y e dan dV e r o n e s e w o u l dp e r hap s hav e b e e n l iq u idate d
f o r ag r o s s de v iatio n o f Chr is tian ide o l o g y .
REF ERENCES
(1 ) D au b an : L aD e m ag o g ie a Par is e n 1
7 9 3 ,P•
3 7 ,q u o te d
b y Ne s taH.We b s te r : The F r e n c hRe v o l u tio n ,
Co n s tab l e ,p
.4 3 7 .
(2) Pe titPar is ie n , F e b r u ar y 21 s t,
1 9 3 7 -
(3 )
Pap ie r s tr o u v e s c he z Ro b e s p ie r r e ,II,1 5 ,
q u o te db y Ne s ta
H.We b s te r
: The F r e n c hRe v o l u tio n ,p . 4 1 0 .
(4 ) Mo n ite u r f o r the 1 4 thF r u c tido r ,An II,q u o te db y Ne s ta
H.We b s te r : The F r e n c hRe v o l u tio n ,p . 4 1 2 .
(5 ) Tain e , L aRe v o l u tio n ,v ii, 1 8 o .
(6 ) Pie c e s s ais ie s c he z B ab e u f ,ii, 1 6 3 ,q u o te db y Ne s taH.
We b s te r : Wo r l d Re v o l u tio n , Co n s tab l e ,p .5 6 .
J ` Y !
8 8

"ATRAGICMISAPPREHENSION"
(7 )J u l e s B e r tau t : 1 8 4 8 e tl aSe c o n de Re p u b l iq u e , Ar the m e
F ay ar d,p
.7 0 -
(8 )L e o Pas v o l s k y
: "The In te l l ig e n ts iaU n de r the So v ie ts ,"
Atl an tic Mo n thl y ,
No v e m b e r ,1 9 20 .
(9 )G.M.Go dde n
: The Co m m u n is tAttac k o n Gr e atB r itain ,
B u r n s ,Oate s ,p .7 9 -
(1 o )
Wil l iam He n r y Cham b e r l in : Ru s s ia' s Ir o n Ag e , D u c k -
w o r th,p .29 6
.
(ii)Q u o te db y L o thr o p Sto ddar d : The Re v o l tAg ain s t
Civ il iz atio n , Chap m an &Hal l ,p
.1 8 7 -
(1 2)-(1 5 )
An dr e Gide : Re to u r de l ' U .R.S.S.,
Gal l im ar d,
PP-4 9 , 8 4 ,7 7 ,6 7 -
(1 6 )V ic to r Se r g e : Ru s s iaTw e n ty Y e ar s Af te r ,
tr an s l ate db y
Max Shac htm an ,Hil l m an -Cu r l ,p
.5 3 -
(1 7 )&(1 8 )K u r tL o n do n
: The Se v e n So v ie tAr ts , F ab e r an d
F ab e r ,p p .
3 7 ,
3 6 1 .
(1 9 )Mau r ic e Hin du s : Hu m an ity U p r o o te d, J o n athan Cap e ,
Chap te r x iv ,p p .21 4 -226 .
(20 )An dr e Gide : Re to u c he s a m o n Re to u r de , l ' U .R.S
.S.,
Gal l im ar d,p p .24 -28 .
(21 )-(27 ) Eu g e n e L y o n s : As s ig n m e n tin U to p ia,
Har r ap ,
PP-3 4 8 ,4 6 8 ,4 6 8 ,4
6
9 ,4 6 8 ,4
6
9 ,4
6 9 .
(28 )&(29 )K u r tL o n do n
: The Se v e n So v ie tAr ts ,p p . 8 1 ,
228 .
CHAPTERIX
"L ATRAHISOND ESCL ERCS."
THE hu m an itar ian is m o f the Ru s s ian Co m m u n is ts has m u c h
in c o m m o n w iththe hu m an itar ian is m o f the Ru s s ian Nihil is ts
o f the n in e te e n thc e n tu r y .B ie l in s k y ,af am o u s Ru s s ian Nihil is t,
p r o f e s s e daw ar m l o v e o f hu m an ity ,b u this af f e c tio n w as
s e l e c tiv e .In am o m e n to f c an do u r he de s c r ib e ditas "Mar at' s
l o v e ." Mar at,m o s tr u thl e s s an ds adis tic o f the F r e n c h
Te r r o r is ts ,r e p r e s e n ts ,as B ie l in s k y div in e d,the l o g ic al de v e l o p -
m e n to f the p itil e s s hu m an itar ian is m in w hic hthe l o v e o f Man
is div o r c e df r o m the l o v e o f Go d .B ie l in s k y w as b o r n o u to f
du e tim e ,f o r he w o u l dhav e b e e n hap p y as the Mar ato f the
Ru s s ian Re v o l u tio n .He c he e r f u l l y de c l ar e dthathe w as r e ady
"to c u to f f the he ads o f al ar g e s e c tio n o f m an k in dto m ak e
the r e s thap p y .""Iam ,"he adde din am o o do f s e l f -r e v e l atio n ,
"ate r r ib l e m an w he n s o m e m y s tic al f o l l y g e ts in to m y
he ad ."(i )
Mo de r n hu m an itar ian is m ar is e s o u to f af e e l in g o f c o m -
p as s io n f o r hu m an ity ,an de n ds in am e r c il e s s attitu de to w ar ds
in div idu al m e n ."F o r ' Mar at' s l o v e ' o f m an k in dis al w ay s l ik e
.
that,"w r ite s Nic ho l as B e r dy ae v .
"Itb e g in s b y p r o te s tin g
ag ain s tthe ` u n iv e r s al ' thato p p r e s s e s an dto r tu r e s p e r s o n al ity ,
an de n ds u p b y p r o c l aim in g an e w ' u n iv e r s al ' -l o v e o f
hu m an ity ; n o t,ho w e v e r ,the l o v e o f l iv in g hu m an p e r s o n s ,b u t
l o v e o f the ide a o f hu m an ity . . . .Co m p as s io n tu r n s in to c r u e l ty ,
f r e e do m in to c o m p u l s io n an dv io l e n c e
; de f e n c e o f p e r s o n al ity
ag ain s tthe ty r an n y o f s o c ie ty l e ads to e x tr e m e s o c ial
de s p o tis m ." (2)
The Mar ats o f o u r tim e s w o u l dhav e l e s s s c o p e f o r the ir
"l o v e o f hu m an ity "if the ir c r im e s w e r e n o tc o n do n e d
b y c o w ar dl y in te l l e c tu al s . "L atr ahis o n de s c l e r c s "m ak e s
thin g s e as y f o r p e r s e c u to r s
.L e f tWin g v ie w s ar e f as hio n ab l e in
8 9
9 0

"L A TRAHISON D ES CL ERCS"
the l ite r ar y an dar tis tic w o r l ds ,an ditr e q u ir e s c o u r ag e to de f y
f as hio n .The r e ar e m an y c ar e e r s an dp r o f e s s io n s in w hic h
adv an c e m e n tis dif f ic u l tf o r the c ham p io n s o f tr aditio n ,an d
e as y f o r the ap o s tl e s o f s u b v e r s iv e do c tr in e s .He n c e the s ad
c o n tr as tb e tw e e n the r e adin e s s o f the in te l l e c tu al s to de n o u n c e
Hitl e r o r Mu s s o l in ian dthe ir r e l u c tan c e to de n o u n c e Stal in
o r Ne g r in .Itis n o to n l y in Naz iGe r m an y thatin te l l e c tu al s
hav e c o m e to he e l .
"In the s p r in g o f 1 9 3 5 ,"w r ite s Max Eas tm an ,ac o n v in c e d
Mar x ian Co m m u n is t,"Stal in ' s g o v e r n m e n tis s u e dade c r e e
w hic hm ade the de athp e n al ty f o r the f t-ado p te df o r adu l ts
thr e e y e ar s b e f o r e -ap p l ic ab l e to m in o r s f r o m the ag e o f
tw e l v e .Whe n this f ac tw as an n o u n c e datac o n g r e s s o f the
F r e n c hTe ac he r s ' F e de r atio n in Au g u s to f the s am e y e ar ,the
Stal in is ts in the F e de r atio n in dig n an tl y de n ie dit .B e in g s ho w n
ac o p y o f Iz v e s tia (Ap r il 8 th,1 9 3 5 )c o n tain in g the de c r e e ,the y
l ap s e din to s il e n c e ,b u tthe y w e r e r e ady n e x tday w iththe
in f o r m atio n that` u n de r s o c ial is m c hil dr e n ar e s o p r e c o c io u s
an dw e l l e du c ate dthatthe y ar e f u l l y r e s p o n s ib l e f o r the ir
ac ts ' ! Itis b u tar e f l e c tio n o f the m an n e r in w hic hthis
ide o l o g y is b e in g s tr e tc he dto c o v e r e v e r y s adis tthin g in
Ru s s ia ."(3 )
The s q u al idn e u tr al ity o f in te l l e c tu al s w he n c o n f r o n te db y
Co m m u n is tc r im e s is o n e o f the s adde s tf e atu r e s o f the day .
The c o ar s e n in g e f f e c to f ide o l o g ic al l o y al tie s o n w e l l -
in te n tio n e dp e o p l e is e v ide n tin the 1 ,25 7 p ag e s w hic hMr .
an dMr s .Sidn e y We b b de v o te to So v ie t Co m m u n is m . The
We b b s ar e de c e n tan dk in dl y f o l k w ho w il l b e c o m p l e te l y
hap p y in he av e n if the y ar e g iv e n s o m e p o p u l atio n s tatis tic s
to p l ay w ith,an dac he r u b im o r tw o to c r o s s -in de x .The y
hav e l iv e do n in to the m o de r n w o r l das the s y m b o l s o f the
F ab ian n in e tie s .The atm o s p he r e w hic hthe y c r e ate dw as a
c u r io u s b l e n do f u p l if t,m u tu al im p r o v e m e n ts o c ie tie s ,hig h
te as an dadv an c e dr e v o l u tio n ar y ide al s .Itw as the o dde s t
f r e ak o f f ate w hic hde p o s ite dthe s e m il dap o s tl e s o f "Gr adu al -
is m "am o n g the r o c c o c o e x tr av ag an c e s o f Ru s s ian g an g s te r is m .
Of c o u r s e the y f o u n dm u c hthatthe y c o u l dc o n s c ie n tio u s l y
p r ais e .B u r e au c r ats b y p as s io n ate c o n v ic tio n ,the y w e r e
i9 L ATRAHISOND ESCL ERGS"
9 1
f as c in ate db y aState e v e r y as p e c to f w hic hw as c o n tr o l l e db y
an al l -p o w e r f u l b u r e au c r ac y .U n f o r tu n ate l y the r e w e r e c e r tain
thin g s w hic hthe y didn o tl ik e ,ho r r ib l e thin g s w hic hin tr u de d
in to the ir dis c r e e tl y s e l e c tiv e r e s e ar c h,an datl o n g in te r v al s
the We b b s r is k ag e n tl e c r itic is m .B u tthe p r im p r o te s ts ag ain s t
te r r o r is m ar e l ik e p e b b l e s in the b e do f as tr o n g -f l o w in g to r r e n t,
af l o o do f u n c r itic al p an e g y r ic w hic hf l o w s an df l o w s an df l o w s
f r o m the titl e p ag e ,w ithits s u b -titl e : "ANe w Civ il is atio n ,"
to the l as tp ag e o f the In de x ,"White Se aCan al ,w o r k s do n e
b y c o n v ic tl ab o u r u n de r s o c ial is tc o m p e titio n ."
The s e date an dg u ar de dc e n s u r e s o f the We b b s ir r e s is tib l y
s u g g e s ts as c ho o l m a' am ' s r e p o r to n atr o u b l e s o m e p u p il .
"Mo r e in v idio u s w as the p r ac tic e . . . o f f o r c ib l y de p o r tin g
k u l ak s an do the r r e c al c itr an tp e as an ts "to No r thSe ais l an ds
w he r e ,s o the We b b s as s u r e u s ,"the m is e r ie s o f ar ig o r o u s
c l im ate w e r e ag g r av ate db y ac r u e l adm in is tr atio n b y b r u tal
jail e r s ,in w hic he v e r y k in do f to r m e n ts e e m s to hav e b e e n
e m p l o y e d ."(4 )The ital ic s ,b y the w ay ,ar e m y o w n ,f o r the
We b b s n e v e r e m p has iz e the s e dis tu r b in g as p e c ts o f w hatthe y
de s c r ib e o n the titl e p ag e as "an e w c iv il is atio n ."
"Mo r e in v idio u s w as the p r ac tic e o f f o r c ib l y de p o r tin g
J e w s
. . . ." F e w his to r ian s w r ite l ik e thatab o u tTo r q u e m ada .
"Itis ,w e thin k ,an o b je c tio n ab l e f e atu r e thatthis v e r y
te r r o r has b e e n an dap p ar e n tl y s til l is ade l ib e r ate l y c ho s e n
m e an s o f de te r r e n c e ."(g )The te r r o r in q u e s tio n in c l u de d,as
the We b b s b y im p l ic atio n adm it,the thr e ato f to r tu r e .Itis
e as y to im ag in e the c o m m e n ts o f the L e f tWin g r e v ie w e r o n
s o m e ap o l o g is tf o r the Sp an is hIn q u is itio n w ho r e m ar k e d,"It
is ,Ithin k ,an o b je c tio n ab l e f e atu r e thatthe f e ar o f to r tu r e
ap p ar e n tl y w as ac ho s e n m e an s o f de te r r e n c e ."
The as s as s in atio n o f K ir o v w as m ade the p r e te x tf o r tr y in g
o p p o n e n ts o f Stal in ' s p o l ic y ,s u c has Z in o v ie v an dK am e n e v ,
ade c is io n w hic h,as the We b b s in n o c e n tl y r e m ar k ,"w as o p e n
to m is c o n s tr u c tio n ."An dthe y add,"The ar r e s tan ds u m m ar y
e x e c u tio n ,af te r as in g l e m u r de r ,o f aw ho l e m u l titu de o f
p e r s o n s o f div e r s e an te c e de n ts an dc o n ditio n s ,s p r e ado v e r a
w ide ar e a,an de x p l ain e do n dif f e r e n tg r o u n ds , c o u l dn o tb u t
e x c ite adv e r s e c o m m e n t ."(6 )
9 2

"L A TRAB ISON D ES CL ERCS"
No ,an dthe m as s ac r e o f St.B ar tho l o m e w ' s Ev e "c o u l dn o t
b u te x c ite adv e r s e c o m m e n t ."
Hadaf e w m il l io n s b e e n e x e c u te db y f ir in g s q u ads itis
p o s s ib l e thate v e n the m o r e s e r v il e l ac k e y s o f Stal in m ig hthav e
b e e n f ain tl y s ho c k e d
.Stal in k n o w s his f r ie n ds ."Ob s o l e te
c l as s e s ,"he r e m ar k e d,"do n ' tv o l u n tar il y dis ap p e ar ,"(' 7 )
b u t
the te c hn iq u e o f the ir f o r c e ddis ap p e ar an c e m u s t,in s o f ar
as is p o s s ib l e ,b e adju s te dto the de l ic ate s u s c e p tib il itie s o f
m o de r n hu m an itar ian s . The r e ar e ,ho w e v e r ,f e w c r im e s f o r
w hic hw is hf u l thin k in g c an n o tm an u f ac tu r e s o m e e x c u s e .The
m o de r n hu m an itar ian is al w ay s r e ady to p u tthe c o r p s e in the
do c k ,an dto c al l the m u r de r e r as aw itn e s s f o r the p r o s e c u tio n .
F r o m the s e c u r e c o m f o r to f de an e r ie s the p r ie s ts an dn u n s
w ho w e r e k il l e db y the tho u s an din Sp ain w e r e ac c u s e do f
"u n p o p u l ar ity ,"as if the v ic tim s o f p e r s e c u tio n c o u l de v e r b e
p o p u l ar w iththe ir m u r de r e r s .The dis tu r b in g g ho s ts o f the
m il l io n s w ho die din Ru s s iab e c au s e Stal in w as de te r m in e d
to b r e ak the r e s is tan c e o f the p e as an ts ,ar e e x o r c is e db y the
f o r m u l a,"s u l l e n r e s is tan c e .""Whatw as m o s tdif f ic u l tto c o p e
w ith,"w r o te the We b b s ,"w as the de p l o r ab l e g e n e r al s u l l e n -
n e s s ,in w hic hm an y ,an ds o m e tim e s m o s t,o f the p e as an ts had
c e as e dto c ar e w he the r o r n o tthe n o r m al har v e s tw as
r e ap e d ."(8 )
"On e m ig htas w e l l b l am e dr au g htan im al s f o r c o l l ap s in g
u n de r the e x c e s s iv e l o ad,"r e m ar k s Eu g e n e L y o n s . "The
p ar al y z in g in dif f e r e n c e o f the Ru s s io n p e as an tr y thatb r o u g ht
the g r e ate s tc r o p o f w e e ds in r e c o r de dhis to r y an dl e f tb r e ad
c r o p s to r o tw hil e m e n an dw o m e n s tar v e dw as n o tar e b e l l io u s
' p l o t' -f o r ty m il l io n p e o p l e do n o te as il y c o n s p ir e to g e the r .
No n e o f itw as b y de s ig n
.Itw as an e x p r e s s io n o f u l tim ate
ho p e l e s s n e s s ,an atu r al c atas tr o p he o f the hu m an s p ir it,an o n -
c o -o p e r atio n m o v e m e n tthatw as ak in to m as s s u ic ide ."(9 )
L e tu s tr an s l ate the Ru s s ian tr ag e dy in to Sp an is hte r m s .
L e tu s s u p p o s e thatGe n e r al F r an c o ,b y f o r c e dr e q u is itio n s an d
p e r s is te n tp e r s e c u tio n ,hadb r o k e n the s p ir ito f the Sp an is h
p e as an ts in Natio n al is tte r r ito r ie s .L e tu s f u r the r s u p p o s e that
the p e as an ts in de s p air hadr e f u s e dto s o w m o r e than the b ar e
m in im u m r e q u ir e df o r the ir o w n n e e ds ,an dthatthis p itif u l
"L ATRAHISOND ESCL ERCS"

9 3
s to r e hadb e e n f u r the r de p l e te db y r u thl e s s g r ain c o l l e c to r s ,
w iththe r e s u l tthattho u s an ds haddie do f s tar v atio n
.We m ay
b e s u r e thatthe We b b s w o u l dn o thav e c o n de m n e dthe
"de p l o r ab l e s u l l e n n e s s "o f the p e as an ts ,b u tg l o r ie din the ir
he r o ic r e f u s al to c o m p l y w ith
ty r an n ic al r e q u is itio n s .
Natio n al is tSp ain p r o v ide s n o p ar al l e l to Ru s s ia,an dtho s e
w ho hav e p as s e d,as Ididin the s p r in g o f 1 9 3 8 ,f r o m te r r ito r y
c o n tr o l l e db y the Natio n al is ts s in c e the o u tb r e ak o f the w ar
in to te r r ito r y w hic hhado n l y ju s tb e e n r e c ap tu r e df r o m the
Re p u b l ic an s ,c o u l dn o tf ail to n o tic e the c o n tr as tb e tw e e n the
w e l l -c ar e df o r ap p e ar an c e o f Natio n al is tf ar m s an df ie l ds ,an d
the u n k e m p t,n e g l e c te das p e c to f Re p u b l ic an te r r ito r y
.
So c ial is m is b r e ak in g in Sp ain ,as itis b r e ak in g in Ru s s ia,
o n the r e s is tan c e o f the p e as an t,s tu r die s to f in div idu al is ts
.
"Il y e n te r r e ,"w r ite s de To c q u e v il l e o f the F r e n c hp e as an t,
"s o n c o e u r av e c s o n g r ain .Ce p e titc o in du s o l q u il u i
ap p ar tie n te n p r o p r e dan s c e v as te u n iv e r s l e r e m p l itd' o r g u e il
e td' in de p e n dan c e
."* (io )In n o b o dy is the s e n s e o f p r iv ate
p r o p e r ty m o r e s tr o n g l y de v e l o p e dthan in the p e as an t
.An d
n o c l as s in the State p ay s its tax e s w ithg r e ate r r e l u c tan c e
.
On l y u r b an iz e ds o c io l o g is ts w ithn o r o o ts in the e ar th,n o
in s tin c tf o r u l tim ate r e al itie s ,an dn o u n de r s tan din g o f an y -
thin g b u ts tatis tic s ,c o u l ds e e in the r e s is tan c e o f ap e as an tr y
to c o l l e c tiv iz atio n an db r u tal r e q u is itio n s an ab n o r m al an d
dis tu r b in g p he n o m e n o n .
The We b b s adm itthat"the s u m o f hu m an s u f f e r in g in -
v o l v e d" in
the l iq u idatio n o f the k u l ak s "is b e y o n dal l
c o m p u tatio n ,"(ii)an dthe y s e e m p e r p l e x e db y the f ail u r e o f
the b e n e f ic e n tStal in to p r o v ide his f aithf u l ap o l o g is ts w itha
r e as o n ab l e l in e o f de f e n c e
."So f ar as w e ar e aw ar e ,"w r ite
the We b b s ,"the So v ie tGo v e r n m e n thas n o tde ig n e dto r e p l y
to the n u m e r o u s de n u n c iatio n s o f the c r u e l ty o n ag ig an tic
s c al e al l e g e dto hav e b e e n p e r p e tr ate db y its ag e n ts
; n o r
p u b l is he dan y e x p l an ato r y ac c o u n to f its p r o c e e din g s in this
s u m m ar y ` l iq u idatio n ' o f s o l ar g e ap r o p o r tio n o f its c itiz e n s ."
( 1 2)
* "He b u r ie s his he ar tw iththe g r ain
.This l ittl e c o r n e r o f the e ar th
w hic hb e l o n g s to him al o n e in this v as tu n iv e r s e f il l s him w ithp r ide
an d
in de p e n de n c e
."
ar w
9 4
"L ATRAHISOND ESCL ERCS"
"Atal l tim e s ,"w r ite the We b b s in the Pr e f ac e ,"an dn o tab l y
du r in g o u r v is its to the
U .S
.S.R., the s o v ie tau tho r itie s hav e
w il l in g l y an s w e r e do u r in n u m e r ab l e q u e s tio n s ."
(1 3 )
Itis a
p ity thatthe "in n u m e r ab l e q u e s tio n s "didn o tin c l u de am il d
q u e r y ab o u tthe l iq u idatio n o f the k u l ak s ,b u tthe n o n e c an n o t
b e to o tac tf u l w he n o n e is an ho n o u r e dv is ito r in ac o u n tr y
w ho s e r u l e r s ar e As iatic in the ir attitu de n o to n l y to u n w e l c o m e
k u l ak s b u tto u n w e l c o m e q u e s tio n s
.Itis p l e as an tto r e f l e c t
thatn o in dis c r e e tal l u s io n s to
m as s m u r de r m ar r e dthe s o c ial
r e l atio n s b e tw e e n the We b b s an dthe Co m m is s ar s .
So m e y e ar s l ate r in the ir c o m f o r tab l e l ib r ar y the s e k in dl y
hu m an itar ian s f o r g o tthe ir m o m e n tar y r e ac tio n o f q u al if ie d
dis ap p r o v al an dr e l ap s e dw itho u tdif f ic u l ty in to the m o r e
f am il iar m o o do f Stal in w o r s hip .
"Sidn e y We b b ,"w r ite s
So r e l ,the F r e n c hSy n dic al is t,"e n jo y s ar e p u tatio n f o r c o m -
p e te n c e w hic his g r e atl y e x ag g e r ate d
.He has hadthe m e r it
o f c o m p il in g do s s ie r s o f l ittl e in te r e s t,an dthe p atie n c e to
c o m p o s e o n e o f the m o s tin dig e s tib l e o f c o m p il atio n s o n the
his to r y o f Tr ade U n io n is m ; b u this v e r y l im ite din te l l ig e n c e
c o u l do n l y im p r e s s p e o p l e u n ac c u s to m e dto s o l idthin k in g ,"
an dSo r e l q u o te s Tar de ' s b e w il de r e dc o m m e n to n the r e p u ta-
tio n o f the We b b s ,w ho m he c o m p ar e s to "u n b ar b o u il l e u r de
p ap ie r ," (I4 )
as c r ib b l e r w ho s e b l o ttin g p ap e r is c ap ab l e o f
ab s o r b in g an u n l im ite dq u an tity o f Stal in ' s Re din k .
"Itc an b e in f e r r e d,"w r ite the We b b s ,"thatitw as ac tu al l y
e x p e c te dthatto c ar r y to c o m p l e tio n this n e w ag r ar ian r e v o l u -
tio n w o u l din v o l v e the s u m m ar y e je c tio n ,f r o m the ir r e l ativ e l y
s u c c e s s f u l ho l din g s ,o f s o m e thin g l ik e am il l io n f am il ie s .Str o n g
m u s thav e b e e n the f aithan dr e s o l u te the w il l o f the m e n w ho ,
in the in te r e s to f w hats e e m e dto the m the p u b l ic g o o d,c o u l d
tak e s o m o m e n to u s ade c is io n ."
(1 5 )
Itis s adto thin k o f al l
thatGhe n g is K han an dNe r o hav e l o s tin p u b l ic e s te e m
thr o u g hthe ac c ide n to f b ir thw hic hde l ay e du n til the n in e -
te e n thc e n tu r y the ap p e ar an c e o n this p l an e to f the s e tac tf u l
an dc o n v in c in g ap o l o g is ts f o r "s tr o n g f aith"an d"r e s o l u te
w il l ."
"L ATRAHISOND ESCL ERCS"
REF ERENCES
(i)Q u o te db y Nic ho l as B e r dy ae v : The Ru s s ian Re v o l u tio n ,
She e dan dWar d,p . 1 2 .
(2) Nic ho l as B e r dy ae v : The Ru s s ian Re v o l u tio n ,p .
1 5 -
(3 )
Har p e r ' s Mo n thl y Mag az in e , F e b r u ar y ,1 9 3 7 ,p .3 0 6 .
(4 )-(6 ) Sidn e y an dB e atr ic e We b b : So v ie tCo m m u n is m ,
V ic to r Go l l an c z ,p p .5 8 4 ,5 8 1 ,5 6 0 .
(7 )Q u o te db y J o hn Gu n the r : In s ide Eu r o p e , Ham is hHam il -
to n ,p
. 4 4 2 -
(8 )Sidn e y an dB e atr ic e We b b
: So v ie tCo m m u n is m ,p .
27 0 -
(9 )Eu g e n e L y o n s : As s ig n m e n tin U to p ia, Har r ap ,p .4 9 1 .
(1 o )
Al e x is de To c q u e v il l e :
L ' An c ie n Re g im e , Cl ar e n do n
Pr e s s ,B o o k II,Chap te r I,p .4 0 .
(1 1 )-(1 3 ) Sidn e y an dB e atr ic e We b b : So v ie tCo m m u n is m ,
PP-5 6 7 ,5 6 7 , x i-
(1 4 )Ge o r g e s So r e l : Re f l e x io n s s u r l aV io l e n c e , Mar c e l Riv ie r e ,
P• 1 7 5 -
(1 5 )Sidn e y an dB e atr ic e We b b : So v ie tCo m m u n is m ,p . 5 6 3 .
CHAPTER X
THED ECAY OF D IAL ECTICS
THE tr ag ic c o n s e q u e n c e s o f Co m m u n is m in Ru s s iahav e
de f l e c te dp u b l ic atte n tio n f r o m the dis in te g r atin g in f l u e n c e o f
Mar x ian p hil o s o p hy o n the g r e atD e m o c r ac ie s .The in f il tr atio n n
o f Co m m u n is tp hil o s o p hy in to o u r s c ho o l s an du n iv e r s itie s is
r e s p o n s ib l e f o r ar ap iddis in te g r atio n o f in te l l ig e n c e an d
m an n e r s .The in te l l e c tu al c o n s e q u e n c e s o f Mar x is m ar e tho s e
w hic hw e s ho u l de x p e c tf r o m ap hil o s o p hy thatde n ie s
o b je c tiv e tr u th .The r e l ativ ity o f tr u this af atal do c tr in e ,an d
l e ads ,as w e s hal l s e e ,to the s u b s titu tio n o f ab u s e f o r c o n -
tr o v e r s y ,an dto au n iv e r s al l o w e r in g o f in te l l e c tu al s tan dar ds
in p hil o s o p hy ,e c o n o m ic s an dhis to r y .
Ac o n s is te n tMar x is ts ho u l dr e f u s e to de f e n dD ial e c tic al
Mate r ial is m ,f o r if Mar x is m b e tr u e ,the ar g u m e n ts o f the
Mar x is tc an s af e l y b e dis r e g ar de d .If ,as Mar x in s is ts ,a
m an ' s b e l ie f s ar e w ho l l y de te r m in e db y his e c o n o m ic c o n ditio n ,
Mar x is m is n o thin g m o r e than the r e f l e c tio n o f the l ais s e z -
f air e L ib e r al is m o f the En g l an din w hic hMar x w r o te D as
K ap ital . If ,the r e f o r e ,Mar x is m w as "tr u e "f o r Mar x ,ithas
c e as e dto b e "tr u e "to day .Mar x is m ,in de e d,is o p e n to the
s am e f u n dam e n tal o b je c tio n as F r e u dian is m . F r e u dm ain tain s
thato u r b e l ie f s ar e de te r m in e db y o u r he r e ditar y ,e n v ir o n -
m e n tan ds e x u al c o m p l e x e s .Itis the r e f o r e f o o l is hto w as te
tim e l is te n in g to the ar g u m e n ts w he r e b y am an de f e n ds his
b e l ie f s ,f o r tho s e ar g u m e n ts ar e "r atio n al iz atio n s "in v e n te dto
s u p p o r tb e l ie f s w hic hhav e b e e n im p o s e do n him n o tb y
r e as o n b u tb y in s tin c tan de n v ir o n m e n t .If y o u p s y c ho -an al y z e
aChr is tian y o u w il l dis c o v e r w hy he de f e n ds Chr is tian ity .
B u tthis w e ap o n o f the F r e u dian is do u b l e -e dg e d,an ds e r v e s
e q u al l y w e l l to dis c r e ditF r e u dian is m ,f o r o n the F r e u dian
hy p o the s is itis c l e ar l y f o o l is hto w as te tim e an al y z in g the
r e as o n s w ithw hic hF r e u dde f e n ds his b e l ie f s .Ps y c ho -an al y z e
9 6
THE D ECAY
OF
D IAL ECTICS

9 7
F r e u d, an dy o u w il l dis c o v e r w hy F r e u dde f e n ds F r e u dian is m .
B y p ar ity o f r e as o n in g the tr u e Mar x is tn e e dn o tc o n c e r n him -
s e l f w iththe r e as o n s w ithw hic hMar x de f e n ds Mar x is m ,f o r
Mar x is m is the p r o du c to f the e c o n o m ic p r o c e s s e s an dm ate r ial
c o n ditio n s o f the w o r l din to w hic hMar x w as b o r n .
"If am an ' s e c o n o m ic s itu atio n ,"w r ite s Mr .E.F .Car r it,
F e l l o w o f U n iv e r s ity Co l l e g e ,Ox f o r d,"w ho l l y ,in the l as t
r e s o r t,de te r m in e s his b e l ie f s ab o u to the r m atte r s ,the n c l e ar l y
dif f e r e n tm e n m u s t in dif f e r e n ts itu atio n s hav e dif f e r e n tb e l ie f s
ab o u tthe s am e f ac t-m athe m atic al ,his to r ic al ,e c o n o m ic -
an dal l o f the s e c e r tain l y c an n o tb e tr u e ; n o r is ite as y to s e e
ho w an y s ho u l db e .So r e al ity w o u l d
n o t
b e k n o w ab l e .The
atte m p ts to m e e tthis dif f ic u l ty b y B u k har in in His to r ic al
Mate r ial is m ar e w e ak .The y ar e to the e f f e c tthatdial e c tic al
m ate r ial is m is the ide o l o g y o f ac l as s ,l ik e al l o the r the o r ie s ,
b u ts in c e itis the ide o l o g y o f the p r o l e tar iat,w hic his the
w in n in g c l as s ,itis tr u e r ,o r atl e as t(as Pr o tag o r as an dthe
p r ag m atis ts w o u l ds ay )b e tte r than an y o the r .This s e e m s to
b e ac c e p te db y Mr .C.D u tt (L ab o u r Mo n thl y , F e b r u ar y ,
1 9 3 3 )
; an dc f .Mir s k y (Ib id ., Oc to b e r ,1 9 3 1 )` Phil o s o p hy is
al w ay s am atte r o f p ar ty p o l itic s ,i .e .' o f c l as s in te r e s ts .This
is o b v io u s l y tr u e ,b u to n l y hal f the tr u th,f o r ap hil o s o p hy
c o n s is te n tw iththe r e v o l u tio n ar y in te r e s to f the p r o l e tar iatis
al s o c o n s is te n tw itho b je c tiv e tr u th .' "
( 1 )
D e s p air is the r o o to f al l in te l l e c tu al e v il
.The Mar x is t
de s p air s o f o b je c tiv e tr u th,an dthe r e b y ab an do n s al l ho p e o f
o b je c tiv e s tan dar ds .F r o m this f ir s tf o l l y de r iv e al l s u b s e q u e n t
in te l l e c tu al de r e l ic tio n .The r e is n o r o o m f o r D ial e c tic s in
D ial e c tic al Mate r ial is m .D is c u s s io n is u s e l e s s ,f o r tho u g hy o u
c an l iq u idate o r ab u s e y o u r o p p o n e n t,y o u c an n o tar g u e w ith
am an w ho s e b e l ie f s ar e im p o s e du p o n him b y e c o n o m ic c o n -
ditio n s .No ar g u m e n tis p o s s ib l e ,as St .Tho m as Aq u in as
p o in te do u tm an y y e ar s ag o ,b e tw e e n m e n w ho hav e n o
c o m m o n p r e m is e ,an dthe r e c an b e n o c o m m o n p r e m is e
b e tw e e n aMar x is tan dhis b o u r g e o is o p p o n e n t .The r e ar e n o
o b je c tiv e s tan dar ds to w hic hthe y c an b o thap p e al .Ev e n the
s am e w o r ds hav e dif f e r e n tm e an in g s ac c o r din g as
the ir c o n te x t
is Mar x is to r n o n -Mar x is t .
8 -

THE-D ECAY OF D IAL ECTICS
"' Whe n Iu s e aw o r d,' Hu m p ty D u m p ty s aidin r athe r a
s c o r n f u l to n e ,` itm e an s ju s tw hatIc ho o s e itto m e an
n e ithe r m o r e n o r l e s s .'
" ` The q u e s tio n is ,' s aidAl ic e ,` w he the r y o u c an m ak e w o r ds
m e an s o m an y dif f e r e n tthin g s .'
"' The q u e s tio n is ,' s aidHu m p ty D u m p ty ,` w hic his to b e
m as te r -that' s al l .' "
An din Ru s s ia,w he r e the Co m m u n is ts ar e m as te r s ,w o r ds
m e an w hatMar x is ts in te n dthe m to m e an .
The dial e c tic ian s o f an o l de r tr aditio n u s e dw o r ds to c l ar if y
tho u g ht .The Mar x is tdial e c tic ian s u s e w o r ds as as u b s titu te
f o r tho u g ht .As Go e the s ay s :
"D e n n e b e n w o B e g r if f e f e hl e n
D as te l l te in Wo r tz u r r e c hte n Z e its ic he in
MitWo r te n l as s ts ic htr e f f l ic hs tr e ite n
MitWo r te n e in Sy s te m b e r e ite n ."
No p hil o s o p hy w as l e s s ap tl y n am e dthan D ial e c tic al
Mate r ial is m ,f o r the r e is n o p l ac e f o r D ial e c tic s in the Mar x is t
p hil o s o p hy .Y o u c an n o tdis c u s s b e l ie f s w itham an w ho s e
b e l ie f s ar e im p o s e du p o n him b y e c o n o m ic c o n ditio n s .Mar x
s ho u l dhav e c al l e dhis p hil o s o p hy "D e n u n c iato r y Mate r ial is m ."
En g e l s is e v e n r u de r to n o n -Mar x is tm ate r ial is ts than to
He g e l ian ide al is ts ; he de s c r ib e s the m as "v u l g ar iz in g
p e dl ar s " (2) ; an dL e n in q u o te s w ithap p r o v al D ie tz g e n ' s
am iab l e de s c r ip tio n o f "m o de r n b o u r g e o is p r o f e s s o r s "as
"g r adu ate df l u n k e y s u s in g the ir s ham ide al is m to k e e p the
p e o p l e in ig n o r an c e ."(3 )Af av o u r ite tr ic k o f Mar x is tw r ite r s
is to dis m is s al l he r e tic s ,s c his m atic s an din f ide l s in s o m e p hr as e
o f air y de n ig r atio n ,an dthe n to do c u m e n tthe s e in dic tm e n ts
b y am o de s tf o o tn o te n am in g ,b u tn o tq u o tin g f r o m ,o n e o r
tw o o f the ir c hie f c r itic s .Thu s Mr .J o hn Str ac he y s n if f s
at"b r o c hu r e s w hic hhav e de m o n s tr ate dm e r e l y the ir au tho r ' s
p r o f o u n dc o n v ic tio n thatitw as u n n e c e s s ar y to ac q u ain tthe m -
s e l v e s w iththe e l e m e n ts o f the s u b je c tu n de r dis c u s s io n ,"an d
s u p p o r ts this p o m p o u s r e m ar k w iththe f o o tn o te ,"s e e f o r
THE D ECAY OF D IAL ECTICS
9 9
' e x am p l e Pr o f e s s o r L in ds ay ' s Mar x ' s Cap ital o r Pr o f e s s o r J o s e p h' s
K ar l Mar x ' s The o r y o f V al u e .""(4 ) Mr .R.Pag e Ar n o te m p l o y s
the s am e te c hn iq u e ."We c an o n l y ho p e ,"he w r ite s ,"that
the p r e s e n t-day an ato m is ts o f Mar x is m ,tau g htb y e x p e r ie n c e ,
w il l n o tdis p l ay the s am e p r o f u n dity in ig n o r an c e as w as
e x hib ite db y s o m an y o f the ir p r e de c e s s o r s ,"to w hic hhe adds
the f o o tn o te ,"As w he n in 1 9 20 Pr o f e s s o r J .Shie l dNic ho l s o n
an dJ .R.Sal te r w r o te b o o k s o n Mar x is m -the o n l y e f f e c to f
w hic hw as to de m o n s tr ate the ir u n f am il iar ity w iththe w o r k s
w hic hthe y p r o f e s s e dto e l u c idate ."(5 )Mr .Ar n o tte l l s u s
thatthe his to r ic al w r itin g s o f Pr o f e s s o r G.M.Tr e v e l y an b e ar
the s am e r e l atio n to tho s e o f Mar x as b ar b ar is m to s c ie n c e .(6 )
Ev e n o b s c u r e Mar x is ts m ig htw ithadv an tag e b o r r o w f r o m
e m in e n this to r ian s s u c has Pr o f e s s o r G.M.Tr e v e l y an the
b o u r g e o is hab ito f s u p p o r tin g de n u n c iatio n w ithar g u m e n t
an df ac t.
The s u b s titu tio n o f l ab e l s f o r ar g u m e n tis ag r o w in g te n -
de n c y in m o de r n c o n tr o v e r s y .The c o n tr o v e r s ial is ts o f the
g r e attr aditio n atte m p te dto m e e tar g u m e n tb y ar g u m e n t,an d
attac k e dthe f o l l y o f the ir o p p o n e n ts ' c as e r athe r than the
f o o l is hn e s s o f the ir o p p o n e n ts .The m o de r n c o n tr o v e r s ial is t
p r e f e r s to l ab e l his o p p o n e n t,an dto c r itic iz e his w o r k n o t
b y c itatio n s b u tb y de s c r ip tiv e e p ithe ts s u c has "b ias e d,"
"ig n o r an t,""u n s c ho l ar l y ,""b o u r g e o is ,"e tc .The tr aditio n o f
s c ho l ar l y r e v ie w in g is v an is hin g f r o m the w o r l do f l e tte r s .The
o l de r s c ho o l o f r e v ie w e r s c o u l ddis tin g u is hb e tw e e n f o r m an d
c o n te n t.The y m ig htdis l ik e o r dis ag r e e w iththe c o n te n t,b u t
the y c o u l ds til l p r ais e the b o o k .ACo n s e r v ativ e r e v ie w e r c o u l d
p r ais e the l u c idity an d
s k il l
w ithw hic hRadic al ar g u m e n ts
w e r e m ar s hal l e db e f o r e p r o c e e din g to c r itic iz e the ar g u m e n ts
in q u e s tio n .The te c hn iq u e o f Mar x is tr e v ie w e r s is e ithe r to
ig n o r e aho s til e b o o k ,the m o s tp o p u l ar m e tho d,o r to dis m is s
it-w ithl ab e l s .The b o o k is "b ias e d"o r "m e r e p r o p ag an da ."
The au tho r is "aF as c is t"o r "ab o u r g e o is ."No c o n s c ie n tio u s
r e v ie w e r w o u l dde s c r ib e ab o o k as b ias e dw itho u tq u o tin g at
l e as to n e p as s ag e to p r o v e b ias ,an dthe o l dtr aditio n s til l s u r v iv e s
in s o m e p ap e r s .Mr .Str ac he y r e c e n tl y than k e dthe Edito r o f
The Tab l e t f o r al o n g r e v ie w o f his b o o k ."Of c o u r s e w e
1 0 0

THE
D ECAY OF D IAL ECTICS
dis ag r e e ,"s aidMr
.Str ac he y ,"b u tatl e as t y o u r e v ie w e d the
b o o k an dits ar g u m e n ts
."Mr .Str ac he y s ho u l din tr o du c e The
Tab l e t
tr aditio n in to L e f tWin g jo u r n al s to w hic hhe c o n -
tr ib u te s .
Adis tin g u is he db io l o g is t,Pr o f e s s o r W .R
.Tho m p s o n ,
F .R.S., r e c e n tl y dr e w atte n tio n to "o n e o f the m o s tadm ir ab l e
c har ac te r is tic s o f the m e diae v al thin k e r s . . . the ir w il l in g n e s s ,
n ay ,the ir an x ie ty to c o l l e c tan ds tate ,as f o r c e f u l l y as p o s s ib l e ,
the o b je c tio n s to the ir o w n p ar tic u l ar v ie w s .The ` Su m m a
The o l o g ic a' o f St .Tho m as Aq u in as is in as e n s e ac o m p e n diu m
o f an ti-Chr is tian the s e s ,m an y o f w hic har e s til l c o n s ide r e d
v e r y u s e f u l b y o u r c o n te m p o r ar y o p p o n e n ts ."(7 )The Su m m a
o f St .Tho m as is ac o m p e n diu m o f an ti-Chr is tian ar g u m e n ts ,
b u tthe r e ar e n o an ti-Mar x is tar g u m e n ts in the Su m m a o f
K ar l Mar x ."The c har g e s ag ain s tCo m m u n is m ,"he w r ite s ,
"m ade f r o m ar e l ig io u s ,ap hil o s o p hic al ,an d,g e n e r al l y ,f r o m
an ide o l o g ic al s tan dp o in t,ar e n o tde s e r v in g o f s e r io u s e x am in a-
tio n "(8 )
Mar x n o to n l y ig n o r e dthe ar g u m e n ts ag ain s tCo m m u n is m ,
b u tg iv e s n o hin to f e v e r hav in g g l an c e dattho s e c l as s ic ar g u -
m e n ts f o r the e x is te n c e o f Go dw hic hhav e s atis f ie din te l l e c ts
n o tin f e r io r to his o w n .He s tar te df r o m the p ar o c hial as s u m p -
tio n thatm an is the hig he s tin te l l ig e n c e in the u n iv e r s e .Ric he t,
al e adin g F r e n c hs c ie n tis t,w as as c e p tic ,b u the w as an
in te l l ig e n ts c e p tic ."Why s ho u l dthe r e n o tb e ,"he w r o te ,
"in te l l ig e n tan dp u is s an tb e in g s dis tin c tf r o m tho s e p e r c e p tib l e
b y o u r s e n s e s ? B y w hatr ig hts ho u l dw e dar e to af f ir m ,o n the
b as is o f o u r l im ite ds e n s e s ,o u r de f e c tiv e in te l l e c t,an do u r
s c ie n tif ic p as tas y e thar dl y thr e e c e n tu r ie s o l d,thatin the v as t
Co s m o s m an is the s o l e in te l l ig e n tb e in g ,an dthatal l m e n tal
r e al ity al w ay s de p e n ds u p o n n e r v e -c e l l s ir r ig ate dw itho x y g e n -
ate db l o o d? "(g )
D ial e c tic al Mate r ial is ts ar e c ar e f u l to e v ade the dial e c tic al
te s to f D ial e c tic al Mate r ial is m .Whe n Mo n s ig n o r R.A.K n o x
w as c hal l e n g e db y an o n -Catho l ic to de f e n dCatho l ic is m in a
s e r ie s o f l e tte r s f o r p u b l ic atio n ,he ac c e p te dthe c hal l e n g e w ith
al ac r ity .Whe n Pr o f e s s o r C.E.M.J o adc hal l e n g e da
Chr is tian ,w ho s u b s e q u e n tl y b e c am e aCatho l ic ,to de f e n d
THE D ECAY OF D IAL ECTICS

1 0 1
Chr is tian ity ,the Chr is tian al s o ac c e p te dthe c hal l e n g e ,an dto
the s e c o n de ditio n o f thatb o o k Pr o f e s s o r J o adan dhis
o p p o n e n tw r o te ajo in tp r e f ac e r e af f ir m in g the ir f aithin r e as o n
an din dial e c tic s as am e an s o f ar r iv in g attr u th
.Pr o f e s s o r
J .B
.S
.Hal dan e , F .R
.S., p r o v e de q u al l y w il l in g to s u b m ithis
b e l ie f s to the dial e c tic al te s t .Tho s e w ho r e al iz e s u b c o n s c io u s l y
thatthe ir c as e is in de f e n s ib l e ar e f e r v e n tin m ain tain in g the ir
b e l ie f thats u c hde b ate s s e r v e n o u s e f u l p u r p o s e an do n l y
p r o du c e an e x c han g e o f de b atin g p o in ts .Iw as the r e f o r e n o t
s u r p r is e datm y f ail u r e to p e r s u ade e ithe r th, ; Co m m u n is t
Par ty o f Gr e atB r itain o r the L e f tB o o k Cl u b to p r o du c e a
Mar x is tto de b ate w ithm e in w r itin g o r o n the p l atf o r m ,
ACo m m u n is tin B ir k e n he addidin de e ds u g g e s tade b ate ,b u t
c o u l do b tain n o o f f ic ial ap p r o v al f r o m his Par ty f o r this
p r o p o s al .He s u b s e q u e n tl y in f o r m e dm e thatthe c r im e s o f
the Sp an is hNatio n al is ts had"r e m o v e d"the s u b je c t"f r o m
the r e al m o f de b ate to de n u n c iatio n ."
The Mar x is tw ho de c l in e s to s u b m ithis v ie w s to the dial e c -
tic al te s tde p r iv e s him s e l f o f the s u r e s tp r o te c tio n ag ain s t
w r itin g n o n s e n s e ,f o r r the f e ar o f the c r itic is the b e g in n in g
o f w is do m .Ihav e b e e n r e adin g ac o l l e c tio n o f e s s ay s c al l e d
As p e c ts o f D ial e c tic al Mate r ial is m , w hic har o s e o u to f as e r ie s
o f l e c tu r e s an ddis c u s s io n s o r g an iz e db y the So c ie ty f o r
Cu l tu r al Re l atio n s .We l l -k n o w n w r ite r s s u c has Pr o f e s s o r H.
L e v y ,Pr o f e s s o r J o hn Mac m u r r ay an dMr .E.F .Car r itc o n -
tr ib u te e s s ay s ,an dthe b o o k m ay b e ac c e p te das ar e p r e s e n ta-
tiv e s y m p o s iu m .As as am p l e o f the k in do f thin g w hic hg e ts
its e l f p r in te din aMar x is ts y m p o s iu m ,l e tm e q u o te f r o m D r
.
J .D .B e r n al ' s tr ib u te to g u n p o w de r an dGal il e o . "The
Re n ais s an c e s aw dif f e r e n tl y : ar m e dw iththe in v e n tio n o f g u n -
p o w de r ,L e o n ar do an dGal il e o ,an df in al l y Ne w to n ,s ho w e d
thatthe c o n tin u o u s e f f o r to f the p r im e m o v e r w as u n n e c e s s ar y ,
that,g iv e n an in itial im p u l s e an din the ab s e n c e o f r e tar din g
f r ic tio n ,the m o tio n o f ab o dy c o u l dn e v e r b e l o s t ." (Io )
Y o u s e e the p o in t? Whil e m e n s til l f o u g htw ithb o w s an d
ar r o w s the y n atu r al l y tho u g htthatthe Pr im e Mo v e r dir e c tl y
s u p e r v is e dal l the m o v e m e n tthate x is ts .B u tthan k s to g u n -
p o w de r ,the Re n ais s an c e "an dal l that,"w e n o w k n o w that
the Pr im e Mo v e r is al l o w e dan o c c as io n al day o f f .
Z *
1 6 1

TE D ECAY OP
D IAL ECTICS
B u tw e m u s tn o tb e to o s e v e r e o n D r .J
.D .B e r n al .His
p hil o s o p hy (o r l ac k o f it)is n o this o w n ,f o r his m e n tal
p r o c e s s e s ar e de te r m in e db y the e c o n o m ic p r o c e s s e s o f the
ag e
.If y o u do n o tl ik e D r
.B e r n al ' s p r o s e y o u m u s tab o l is h
c hain s to r e s an dm as s p r o du c tio n .
REF ERENCES
(1 ) E.F .Car r it : The L ab o u r Mo n thl y ,
J u n e ,
1 9 3 3 -
(2) F r ie dr ic hEn g e l s :
L u dw ig F e u e r b ac h, Mar tin L aw r e n c e ,
p
.3 8 -
(3 )L e n in :
Mate r ial is m an dEm p ir io -Cr itic is m , Mar tin
L aw r e n c e .
(4 )J o hn Str ac he y :
The The o r y an dPr ac tic e o f So c ial is m ,
V ic to r Go l l an c z ,p
.4 5 9 -
(5 )&
( 6 ) R
.Pag e Ar n o tin
As p e c ts o f D ial e c tic al Mate r ial is m ,
Watts ,PP
. 7 4 ,8 0 -
(7 )Pr o f e s s o r W
.R.Tho m p s o n , F .R.S., in The Catho l ic
He r al d,
Au g u s t1 9 th,
1 9 3 8
-
(8 )K ar l Mar x :
Co m m u n is tMan if e s to ,p . 28 .
(9 )Pr o f e s s o r Char l e s Ric he t
: Thir ty Y e ar s o f Ps y c hic al
Re s e ar c h,
Co l l in s ,p . 6 21 .
(1 o )J .D
.B e r n al in As p e c ts o f D ial e c tic al Mate r ial is m ,
p . IOI.
CHAPTERXI
COMMU NISMAND WAR
I
THERE is n o thin g n e w in the e x p l o itatio n o f p ac if is m as an
in s tr u m e n to f c iv il an din te r n atio n al w ar ,f o r the g e r m o f this
ide ac an b e tr ac e db ac k to the tw e l f thc e n tu r y .The Co m m u -
n is t"L e ag u e ag ain s tF as c is m an dWar "is am o de r n v ar ian t
o f the "Co n f r e r e r ie de l aPaix "w hic hw as f o u n de d in i 1 8 5 w ith
the do u b l e o b je c to f ab o l is hin g w ar an dp r iv ate p r o p e r ty in
l an d
.The p e ac e -l o v in g f o u n de r s o f this L e ag u e l o s tn o tim e
in o r g an iz in g an ar m e dattac k o n m o n as te r ie s an dc hate au x ,
w he r e u p o n the w ic k e dF as c is ts tr e ac he r o u s l y c o n s p ir e dto s av e
the ir l iv e s an dthe ir p r o p e r ty ,an dthe r e b y b r o u g htto an e n d
this e x p e r im e n tin Co m m u n is m an dp e ac e .
The s e m e diae v al p ac if is ts m e r e l y p r o v o k e dal o c al in s u r r e c -
tio n .The ir e ig hte e n th-c e n tu r y s u c c e s s o r s w e r e m o r e s u c c e s s f u l ,
f o r the ir de v o tio n to p e ac e w as r e w ar de db y m o r e than tw e n ty
y e ar s o f w ar . On May 22n d,1 7 9 0 ,Ro b e s p ie r r e ,am ids t
tu m u l tu o u s ap p l au s e ,de c l ar e dp e r p e tu al p e ac e to the w o r l d .
"Pl u s de dip l o m ate s
! Pl u s d' ar m e e s ! Pl u s d' in tr ig u e s ! Pl u s
de s an g ! "An dhe adde dthatthe F r e n c hf in al l y r e n o u n c e d
w ar s o f c o n q u e s t,an dw o u l dn e v e r ag ain m ak e u s e o f f o r c e
ag ain s tthe f r e e do m o f o the r n atio n s . (i)
Within thr e e w e e k s o f r e n o u n c in g an n e x atio n F r an c e
in v e n te dthe te c hn iq u e o f te r r ito r ial ag g r an dis m e n tw hic hhas
b e e n e x p l o ite din m o de r n tim e s w ithc o n s p ic u o u s s u c c e s s b y
the Ru s s ian s in Ge o r g iaan dthe U k r ain e ,an db y Ge r m an y in
Au s tr ia .The r e v o l u tio n ar y te c hn iq u e f o r r e c o n c il in g an n e x a-
tio n s w ithap o l ic y o f n o n -an n e x atio n w as tr ie do u tw iths u c c e s s
in the Pap al p o s s e s s io n s o f Av ig n o n an dthe Co m tatV e n ais s in .
1 0 3
1 0 4

COMMU NISMAND WAR
Ar e v o l u tio n ar y m in o r ity ,in s p ir e db y F r e n c hp r o p ag an da,
e x p e l l e dthe Pap al L e g ate an dde m an de dthatAv ig n o n s ho u l d
b e an n e x e db y F r an c e .The r e w as ,o f c o u r s e ,n o s u g g e s tio n o f
ap l e b is c ite ,ab o u r g e o is de v ic e w hic hr e v o l u tio n ar ie s hav e
al w ay s r e g ar de dw ithc o n te m p t
.On J u n e I2th,I7 9 o ,F r an c e
w e l c o m e dthe s e n e w c itiz e n s in to the F r e n c hf am il y ,av e r y
dif f e r e n tm atte r f r o m an n e x in g the ir te r r ito r y .F r an c e ,de c l ar e d
the r e v o l u tio n ar ie s ,r e n o u n c e dc o n q u e s ts p r e p ar e db y in tr ig u e
an dac c o m p l is he db y f o r c e ,b u ts he w as r e ady to w e l c o m e
p o p u l atio n s w hic hap p r o ac he dhe r s p o n tan e o u s l y b y v ir tu e o f
the r ig hto f s e l f -de te r m in atio n .
Re v o l u tio n ar y F r an c e an dSo v ie t Ru s s ia "in c o r p o r ate d"
te r r ito r ie s b y an ap p e al to ide o l o g ic al u n ity in Eu r o p e ,w hic h
o n this the o r y is div ide din to r e ac tio n ar ie s an dr e v o l u tio n ar ie s
.
The Ge r m an s an n e x e dAu s tr iab y ap p e al in g n o tto ide o l o g ic al
b u tto r ac ial u n ity ,an dw he r e as itis p o s s ib l e thatam ajo r ity
o f the Au s tr ian s g e n u in e l y de s ir e dto b e in c o r p o r ate d,itis m o r e
than do u b tf u l w he the r ap l e b is c ite in Av ig n o n w o u l dhav e
f av o u r e du n io n w ithF r an c e ,an ditis as c e r tain as an y thin g
c an b e thatthe U k r ain e an dGe o r g iaw o u l dhav e r e je c te dthe
o v e r tu r e s o f So v ie tRu s s iab y o v e r w he l m in g m ajo r itie s .
Par is du r in g the Re v o l u tio n w as the m ag n e tf o r al ie n
ag itato r s w ho hadb e e n e x p e l l e df r o m the ir o w n c o u n tr ie s ,an d
w ho in c ite dthe F r e n c hto f u r the r c o n q u e s ts in the s ac r e d
c au s e ' o f r e v o l u tio n ar y s e l f -de te r m in atio n .The F r e n c hRe v o l u -
tio n ,l ik e the Ru s s ian o f to day ,w as n o l o n g e r ap u r e l y do m e s tic
u p he av al .Ithadb e c o m e ,in the w o r ds o f Pie r r e Gax o tte ,"u n e
e n tr e p r is e c o s m o p o l ite ,u n e r e l ig io n u n iv e r s e l l e m e n ac an tto u s
l e s Etats n o n s e u l e m e n tdap s l e u r f o r m e ,m ail m e e "m e dap s l e u r
e x is te n c e ."(2)
In
1 7 9 1
as hr e w do b s e r v e r ,Co u n tde l aMar c k ,f o r e to l dthe
in e v itab l e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f r e v o l u tio n ar y p ac if is m
."F r an c e ,"
he w r o te ,"w il l s o o n f in dhe r s e l f in as tate o f w ar w ithal l
Go v e r n m e n ts .She thr e ate n s the m in c e s s an tl y w ithc iv il w ar "
(as Ru s s iado e s to day )"an dthe in s u r r e c tio n s thu s p r o v o k e d
w il l r e s u l tin the ir c o n q u e s tb y F r an c e
.Ro m e de thr o n in g the
k in g w he n the p e o p l e p l ac e dthe m s e l v e s u n de r he r p r o te c tio n
e m p l o y e dthe s am e s y s te m ."(3 )
COMMU NISMAND
WAR

1 0 5
An dMo s c o w e m p l o y s the s am e s y s te m to day
.The n as
n o w r e v o l u tio n ar ie s s o u g htr e f u g e in w ar f r o m the c hao s w hic h
the y the m s e l v e s hadp r o v o k e d
. "The Gir o n din s ,"w r ite s
Gax o tte ,"didn o the s itate to p r o v o k e aEu r o p e an c o n f l ag r atio n
.
The y r e g ar de dw ar as ap o w e r f u l in s tr u m e n tf o r the ac hie v e -
m e n to f the ir do m e s tic p o l ic y
.B y m e an s o f w ar the y ho p e d
to r e k in dl e r e v o l u tio n ar y e n thu s ias m ,to tr an s f o r m m e as u r e s o f
n atio n al de f e n c e in to m e as u r e s f o r the de f e n c e o f J ac o b in is m ,
an dthu s to e x p l o itin the in te r e s ts o f the ir p ar ty the f o r c e s
w hic hhadb e e n m o b il iz e df o r the ir c o u n tr y ."(4 )
"L ag u e r r e s an s r is q u e s ,"w as the s l o g an w ithw hic hB r is s o t
s o u g htto o v e r c o m e the he s itatio n s o f Ro b e s p ie r r e .
"The
dic tato r s w il l c o l l ap s e ,"is the m o de m v ar ian to f "l ag u e r r e
s an s r is q u e s
.""U n e g r an de n atio n do ite tr e jal o u s e de s a
g l o ir e ,do itp u n ir s e v e r e m e n tl e s te m e r air e s q u io s e n tl u i
m an q u e r de r e s p e c t
."(5 )The y s aidthatin 1 7 9 1 ,an dthe y s aid
m u c hthe s am e thin g in 1 9 3 8 w he n Mr
.Cham b e r l ain r e f u s e d
to e m b r o il En g l an din w ar to av e n g e the m o tl e y c o l l e c tio n o f
Ru s s ian s ,Gr e e k s an dL e v an tin e s w ho s ail e du n de r the B r itis h
f l ag in to the har b o u r s o f Re dSp ain .*
In Re v o l u tio n ar y F r an c e the p ac if is ts w e r e n o tin o p p o s itio n
as w ithu s ,b u tin p o w e r ,an dc o n s e q u e n tl y the y g o tthe ir w ar
.
"The F r e n c hn atio n ,"e x c l aim e dD an to n ,"has ap p o in te du s
as the g r e atCo m m itte e f o r the g e n e r al in s u r r e c tio n o f al l
p e o p l e ag ain s tthe k in g s o f the u n iv e r s e
."On Ap r il 2o th,
1 7 9 2,the p ac if is ts de c l ar e dw ar ag ain s tthe K in g o f Hu n g ar y
an dB o he m ia
; tw e n ty -thr e e y e ar s l ate r the m il itar is ts e n f o r c e d
p e ac e af te r Wate r l o o
.B e l l ic o s e p ac if is m r e ap p e ar e din the
F r e n c hRe v o l u tio n o f 1 8 4 8 .Ital ian ,Ge r m an ,Au s tr ian an d
B e l g ian r e v o l u tio n ar ie s f l o c k e dto Par is ,he l p e dto m an the
b ar r ic ade s an dde m an de dthe ap p r o p r iate r e w ar ds f o r the ir
r e v o l u tio n ar y z e al
.The y in s is te dthatF r an c e s ho u l dde c l ar e
w ar o n the w o r l dto l ib e r ate al l p e o p l e g r o an in g u n de r the
o p p r e s s o r s ' y o k e .Whe n the Re p u b l ic w as p r o c l aim e dthe s e
e x al te dr e v o l u tio n ar ie s tr e m b l e dw ithjo y .The y hadb e e n
p r o m is e dthe l ib e r atio n o f the ir c o u n tr ie s ; the y de m an de d
* Itis n o w adm itte dthato n l y am in o r ity o f the "B r itis h"s hip s
b o m b e din V al e n c iaw e r e m an n e db y B r itis hc r e w s
.
io 6

COMMU NISM AND WAR
thatthe s e p r o m is e s s ho u l db e f u l f il l e d
.Pr o c e s s io n s o f f o r e ig n
r e v o l u tio n ar ie s p ar ade db e f o r e the Ho te l de V il l e
.
L ar n ar tin e ,the p o e t-p o l itic ian ,w as dis c o v e r in g ,as r e v o l u -
tio n ar y in te l l e c tu al s hav e dis c o v e r e db e f o r e an ds in c e ,thatit
is e as ie r to p r o v o k e ar e v o l u tio n than to c o n tr o l it ."He f o u g ht
p as s io n ate l y f o r p e ac e ,"w r ite s J u l e s B e r tau t,"ag ain s tthe
m adm e n w ho thr e ate n e dto e m b r o il F r an c e in ag e n e r al
c o n f l ag r atio n ."(6 )L am ar tin e ' s c o l l e ag u e s w e r e p ac if is ts o f
an o the r s c ho o l .The y didn o thin g to c he c k an dm u c hto p r o -
v o k e the m o b il iz in g o f r e v o l u tio n ar y l e g io n s ag ain s t
f r ie n dl y
s tate s
.F if te e n tho u s an dGe r m an s l e f tPar is w iththe ir b l e s s in g ,
in v ade dB ade n an dw e r e k il l e do r c ap tu r e din the f ir s te n g ag e -
m e n t.The Ital ian s atte m p te da
c o u p ag ain s tSav o y an d
c ap tu r e dCham b 6 r y ,o n l y to b e dr iv e n o u to f Sav o y b y a
g e n e r al r is in g o f the p o p u l atio n
.The B e l g ian s ,an x io u s n o tto
b e o u tdo n e in r e v o l u tio n ar y f e r v o u r ,o r g an iz e dtw o e x p e ditio n s ,
the f ir s to f w hic hl e f tPar is in atr ain o b l ig in g l y p u tatthe ir
dis p o s al b y L e dr u -Ro l l in ,o n e o f L am ar tin e ' s c o l l e ag u e s in the
Go v e r n m e n t
.The tr ain w as al l o w e dto c r o s s the f r o n tie r ,
w he r e u p o n itw as ig n o m in io u s l y s u r r o u n de db y the B e l g ian
p o l ic e
.The s e c o n dl e g io n w as l e s s f o r tu n ate ,f o r tho u g hthe y
s u c c e e de din c r o s s in g the f r o n tie r ,m an y o f the m l o s tthe ir l iv e s
in the b r ie f e n c o u n te r w ithB e l g ian r e g im e n ts w hic hb r o u g ht
this e x p e ditio n to an in g l o r io u s e n d
.
We l l m ay B e r tau te x c l aim ,"En c o r e u n e o u de u x ` e x p 6 di-
tio n s ' de c e g e n r e e tl e f e u 6 taitm is a
1 ' Eu r o p e u n e f o is de
p l u s ,e tl aF r an c e d6 c l ar aitl ag u e r r e au m o n de au n o m de
l al ib e r t6 ."* (7 )
II
In the day s o f m y y o u thy o u n g p e o p l e in s tin c tiv e l y q u e s tio n e d
the b e l ie f s o f the ir te ac he r s ,b u tm o de r n y o u this m o r e e as il y
l e d
.The r e has b e e n am ar k e dm o v e m e n tto the L e f tin
the te ac hin g p r o f e s s io n ,an dCo n s e r v ativ e s ar e as r ar e am o n g
*
"On e o r tw o m o r e s u c he x p e ditio n s ,an dEu r o p e w o u l dhav e b e e n
s e tal ig ht,an dF r an c e de c l ar e dw ar o n the w o r l din the n am e o f l ib e r ty
."
COMMU NISMAND WAR

1 0 7
Se c o n dar y Sc ho o l te ac he r s , an d To r ie s am o n g
D o n s ,
as
So c ial is ts in the Se n io r Co m m o n Ro o m s o f p r e -w ar Ox f o r d
.
If y o u n g p e o p l e to day w e r e as c r itic al o f au tho r ity as in m y
y o u th,this L e f tWin g m o v e m e n tam o n g the ir te ac he r s w o u l d
p r o v o k e aRig htWin g r e ac tio n am o n g s tthe p u p il s . B u t
n o thin g o f the k in do c c u r s .If e e l ab o u tthe s e y o u n g Co m m u -
n is ts m u c has Al e x an de r Se l k ir k f e l tab o u tthe an im al s o n his
de s e r tis l an d,"The ir tam e n e s s is s ho c k in g to m e ."
Ev e n m o r e dis c o n c e r tin g is the c o n te m p tf o r p o l itic al r e s e ar c h
am o n g te ac he r s w ithCo m m u n is ts y m p athie s .No thin g e l s e
c an e x p l ain the ir r e adin e s s to ac c e p tRe dD ic tato r s as the
c ham p io n s o f de m o c r ac y ,an dm il itan tIm p e r ial is ts as the
p r o tag o n is ts o f p e ac e
."The D ic tato r s hip o f the Pr o l e tar iat,"
w r o te L e n in ,"is ar e l e n tl e s s s tr u g g l e w ag e dw ithb l o o d-
s he d . .
.aw ar ,ahu n dr e dtim e s m o r e dif f ic u l t,m o r e l o n g
dr aw n -o u t,m o r e c o m p l ic ate dthan the m o s tb l o o dthir s ty w ar
w hic hc o u l db e p o s s ib l e b e tw e e n Natio n s ."(8 )
Itw o u l db e dif f ic u l tto de c ide w he the r the p u b l is he d
u tte r an c e s o f Mar x an dL e n in o r the im p e r ial is tw ar s w ag e d
b y So v ie tRu s s iaar e m o r e in c o n s is te n tw iththe av o w e daim s
o f the L e ag u e ag ain s tF as c is m an dWar .Mar x ' s b io g r ap he r ,
F r an z Me hr in g ,r e c o r ds w ithr e g r e tthe "dis dain f u l ju dg m e n t"
p as s e db y En g e l s o n "the s tr u g g l e o f the s o u the r n Sl av n atio n s
an dg r o u p s f o r n atio n al f r e e do m
."(g )Whe n the Ge r m an
F e de r al ar m y in v ade dthe D u c hie s o f Sc hl e s w ig an dHo l s te in
Mar x s y m p athiz e ds tr o n g l y w iththe in v ade r s ,an db itte r l y
r e s e n te dthe in te r v e n tio n o f B r itain an dRu s s iaw hic hr o b b e d
the Ge r m an s o f the r e w ar do f the ir m il itar y v ic to r ie s .
"The D an e s ar e ap e o p l e u n c o n ditio n al l y de p e n de n to n
Ge r m an y ,"w r o te Mar x ,"c o m m e r c ial l y ,in du s tr ial l y ,p o l itic al l y
an din l ite r atu r e .Itis aw e l l -k n o w n f ac tthatHam b u r g is the
c ap ital o f D e n m ar k an dn o tCo p e n hag e n ,an dthatD e n m ar k
de r iv e s its l ite r ar y im p o r ts f r o m Ge r m an y in the s am e w ay as
itdo e s its m ate r ial im p o r ts .Withthe s o l e e x c e p tio n o f Ho l b e r g ,
D an is hl ite r atu r e is n o thin g b u taf e e b l e c o p y o f Ge r m an
l ite r atu r e . . . . Ge r m an y m u s ttak e Sc hl e s w ig w iththe s am e
ju s tif ic atio n thatF r an c e to o k F l an de r s ,Al s ac e an dL o r r ain e ,
an ds o o n e r o r l ate r w il l tak e B e l g iu m .Itis the r ig hto f
1 0 8

COMMU NISM
AND WAR
c iv il iz atio n ag ain s tb ar b ar is m ,o f p r o g r e s s ag ain s ts tag n atio n ."
(1 0 )
Ou r m o de m Mar x is ts af f e c te dg r e atin dig n atio n w he n
Mu s s o l in iju s tif ie dhis attac k o n Ethio p iab y "the r ig hto f
c iv il iz atio n ag ain s tb ar b ar is m ,"an dy e tthis Mar x ian f o r m u l a
c o u l db e ap p l ie dw ithf ar g r e ate r ju s tif ic atio n to the c o n q u e s t
o f s l av e -tr adin g Ethio p iathan to the an n e x atio n o f p r o g r e s s iv e
Sc hl e s w ig ,Al s ac e an dL o r r ain e
.Or tho do x Mar x is ts ar e ,in de e d,
s l ig htl y dis c o n c e r te db y the u n as ham e de n thu s ias m w ithw hic h
Mar x ap p l au de dGe r m an y ' s w ar s o f c o n q u e s t .V .Ado r ats k y
p r o du c e s ac har ac te r is tic ap o l o g y f o r s u c hp as s ag e s .
"Mar x an dEn g e l s ,"he w r ite s ,"s p o k e o f the l e g itim ac y o f
the w ar s f o r n atio n al e m an c ip atio n thatto o k p l ac e in Eu r o p e
in the f ir s thal f o f the n in e te e n thc e n tu r y ,e .g .in Pr u s s iain
1 8 1 3
.K au ts k y tak e s the s e w o r ds o f Mar x an dEn g e l s an d
ap p l ie s the m in adif f e r e n te p o c h,n am e l y ,to the w ar s o f the
tw e n tie thc e n tu r y ,w hic har e e s s e n tial l y im p e r ial is tic an d
p r e dato r y ." (iI )
Itis the m e tho do f the Mar x ian So p his tto dr aw ar tif ic ial
dis tin c tio n s b e tw e e n b as ic al l y s im il ar c as e s .Ado r ats k y c an
s af e l y g am b l e o n the f ac tthatf e w o f his r e ade r s w il l dis c o v e r
thatitw as n o tthe "w ar s o f n atio n al e m an c ip atio n "b e f o r e
1 8 1 3 thatMar x ju s tif ie d,b u tPr u s s ia' s im p e r ial is tadv e n tu r e s
f r o m 1 8 4 8 to 1 8 7 0 .Mar x ' s attitu de to the 1 8 7 0 w ar w o u l d
hav e p l e as e dB is m ar c k .The in n o c e n tw o r k in g m e n o f F r an c e
w e r e n aiv e e n o u g hto b e l ie v e thatthe In te r n atio n al w hic h
Mar x hadc r e ate dw o u l dju s tif y its n am e ,an dthatthe Ge r m an
p r o l e tar iatw o u l du n ite w iththe F r e n c hin o p p o s itio n to the
thr e ate n e dw ar .On J u l y I2ththe y p u b l is he din the ir p ap e r
L e Re v e il ato u c hin g ap p e al to the p e o p l e o f Ge r m an y
.
"B r o the r s o f Ge r m an y ,in the n am e o f p e ac e do n o tl is te n
to the s u b s idiz e do r s e r v il e v o ic e s w hic hs e e k to de c e iv e y o u
o n the tr u e s p ir ito f F r an c e .Re m ain de af to s e n s e l e s s p r o v o c a-
tio n s ,f o r w ar b e tw e e n u s w o u l db e af r atr ic idal w ar ." (1 2)
Mar x w as in c e n s e d .He dam n e dthe ap p e al f o r w o r k in g -
c l as s s o l idar ity as "p u r e jin g o is m ,"an din al e tte r to En g e l s
o n J u l y l o thin s is te dthat"the F r e n c hn e e dathr as hin g
(die
F r an z o s e n b r au c he n Pr iig e l ) ." (I3 )
COMMU NISMAND WAR 1 0 9
Whe n the In te r n atio n al e o f Par is s e n taf r ate r n al p r o te s t
to the w o r k in g m e n o f Ge r m an y ag ain s tthe in v as io n o f F r e n c h
te r r ito r y ,ap r o te s tw hic he l ic ite df r o m the Ge r m an So c ial
D e m o c r ats atB r u n s w ic k ap l e af o r "an ho n o u r ab l e p e ac e ,"
En g e l s r e ac te das an y Pr u s s ian J u n k e r m ig hthav e r e ac te d .
"Itis ju s tthe o l din f atu atio n ,the s u p e r io r ity o f F r an c e ,the
in v io l ab il ity o f the s o il s an c tif ie db y 1 7 9 3 ,an df r o m w hic h
al l the F r e n c hs w in is hn e s s (l e s c o c ho n n e r ie s f r an c ais e s ) c o m -
m itte ds in c e the n hav e n o tb e e n ab l e to tak e aw ay the c har ac te r ,
the s an c tity o f the w o r dRe p u b l ic ."(1 4 )
An dho w didthis o r tho do x Mar x ian p r o p o s e to e x p l o its u c h
in f l u e n c e as Mar x p o s s e s s e dw iththe w o r k in g c l as s e s ? The
p r o l e tar iatw e r e to b e k e p tq u ie tu n til Pr u s s iahadim p o s e d
he r p e ac e te r m s
."If w e hav e an y in f l u e n c e in Par is w e m u s t
p r e v e n tthe w o r k in g m e n f r o m m o v in g u n til p e ac e is m ade ."
An dn e x tday En g e l s adds ,"The w ar b y b e in g p r o l o n g e dis
tak in g adis ag r e e ab l e tu r n .The F r e n c hhav e n o ty e tb e e n
thr as he de n o u g h ." (1 5 )
Mar x is m ,w hic hin the s e v e n tie s s e r v e dthe am b itio n s o f
Pr u s s ia,is to day the do c il e to o l o f Ru s s ian Im p e r ial is m .So v ie t
Ru s s iahas w ag e dn o l e s s than tw e l v e w ar s o f c o n q u e s tan d
ag g r e s s io n w itho u tp r o te s tf r o m tho s e w ho w e r e in c e n s e db y
the Ital ian in v as io n o f Ethio p ia .In 1 9 3 6 the So v ie tm il itar y
b u dg e tto tal l e ds o m e s ix hu n dr e dm il l io n p o u n ds (1 6 ), an d
w hil e Ru s s iap r e p ar e s f o r w ar he r du p e s in o the r c o u n tr ie s ar e
w e ak e n in g Ru s s ia' s f u tu r e e n e m ie s b y in c e s s an tc am p aig n s
ag ain s tr e ar m am e n tan db y s e ditio u s p r o p ag an dain the Ar m e d
F o r c e s .
III
Mr .Wil l iam He n r y Cham b e r l in ,o n e o f the g r e ate s t
au tho r itie s o n So v ie tRu s s ia,s u m m ar iz e s in The Am e r ic an
Me r c u r y (Ap r il 1 9 3 8 )the "r o u n ddo z e n w ar s o f c o n q u e s tan d
ag g r e s s io n "w hic hSo v ie tRu s s iahas w ag e din the s ho r ts p ac e
o f tw e n ty y e ar s
.
"F r o m the al m o s t-f o r g o tte n c iv il c l as s -w ar in F in l an din
.f l
1 1 0

COMMU NISMAND WAR
I9 r 8 ,"w r ite s Mr .Cham b e r l in ,"to the s o m e w hats im il ar
Sp an is hc o n f l ic tto day ,the K r e m l in has dis p l ay e dan in c o r r i-
g ib l e te n de n c y to in te r f e r e in dis tu r b an c e s o u ts ide its o w n
b o r de r s w hic hp u ts the m il itar y adv e n tu r e s o f Mu s s o l in ito
s ham e .
"The So v ie tGo v e r n m e n thas p r o v e dits e l f ap as tm as te r
in e v e r y o l dtr ic k o f im p e r ial is tic c o n q u e s tan dhas adde d
af e w o r ig in al n e w o n e s o n its o w n ac c o u n t.Af av o u r ite
de v ic e has b e e n f o r m al l y to r e c o g n iz e the in de p e n de n c e
o f aState ,the n to c r e ate dis o r de r thr o u g hCo m m u n is t
ag e n ts w ithin the c o u n tr y in q u e s tio n ,an dto c o m p l e te the
p r o c e s s b y s e n din g in the Re dAr m y to he l p the l o c al
Co m m u n is tr e b e l s .The c r e atio n o f ` in de p e n de n t' State s w hic h
ar e c o m p l e te l y c o n tr o l l e df r o m Mo s c o w an dthe w ag in g o f w ar
w itho u tde c l ar in g itar e tw o o the r f av o u r ite So v ie tm e tho ds
o f p r o c e du r e ."
So v ie tRu s s ia,hav in g f o r m al l y r e c o g n iz e dthe In de p e n de n c e
o f F in l an do n D e c e m b e r 3 1 s t,
1 9 1 7 ,
p r o c e e de dto in s tig ate
c iv il w ar
.The White s hadas l ig htm ajo r ity in the F in n is h
D ie t,b u titis an ac c e p te dp r in c ip l e o f Co m m u n is ts an dthe ir
s u p p o r te r s thatitis l au dab l e to r is e in ar m e dr e b e l l io n ag ain s t
al e g al Go v e r n m e n tif thatGo v e r n m e n tis an ti-So c ial is t,as w as
the c as e in F in l an din 1 9 1 8 an din Sp ain in
1 9 3 4 ,
b u tdam n ab l e
to r e b e l ag ain s tal e g al Go v e r n m e n tdo m in ate db y Co m m u n is ts
as w as the c as e in the Sp ain o f
1 9 3 6
. Ru s s iain s tig ate da
r e v o l u tio n in F in l an d,b u tthe White s p r o v e dto o s tr o n g ,an d
F in l an dw o n he r in de p e n de n c e f r o m tho s e w ho hado f f ic ial l y
r e c o g n iz e dthatin de p e n de n c e as ap r e l im in ar y to an in te n de d
an n e x atio n .
In the w in te r o f 1 9 1 8 -1 9 1 9 the So v ie tar m y m o v e dw e s tw ar d .
Rig aw as o c c u p ie dan dl iv e dthr o u g haRe dte r r o r ,b u tthe
B al tic p r o v in c e s p r o v e das in dig e s tib l e as F in l an d,an dthe
Co m m u n is ts w e r e f o r c e dto r e tir e w ithin the ir o w n f r o n tie r s
.
In the So v ie t-Po l is hw ar o f 1 9 20 the Po l e s w e r e te c hn ic al l y the
ag g r e s s o r s ,s in c e the y hadatte m p te dto f o r e s tal l an al m o s t
c e r tain attac k b y in v adin g the U k r ain e
.The ir o f f e n s iv e w as
r e p u l s e d,an dthe So v ie thadan e x c e l l e n to p p o r tu n ity to
de m o n s tr ate the ir f ide l ity to tho s e p r in c ip l e s o f n o n -an n e x atio n
COMMU NISMAND WAR

III
w hic hthe y hadp r o c l aim e db y ac c e p tin g the g e n e r o u s te r m s
w hic hPo l an do f f e r e d .In s te ad,the y c o n tin u e dto adv an c e o n l y
to b e de f e ate din the b attl e f o r War s aw .
Ig n o r an c e o f c o n te m p o r ar y Ru s s ian his to r y has he l p e dthe
So v ie tto c o n c e al f r o m the w o r l dthe ir b r u tal an n ihil atio n o f
the div e r s e n atio n al itie s w hic hw e r e in c l u de din thats tr an g e
p atc hw o r k ,p r e -w ar Ru s s ia .
The U k r ain ian has his o w n
l an g u ag e ,an dhas l e s s in c o m m o n w iththe Ru s s ian o f Mo s c o w
than the Cz e c hw iththe Su de te n Ge r m an .Af te r the
B o l s he v ik s s e iz e dp o w e r ,the U k r ain e s e tu p its o w n Go v e r n -
m e n tatK ie v ,b u tL e n in ,w ho hadr e p e ate dl y p r o n o u n c e din
f av o u r o f s w e e p in g s e l f -de te r m in atio n f o r the dif f e r e n tn atio n -
al itie s in c l u de din the Ru s s ian Em p ir e ,in v ade dthe U k r ain e
an din s titu te dap itil e s s r e ig n o f te r r o r ag ain s tthe n atio n al is ts .
The r e c o r ds o f the Che c k aadm itto
3 ,8 7 9
U k r ain ian e x e c u tio n s
in the y e ar I9 2o .
Ge o r g ia,the r o m an tic m o u n tain c o u n tr y s o u tho f the m ain
Cau c as ian r an g e ,hadits o w n l an g u ag e an dc u l tu r e ,an df o r -
m al l y s e c e de df r o m Ru s s iain 1 9 1 8 . In the s p r in g o f I9 2o
So v ie tRu s s iam ade atr e aty w ithGe o r g iaan de x p l ic itl y r e c o g -
n iz e dits e x is te n c e as as e p ar ate State .In F e b r u ar y , 1 9 21 , w ith
the aido f the Tu r k s ,So v ie tRu s s iao v e r -r an Ge o r g iaan d
an n e x e dit.The al l ian c e b e tw e e n Ru s s ian s an dTu r k s f o r the
an n ihil atio n o f this l ittl e m o u n tain de m o c r ac y aw o k e n o
r e s p o n s e f r o m tho s e w ho f l o c k e dto the Al b e r tHal l to r e g is te r
the ir dis ap p r o v al o f the c o n q u e s to f Ethio p ia .
D ag he s tan ,to the n o r th-e as to f Ge o r g ia,is in hab ite dn o tb y
Ru s s ian s b u tb y Or ie n tal tr ib e s o f the Is l am ic f aith,an d
D ag he s tan "hadthe b adtas te to o b je c tto So v ie tr u l e ,"w r ite s
Mr
.Cham b e r l in
."So that,in s te ado f b e in g r e c ip ie n ts o f
s y m p athy an df u n ds f r o m a` Co m m itte e in D e f e n s e o f
D ag he s tan D e m o c r ac y ,' the u n f o r tu n ate in hab itan ts r e c e iv e d
o n l y am e r c il e s s p u n itiv e e x p e ditio n w hic hr e du c e dD ag he s tan
to s u b je c tio n ."The an n e x atio n o f D ag he s tan w as f o l l o w e d
b y "an o l d-f as hio n e dim p e r ial is tic in v as io n "o f B o k har a,an d
b y "ap r o tr ac te dp e r io do f c o l o n ial w ar f ar e ."
In the F ar Eas tthe So v ie ttr o o p s hav e c o n du c te dm il itar y
o p e r atio n s o n thr e e o c c as io n s .In Ig 2I the y in v ade dOu te r
1 1 2

COMMU NISMAND WAR
Mo n g o l ia,w hic hhas n e v e r b e e n f o r m al l y an n e x e d,b u tw hic h
is "as c o m p l e te l y
a p u p p e tState o f the So v ie tU n io n as
Man c ho u k u o is ade p e n de n c y o f J ap an ."In 1 9 29 the So v ie t
tr o o p s in v ade dMan c hu r ia,an dadv an c e das f ar as Hail ar ,a
w ar w hic hw as the f ir s tb r e ac ho f the K e l l o g g Pac tw hic hRu s s ia
hads ig n e dthe p r e v io u s y e ar
.Mo r e r e c e n tl y the So v ie thas
s u b ju g ate dthe Tu n g an s b y the aido f ae r o p l an e s an dp o is o n
g as .
The r e is o n e as p e c to f the s e im p e r ial is tw ar s to w hic hMr
.
Cham b e r l in do e s n o tdr aw atte n tio n in his s u r v e y .No to n c e
didthe L e ag u e o f Natio n s p r o te s tag ain s tthe s e f l ag r an t
v io l atio n s o f the p r in c ip l e s w hic hthe L e ag u e p r o f e s s e s
.Man y
o f the m o s tp r o m in e n tf ig u r e s in the L e ag u e hav e b e e n ho s til e
to Co m m u n is m ,an dy e ts o p o w e r f u l has b e e n the in f l u e n c e o f
Ru s s iaan dhe r L e ag u e al l ie s thatthe s u p r e m e w ar -m ak e r o f
m o de r n tim e s has b e e n w e l c o m e dw ithe n thu s ias m atGe n e v a
.
The s e r e n ity o f L e ag u e dis c u s s io n s has n e v e r b e e n dis tu r b e d
b y tac tl e s s r e f e r e n c e s to the U k r ain e ,to Ge o r g iao r to an y o f
the o the r im p e r ial is te x p l o its o f So v ie tRu s s ia
.The L e ag u e
has o s te n tatio u s l y p as s e db y o n the o the r s ide ,av e r tin g its
s e l e c tiv e g az e f r o m tho s e w ho hav e f al l e n am o n g Ru s s ian
thie v e s
.B u tthe L e ag u e w hic hig n o r e dthe tr ag e die s o f Ge o r g ia
an dthe U k r ain e aw o k e to f e v e r is hac tiv ity w he n Ital y in v ade d
Ethio p ia .
The Ar c hb is ho p o f Y o r k an dte n o f his f e l l o w b is ho p s is s u e d
am an if e s to du r in g the s u m m e r o f
1 9 3 8 in w hic hthe y u r g e d
the u s e o f ar m e df o r c e in de f e n c e o f the L e ag u e o f Natio n s
.
The y attr ib u te dthe g r o w in g c o n te m p tf o r the c o n c e p tio n o f
In te r n atio n al L aw to o u r f ail u r e e f f e c tiv e l y to o p p o s e the
in v as io n o f Man c hu r iaan dEthio p ia
.Iam c o n v in c e dthatthe
f ac ts c ite db y Mr
.Cham b e r l in ar e u n k n o w n to the s e s ig n ato r ie s ,
f o r Iam c o n f ide n tthatthe y w o u l dn o tw il l in g l y e n do r s e a
do u b l e s tan dar do f m o r al ity ,c o n do n in g in the c as e o f So v ie t
Ru s s iaw hatthe y c o n de m n in the c as e o f Ital y an dJ ap an ,an d
Ib e l ie v e thatif the y w e r e b e tte r in f o r m e dthe y w o u l db e the
f ir s tto ag r e e thatthe r e is s o m e ju s tif ic atio n f o r the c o n te m p t
w ithw hic hthe L e ag u e is r e g ar de db y c r itic s w ho ar e b o th
ho n e s tan dw e l l -in f o r m e d
.No b o dy dis p u te s the g o o df aith
COMMU NISMAND WAR

1 1 3
an dthe g o o din te n tio n s o f the s e dis tin g u is he ds ig n ato r ie s ,b u t
s u r e l y tho s e w ho as p ir e to r e s hap e his to r y w o u l ddo w e l l to
r e adit,an dn o tto b as e the ir v e r dic ts o n L e f tWin g p r o p ag an da .
NOTE.This c hap te r w as w r itte n s o m e w e e k s b e f o r e the
Mu n ic hCo n f e r e n c e .
REF ERENCES
(t)-(5 ) Pie r r e Gax o tte : L aRe v o l u tio n F r an c ais e . Ar the n e
F ay ar d,p p . 21 1 ,21 3 ,21 4 ,222, 22
4 -
(6 )&(7 )J u l e s B e r tau t :
1 8 4 8
e tl aSe c o n de Re p u b l iq u e .
Ar the m e F ay ar d,p p .1 6 9 ,
1
7 4 -
(8 )L e n in : "L e f tWin g "Co m m u n is m , q u o te db y Stal in :
The o r y an dPr ac tic e o f L e n in is m , C.P.G.B .e ditio n ,
p p . 5 0 ,
1 o 6 .
(9 )&
(1 o )F r an z Me hr in g : K ar l Mar x . The B o dl e y He ad,
p p
. 1 6 3 ,1 6 9 .
(1 1 ) V .Ado r ats k y : D ial e c tic al Mate r ial is m . Mar tin L aw -
r e n c e ,p .4 .2
.
(1 2)-(1 5 ) Gu il l au m e : K ar l Mar x ,p an -Ge r m an is te , q u o te db y
Ne s taH.We b s te r , Wo r l dRe v o l u tio n , Co n s tab l e ,
PP- 1 9 7 -2 0 3 .
CHAPTERXII
THESTAND ARD OF L IV INGINSOV IETRU SSIA
No in te l l ig e n tCo m m u n is ts de n y thatthe s tan dar do f l iv in g
in the w o r k e r s ' p ar adis e is f ar b e l o w thato f Cap ital is tc o u n tr ie s ,
b u tthe ir r e l u c tan tadm is s io n s ar e al w ay s q u al if ie db y the
tr ite e x c u s e ,"An y ho w ,the p o o r ar e m u c hb e tte r o f f than the y
w e r e u n de r the Ts ar s ."This v ie w is m o r e c o m m o n am o n g
Co m m u n is ts w ho hav e n o tw o r k e din Ru s s iathan am o n g
tho s e w ho hav e s u b je c te dthe ir Co m m u n is tc o n v ic tio n s to the
te s to f e x p e r ie n c e .
An dr e w Sm ith,au tho r o f I Was aSo v ie tWo r k e r , ac o n -
v in c e dm e m b e r o f the Co m m u n is tPar ty o f the U n ite dState s ,
de c ide dto m ak e his ho m e in Ru s s ia .He o f f e r e dto g iv e the
g r e ate r p ar to f his l if e s av in g s (ab o u t 3 ,0 0 0 do l l ar s )to the
So v ie tU n io n ,an o f f e r w hic hir r itate dhis Am e r ic an Co m -
r ade s ,w ho f in al l y p e r s u ade dhim thatitw o u l db e f o o l is hto
g iv e m o n e y to Ru s s ian w o r k e r s w ho s e e v e r y n e e dw as g r atif ie d
b y the So v ie tin s te ado f to Am e r ic an Co m r ade s g r o an in g
u n de r Cap ital is m
.The ar g u m e n tw as c o n v in c in g ,an dSm ith
dis tr ib u te dm o s to f his l if e s av in g s b e f o r e s e ttin g s ail f r o m
the State s .
On the jo u r n e y to L e n in g r adthe tr ain w as b o ar de db y
p e as an ts o n ap il g r im ag e to L e n in g r adin s e ar c ho f b r e ad
.
"Itw as dif f e r e n tb e f o r e ,"the y c o m p l ain e d ."We hade n o u g h .
We didn o thav e to g o to L e n in g r adto tr y to g e tac r u s to f
b r e ad ."(i)The r o o m as s ig n e dto Sm ithp r o v o k e dthe e n v y
o f aRu s s ian f r ie n d ."' Tw o p e o p l e f o r s u c hab ig r o o m ! '
e x c l aim e dPe te r in am az e m e n t .` Y o u f o r e ig n e r s hav e itg o o d .
My f athe r die din the Re v o l u tio n an dw hatdo w e hav e ? We
l iv e s ix ty in o n e r o o m l ik e this .The y te l l u s thatu n de r the
Ts ar the Ru s s ian p e o p l e l iv e din the s am e r o o m w ithc attl e .
B u tthe p ig s ,the c o w s an dthe c hic k e n s w e r e he al thy atl e as t .
I 1 4
THE STAND ARD OF L IV ING
INSOV IETRU SSIA
1 1 5
No w w e hav e to l iv e w ithal l k in ds o f dis e as e dp e o p l e . . .
The p ig s l iv e dm u c hb e tte r than w e do n o w .' " (2)
Al e k s an dr a,the ir w as he r w o m an ,w as y e tan o the r o f the s e
Ru s s ian s w ho hadthe b adtas te to s ig hf o r the o l dday s .
"' Ho w c an the Co m m u n is ts b e g o o dp e o p l e if the y do n o t
g iv e u s e n o u g hto c at? U n de r the Ts ar Im ade 1 5 k o p e k s a
day ,b u tIc o u l db u y m o r e w ith1 5 k o p e k s than Ic an b u y
w iththe 7 5 r o u b l e s Ig e tin the f ac to r y .On Su n day Iu s e d
to b u y p ir o s hn i (Ru s s ian c ak e s ) .Iu s e dto g o to c hu r c han d
c o o k an db ak e .Ihadaf in e ho l iday .No w Ihav e to w as h
an ds c r u b o n m y day o f f ."' (3 )
V ic to r Se r g e is y e tan o the r Co m m u n is tw ho de n ie s that
Ru s s iahas g ain e db y the s u b s titu tio n o f Co m m is s ar s f o r Ts ar s .
Se r g e ar r iv e din Pe tr o g r adin 1 g 1
g ,an dw as im m e diate l y
e l e c te dto the Ex e c u tiv e Co m m itte e o f the Co m in te r n ."D id
the y l iv e b e tte r b e f o r e the r e v o l u tio n ? Pe o p l e o f f o r ty ar e
u n an im o u s in af f ir m in g
it,in al l thr e e r e s p e c ts o f f o o d,c l o thin g
an dl o dg in g s .Statis tic s c o n f ir m it .Aw o r k e r o f the te x til e
in du s tr y w ho ,in 1 9 1 2-1 9 1 4 ,r e c e iv e d 3 0 0 k il o g r am s o f b r e ad
p e r m o n th,am in e r w ho r e c e iv e d6 o o ,to day g e tan av e r ag e
o f 1 5 0 (the e q u iv al e n to f 1 5 o r u b l e s ) .Mo r e than o n c e I
he ar dm o the r s de p l o r in g the f ac tthatthe ir c hil dr e n hav e
n e v e r k n o w n the g o o dtim e s w he n ,du r in g r e l ig io u s f e s tiv al s ,
s u c hn ic e thin g s as p as tr ie s ,p r e s e r v e s ,an dc r e am s w e r e m ade ;
an do l dw o m e n c o m p l ain in g o f n o l o n g e r e v e n hav in g te ato
dr in k . . . . Mo s to f the p e n s io n s o f Civ il War w ido w s ar e
3 0
r u b l e s am o n th
.In 1 9 26 the p r e -w ar l e v e l s e e m e dto b e n e ar l y
r e ac he d ; the y ar e f ar f r o m itto day .In o r de r to r e s to r e to
the v as tm ajo r ity o f Ru s s ian w o r k e r s the ir m ate r ial l e v e l o f
1 9 26 itw o u l db e n e c e s s ar y to do u b l e al l the l o w w ag e s ."(4 )
The c hr o n ic ho u s in g har ds hip s w e r e ag g r av ate dto w ar ds the
e n do f 1 9 3 2b y the in s titu tio n o f in te r n al p as s p o r ts
."The
c u s to m o f in te r n al p as s p o r ts ,"w r ite s Se r g e ,"do e s n o te x is t,
Ib e l ie v e ,in an y l ar g e c iv il iz e ds tate .No te v e n the f as c is t
s tate s hav e tho u g htthatthe y c o u l dr o b the ir n atio n al s o f the ir
f r e e do m to m o v e ab o u tin the c o u n tr y an dto c han g e r e s ide n c e
.
The Sm al l So v ie t En c y c l c p c e dia, p u b l is he db y the State
Pu b l is he r s ,s ay s in its e ditio n o f 1 9 3 0 that` the c u s to m o f
1 1 6

THE
STAND ARD OF L IV INGINSOV IETRU SSIA
in te r n al p as s p o r ts ,in s titu te db y the au to c r ac y as an in s tr u m e n t
o f p o l ic e o p p r e s s io n o f the to il in g m as s e s ,w as s u p p r e s s e db y
the Oc to b e r Re v o l u tio n .' Itw as r e -e s tab l is he dan dte r r ib l y
ag g r av ate din 1 9 3 2
."(5 )
Eu g e n e L y o n s ar r iv e din Ru s s iae ar l y in J an u ar y ,1 9 28 .B y
p r o f e s s io n he w as ajo u r n al is t,b y c o n v ic tio n as in c e r e Co m -
m u n is t
.He l e f ts ix y e ar s l ate r hav in g l o s this il l u s io n s ab o u t
Ru s s ia,b u tn o n e o f his f aithin So c ial is m .
His b o o k , As s ig n -
m e n tin U to p ia,is am o s ts c athin g in dic tm e n to f So v ie tRu s s ia,
b as e do n p e r s o n al e x p e r ie n c e .His de s c r ip tio n o f ho u s in g
c o n ditio n s r e in f o r c e s Se r g e ' s c o m p ar is o n b e tw e e n Ts ar is tan d
Co m m u n is tRu s s ia
.The e n tir e Ru s s ian u r b an p o p u l atio n ,he
te l l s u s ,s o m e f if ty m il l io n s ,w e r e q u e s tio n e dan dc l as s if ie din
ar e s ide n tial p u r g e "c ar r ie dthr o u g hw ithaf r ig htf u l in dif f e r -
e n c e to hu m an s u f f e r in g
."An dMr .L y o n s adds ,"U n de r the
Ro m an o v s ,e v e r y s u b je c thadap as s p o r tm e r e l y f o r ide n tif ic a-
tio n ,to as s u r e e f f e c tiv e p o l ic e c o n tr o l
.Itdidn o tr e s tr ic tthe ir
r ig htto tr av e l o r c han g e the ir r e s ide n c e w ithin the Ru s s ian
f r o n tie r s -e x c e p tf o r the J e w s ,m o s to f w ho m w e r e c o n f in e d
in the s o -c al l e dPal e o f Se ttl e m e n t
.The n e w So v ie tp as s p o r t
de c r e e w e n tm u c hf u r the r
.Ittu r n e de v e r y l o c al ity in to a
` p al e ' f o r al l its in hab itan ts ,b e y o n dw hic hthe y c o u l dn o t
m o v e w itho u tthe g o v e r n m e n t' s e x p l ic its an c tio n .The p as s -
p o r t n o w is s u e df ix e dthe do m ic il e o f its ho l de r .No c o n c ie r g e
o r r e l ativ e c o u l dg iv e him s he l te r f o r m o r e than thr e e day s
w itho u tas p e c ial p e r m it . . . .
"Mo s c o w ,L e n in g r ad,K har k o v ,Ode s s a,V l adiv o s to c k ,an d
af e w o the r k e y c itie s w e r e the f ir s tto u n de r g o the c l e an s in g .
No o n e b o the r e dto e x p l ain w hatthe ` u n de s ir ab l e s ' w e r e to do
if the y hadn o p l ac e to g o to an dn o f u n ds to g e tthe m the r e .
The c o de o f B o l s he v ik f ir m n e s s m ade it` u n f r ie n dl y ' an d
c o u n te r -r e v o l u tio n ar y to r ais e s u c ha` p r iv ate ' p r o b l e m
.` We
c an ' ts to p to w o r r y ab o u ts u c hs e n tim e n tal n o n s e n s e ,' c o m -
m u n is tac q u ain tan c e s s aid
.` The y ' l l g e tthe r e ,o n e w ay o r
an o the r ,o r the y ' l l b l o w o u tthe ir b r ain s .We hav e e n o u g hto
w o r r y ab o u tw itho u tthat .' Pan ic s w e p tthr o u g he v e r y s tr e e t
in Mo s c o w .Hu n dr e ds o f tho u s an ds w ho hadadju s te dthe m -
s e l v e s af te r y e ar s o f tr av ail m u s tag ain ju s tif y the ir w ar r an t
THESTAND ARD OF L IV ING IN SOV IETRU SSIA 1 1 7
to r e m ain al iv e .The y k n e w thatn e ig hb o u r s w ithin f l u e n c e ,
p e r hap s o n the p as s p o r tc o m m is s io n its e l f ,c o v e te dthe ir c o r n e r
o f ` l iv in g s p ac e .' . . . The p as s p o r to f f ic ial s w e r e p itil e s s ,
ar b itr ar y ,au to c r atic ,s p ar in g n e ithe r the v e r y ag e dn o r the
v e r y y o u n g ,n o te v e n b e d-r idde n in v al ids ."(6 )
"The p as s p o r t,"w r ite s Se r g e ,"is v is ae datthe p l ac e o f
w o r k .Withe ac hc han g e o f e m p l o y ,the r e as o n f o r the c han g e
is e n te r e din to the p as s p o r t.Ihav e k n o w n w o r k e r s dis c har g e d
f o r n o thav in g c o m e o n the day o f r e s tto c o n tr ib u te a
` v o l u n tar y ' (an d,n atu r al l y ,g r atu ito u s )day o f w o r k ,in w ho s e
p as s p o r ts is w r itte n : ` dis c har g e df o r s ab o tag e o f the p r o du c tio n
Pte ' "
(7 )
To c o m p ar e s tan dar ds o f c l o thin g the r e ade r s ho u l dtu r n
u p o l df il e s o f the Il l u s tr ate dL o n do n Ne w s an dn o te the s he e p -
s k in c o ats an dl e athe r b o o ts w o r n b y the Ts ar is tp r o l e tar iatan d
p e as an tr y ,an dthe n r e adSir Wal te r Citr in e ' s de s c r ip tio n o f
the ar tic l e s o f c l o thin g dis p l ay e datthe D il k a,the s to r e o f the
L e n in g r adCo n s u m e r s ' Co -o p e r ativ e So c ie ty
. "Al l the s e
ar tic l e s ,"he w r ite s ,"w e r e o f s ho ddy q u al ity ,an din En g l an d
the hats w o u l db e ab o u t5 s .an dthe w ate r p r o o f £I, w hil s t
the s ho e s an y thin g f r o m i o s .6 d .to 1 5 s . The c o ats w e r e al l
o f in dif f e r e n tq u al ity ,an dw o u l dn o tb r in g m o r e than £2Io s 1
to £3 Io s 1 in En g l an d .Stan din g ap ar tf r o m the o the r e x hib its
w as as o l itar y s u ito f p l u s f o u r s ,o f ap atte r n w hic hw o u l d
hav e m ade ar ac in g tip s te r b l u s h! Itw as p r ic e dat6 5 o r o u b l e s
.
Atthe av e r ag e w ag e s w e hadc o m e ac r o s s s o f ar the Ru s s ian
w o r k e r w o u l dhav e to w o r k ab o u tthr e e m o n ths to b u y this
ab o r tio n ."(8 )Itak e this q u o tatio n f r o m
ISe ar c hf o r Tr u th
in Ru s s ia, b y Sir Wal te r Citr in e , K .B .E
.,Ge n e r al Se c r e tar y o f
the Tr ade s U n io n Co n g r e s s an dPr e s ide n to f the In te r n atio n al
F e de r atio n o f Tr ade U n io n s . His b o o k r e p r e s e n ts the r e s u l ts
o f r e s e ar c hdu r in g ajo u r n e y thr o u g hRu s s iain 1 9 3 5 ,in the
c o u r s e o f w hic hSir Wal te r m ade c o p io u s n o te s o n w ag e s an d
ho u s in g .His s tatis tic s ar e f l atte r in g to Ru s s ia,f o r tho u g h
r u b l e s c o u l db e b o u g htin the B l ac k Ex c han g e attw o p e n c e
e ac h,Sir Wal te r v al u e s the m atf o u r p e n c e . "Thatis an
e x tr av ag an tas s u m p tio n ,"he w r ite s ,"b u tl e titp as s ."(9 )He
g iv e s the f o l l o w in g tab l e o f w ag e s :
1 1 8

THE STAND ARD OF L IV ING IN SOV IET RU SSIA
REPRESENTATIV EAV ERAGEEARNINGSAT F ACTORIES
V ISITED
To the s e w ag e s m u s tb e adde dan e s tim ate o f the v al u e o f
s o c ial is e d
w ag e s ,thatis ,o f the v ar io u s p r iv il e g e s w hic hthe
w o r k m an r e c e iv e s in additio n to his m o n e y w ag e s ."The l as t
f ig u r e s Ihav e s e e n f r o m So v ie ts o u r c e s g av e itat3 1 .7 p e r
c e n to f the m o n e tar y w ag e f o r the y e ar
1 9 3 2-
Ihav e tr ie dto
c al c u l ate itf o r m y s e l f f r o m datain m y p o s s e s s io n an dIm ak e
ito u tto b e 28 p e r c e n t.Itis q u ite p o s s ib l e thatIhav e o v e r -
l o o k e ds o m e thin g o r o the r ,b u tIdo n ' tthin k Iw o u l db e f ar
o u tif Ito o k the s o c ial is e dw ag e as b e in g w o r thab o u to n e -
thir do f the m o n e tar y w ag e
.If Iaddthis to the w e e k l y w ag e
Ihav e al r e ady g iv e n ,the av e r ag e atthe So k o r o k ho dSho e
F ac to r y n o w b e c o m e s 2 IS.
1 2d.aw e e k ,an dthe hig he s tav e r ag e
atthe K ir o v e n g in e e r in g w o r k s 27 s
.9 2d ." (II)
Sir Wal te r w as de p r e s s e db y the tr ag ic o v e r c r o w din g an d
the ho r r ib l e s an itar y c o n ditio n s
.His b o o k is r e s tr ain e dan d
b al an c e d ; he s ay s w hathe c an in f av o u r o f So v ie tRu s s ia,an d
the r e s u l tis an in dic tm e n tal l the m o r e e f f e c tiv e f o r its r e s e r v e
.
The u n e m p l o y e din En g l an dan dthe U n ite dState s ar e
b e tte r f e dthan the hig he r p aidw o r k e r s in Ru s s ia
.Co m m u n is ts
as s u r e u s thatRu s s iahas ab o l is he du n e m p l o y m e n t.So hav e
Pe n to n v il l e an dSin g -Sin g
.Itis n o tw o r k ,ho w e v e r ,thatm o s t
p e o p l e de s ir e ,b u tthe r e w ar do f w o r k
.The r e is n o r e as o n to
s u p p o s e thatB r itis ho r Am e r ic an u n e m p l o y e dw o u l dac c e p ta
l o w e r s tan dar do f l iv in g in r e tu r n f o r the p r iv il e g e o f w o r k in g
l o n g ho u r s u n de r Ru s s ian c o n ditio n s .In de e d,as Mr .W .H
.
Cham b e r l in r e m ar k s ,"Pr e s ide n tRo o s e v e l tc o u l d` ab o l is h
u n e m p l o y m e n t' im m e diate l y if he s ho u l das s u m e dic tato r ial
U n de r tak in g

Av e r ag e Mo n thl y We e k l y Av e r ag e
So k o r o k ho dSho e F ac to r y

. . .
Ear n in g s .
Ru b l e s
1 g o
in En g l is hm o n e y .
s . d.
1 5 1 0
K ir o v En g in e e r in g Wo r k s

. . . 25 0 20 1 0
K ag an o v itc hB al l -B e ar in g F ac to r y

. . . 23 0 1 9 2
No .6 Mo s c o w U n de r w e ar F ac to r y . . . 21 0
1 7
6
No .4 Chil dr e n ' s U n de r w e ar F ac to r y . . . 1 9 5 1 6 3
K har k o v El e c tr ic al an dMe c han ic al Pl an t 20 7
1 7 3
Or jo hn ik idz ie Tr ac to r Pl an t

. . .

. . . 20 5
1 7 1
Stal in Oil Re f in e r y

. . .
21 0 1 7
6 (1 0 )
THE STAND ARD OF L IV ING IN-SOV IETRU SSIA

1 1 9
p o w e r s an dde c l ar e thate v e r y u n e m p l o y e dp e r s o n s ho u l ddo
s o m e p r e s c r ib e dw o r k in e x c han g e f o r the f o o dan dc l o thin g
w hic hhe r e c e iv e s in the f o r m o f r e l ie f .Su c hac tio n w o u l d,o f
c o u r s e ,e l ic itthe m o s ts tr e n u o u s o p p o s itio n o n the p ar to f the
u n e m p l o y e dthe m s e l v e s ."
(1 2)
El s e w he r e in this b o o k Ihav e
q u o te dMr .Cham b e r l in ' s ac c o u n to f the im p r e s s io n p r o du c e d
o n his f r ie n ds in Ru s s iab y al is to f r atio n s g iv e n to u n e m p l o y e d
f am il ie s in Mil w au k e e ,w hic hin q u al ity an dq u an tity w e r e
n o tin f e r io r to tho s e w ithin the p u r c has in g p o w e r o f aSo v ie t
o f f ic ial o f m o de r ate l y hig hg r ade .
The f ac ts c ite din this c hap te r ,f ac ts te s tif ie dto b y dis -
il l u s io n e dCo m m u n is ts an dSo c ial is ts ,f u l l y ju s tif y the l e tte r
w hic hAn dr e w Sm ithaddr e s s e d,w hil e s til l in Ru s s ia,to the
Ce n tr al Co m m itte e o f the Co m m u n is tPar ty ,the l e tte r in
w hic hhe s tate dthatin his o p in io n "Cap ital is ts tr e atdo g s
b e tte r than the So v ie tGo v e r n m e n ttr e ats the w o r k e r s ."(1 3 )
REF ERENCES
(I)-(3 ) An dr e w Sm ith : I w as aSo v ie tWo r k e r , Ro b e r tHal e ,
PP-3 1 ,5 0 , 1 0 0 .
(4 .) &(5 )V ic to r Se r g e : Ru s s iaTw e n ty Y e ar s Af te r , tr an s -
l ate db y Max Shac htm an ,Hil l m an -Cu r l ,p p .8 ,6 6 .
(6 )Eu g e n e L y o n s : As s ig n m e n tin U to p ia, Har r ap ,p .5 1 5 .
(7 )V ic to r Se r g e : Ru s s iaTw e n ty Y e ar s Af te r ,p . 6 8 .
(8 )-(1 1 ) Sir Wal te r Citr in e , K .B .E. : I Se ar c hf o r Tr u thin
Ru s s ia, Ro u tl e dg e ,p p . 6 1 ,
3 3 4 ,3 3 4 ,3 3 5 -
(1 2)
W .H.Cham b e r l in : Ru s s ia' s Ir o n Ag e , D u c k w o r th,p .9 6 .
(1 3 ) An dr e w Sm ith : I w as a So v ie tWo r k e r ,p . 20 1 .
CHAPTERXIII
THEAPOL OGETICSOF PERSECU TION
NEITHER So v ie tRu s s ia,Naz iGe r m an y n o r Re p u b l ic an Sp ain
hav e e n r ic he dthe ap o l o g e tic s o f p e r s e c u tio n
.On the c o n tr ar y ,
the y hav e b e e n c o n te n tto e x p l o itthe c l as s ic p r e te x to f Ne r o ,
an dhav e ju s tif ie dp e r s e c u tio n b y the ar g u m e n tthatthe
p e r s e c u te dhav e b e e n g u il ty o f p o l itic al c r im e s .Ev e n Ru s s ia,,
w hic hhas ado p te dm ate r ial is m as the s tate c r e e d,dis g u is e s its
im p l ac ab l e ho s til ity to r e l ig io n b y the s u b s titu tio n o f p o l itic al
f o r r e l ig io u s in dic tm e n ts .No w ,o f c o u r s e ,itis al w ay s e as y to
p as s l e g is l atio n w hic hau to m atic al l y tr an s f o r m s e v e r y s in c e r e
Chr is tian in to ap o te n tial p o l itic al o f f e n de r
.Al l thatis n e c e s -
s ar y is to de m an df r o m Chr is tian s thatthe y s ho u l dr e n de r u n to
Cx s ar the thin g s thatar e Go d' s
.F e w En g l is hm e n hav e b e e n
de c e iv e db y this s hal l o w s u b te r f u g e in the c as e o f the he r o ic
Pr o te s tan tMin is te r ,Nie m o l l e r ,b u titis l e s s g e n e r al l y r e al iz e d
in En g l an dthatthe s q u al idp r e te x ts w hic hhav e b e e n adv an c e d
to ju s tif y the im m e as u r ab l y m o r e b r u tal p e r s e c u tio n s in Sp ain
ar e as w o r thl e s s as tho s e adv an c e dto ju s tif y the im p r is o n m e n t
o f Nie m o l l e r .
We c an te s tthe ap o l o g e tic s o f p e r s e c u tio n if w e b e g in b y
de f in in g c e r tain u n iv e r s al p r in c ip l e s w hic hap p l y to al l
o r g an iz e dg r o u p s .B y g r o u p Im e an in this c o n te x tan y c l as s
o f hu m an b e in g s u n ite db y ac o m m o n r e l ig io n (e .g . Chr is tian s ),
ac o m m o n p o l itic al c r e e d
(e .g . Co n s e r v ativ e s )o r b y r ac ial o r
c l as s tie s as in the c as e o f J e w s an dc l as s -c o n s c io u s p r o l e tar ian s .
Itis c l e ar l y b e tte r to s tate g e n e r al p r in c ip l e s b e f o r e atte m p tin g
to ap p l y tho s e p r in c ip l e s to p ar tic u l ar c as e s ,f o r the p ar tic u l ar
c as e (as ,f o r in s tan c e ,the p ar tic u l ar c as e o f Chr is tian p e r s e c u -
tio n )is al w ay s c o n f u s e db y e m o tio n al as s o c iatio n s w hic hc o m -
p l ic ate s c ie n tif ic r e s e ar c h . Ithe r e f o r e in v ite the r e ade r ' s
c o n s ide r atio n o f c e r tain u n iv e r s al p r o p o s itio n s w hic hap p l y
n o tto Chr is tian s in p ar tic u l ar b u tto al l o r g an iz e dg r o u p s .
1 20
THE APOL OGETICSOF PERSECU TION

1 21
I. Se l f -p r e s e r v atio n is the f ir s tl aw o f g r o u p l if e
.Ev e r y
g r o u p ,the r e f o r e ,te n ds to s u p p o r to the r g r o u p s if the y b e
f r ie n dl y ,an dto o p p o s e the m if the y b e ho s til e .
L e tm e il l u s tr ate this u n iv e r s al p r in c ip l e b y p ar tic u l ar
e x am p l e s .The Ir is hPr o te s tan ts in the V ic to r ian ag e s u p p o r te d
the Co n s e r v ativ e Par ty n o tn e c e s s ar il y b e c au s e the ir s y m p athie s
w e r e w iththe r ic h(f o r the p o o r e r Pr o te s tan ts in B e l f as tv o te d
Co n s e r v ativ e ),b u tb e c au s e the L ib e r al s w e r e c am p aig n in g f o r
Ho m e Ru l e ,w hic hthr e ate n e dthe e n do f the Pr o te s tan t
as c e n dan c y .Sim il ar l y ,c o n v in c e dCo m m u n ic an ts o f the Es tab -
l is he dChu r c hin Wal e s u s u al l y v o te dCo n s e r v ativ e b e c au s e the
L ib e r al s u r g e dthe dis e s tab l is hm e n tan ddis e n do w m e n to f the
We l s hChu r c h . Sin c e r e Sp an is hCatho l ic s n o r m al l y v o te d
Co n s e r v ativ e b e c au s e Sp an is hL ib e r al s w e r e f ie r c e l y an ti-
c l e r ic al ,an db e c au s e the ir p e r io ds o f p o w e r o f te n c o in c ide d
w ithf u r the r attac k s o n the de p l e te dr e s o u r c e s o f the Chu r c h,
an ds o m e tim e s w itho u tb u r s ts o f m o b v io l e n c e dir e c te dag ain s t
the p r ie s ts .Itis ,ho w e v e r ,tr u e r to s ay thatIr is hPr o te s tan ts ,
We l s hc hu r c hm e n an dSp an is hCatho l ic s v o te d ag ain s t
the
p ar tie s thatw e r e ho s til e to the ir r e s p e c tiv e Chu r c he s r athe r
than in s u p p o r to f Co n s e r v atis m .
No g r o u p c an b e b l am e df o r o p p o s in g its p e r s e c u to r s ,e v e n
w he r e the p e r s e c u tio n tak e s the m il df o r m o f w hatis de s c r ib e d
in the c o u r te o u s te r m in o l o g y o f L ib e r al is m as "dis e n do w m e n t ."
HadSc hu s c hn ig g b e e n al l o w e dto ho l d a p l e b is c ite in Au s tr ia
ju s tb e f o r e the An s c hl u s s the r e is n o do u b tb u tthatthe o v e r -
w he l m in g m ajo r ity b o tho f J e w s an dSo c ial is ts w o u l dhav e
s u p p o r te dhim ,n o tb e c au s e the J e w s o r the So c ial is ts w e r e
e n thu s ias tic s u p p o r te r s o f dic tato r s hip in g e n e r al o r o f
Sc hu s c hn ig g ' s ide as in p ar tic u l ar ,b u tb e c au s e b o ththe J e w s
an dthe So c ial is ts dr e ade dthe o n l y o the r al te r n ativ e ,aNaz i
Au s tr ia .If c r itic s w o u l do n l y r e al iz e thatav o te m u s to f te n b e
in te r p r e te dl e s s as av o te f o r a p ar tic u l ar Par ty than as av o te
ag ain s t
the ir o p p o n e n ts ,the y w o u l db e l e s s in c l in e dto ac c u s e
Pr o te s tan ts in Ir e l an dan dWal e s an dCatho l ic s in Sp ain o f
s u p p o r tin g the Par tie s o f r e ac tio n .
"The Chu r c ho f En g l an d,"w r o te D e an In g e ,"has b e e n
f r e e l y ac c u s e do f to o g r e atc o m p l ais an c e to the p o w e r s thatb e ,
1 22

THE
APOL OGETICS OF PERSECU TION
w he n tho s e p o w e r s w e r e o l ig ar c hic .So m e o f the c l e r g y ar e
n o w tr y in g to r e p e atr athe r than r e dr e s s this e r r o r b y an
o b s e q u io u s attitu de to K in g Wo r k in g m an . . . . The tau n to f
He l e n to Ap hr o dite in the thir db o o k o f the Il iad s o u n ds v e r y
ap p o s ite w he n w e r e adthe s p e e c he s o f s o m e c l e r ic al ` Chr is tian
So c ial is ts ' w ho f in ditm o r e e x c itin g to o r g an iz e p r o c e s s io n s o f
the u n e m p l o y e dthan to atte n dto the ir p r o f e s s io n al du tie s .
` Go an ds ittho u b y his s ide an dde p ar tf r o m the w ay o f the
g o ds ; n e ithe r l e tthy f e e te v e r b e ar the e b ac k to Ol y m p u s
; b u t
s til l b e v e x e df o r his s ak e ,an dg u ar dhim til l he m ak e the e
his w if e ,o r r athe r his s l av e .'
"Itis
as as l av e an dn o tas an ho n o u r e dhe l p -m ate thatthe
So c ial D e m o c r ats w o u l dtr e atan y Chr is tian b o dy thathe l p e d
the m to o v e r thr o w o u r p r e s e n tc iv il iz atio n
."
Itis in te r e s tin g to o b s e r v e thate x ac tl y the s am e c har g e has
b e e n b r o u g htag ain s tthe Chu r c hin Sp ain ,w hic hw as ac c u s e d
b y the an ti-c l e r ic al s o f the Rig hto f u n du e s u b s e r v ie n c e to the
r e p u b l ic an r e g im e .Tho u s an ds o f p r ie s ts v o te df o r the Re p u b l ic
in 1 9 3 1 .Pr o f e s s o r Al l is o n Pe e r s ,an An g l ic an w ho has de c l in e d
to tak e s ide s in the Sp an is hWar ,an dw ho k n o w s Sp ain
as f e w
En g l is hm e n k n o w Sp ain ,de s c r ib e s the attitu de o f the hie r ar c hy
to the Re p u b l ic "du r in g f iv e y e ar s o f s o r e tr ial "
as "n o to n l y
c o r r e c tb u tg e n e r o u s
."An dhe adde din al e tte r to
The Tim e s ,
in May ,1 9 3 8 ,"Iho p e s ho r tl y to p u b l is has e r ie s o f q u o tatio n s
f r o m e p is c o p al p as to r al s an ds p e e c he s (to o l o n g to as k y o u to
p r in the r e )w hic hw il l m ak e the ir l o y al ty to the Re p u b l ic an
r e g im e p e r f e c tl y c l e ar
.Whatthe y o p p o s e dw e r e tho s e ar tic l e s
o f the 1 9 3 1 Co n s titu tio n w hic hattac k e dthe Chu r c han dthe
r e l ig io u s an dm o r al p r in c ip l e s f o r w hic hits tan ds an din v o l v e d
au n il ate r al r e p u diatio n o f aCo n c o r dato f 8 o y e ar s ' s tan din g
.
J u s ts o ,y e ar s ag o ,An g l ic an B is ho p s p r o te s te dag ain s tWe l s h
D is e s tab l is hm e n tan dw o u l dp r e s u m ab l y p r o te s tag ain if a
Go v e r n m e n to f o u r o w n w e r e to c l o s e al l the Chu r c ho f
En g l an ds c ho o l s in the c o u n tr y ."
2 . Ev e r y g r o u p m u s tn e c e s s ar il y m ak e c o n c e s s io n s ,o the r
than c o n c e s s io n s o f b as ic p r in c ip l e s ,to e s tab l is h
a m o du s
v iv e n di w iththe State .
Itis e x c e p tio n al f o r J e w s in de m o c r atic c o u n tr ie s to p r o f e s s
THEAPOL OGETICS OF PERSECU TION

1 23
an y thin g b u tho s til ity to F as c is m ,b u tm an y Ital ian J e w s had
e x p r e s s e dthe ir adm ir atio n f o r the Co r p o r ate State b e f o r e the
r e c e n tan ti-Se m ite l e g is l atio n .Co n v in c e dNaz is m u s tb e r ar e
am o n g s in c e r e Ge r m an Pr o te s tan ts ,b u tthe Pr o te s tan ts w e r e
p r e p ar e dto s ac r if ic e e v e r y thin g s av e tho s e b as ic p r in c ip l e s
w hic hthe y hav e de f e n de dw ithm ag n if ic e n tc o u r ag e ,to ar r iv e
atan u n de r s tan din g w ithHitl e r .The Po p e has o f te n s e v e r e l y
c r itic iz e dc e r tain as p e c ts o f Ital ian F as c is m ,b u the has n o n e
the l e s s s ig n e daCo n c o r datw iththe Ital ian State ,ac o n c o r dat
w hic hhas s e c u r e df o r the Chu r c hf ar b e tte r tr e atm e n tthan s he
r e c e iv e du n de r the Par l iam e n tar y r e g im e .The Po p e has n o t
c o n c e al e dhis s tr o n g dis ap p r o v al o f the Naz ir e g im e ,b u the
has n o tde n o u n c e dthe Co n c o r datw ithGe r m an y ,in s p ite o f
the f ac tthatits te r m s hav e n o tb e e n k e p t,n o r has the Po p e
b r o k e n o f f r e l atio n s w iththe Re p u b l ic an Go v e r n m e n t in Sp ain ,
in s p ite o f the b itte r p e r s e c u tio n o f the Chu r c h . Af o r tio r i, the
Chu r c his p r e p ar e dto c o -o p e r ate w ithan y Go v e r n m e n tw hic h
al l o w s l ib e r ty o f w o r s hip ,an dw hic hg r an ts ar e as o n ab l e
m e as u r e o f f r e e do m f o r Chr is tian te ac hin g an dChr is tian
p r o p ag an da .
3 .Ev e r y g r o u p te n ds to b e c iv il to w ar ds tho s e w ho c o n -
tr ib u te to its r e s o u r c e s .
The D ail y Wo r k e r is c iv il to the D e an o f Can te r b u r y w ho s e
s u p p o r tCo m m u n is ts v al u e ,an dy e tif itw as c o n s is te n tit
w o u l dattac k him f o r p e ddl in g r o u n dthe "o p iu m o f the
p e o p l e ,"an df o r his c o n tin u e ds u p p o r to f s u p e r s titio n s w hic h
o n l y s e r v e ,o n the ir the o r y ,to f ac il itate the e x p l o itatio n o f the
p o o r
.The Chu r c hhas b e e n ac c u s e d,w iths o m e ju s tic e ,o f
u n du e c iv il ity to the r ic h .Ir e m e m b e r he ar in g an Am e r ic an
B is ho p c r itic iz e db e c au s e he ac c e p te dab ig s u b s c r ip tio n f r o m
am il l io n air e w ho w as ac c u s e do f g r o s s l y u n de r p ay in g his o w n
w o r k e r s .If the f ac ts w e r e as s tate d,the c r itic is m w as s o u n d,
b u tas har p dis tin c tio n m u s tb e dr aw n b e tw e e n tho s e w ho
c u l tiv ate the r ic hb e c au s e the y hav e aw e ak n e s s f o r g o o df o o d
an dg o o dw in e ,an dtho s e w ho ar e to o in du l g e n tto the s ho r t-
c o m in g s o f the g r e atb e c au s e the y ho p e f o r as u b s c r ip tio n to the
c har itie s f o r w hic hthe y ar e r e s p o n s ib l e .In the c as e Ihav e
m e n tio n e dthe B is ho p w o u l dhav e hadto s ac r if ic e am o s t
1 24

THEAPOL OGETICSOF PERSECU TION
de s e r v in g c har ity hadhe r e f u s e dto ac c e p tthe m o n e y o f am an
w ho s e b u s in e s s m e tho ds in v ite dc e n s u r e
.V ic ar io u s he r o is m at
the e x p e n s e o f the ir f l o c k s is l e s s c o m m o n am o n g p r ie s ts ,o f al l
de n o m in atio n s ,than in div idu al he r o is m in tim e s o f p e r s e c u tio n
.
The r e ar e ,in de e d,m an y r e ac tio n ar y p r e l ate s w ho w o u l dn o t
f in ditdif f ic u l tto ac c e p tde athf o r the m s e l v e s b u tim p o s s ib l e
to r e f u s e ac he q u e f o r the ir p o o r .
4
.Ev e r y g r o u p is c o m p o s e do f hu m an b e in g s w ho s e hu m an
f r ail tie s p r o v ide n o l e g itim ate p r e te x tf o r the p e r s e c u tio n o f
the g r o u p
.In div idu al m e m b e r s o f ag r o u p m ay ju s tl y b e
p u n is he df o r the ir in div idu al o f f e n c e s ,b u tp e r s e c u tio n o f a
g r o u p is o n l y ju s tif iab l e if the o b je c tiv e s o f the g r o u p ar e an ti-
s o c ial .
Ev e n b ig o ts w o u l df in ditdif f ic u l tto r e f u te this s e l f -e v ide n t
p r in c ip l e ,b u to n c e the p r in c ip l e is ac c e p te d,the p e r s e c u tio n
o f the J e w s m u s tn e c e s s ar il y b e c o n de m n e du n l e s s w e c an
p r o v e thatthe o b je c tiv e s o f J u dais m ar e an ti-s o c ial
.Itis e as ie r
to de n o u n c e than to de f in e the s e al l e g e do b je c tiv e s
.In de e d,
itis b y n o m e an s e as y to p r o v e thatJ u dais m as s u c hhas an y
o b je c tiv e s o the r than the l e g itim ate o b je c tiv e o f s e l f -p r o te c tio n
ag ain s tan ti-s e m itis m
.The o n l y te n e tc o m m o n to J e w s is the
b e l ie f thatJ e w s s ho u l dn o tb e p e r s e c u te d
.
Ev e r y g r o u p ,
r e l ig io u s ,p o l itic al o r r ac ial ,p r e s e n ts to ho s til e c r itic s an
e x ag g e r ate dim p r e s s io n o f u n ity
."Catho l ic s ,"r e m ar k e dF athe r
Mar tin dal e ,"u s e u p al l the ir av ail ab l e u n ity o n p o in ts o f
de f in e ddo c tr in e ,an dhav e n o thin g l e f to v e r f o r an y thin g e l s e
."
Itis e s tim ate dthats e v e n ty p e r c e n to f Catho l ic s in En g l an d
v o te L ab o u r ,y e tCatho l ic is m is al w ay s ac c u s e do f s u p p o r tin g
r e ac tio n
.Itis s aidthatthe m ajo r ity o f J e w s ar e Co m m u n is ts
o r n e ar -Co m m u n is ts ,b u tthe al l e g e dal l ian c e b e tw e e n J e w s
an dthe L e f tm ay ,f o r al l Ik n o w ,hav e e v e n l e s s f o u n datio n
than the al l e g e dal l ian c e b e tw e e n Catho l ic s an dthe Rig ht
.
Of al l f o r m s o f p e r s e c u tio n r ac ial p e r s e c u tio n is p e r hap s the
m o s tc r u e l ,f o r am an c an c han g e his r e l ig io n ,his p o l itic s o r
his n atio n al ity ,b u tn o m an c an c han g e his r ac e
.L e tm e b r ie f l y
s u m m ar iz e the p r e te x ts adv an c e din ju s tif ic atio n o f an ti-Se m ite
p e r s e c u tio n
.
(a)
The Ru s s ian Re v o l u tio n w as e n g in e e r e db y Y e w s
. J e w s
THEAPOL OGETICSOF PERSECU TION

1 25
w e r e c e r tain l y p r o m in e n tam o n g the l e adin g B o l s he v ik s ,w hic h
is s c ar c e l y s u r p r is in g ,f o r the J e w s hadn o r e as o n to l o v e ,an d
e v e r y r e as o n to r e v o l tag ain s t,the Ts ar is tr e g im e w hic hhad
dr iv e n the m in to the g he tto an dde c im ate dthe m b y p e r io dic al
p o g r o m s
.
(b )
Y e w s ar e p r o m in e n tin al l s u b v e r s iv e m o v e m e n ts
.Su b -
v e r s iv e s ar e al w ay s m o r e p r o m in e n t,m o r e ar tic u l ate an dm o r e
ac tiv e than tr aditio n al is ts
.We he ar ag r e atde al ab o u ts u b -
v e r s iv e J e w s ,b u tv e r y l ittl e ab o u tCo n s e r v ativ e J e w s
.Y e to n e
o f En g l an d' s g r e ate s tPr im e Min is te r s w as
the Co n s e r v ativ e
D is r ae l i
.Tho u s an ds o f J e w s in En g l an db e l o n g to Co n s e r v ativ e
an dNatio n al As s o c iatio n s s u c has the Pr im r o s e L e ag u e ,the
Nav y L e ag u e ,e tc .
(c )Y e w s dir e c tthe w o r l d-w ide c am p aig n ag ain s tChr is tian
c iv il iz atio n
. J e w s ar e c e r tain l y p r o m in e n tin the w ar ag ain s t
Chr is tian ity
. The s e o b s tin ate m e n hav e r e s is te din p as t
c e n tu r ie s the dial e c tic s o f p e r s e c u tio n
.The r ac k ,the s tak e
an dthe p o g r o m hav e l e f tthe m u n c o n v in c e dthatChr is tian
c iv il iz atio n is in f in ite l y s u p e r io r to the ir o w n s e c tar ian c u l tu r e
.
B u ts in c e the s e p l au s ib l e ar g u m e n ts hav e s o c o n s is te n tl y f ail e d,
the r e is n o r e as o n to ho p e thatm o de m an ti-s e m itis m w il l
s u c c e e d.
(d)
Y e w s ar e u n p atr io tic ,f o r the y ar e o n l y l o y al to in te r -
n atio n al J u dais m .
The J e w is him m ig r an tw ho ap p l ie s f o r
n atu r al iz atio n p ap e r s is o f te n an in te r n atio n al is tin his o u tl o o k ,
as ar e al s o im m ig r an ts o f o the r r ac e s
.The J e w is hin f l u e n c e in
the Gr an dOr ie n t,an dthr o u g hthe Gr an dOr ie n to n F r e n c h
So c ial is m ,has n o to n l y b e e n in te r n atio n al b u tan ti-n atio n al .
Ev e r y e f f o r ts ho u l db e m ade to c o u n te r ac tthe in f l u e n c e o f
s u c hJ e w s an do f the ir Ge n til e al l ie s
.B u titis u n ju s tto c o n -
de m n the m ajo r ity o f J e w s w ho ide n tif y the m s e l v e s w iththe
c o u n tr y o f the ir b ir tho r c ho ic e b e c au s e am in o r ity ar e
u n p atr io tic .
The c hil dr e n o f im m ig r an ts ar e n o r m al l y as
p atr io tic as tho s e b o r n o f n ativ e s to c k
.The l o v e o f Ge r m an y
has s e l do m f o u n dm o r e p as s io n ate an dm o r e m o v in g e x p r e s s io n
than in the p o e tr y o f the Ge r m an J e w ,He in r ic hHe in e .
(e )
Y e w s ar e p r o m in e n tin the e x p l o itatio n o f v ic e
.So ar e
Ge n til e s
.B u tw he r e as e v e r y b o dy k n o w s thatm an y o f the
F -W
1 26

THEAPOL OGETICS OF
PERSECU TION
m o r e s al ac io u s f il m s w e r e p r o du c e db y J e w is hf ir m s ,v e r y f e w
p e o p l e ar e aw ar e o f af ac t,m e n tio n e dto m e b y an Am e r ic an
Mo n s ig n o r ,thatthe hie r ar c hy r e c e iv e din v al u ab l e s u p p o r tin
its c am p aig n f o r c l e an f il m s f r o m l e adin g J e w is hp e r s o n al itie s
in the w o r l do f Ho l l y w o o d .
(f )
J e w s ar e u n p l e as an tl y c l an n is h
.On c e the y g e taf o o tin g
in to ab u s in e s s the y s u r r o u n dthe m s e l v e s w itho the r J e w s ,an d
dr iv e o u tthe Ge n til e s
. Pe r hap s ,b u tthe in e v itab l e r e s u l to f
dr iv in g ar ac e in to the g he tto is to de v e l o p the g he tto c o m p l e x
w ithitin e v itab l e c l an n is hn e s s .The an ti-s e m itis m w hic his
o n l y af o r m o f e c o n o m ic je al o u s y v ar ie s in v e r s e l y w iththe
in te l l ig e n c e o f the n ativ e p o u l atio n
.The Ge r m an s ar e m o r e
har dw o r k in g b u to n the b al an c e l e s s q u ic k -w itte dthan the
B r itis h,Ital ian s o r Sp an iar ds ,an dc o n s e q u e n tl y an ti-s e m itis m
is f ar m o r e v io l e n tin Ge r m an y than in the L atin c o u n tr ie s o r
Gr e atB r itain
.
(g )
J e w s ar e r u thl e s s as m o n e y -l e n de r s an du s u r e r s
. The r e
ar e r u thl e s s Ge n til e m o n e y -l e n de r s ,an dthe r e f o r e the r ig ht
c o u r s e is to l e g is l ate n o tag ain s tJ e w s b u tag ain s tu s u r y
.In r e c e n t
y e ar s Ac ts o f Par l iam e n thav e b e e n p as s e dto p r o te c tthe de b to r
ag ain s te x o r b itan tc l aim s
.The s e Ac ts e x e m p l if y the p r in c ip l e
w hic hIde f e n d,thatm e n s ho u l db e p u n is he df o r an ti-s o c ial
ac tiv itie s an dn o tf o r m e m b e r s hip o f ar ac e w hic hin c l u de s ,as
al l r ac e s in c l u de ,an ti-s o c ial in div idu al s
.
Itw as n e c e s s ar y to dis c u s s in s o m e de tail the ap o l o g e tic s o f
an ti-s e m itis m ,b e c au s e an ti-Co m m u n is m an dan ti-s e m itis m
ar e s o c l o s e l y as s o c iate din Ge r m an y an de l s e w he r e
.Iam
r e s o l u te l y o p p o s e dto J e w is hCo m m u n is ts n o tb e c au s e the y ar e
J e w s b u tb e c au s e the y ar e Co m m u n is ts
.The J e w has f ar m o r e
e x c u s e than the Ge n til e f o r e m b r ac in g Co m m u n is m ,f o r So v ie t
Ru s s iaan dNaz iGe r m an y ar e b itte r e n e m ie s ,an ditis te m p tin g
f o r the J e w to s u p p o r tan y o p p o n e n to f Hitl e r ,an dto f e e l s o m e
s y m p athy f o r tho s e w ho hav e av e n g e din Ru s s iathe p e r s e c u tio n
w hic hthe J e w s e n du r e du n de r the Ts ar s
.
We ar e l iv in g to day in the dar k e s tp e r io do f Eu r o p e an
his to r y
.Ne v e r has p e r s e c u tio n b e e n m o r e g e n e r al ,m o r e
s y s te m atic an dm o r e s u c c e s s f u l
.Su r e l y the tim e has c o m e f o r
al l m e n o f g o o dw il l to u n ite in p r o te s tin g ag ain s tp e r s e c u tio n
1 1 1 GHi"V L V ~s G1 1 1 ~ .7 V Pr L ' A.l .G4 U 1 1 V 1 \

ac ,
as s u c h . Tho s e w ho ar e o n l y m o v e db y the s u f f e r in g s o f
Pr o te s tan ts an dJ e w s ,an dtho s e w ho m o u r n the m ar ty r s o f
Re p u b l ic an Sp ain b u tc o n do n e the p e r s e c u tio n o f J e w s in
Ge r m an y ,do n o thate p e r s e c u tio n as s u c h
. Se l e c tiv e in dig -
n atio n is o f l ittl e av ail ag ain s tthe g r o w in g te n de n c y to c o n do n e
an dto de f e n db r u tal ity ,f o r p r o te s ts p r o v o k e do n l y b y the
s u f f e r in g s o f o n e ' s o w n g r o u p do n o thin g to ar r e s tthe r ap id
de c l in e o f Eu r o p e in to b ar b ar is m .Tho s e w ho de te s tal l f o r m s
o f p e r s e c u tio n w il l n o tc o n te n tthe m s e l v e s w iththo s e p o o r
p e r f u n c to r y p hr as e s o f c o n v e n tio n al r e g r e tw hic hs e r v e r athe r
to de f e n dthan to c o n de m n ."Of c o u r s e the m u r de r o f s o m an y
Sp an is hp r ie s ts w as v e r y r e g r e ttab l e b u t . . . ."Or ,"o f c o u r s e ,
the m e tho ds w hic hHitl e r has ado p te dto de al w iththe J e w is h
p r o b l e m ar e v e r y r e g r e ttab l e b u t . . . ." The Chr is tian
ap o l o g is tis l e s s e m b ar r as s e db y the f ac tthats e c u l ar Go v e r n -
m e n ts in Chr is tian State s s ho u l dhav e c o n tin u e dto e x p l o it
v io l e n c e an dto r tu r e than b y the c o n n iv an c e o f e c c l e s ias tic s in
m e tho ds w hic hw e k n o w to b e in c o m p atib l e w iththe te ac hin g
o f Chr is t .Chr is tian ap o l o g is ts in y e ar s to c o m e w il l b e n o l e s s
p e r p l e x e db y the f ail u r e o f Chr is te n do m to u n ite in its c o n -
de m n atio n o f p e r s e c u tio n s e v e n m o r e te r r ib l e ,m o r e p e r s is te n t
an dm o r e c o m p r e he n s iv e than an y w hic har e r e c o r de din the
e ar l y his to r y o f the Chu r c h
.
CHAPTERXIV
THEF RU ITSOF AF AL SEPHIL OSOPHY
"CRU EL TY an dthe ab u s e o f p o w e r ,"w r o te Char l e s D ic k e n s ,
"ar e the tw o b adp as s io n s o f hu m an n atu r e ,"p as s io n s w hic h
hav e n o tb e e n e r adic ate d,b u thav e c e r tain l y b e e n tam e db y
Chr is tian ity ,f o r tho u g hn o Chr is tian c an r e adw itho u ts ham e
the his to r y o f the In q u is itio n o r the s to r y o f the Catho l ic
m ar ty r s r ac k e dan dto r tu r e din El iz ab e than En g l an d,Eu r o p e ,
e v e n in its dar k e s tm o m e n ts ,p aidho m ag e to Chr is tian
ide al s ,ide al s w ho s e in f l u e n c e w as c u m u l ativ e an dp r o g r e s s iv e .
The r ac k an dthe s tak e v an is he df r o m Eu r o p e u n de r p r e s s u r e
o f the s tr o n g e s to f al l ar g u m e n ts ,the ap p e al f r o m Chr is tian s
to Chr is t .The c o n tr as tb e tw e e n the ide al s an dthe p r ac tic e
o f Chr is tian m e n is im p r e s s iv e ,b u tthe v al u e o f the Chr is tian
ide al s has b e e n p r o v e db y the c o n s e q u e n c e s w hic hf o l l o w w he n
the s e ide al s ar e r e p u diate d . Ru s s iais the f ir s tEu r o p e an
c o u n tr y o f f ic ial l y to ac c e p tathe is tic m ate r ial is m as the State
c r e e d,an do n l y tho s e w ho ar e w il f u l l y b l in dc an c o n tin u e to
ig n o r e the f r u its o f thatf al s e p hil o s o p hy .
So v ie tRu s s iap r o v ide s in dir e c te v ide n c e o f the im m e n s e
im p o r tan c e o f hig hs tan dar ds e v e n in as o c ie ty in w hic ho n l y
am in o r ity s e r io u s l y atte m p tto l iv e u p to tho s e s tan dar ds .Ev e n
l ip -s e r v ic e to an ide al has s o m e v al u e
.The c o n tr as tb e tw e e n
So v ie tRu s s iaan dthe Chr is tian Eu r o p e w hic he v e n in its
dar k e s tp e r io dr e c o g n iz e dChr is tian ide al s ,is ap o w e r f u l if
in dir e c tar g u m e n tf o r the in f l u e n c e o f Chr is tian ity .So v ie t
Ru s s iaw ithin af e w s ho r ty e ar s has s ac r if ic e dthe har d-w o n
g ain s o f the Chr is tian s p ir it,an dhas r e -e s tab l is he dthe r u thl e s s
s tan dar ds o f the p ag an w o r l din to w hic hChr is tw as b o r n .
The u n e as y c o n s c ie n c e o f the Chr is te n do m w hic hs til l c o n -
do n e dan de x p l o ite dp r e -Chr is tian m e tho ds o f p e r s e c u tio n is
ap p ar e n tin the ap o l o g e tic s w ithw hic hChr is tian s atte m p te d
to ju s tif y the r ac k an dthe s tak e
.The s e tr ag ic de r e l ic tio n s ,
1 28
THE F RU ITS OF AF AL SE PHIL U SOPIIY

t : Gy
w hic hChr is tian s de f e n de dw ithhal tin g c as u is tr y ,ar e p r o u dl y
ac c e p te db y Co m m u n is ts as an in te g r al e l e m e n to f the ir n e w
c iv il iz atio n .Mo de r n State s ac c u s e do f w ar atr o c itie s hav e
im p l ic itl y r e c o g n iz e dthe Chr is tian s tan dar ds ,an dhav e e ithe r
in dig n an tl y de n ie dthe c har g e s ,o r hav e dis c l aim e dr e s p o n -
s ib il ity f o r r e g r e ttab l e e x c e s s e s .The w o r s tc r im e s c har g e d
ag ain s tState s s til l in f l u e n c e db y Chr is tian ity ar e v e n ial c o m -
p ar e dw iththe ho r r o r s o f f ic ial l y e n jo in e db y the r u l e r s o f
So v ie tRu s s ia.The s e c r e tiv e u s e o f te r r o r is m as an e m e r g e n c y
w e ap o n to b e dis o w n e dan dde n ie dw he n c hal l e n g e dhas b e e n
dis p l ac e db y the de f ian tg l o r if ic atio n o f te r r o r is m an do f
v io l e n c e .L e n in ,in de e d,ar g u e s thatthe dic tato r s hip o f the
Pr o l e tar iatis im p o s s ib l e w itho u tthe "v io l e n c e w hic his n o t
l im ite db y an y l aw s o r r e s tr ic te db y an y ab s o l u te r u l e s ." (1 )
L e n in g l o r if ie s te r r o r is m in the f am o u s l e tte r p u b l is he din The
B o l s he v ik f o r Oc to b e r 3 1 s t,1 9 20 ."The l e g al tr ial ,"he w r o te ,
"is n o tin te n de dto r e p l ac e te r r o r is m ; to m ak e s u c hap r o f e s s io n
w o u l db e de c e p tio n o f o the r s o r o n e s e l f ; b u tto b as e te r r o r is m
f ir m l y o n af u n dam e n tal p r in c ip l e an dg iv e ital e g al f o r m ,
u n am b ig u o u s ,w itho u tdis ho n e s ty o r e m b e l l is hm e n t ." (2)
Mr .Wal te r D u r an ty ,f o r m an y y e ar s the b r il l ian tc o r r e s -
p o n de n to f the Ne w Y o r k Tim e s in Ru s s ia,m ay b e c l as s if ie d
as an e u tr al ,if n o tac tu al l y as af r ie n dl y w itn e s s ."Y o u hav e
do n e ag o o djo b in y o u r r e p o r tin g o f the U .S.S.R
.", s aid
Stal in to D u r an ty o n Chr is tm as D ay ,1 9 3 3 ,"al tho u g hy o u ar e
n o taMar x is t,b e c au s e y o u tr ie dto te l l the tr u thab o u to u r
c o u n tr y an dto u n de r s tan ditan de x p l ain itto y o u r r e ade r s .
Im ig hts ay thaty o u b e to n o u r ho r s e to w in w he n o the r s
tho u g htithadn o c han c e ,an dIam s u r e y o u hav e n o tl o s t
b y it-"(3 )
Mr .D u r an ty o b tain e dw iths o m e dif f ic u l ty ac o p y o f a
p am p hl e to n te r r o r w r itte n b y L ats is atthe tim e w he n he
w as in c o n tr o l o f the Che k a ."Ite x p l ain e din s im p l e ,l u c id
te r m s the p r in c ip l e s b y w hic hthe Re dTe r r o r w as dir e c te d .
The c hie f p u r p o s e ,the w r ite r s aid,w as to s tr ik e te r r o r in to
the he ar ts o f the e n e m ie s o f the Re v o l u tio n ; the r e f o r e ac tio n
m u s tb e r u thl e s s an d,ab o v e al l ,s w if t .The de s tr u c tio n o f
e n e m ie s w itho u tde l ay m ig hto f te n ,b y p ar al y z in g o p p o s itio n ,
1 3 0

THE F RU ITS OF A F AL SE PHIL OSOPHY
s av e m an y m o r e l iv e s l ate r .Se c r e c y w as al s o s tr e s s e d,b e c au s e
that,to o ,w as an e l e m e n to f te r r o r .F o r this r e as o n Che k a
ar r e s ts al m o s tal w ay s w e r e m ade in the de ado f n ig htan dthe
r e l ativ e s an df r ie n ds o f ar r e s te dp e r s o n s g e n e r al l y he ar dn o
m o r e o f the m f o r w e e k s
."(4 )
On the n ig hto f the atte m p to n L e n in ' s l if e f iv e hu n dr e d
p e o p l e w e r e e x e c u te dw itho u ttr ial ,n o t, as Mr
.D u r an ty
e x p l ain s ,b e c au s e the y w e r e p r iv y to the p l o t,b u tb e c au s e as
"f o r m e r n o b l e s ,l an dl o r ds ,b an k e r s o r g e n e r al s ,"the y w e r e
r e g ar de das " ` c l as s e n e m ie s ' w ho s e ` e x e c u tio n ' " w as n e c e s s ar y
"as an e x am p l e an dw ar n in g
."In s u p p o r to f this v ie w Mr
.
D u r an ty q u o te s as ig n if ic an tp as s ag e f r o m the o f f ic ial his to r y
o f the Ru s s ian Co m m u n is tPar ty w r itte n b y Po p o v in
1 9 3 1 -
"The s y s te m o f m as s Re dTe r r o r p r o v e daw e ap o n o f
tr e m e n do u s im p o r tan c e .Itc am e do w n w ithal l its s e v e r ity
u p o n the he ads o f the l an dl o r dan db o u r g e o is c o u n te r -
r e v o l u tio n ar ie s ,o n the White o f f ic e r s ,b ig Ts ar is to f f ic ial s ,an d
the m o s tp r o m in e n tf ig u r e s am o n g the n o b il ity ,the c l e r g y an d
the c ap ital is ts ."(5 )
The b as ic p r in c ip l e s o f c iv il iz atio n ar e b e in g c hal l e n g e d in
So v ie tRu s s ia.No m an s ho u l db e p u n is he dm e r e l y b e c au s e he
b e l o n g s to ap ar tic u l ar r e l ig io n ,r ac e o r s o c ial c l as s ,an dn o
m an s ho u l db e c o n de m n e df o r c r im in al o f f e n c e s w hic hhe had
n o thim s e l f c o m m itte d .B o ththe s e s e l f -e v ide n tp r in c ip l e s hav e
b e e n r e je c te db y So v ie tRu s s ia .Me n ar e e x e c u te dm e r e l y
b e c au s e the y b e l o n g to ap ar tic u l ar c l as s ,ho s tag e s ar e
im p r is o n e db e c au s e the ir r e l ativ e s hav e f ail e dto r e tu r n f r o m
ab r o ad .
On No v e m b e r 1 s t,1 9 3 8 ,L ats is ,s tatic ian to the Ru s s ian
Go v e r n m e n t,an dr e s p o n s ib l e as s u c hf o r c o m p il in g s tatis tic s
o f e x e c u tio n s ,p u b l is he dan ar tic l e o n the Re dTe r r o r in w hic h
the f o l l o w in g p as s ag e o c c u r s ,"We ar e o u tto de s tr o y the
b o u r g e o is ie as ac l as s .He n c e ,w he n e v e r a b o u r g e o is is u n de r
e x am in atio n the f ir s ts te p s ho u l db e ,n o tto e n de av o u r to
dis c o v e r m ate r ial o f p r o o f thatthe ac c u s e dhas o p p o s e dthe
So v ie tGo v e r n m e n t,w he the r v e r b al l y o r ac tu al l y ,b u tto p u tto
the w itn e s s the thr e e q u e s tio n s : ` To w hat c l as s do e s the ac c u s e d
b e l o n g ? ' ` Whatis his o r ig in ? ' an d` D e s c r ib e his u p b r in g in g ,
THE F RU ITSOF AF AL SEPHIL OSOPHY

1 3 1
e du c atio n , an dp r o f e s s io n .' So l e l y in ac c o r dan c e w iththe
an s w e r s to the s e thr e e q u e s tio n s s ho u l dhis f ate b e de c ide d .
F o r this is w hat` Re dTe r r o r ' m e an s ,an dw hatitim p l ie s ."(6 )
L ats is ,as Me l g o u n o v r e m in ds u s ,w as am e r e p l ag iar is t,f o r
he hadado p te dw ithm o dif ic atio n the f o r m u l ao f the F r e n c h
te r r o r is ts
."To e x e c u te the e n e m ie s o f o n e ' s c o u n tr y ,"s aid
Ro b e s p ie r r e ,"o n e n e e ds b u tto e s tab l is hthe f ac tthatthe y ar e
the m s e l v e s .No tthe ir c has tis e m e n t,b u tthe ir an n ihil atio n ,is
w hatis c al l e df o r
."(7 )
In I9 2I the "U n io n o f Ru s s ian Pu b l ic is ts an d J o u r n al is ts
Re s ide n tin Par is "is s u e dan ap p e al w hic hb e g an ,"The r e s ho u l d
b e n o p u n is hm e n tw he r e the r e has b e e n n o c r im e ,"ap r in c ip l e
w hic hthe y de s c r ib e das "the f ir s tan df o r e m o s tv e r ity o f
c iv il iz atio n ."(8 )Itis l e s s dis c o n c e r tin g thatthis s e l f -e v ide n t
p r in c ip l e s ho u l db e dis r e g ar de din So v ie tRu s s iathan that
de c e n tan dam iab l e ,if f o o l is h,p e o p l e in En g l an dan dAm e r ic a
s ho u l dc o n tin u e to de f e n daGo v e r n m e n tw hic htr e ats w ith
c o n te m p tthis "f ir s tan df o r e m o s tv e r ity o f c iv il iz atio n ."S.P.
Me l g o u n o v ,in the f ir s tc hap te r o f his b o o k , The Re dTe r r o r
in Ru s s ia, de s c r ib e s in de tail the So v ie ts y s te m o f ho s tag e s ,a
s y s te m w hic hv io l ate s y e tan o the r b as ic v e r ity o f c iv il iz atio n .
Ac o r r e s p o n de n tw ho s ig n s him s e l f "J .K .B .", an dw ho w as
de s c r ib e db y the Man c he s te r Gu ar dian in an e dito r ial n o te as
hav in g "ac l o s e k n o w l e dg e o f p o l itic al c o n ditio n s in Ru s s ia,"
e x p l ain e dthe ab je c tc o n f e s s io n s o f K am e n e v an dZ in o v ie v
b y the ir f e ar o f r e p r is al s o n the ir w iv e s an dc hil dr e n ."Ac c o r d-
in g to So v ie tl aw ,"w r ite s J .K .B ., "the f am il ie s o f an y So v ie t
c itiz e n w ho e s c ap e s ab r o ado r s tay s ab r o adar e l iab l e to te n
y e ar s ' im p r is o n m e n t.This l aw r e f e r s n o tto ac c u s e dp e r s o n s
b u tto tho s e w ho dar e to w is hto l iv e e l s e w he r e than in Ru s s ia .
Mak in g am an ' s f am il y s u f f e r f o r his c r im e s is an ac c e p te d
p r ac tic e in Ru s s iaan de x p l ain s m u c ho f w hatap p e ar s in -
c o m p r e he n s ib l e to the f o r e ig n o b s e r v e r .Tho s e w ho s e ab je c t
c o n f e s s io n s ar e r e adin c o u r tto m ak e ap u b l ic ho l iday ho p e
to s av e the ir f am il ie s f r o m p r is o n o r de s titu tio n e v e n if the y
hav e l ittl e ho p e o f s av in g the ir o w n l iv e s ." (9 )
The in te r -
Par ty f e u db e tw e e n Stal in an dthe o l dB o l s he v ik s "s e ttl e d
thin g s ,"ac c o r din g to Mr .D u r an ty ,"in the o n l y w ay w hic h
1 3 2

THE
F RU ITSOF AF AL SEPHIL OSOPHY
As iac an u n de r s tan d,thatis ,b y the s u r v iv al o f the f itte s t in a
c o n f l ic tw itho u tm e r c y ."
(1 o )
Stal in ' s f am o u s r e m ar k to ' a
J ap an e s e ,"Ito o am As iatic ,"has o f te n b e e n q u o te d,an d
c e r tain l y Stal in ' s te c hn iq u e o f l iq u idatio n is As iatic in its
im m e n s e ,u n p r e c e de n te ds c al e .Itis ,o f c o u r s e ,im p o s s ib l e to
o b tain ac c u r ate s tatis tic s o f e x e c u tio n s in So v ie tRu s s ia,an d
Ithe r e f o r e q u o te w ithr e s e r v e the e s tim ate g iv e n b y Il jin in
his b o o k , The Wo r l do n the B r in k o f the Ab y s s . Ac c o r din g to
this e s tim ate ,w hic his al r e ady o u to f date ,i,8 6 o ,o o o p e o p l e
hav e b e e n p u tto de ath,am o n g the m 28 b is ho p s ,1 ,20 0 p r ie s ts ,
6 ,o o o te ac he r s an dp r o f e s s o r s ,8 ,8 o o do c to r s ,1 9 2,0 0 0 w o r k -
m e n an d8 1 5 ,0 0 0 p e as an ts . (1 1 ) Ac c o r din g to Mr .W .H.
Cham b e r l in ,w ho r e p r e s e n te dthe Chr is tian Sc ie n c e Mo n ito r
in Ru s s iaf r o m 1 9 22to 1 9 3 4 ,the n u m b e r o f So v ie tc itiz e n s
w ho hav e b e e n "de p r iv e do f l ib e r ty w itho u tan y thin g that
c o u l dp l au s ib l y b e c al l e d` du e p r o c e s s o f l aw ' c an b e s c ar c e l y
l e s s than tw o m il l io n ."(1 2)
No thin g ,ag ain ,c o u l db e m o r e r u thl e s s than the m e tho ds
ado p te db y Stal in to b r e ak the r e s is tan c e o f the r e c al c itr an t
p e as an ts .On D e c e m b e r 27 th,1 9 29 ,Stal in r ais e dthe s l o g an ,
"The l iq u idatio n o f the k u l ak s as ac l as s ."The te r m "k u l ak "
w as e m p l o y e daf te r the Re v o l u tio n to de s c r ib e an y p e as an t
w ho e m p l o y e dl ab o u r o r w ho o w n e ds l ig htl y m o r e p r o p e r ty
than the r e s t .The w o r d"k u l ak "r ap idl y de g e n e r ate din to a
g e n e r al te r m o f ab u s e ."An y p e as an t,"w r ite s Mr .Eu g e n e
L y o n s ,"w ho w as to o o u ts p o k e n in the g e n e r a! dis l ik e o f
c o l l e c tiv iz atio n ,tax e s ,g r ain de l iv e r ie s ,b e c am e ak u l ak ."(1 3 )
Stal in l o s tn o tim e in tr an s l atin g in to ac tio n his p r o g r am m e
f o r the l iq u idatio n o f the k u l ak s . The p o o r an dl an dl e s s
p e as an ts ac c e p te dw ithe n thu s ias m the p ar tw hic hStal in had
as s ig n e dto the m in this n e w r e v o l u tio n .The y atte n de dv il l ag e
m e e tin g s thr o u g ho u tthe c o u n tr y ,an dv o te dthats u c han d
s u c hp e as an ts w e r e "k u l ak s "an dthe r e f o r e de s e r v in g o f
l iq u idatio n .As m an y as f if te e n o r tw e n ty p e r c e n to f the
p e as an ts w e r e "l iq u idate d"in s o m e v il l ag e s . (1 4 )
Ac o m m u n ity e q u al to the p o p u l atio n o f Sw itz e r l an dw as
de p r iv e do f al l the y p o s s e s s e d,l an dan dho m e ,c attl e an d
to o l s ."K u l ak s "w ho w e r e g u il ty o f the in du s tr y an din te l l i-
THE F RU ITS OF AF AL SE PHIL OSOPHY
1 3 3
g e n c e w hic hhadr ais e dthe m ab o v e the ir f e l l o w s w e r e m ar c he d
b e tw e e n b ay o n e ts to the r ail w ay s tatio n ,an dc r o w de dl ik e
c attl e in to f r e ig httr ain s .Tho u s an ds die do f e x p o s u r e o n the
l o n g ,b itte r jo u r n e y to the de s e r ts o f Ce n tr al As ia,o r to the
w in ds w e p tu p l an ds o f the f r o z e n n o r th .Hu n dr e ds o f
tho u s an ds p e r is he dm is e r ab l y in the f o r c e dl ab o u r s e ttl e m e n ts
w he r e the y w e r e e v e n tu al l y du m p e d
.Tho u s an ds o f ho m e l e s s
w aif s w ho s e k u l ak p ar e n ts haddie d,o r hadr e f u s e dto dr ag
the m in to e x il e ,w an de r e dthr o u g hthe l an d
.
( 1 5 )
Ev e n the m o s ts e r v il e o f So v ie tp an e g y r is ts hav e f o u n dit
dif f ic u l tto de f e n dthe l iq u idatio n o f the k u l ak s .An n aL o u is e
Str o n g ,aw e l l -k n o w n Am e r ic an Co m m u n is t,de s c r ib e s it as
"the m o s ts p e c tac u l ar ac to f r u thl e s s n e s s w hic ho c c u r r e din
the s e y e ar s ." (1 6 ) "The s u m o f hu m an s u f f e r in g in v o l v e d,"
w r ite the We b b s ,"is b e y o n dal l c o m p u tatio n ."(1 7 ) Mr .
G.D .H.Co l e ,an e x tr e m e So c ial is t,w ho w r ite s w ithr e s p e c t
o f "So c ial is tPl an n in g in the U .S.S.R.", de s c r ib e s the "r u th-
l e s s s u p p r e s s io n o f the k u l ak s " as "m o r al l y in de f e n s ib l e an d
al s o e c o n o m ic al l y w r o n g ."Mr .Co l e in s is ts thatam o n g tho s e
l iq u idate dw e r e "m an y o f the m o s tc o m p e te n tf ar m e r s ." (1 8 )
His v ie w is s u p p o r te db y Mr .Cham b e r l in ,w ho dis m is s e s w ith
c o n te m p tthe ar g u m e n to f So v ie tap o l o g is ts ,thatal l the dif f i-
c u l tie s o f c o l l e c tiv iz atio n w e r e du e to "the ` b ac k w ar dn e s s ' o f the
p e as an ts ."The b e s tdis p r o o f o f this ide ais the u n q u e s tio n ab l e
f ac tthatc o l l e c tiv iz atio n w r o u g htg r e ate s thav o c ,in the m ain ,
ju s tw he r e the p e as an ts w e r e m o r e in te l l ig e n t,m o r e p r o g r e s s iv e
in f ar m in g m e tho ds ,w he r e the p r e -w ar s tan dar do f l iv in g
w as hig he s t .Itis n o tin the p r im itiv e Cau c as ian au l (m o u n tain
v il l ag e )o r in the f o r e s tham l e to f the No r ththato n e f in ds the
c l e ar e s ts ig n s o f de v as tatio n
.The w o r s tf am in e r e g io n s in
1 9 3 2-1 9 3 3 w e r e in m an y c as e s the m o s tf e r til e an dp r o s p e r o u s
f ar m in g dis tr ic ts o f p r e -w ar Ru s s ia : the r ic hNo r thCau c as u s ;
the Ge r m an c o l o n ie s o n the V o l g aan din U k r ain e ,w he r e the
p e o p l e w e r e al w ay s n o te df o r the ir g o o df ar m in g
; the f e r til e
' b l ac k -e ar th' U k r ain ian p r o v in c e s o f K ie v an dPo l tav a
."(ig )
The l iq u idatio n o f the k u l ak s w as f o l l o w e df o u r y e ar s l ate r
b y the de l ib e r ate o r g an iz atio n o f f am in e
.Af am in e ,ar tif ic ial l y
o r g an iz e d,,w as e m p l o y e dto b r e ak the r e s is tan c e o f the p e as an ts
F *
1 3 4

THEF RU ITSOF AF AL SEPHIL OSOPHY
to the r e g im e o f c o l l e c tiv iz atio n .The "de p l o r ab l e g e n e r al
s u l l e n n e s s . . .o f the p e as an ts "(20 ), to q u o te the We b b s ' s y m -
p athe tic de s c r ip tio n ,w as m o r e ac c u r ate l y de s c r ib e db y Eu g e n e
L y o n s as "aw e ar in e s s o f the s p ir itan db o dy s o p r o f o u n dthat
e v e n the p r o s p e c to f de athb y s tar v atio n c o u l dn o ts tir the m
in to ac tiv ity ."
(21 ) Whatw as the u s e ,ar g u e dthe p e as an ts ,
o f r e ap in g c r o p s w hic hGo v e r n m e n tg r ain c o l l e c to r s w o u l d
r e m o v e ? The y s o w e dw hatthe y r e q u ir e df o r the ir o w n n e e ds ,
an dtr ie dto c o n c e al the ir l ittl e s to r e s o f g r ain .
No s o o n e r hadthe har v e s tb e e n r e ap e dthan So v ie tg r ain
c o l l e c to r s de s c e n de du p o n the v il l ag e an dr u thl e s s l y s q u e e z e d
o u tthe l as tb u s he l o f the s u r p l u s g r ain .Ac c o r din g to the ir
o w n s tatis tic s ,c ite db y Cham b e r l in ,the y e x tr ac te dtw o o r
thr e e tim e s as m u c hf r o m the p e as an ts in the hu n g r y y e ar s
as the y hadtak e n in 1 9 28 "w he n the s itu atio n w ithm e at
an ddair y p r o du c ts w as v as tl y b e tte r ,"w iththe r e s u l tthat
the y tu r n e d"w hatw o u l do the r w is e p e r hap s hav e b e e n a
hu n g e r in to af am in e
."(22)D u r in g the e ar l ie r f am in e o f
1 9 21 -22 the So v ie tGo v e r n m e n tap p e al e df o r as s is tan c e ,b u t
in the f am in e o f 1 9 3 2-1 9 3 3 the Go v e r n m e n t"s tif l e dan y
ap p e al f o r f o r e ig n aidb y de n y in g the v e r y f ac to f the f am in e
an db y r e f u s in g to f o r e ig n jo u r n al is ts the r ig htto tr av e l in
the f am in e r e g io n s u n til itw as o v e r . F am in e w as q u ite
de l ib e r ate l y e m p l o y e das an in s tr u m e n to f n atio n al p o l ic y ,as
the l as tm e an s o f b r e ak in g the r e s is tan c e o f the p e as an tr y to
the n e w s y s te m w he r e the y ar e div o r c e df r o m p e r s o n al o w n e r -
s hip o f the l an d ."
(23 )
The So v ie tGo v e r n m e n tc o u l dhav e av e r te dthe f am in e
w itho u tap p e al in g f o r f o r e ig n aid,b u tthe y c o n tin u e dto
e x p o r tf o o ds tu f f s in 1 9 3 2,an dr e f u s e dto div e r tf o r e ig n
c u r r e n c y f o r the p u r c has e o f g r ain . "To hav e im p o r te d
g r ain ,"s aidthe Pr e s ide n to f the Po l tav aSo v ie tto Mr .
Cham b e r l in ,"w o u l dhav e b e e n in ju r io u s to o u r p r e s tig e .To
hav e l e tthe p e as an ts k e e p the ir g r ain w o u l dhav e e n c o u r ag e d
the m to g o o n p r o du c in g l ittl e ."(24 )
Ev e r y e f f o r tw as m ade to p r e v e n tthe jo u r n al is ts dis c o v e r in g
the tr u th .The au tho r itie s ,ac c o r din g to Mr .Cham b e r l in ,
f o r b ads e v e r al c o r r e s p o n de n ts to l e av e Mo s c o w ,an dde c r e e d
THE F RU ITSOF
A
F AL SE PHIL OSOPHY

1 3 5
that"n o f o r e ig n c o r r e s p o n de n tc o u l dtr av e l in the c o u n tr y s ide
w itho u ts u b m ittin g ade f in ite itin e r ar y an do b tain in g p e r m is -
s io n to m ak e the tr ip f r o m the Co m m is s ar iatf o r F o r e ig n
Af f air s ."(25 )Mr .Mau r ic e Hin du s ,as y m p athe tic c r itic o f
So v ie tRu s s ia,w as k e p tw aitin g f o r am o n thb e f o r e b e in g
g r an te dav is af o r Ru s s ia .His p as s p o r tw as o n l y ac c o r de d
him o n the c o n ditio n thathe didn o tl e av e Mo s c o w o r r e v is it
his n ativ e v il l ag e as he haddo n e in p r e v io u s y e ar s .(26 )
Itis dif f ic u l tto e s tim ate the f am in e c as u al tie s ,f o r the So v ie t
Go v e r n m e n t"s to p p e dp u b l ic atio n o f v ital s tatis tic s f o r the
p e r io din q u e s tio n ,al tho u g hs u c hs tatis tic s w e r e am atte r o f
r o u tin e in p r e v io u s y e ar s ."(27 )This tho u g htf u l s u p p r e s s io n o f
in c o n v e n ie n tf ac ts m u s thav e p l e as e dthe We b b s ,f o r tho u g h
the We b b s w e r e in du s tr io u s c o l l e c to r s o f s u itab l e s tatis tic s ,the y
w o u l ds e e m to p r e f e r n o f ac ts to u n c o m f o r tab l e f ac ts .Than k s
to Stal in ' s c o n s ide r atio n ,the f am in e w hic h,o n the e v ide n c e o f
f r ie n dl y c r itic s ,c l aim e dm il l io n s o f v ic tim s ,ap p e ar s -in the
We b b In de x as "F am in e in Ru s s ia,al l e g e d,in 1 9 3 1 -3
." (28 )
Othe r w r ite r s hav e g iv e n u s e s tim ate s w hic hr an g e f r o m
thr e e to s e v e n m il l io n s .Cham b e r l in ' s e s tim ate is f o u r m il l io n s .
Ral p hB ar n e s in the Ne w Y o r k He r al dTr ib u n e w as u l tr a-
c o n s e r v ativ e ,an dhis e s tim ate o f o n e m il l io n didn o tl o n g
ho l dthe f ie l d . The Ne w Y o r k Tim e s f o r Au g u s t23 r d,
1 9 3 3 ,
im p l ie dthatthe r e hadb e e n tw o m il l io n de aths m o r e than
u s u al in the f am in e ar e as .The r e p r e s e n tativ e o f The Ne w
Y o r k Tim e s in B e r l in ,F r e de r ic k T.B ir c hal l ,tal k e dto ag r o u p
o f f o r e ig n e r s w ho hadr e tu r n e df r o m Ru s s ia,am o n g the m
Am e r ic an s ,w ho s u g g e s te dthatf o u r m il l io n s w o u l db e an
u n de r -e s tim ate .Mau r ic e Hin du s b r o k e his l o n g s il e n c e w ith
an e s tim ate o f atl e as tthr e e m il l io n s .(29 )HadStal in c o n -
de m n e daf e w m il l io n p e as an ts to b e s ho t,the p r o c e s s o f
l iq u idatio n w o u l dhav e b e e n m o r e s p e c tac u l ar an dl e s s p ain f u l ,
b u tthe f in al r e s u l tw o u l dhav e b e e n n o l e s s te r r ib l e than the
c o n s e q u e n c e s o f the o r g an iz e df am in e o f 1
9 3 3 -
The tr ag ic e f f e c ts o f Co m m u n is m c an b e s tu die din the
r e c e n this to r y n o to n l y o f Ru s s iab u to f Sp ain .Iam n o t
c o n c e r n e din this b o o k w iththe c as e f o r the Sp an is hNatio n -
al is ts ,an dhav e n o w is hto af f ir m thatm e n f il l e dw ith
1 3 6

THE F RU ITS OF A
F AL SEPHIL OSOPHY
p as s io n ate r e s e n tm e n tag ain s ttho s e w ho hadm u r de r e dan d
to r tu r e dthe ir f r ie n ds an dr e l atio n s in v ar iab l y b e hav e dw ith
ir o n r e s tr ain t,o r thatthe Co u r ts Mar tial in Natio n al is tSp ain
w e r e n e v e r m ar r e db y the r e v e n g e w hic hB ac o n de s c r ib e s as
"a
w il dk in do f ju s tic e ."B u te v e n if the B adajo z m y thhad
n o tb e e n c o n c l u s iv e l y r e f u te d (3 0 ),
an de v e n if the o the r
c har g e s tag ain s tthe Natio n al is ts c o u l db e p r o v e d,w e s ho u l d
o n l y hav e e s tab l is he dthe tr u is m thatthe c o de o f c iv il iz e d
w ar w as s o m e tim e s b r o k e n b y the Natio n al is ts ,as itw as s o m e -
tim e s b r o k e n b y al l the b e l l ig e r e n ts in the Gr e atWar
.
Co m m u n is t-in s p ir e datr o c itie s in Sp ain ,as in Ru s s ia,dif f e r
r adic al l y f r o m the ac ts o f v io l e n c e w hic har e the c o m m o n p l ac e
o f e v e r y w ar
.The r e is n o w ar in w hic hp r is o n e r s ar e n o t
s o m e tim e s s ho tin the he ato f b attl e ,an ds u c hc as e s hav e
o c c u r r e do n b o ths ide s in Sp ain .
The Natio n al is ts r e g ar dthe m s e l v e s n o tas the c ham p io n s
o f an y p ar tic u l ar c l as s ,b u tas c r u s ade r s f ig htin g to r e de e m
al l Sp an iar ds ,r ic han dp o o r ,hig han dl o w ,f r o m the Re d
ty r an n y
.The y hav e the r e f o r e n o q u ar r e l w ithan y p ar tic u l ar
c l as s o f s o c ie ty as s u c h
.The Sp an is hCo m m u n is ts ,o n the
o the r han d,hav e m u r de r e dm e n an dw o m e n b y the hu n dr e d
tho u s an dm e r e l y b e c au s e the y b e l o n g e dto ap ar tic u l ar c l as s .
Mr
.Ar thu r B r y an t,w ho as an his to r ian is w e l l ac c u s to m e dto
w e ig he v ide n c e ,an dhas c o m p ar e dthe e s tim ate s f o r m e db y
c o r r e s p o n de n ts in Madr id,B ar c e l o n a,V al e n c iaan do the r
c itie s ,an de x am in e dan u m b e r o f r e l e v an tdo c u m e n ts ,
e s tim ate dthe n u m b e r o f c iv il ian s m u r de r e ddu r in g the f ir s t
m o n tho f the w ar atthe te r r ib l e f ig u r e o f 3 5 0 ,0 0 0 .(3 1 ) The
s p e c ial c o r r e s p o n de n to f the Man c he s te r Gu ar dian , an e w s p ap e r
w hic hhas c o n s is te n tl y s u p p o r te dthe Re p u b l ic an s ,w ho v is ite d
Madr idin J u n e ,
1 9 3 7 , s tate dthatthe o f f ic ial r e c o r ds o f tho s e
m as s ac r e din Madr idr e ac he dthe ap p al l in g to tal o f 3 5 ,0 0 0 .
"The r e c o r ds s til l e x is t
."He in s is te dthat"the n u m b e r o f
tho s e p e r s o n s e x e c u te din Madr idal o n e c an har dl y b e m u c h
l e s s than 4 0 ,0 0 0 ." The D u c he s s o f Atho l l ,q u o tin g this c o r r e s -
p o n de n tw ithc har ac te r is tic in ac c u r ac y ,r e du c e s the f ig u r e s to
"3 0 to 3 5 ,0 0 0 ,"
an dadds ,"Hal f o f the s e ,itis b e l ie v e d,had
n o tr ial .The f ig u r e is ate r r ib l e o n e
." (3 2)
THE F RU ITS OF A F AL SEPHIL OSOPHY
Itis in te r e s tin g to c o m p ar e this e s tim ate w iththe e s tim ate
o f e x e c u tio n s b y the Sp an is hIn q u is itio n .L e a,the Pr o te s tan t
his to r ian o f the Sp an is hIn q u is itio n ,ac c u s e s L l o r e n te ,ab itte r
e n e m y o f thatin s titu tio n ,o f g r o s s e x ag g e r atio n in his e s tim ate s
.
B u tl e tu s ac c e p tL l o r e n te ' s e s tim ate f o r the p u r p o s e o f c o m -
p ar is o n
.His "e x tr av ag an tg u e s s e s ,"to q u o te L e a' s de s c r ip tio n ,
g iv e 3 1 ,9 1 2as the g r an dto tal o f the v ic tim s e x e c u te db y the
In q u is itio n f r o m its f o u n datio n in
1 4 .8 0
u p to 1 8 o 8 ,ato tal o f
3 28 y e ar s .(3 3 )F e w e r p e o p l e w e r e e x e c u te db y the In q u is itio n
in the w ho l e o f Sp ain du r in g thr e e c e n tu r ie s than w e r e
m u r de r e din Co m m u n is t-c o n tr o l l e dMadr iddu r in g the f ir s t
thr e e m o n ths o f the w ar .
II.
METHOD S
OF
TERRORISM
Is hal l n o tin f l ic tu p o n the r e ade r de tail s o f to r tu r e ,f o r I
hav e f o u n ditdif f ic u l tto r e ad,an ds ho u l df in dite v e n m o r e
dif f ic u l tto tr an s c r ib e ,the do c u m e n te dho r r o r s o f Ru s s ian
te r r o r is m .B u tn o r e c o r do f w hatCo m m u n is m m e an s in p r ac -
tic e w o u l db e c o m p l e te w hic hig n o r e dthe m e tho ds o f Ru s s ian
te r r o r is m .
The e v ide n c e f o r the u s e o f to r tu r e m ay b e c l as s if ie d,u n de r
the f o l l o w in g he adin g s .F ir s tthe r e ar e the o f f ic ial do c u m e n ts
o f the So v ie tGo v e r n m e n tan dthe ir o f f ic ial s ,s e c o n dl y the
r e c o r ds o f tr ial s in w hic hCo m m u n is ts hav e b e e n ac c u s e dan d
c o n v ic te do f to r tu r e ,thir dl y the o f f ic ial r e p o r ts o f B r itis h
o b s e r v e r s r e c o r de din B r itis hPar l iam e n tar y p ap e r s ,f o u r thl y
the e v ide n c e o f dis il l u s io n e dCo m m u n is ts w ho s e f ir s t-han d
k n o w l e dg e o f So v ie tRu s s iatr an s f o r m e dthe m f r o m s u p p o r te r s
in to e n e m ie s o f the Co m in te r n ,an df in al l y the r e ar e the s tate -
m e n ts b y m e n w ho hav e e s c ap e df r o m the to r tu r e c ham b e r s
o f So v ie tRu s s ia .Of the s e c l as s e s o f e v ide n c e the f ir s tan d
s e c o n ds u f f ic e to e s tab l is hthe f ac ts ,w hic hdo n o t,the r e f o r e ,
n e e dthe c u m u l ativ e c o r r o b o r atio n p r o v ide df r o m o the r
s o u r c e s .
My f ir s tdo c u m e n tis e x tr ac te df r o m the o f f ic ial jo u r n al p u b -
l is he db y the Che k a,w hic hc o n tain s the r e p r im an dto o f f ic ial s
1 3 7
1 3 8

THE F RtThTS OF A F AL SE
PHIL OSOPHY
w ho f ail e dto to r tu r e Mr .B r u c e L o c k har t . ( 3 4 ) This f am o u s
an do f t-q u o te ddo c u m e n tis n o tr e f e r r e dto b y the We b b s ,w ho
c o n te n tthe m s e l v e s w ithtw o dis c r e e tr e f e r e n c e s to this tr o u b l e -
s o m e s u b je c t .The y adm itthat"e v e r y k in do f to r m e n ts e e m s
to hav e b e e n e m p l o y e d"b y the b r u tal g ao l e r s o n the No r th
Se aIs l an ds ,(3 5 )an dthe y e n do r s e the v ie w o f Mr
.Al l an
Mo n k ho u s e ,w ho m the y de s c r ib e as "an e x c e p tio n al l y q u al if ie d
w itn e s s "that"the Og p u the m s e l v e s c ir c u l ate f an tas tic tal e s o f
the to r tu r e s an dp u n is hm e n ts w hic hitis al l e g e dar e e m p l o y e d
in the ir p r is o n s an dp l ac e s o f de te n tio n ,"(3 6 )b u tin the r e al ity
o f w hic hhe didn o tb e l ie v e
.
Iz v e s tia o f Mo s c o w r e p o r te do n D e c e m b e r 1 2th,1 9 23 ,a
tr ial in w hic ho n e ,He r m an n ,Co m m an dan to f the dis tr ic t
Mil itiaatShe r b an o v ,an dtw o o the r Co m m u n is ts ,w e r e tr ie d
o n ac har g e o f in f l ic tin g e x c r u c iatin g to r tu r e s o n the ir
p r is o n e r s .(3 7 )San e r Co m m u n is ts w e r e s ho c k e db y the s e dis -
c l o s u r e s ,an dap p o in te dac o m m is s io n o f in q u ir y to e x am in e
the c as e s o f to r tu r e atStav r o p o l .The to r tu r e r s p l e ade dthat
the y hadac te do n in s tr u c tio n s ,an dp r o du c e das e c r e tc ir c u l ar
is s u e db y the Ce n tr al Che k aits e l f ,w hic hl aiditdo w n that
"the o l dan dp r o v e n r e m e dy "s ho u l db e ap p l ie dto p r is o n e r s
w ho r e f u s e dto c o n f e s s .This c ir c u l ar w as ap p ar e n tl y in s p ir e d
b y the f ac tthatV o u l ,aPe o p l e ' s Pr o s e c u to r in Mo s c o w ,w ho
hadb e e n ac c u s e do f e m p l o y in g to r tu r e in 1 8 21 , thr e ate n e dto
r e s ig n if he w as de p r iv e do f his v al u ab l e in s tr u m e n tf o r
c o u n te r ac tin g b an ditr y ,an dthe thr e atw as s o e f f e c tiv e that
V o u l w as p r o m p tl y g r an te dp e r m is s io n to u s e "the o l dan d
p r o v e n r e m e dy ."(3 8 )As ar e s u l to f the Stav r o p o l in v e s tig a-
tio n n o n e o f the to r tu r e r s w as p u n is he d,b u tthe p e r s o n s w ho
haddis p l ay e du n du e z e al in e x p o s in g the m w e r e p r o m p tl y
ar r e s te d .(3 9 )Mr .Me l g o u n o v s u p p o r ts his ac c u s atio n s o f
r e v o l tin g to r tu r e b y q u o tatio n s f r o m B r itis hPar l iam e n tar y
Pap e r s ,an df r o m l e tte r s w r itte n b y F o r e ig n Of f ic e r e p r e s e n ta-
tiv e s s u c has Mr .Al s to n to L o r dB al f o u r ,in w hic hho r r ib l e
de tail s ar e r e c o r de do f B o l s he v ik s adis m .(4 0 )Mr .Me l g o u n o v
al s o q u o te s al e tte r f r o m Sir Char l e s El io tto L o r dCu r z o n
r e c o r din g the "to r tu r in g s an do the r o u tr ag e o u s ac ts "w hic h
p r e c e de dthe B o l s he v ik m as s ac r e s in No r th-Eas te r n Ru s s ia .
THE F RU ITS OF A F AL SE PHIL OSOPHY

1 3 9
(4 1 ) . Ev e n m o r e te r r ib l e ar e the do c u m e n ts in Mr .Me l -
g o u n o v ' s b o o k c o l l e c te df r o m m e n an dw o m e n w ho had
e s c ap e df r o m the to r tu r e c ham b e r s o f the Che k a .
Is hal l n o tq u o te the s e de tail s ,f o r Ido n o tw is hto p l ay o n
the e m o tio n s o f m y r e ade r s ,o r to in f l u e n c e the ir ju dg m e n tb y
har r o w in g the ir f e e l in g s .In e e dthe r e f o r e o n l y s ay thatthe
e v ide n c e c o m p e l s the b e l ie f thatthe Chin e s e to r tu r e r s hav e
m e tthe ir m as te r s in the As iatic s o f Ru s s ia,w ho hav e e n r ic he d
the r e p e r to ir e o f to r m e n tw ithn e w ,in g e n io u s an db iz ar r e
v ar iatio n s .
So f ar Ihav e c o n f in e dm y s e l f to the te r r o r is m du r in g the
p e r io dthatL e n in an dTr o ts k y w e r e in p o w e r .Tr o ts k y ,w ho
n o to n l y c o n do n e db u the l p e dto o r g an iz e the te r r o r ,is n o w
attac k in g Stal in f o r p u ttin g in to p r ac tic e w hatTr o ts k y
p r e ac he d.Tho u s an ds o f s c his m atic Tr o ts k y ite s ar e as k in g u s
to b e l ie v e thatTr o ts k y is dis tr e s s e db y the ho r r o r s o f the Stal in
r e g im e .The In de p e n de n tL ab o u r Par ty r e g ar ds the Stal in
r e g im e as "s im p l y ate m p o r ar y ab b e r atio n "(4 s )f r o m "the
b as e s o f Co m m u n is m "o f w hic hthe In de p e n de n tL ab o u r
Par ty ap p r o v e s .B u tif L e n in is m b e the n o r m ,itis b y n o
m e an s c e r tain thatthe ab b e r atio n do e s n o tm ar k ade f in ite
im p r o v e m e n t .Itw o u l dc e r tain l y b e dif f ic u l tto p r o v e thatthe
Stal in te r r o r is w o r s e than the L e n in te r r o r .
Sc his m atic Co m m u n is ts w ho hav e e s c ap e df r o m Ru s s ia
in v ite o u r s y m p athy f o r the ir s u f f e r in g s u n de r ar e g im e w hic h
dif f e r s f r o m L e n in is m in its c ho ic e o f v ic tim s b u tn o tin its
m e tho ds ,its r u thl e s s n e s s o r its c o n te m p tf o r ju s tic e .We ar e
as s u r e db y the s e e s c ap e dCo m m u n is ts thatp r is o n c o n ditio n s
w e r e f ar b e tte r in the o l dday s o f Im p e r ial Ru s s iathan the y
ar e to day . V ic to r Se r g e ,im p r is o n e das an Op p o s itio n
Co m m u n is tf o r thr e e y e ar s ,te l l s u s thatahu n dr e dp r is o n e r s
an dm o r e ar e o f te n c o n f in e din ar o o m w hic hn e v e r ac c o m m o -
date dm o r e than tw e l v e c r im in al s in the day s o f the Im p e r ial
Go v e r n m e n t ."Ap o in tis s o m e tim e s r e ac he d,"w r ite s Se r g e ,
"w he r e s m al l q u ar te r s ar e s o f il l e du p thatthe p r is o n e r s c an -
n o ts l e e p in the m e x c e p tin tu r n ; the y p as s the day s tan din g
u p o r o n the ir hau n c he s ,o n e ag ain s tthe o the r ,an din s titu te
am o n g the m s e l v e s ar o tatio n ac c o r din g to w hic hthe y s u c c e e d
1 4 0

THE F RU ITS OF A F AL SE PHIL OSOPHY
e ac ho the r atthe s tin k in g tu b o r atthe do r m e r w in do w
thr o u g hw hic hab r e atho f air m ay c o m e .In e v e r y s e as o n
the hu m idity o f the s w e atan dthe b r e athc o v e r s the w al l s
."
(4 3 )Se r g e q u o te s ade s c r ip tio n o f p r is o n c o n ditio n s f r o m the
Tr o ts k y ite A
.Tar o v ,w ho e s c ap e datthe e n do f 1 9 3 5
."In
the Pe tr o p av l o v s k p r is o n ,"he w r o te ,"Is aw 3 5 w o m e n ,e ig ht
o f the m w ithn u r s in g b ab ie s ,s hu tu p in ac e l l o f 25 s q u ar e
m e tr e s .The o n l y ac c e s s to air w as thr o u g hthe p e e p ho l e .I
s hal l n e v e r f o r g e ttho s e p ite o u s an dp u n y c hil dr e n ! Tak in g
tu r n s ,the m o the r s he l dthe m u p to the p e e p ho l e s o thatthe y
m ig htb r e athe aw r e tc he dr atio n o f f r e s hair . . . ." (4 4 )In this ,
as in al l e l s e ,the in te l l e c tu al s hav e e v e r y r e as o n to m o u r n the
o l dr € g im e . "Che r n y c he v s k y ,"as Se r g e r e m in ds u s ,"w as
ab l e to w r ite his g r e atn o v e l , Whatto D o ? , in the Pe ts
p av l o v s k F o r tr e s s ,w he r e K r o p o tk in w as al s o au tho r iz e dto
c o n tin u e his w o r k s o n g e o g r ap hy ,"(4 5 )b u tthe w r itin g s o f
in te l l e c tu al s f o r tu n ate e n o u g hto b e r e l e as e df r o m Stal in ' s
p r is o n s ar e c o n f is c ate dw he n the y l e av e .
V ic to r Se r g e c o n f ir m s Eu g e n e L y o n s ' te r r ib ~,,e de s c r ip tio n
o f the n e w to r tu r e s r e c e n tl y ado p te db y the Go v e r n m e n tto
e x tr ac thidde n s to r e s o f g o l d,je w e l l e r y an df o r e ig n m o n e y .
Eu g e n e L y o n s r e m ain s aSo c ial is tin s p ite o f his e x p e r ie n c e s in
Ru s s ia,y e ar s w hic hs hatte r e dhis f aithin Ru s s ian Co m -
m u n is m ; an do f al l the g r im c hap te r s in his b o o k ,the g r im -
m e s tis thatin w hic hhe de s c r ib e s the to r tu r e s o f the p ar il k a
.
The p ar il k ais as m al l r o o m f r o m w hic hal l v e n til atio n is s hu t
o f f .In to this s p ac e hu n dr e ds o f m e n an dw o m e n ar e p ac k e d,
p o o r v ic tim s w ho ar e s u s p e c te do f p o s s e s s in g g o l do r je w e l s o r
f o r e ig n e x c han g e ,"in he atthatc ho k e s an ds u f f o c ate s ,in s tin k
thatas p hy x iate s ,o n e s m al l b u l b s he ddin g adim l ig hto n the
p u r g ato r y .Man y o f the m hav e s to o dthu s f o r aday ,f o r tw o
day s .Mo s to f the m hav e r ip p e dthe ir c l o the s o f f in f ig htin g
the he atan dthe s w e atan dthe s w ar m in g l ic e thatf e e du p o n
the m .The ir f e e tar e s w o l l e n ,the ir b o die s n u m b e dan dac hin g
.
The y ar e n o tal l o w e dto s itdo w n o r to s q u at .The y l e an
ag ain s to n e an o the r f o r s u p p o r t,s w ay w itho n e r hy thm an d -
g r o an w itho n e v o ic e .Ev e r y n o w an dthe n the do o r is o p e n e d
an dan e w c o m e r is s q u e e z e din .Ev e r y n o w an dthe n tho s e
THE F RU ITS OF A F AL SE
PHIL OSOPHY

1 4 1
w ho hav e f ain te dar e dr ag g e do u tin to the c o r r ido r ,r e v iv e d
an dthr o w n b ac k in to the s w e atr o o m .
. . s o m e tim e s the y
c an n o tb e r e v iv e d ."(4 6 )
In s o m e c as e s the to r tu r e f ail s to e x tr ac tv al u taan dthe
v ic tim ' s f am il y ar e b r o u g htin an dto r tu r e db e f o r e his e y e s
.
Am e r c han tw ho hadr e s is te df o r w e e k s b r o k e do w n w he n his
l ittl e b o y w as thr o w n in to the
p ar il k a an dk e p tthe r e f o r thr e e
day s
.He the n adm itte dthathe hadb u r ie dab o x o f je w e l s in
his b ac k y ar d
.An o the r c hil dw as the n thr o w n in to the
p ar il k a,
an dthe m e r c han tadm itte dthathe p o s s e s s e dv al u tain
an o the r hidin g p l ac e
.(4 7 )Mo s to f the s e v ic tim s w e r e J e w s ,
s in c e the J e w s p r e do m in ate dam o n g the s u c c e s s f u l "Ne p m e n "
w ho m ade m o n e y du r in g the b r ie f p e r io do f the Ne w
Ec o n o m ic Po l ic y .
Eu g e n e L y o n s ' ac c o u n to f the p ar il k ais ,
as Ihav e s aid,
c o r r o b o r ate db y V ic to r Se r g e .(4 8 )
In r e p u b l ic an Sp ain the Co m m u n is ts div ide w iththe
An ar c his ts the r e s p o n s ib il ity f o r to r tu r e s w hic hr e c al l the w o r s t
p e r io do f the L e n in -Tr o ts k y r e g im e .This is n o taq u e s tio n o f
o p in io n ,b u to f adm itte df ac t
.The Natio n al is tGo v e r n m e n t
in
B u r g o s p u b l is he din Oc to b e r ,1 9 3 6 ,ap r e l im in ar y o f f ic ial
r e p o r to n the atr o c itie s c o m m itte db y the Re ds
.The Sp an is h
Em b as s y in L o n do n is s u e dar e p l y
."The Em b as s y has n o t
de n ie dn o r de n ie s n o w thatthe r e hav e b e e n e x c e s s e s in the
r e p r e s s iv e c o n du c to f the Go v e r n m e n tf o r c e s ,"an dthe Em b as s y
adds ,"The Sp an is hEm b as s y in L o n do n do e s n o t,in f in e ,
c o n tr adic tthe r e b e l p am p hl e t ."(4 9 )
The f ac ts an dp ho to g r ap hs o f the B u r g o s Re p o r t,w hic har e
n o tc o n tr adic te db y the Sp an is hEm b as s y ,p r o v e thatCo m -
m u n is ts an dAn ar c his ts w e r e n o tc o n te n tto k il l ,b u tin m an y
c as e s to o k as adis tic de l ig htin to r tu r e
.The s e atr o c itie s w e r e
in f l ic te dn o to n l y o n the r ic hb u tal s o o n the p o o r
.F o r f u r the r
de tail s Ir e f e r the r e ade r e ithe r to the B u r g o s Re p o r to r to the
l o n g p as s ag e s f r o m thatr e p o r tq u o te din m y b o o k , Sp an is h
Re he ar s al .
The B u r g o s Re p o r tis c o r r o b o r ate db y an Am e r ic an
jo u r n al is tin Re p u b l ic an Sp ain s y m p athe tic to the Re p u b l ic an
c au s e .Mr
.Co r n e l iu s V an de r b il t,w ho s e
F ar e w e l l to F if thAv e n u e
1 4 2

THE F RU ITS
OF AF AL SEPHIL OSOPHY
is ab r il l ian tattac k o n the Ne w Y o r k ar is to c r ac y in to w hic hhe
w as b o r n ,de s c r ib e din the Am e r ic an p ap e r
L ib e r ty c r im e s
thathe hadhim s e l f s e e n
.On e o f the s adde s tf e atu r e s o f
Co m m u n is m is the de g r adatio n o f the y o u n g
."AtMo l in s de l
Re y ,"w r ite s Co r n e l iu s V an de r b il t,"Is aw al o to f to n s u r e d
m o n k s b e in g c ar r ie din am an u r e w ag o n p u l l e db y ar av in g
m o b o f r ag g e db o y s ' an dg ir l s ,m in dy o u ,thr o u g hthe v il l ag e
s tr e e ts
.Ru n n in g al o n g b e s ide the w ag o n w e r e l ittl e g ir l s w ith
p o in te ds tic k s w hic hthe y s av ag e l y jab b e din to the m o n k s '
f l e s h
.AtMar q u in a,he l db y the Go v e r n m e n tal is ts ,Is aw n u n s
s hac k l e dto o n e an o the r ' s an k l e s b e in g dr ag g e db y l iv e l y m u l e s
thr o u g hthe c o b b l e -s to n e s tr e e ts ,the w ho l e to p s o f the ir he ads
ab l az e ."(5 0 )
Ho r ac e W
.Ab r am s ,p ho to g r ap he r f o r the K e y s to n e V ie w
Co m p an y ,c o n tr ib u te s aho r r ib l e de s c r ip tio n o f al ittl e g ir l
w ho hadb e e n m u til ate db y the Re ds "b e c au s e the y f o u n do u t
he r f athe r w as f ig htin g w iththe r e b e l s
."He p ho to g r ap he dthe
g ir l
."Y o u c an g u e s s ,"he adds ,"w hatthe y didto the m o the r ,
w ho w as q u ite y o u n g
.She die d ."(5 I)
J o s e p hL e e Mas o n ,w r itin g in the
Ne w Y o r k Tim e s o f
Se p te m b e r 1 3 th,1 9 3 6 ,s tate dthathe hads e e n the b o dy o f
ap r ie s tw ho hadb e e n c r u c if ie d,an dthat"w hil e ac c o m p an y -
in g ap atr o l s e ar c hin g ho u s e s in Al m o r g e n ,w e f o u n dthr e e
n u n s o f the Car m e l ite Or de r in aho u s e thathadb e e n
r an s ac k e db y the Co m m u n is ts
.Tw o o f the n u n s w e r e de ad .
The thir d,Madr e Ro s a,w as al iv e ,b u the r f ac e hadb e e n
s l as he dw ithk n iv e s ."(5 2)
III."V IOL ENCEWHICHISNOTL IMITED B Y ANY L AWS"
"Ido n ' ts e e ,"w r ite s Mr
.Wal te r D u r an ty ,"thatIhav e
b e e n an y l e s s ac c u r ate ab o u tRu s s iab e c au s e If ail e dto s tr e s s
c as u al tie s s o har das s o m e o f m y c o l l e ag u e s ,than Iw as in
r e p o r tin g b attl e s o n the F r e n c hF r o n tw he n Is aidm o r e ab o u t
the im p o r tan c e o f the v ic to r y than the l iv e s itc o s t .Is aw to o
m u c hu s e l e s s s l au g hte r in the Wo r l dWar
. . . to al l o w m y
ju dg m e n to f r e s u l ts to b e b ias e db y the l o s s e s o r s u f f e r in g
THE F RU ITS OF A
F AL SE PHIL OSOPHY

1 4 . 3
in v o l v e d . I' m a r e p o r te r ,
n o t a hu m an itar ian , an d if a
r e p o r te r c an ' ts e e the w o o df o r tr e e s he c an ' tde s c r ib e the
w o o d
."(5 3 )
The de tac hm e n to f am an w ho de c l ar e s thathe is ar e p o r te r ,
n o tahu m an itar ian ,is m o r e attr ac tiv e than the attitu de o f
hu m an itar ian s w ho r e f u s e to c o n de m n b r u tal itie s .B u tMr .
D u r an ty ' s s u p e r f ic ial an al o g y do e s n o tte l l in f av o u r o f
Co m m u n is m ,w hic hr e p u diate s thatc o de f o r the r e s tr ain to f
v io l e n c e w hic hc iv il iz e dn atio n s ac c e p tb o thin w ar an din
p e ac e ,an dw hic hCo m m u n is ts r e je c tb o thin p e ac e an d in
w ar .In c iv il iz e dw ar s o l die r s c o n tin u e to s ho o ts o l o n g as
the e n e m y c o n tin u e s to r e s is t,b u tthe c o de o f w ar f o r b ids the
e x e c u tio n o f p r is o n e r s o r o f u n ar m e dc iv il ian s .On the n ig ht
o f L e n in ' s as s as s in atio n 5 0 0 m e m b e r s o f the ar is to c r ac y an d
b o u r g e o is ie w e r e ,as w e hav e s e e n ,s ho tw itho u ttr ial b e c au s e
the y w e r e "c l as s e n e m ie s ."The y w e r e n o tac c u s e do f c o m -
p l ic ity w iththe c r im e ,an dw e r e g u il ty o f n o o f f e n c e .The y
w e r e in m u c hthe s am e p o s itio n as thato f de f e n c e l e s s p r is o n e r s
in the c o n c e n tr atio n c am p s
.(5 4 )The r u l e s o f w ar ar e
e x p r e s s l y de v is e df o r the p r o te c tio n o f the u n ar m e d,the
de f e n c e l e s s an dthe c iv il ian s
.B o m b ar dm e n ts f r o m the air
adm itte dl y r ais e adif f ic u l tp r o b l e m .Ou r o w n p o l ic y in the
Gr e atWar w as c ar e f u l l y de f in e din the o f f ic ial His to r y o f the
War in the Air :
"The p o l ic y in te n de dto b e f o l l o w e dis to attac k the
im p o r tan tGe r m an to w n s s y s te m atic al l y . . . . Itis in te n de dto
c o n c e n tr ate o n o n e to w n f o r s u c c e s s iv e day s an dthe n to p as s
to s e v e r al o the r to w n s ,r e tu r n in g to the f ir s tto w n u n til the
tar g e tis tho r o u g hl y de s tr o y e d,o r atan y r ate the m o r al e o f
the w o r k m e n is s o s hak e n thato u tp u tis s e r io u s l y in te r f e r e d
w ith.
"L o n g dis tan c e b o m b in g w il l p r o du c e its m ax im u m m o r al
e f f e c to n l y if the v is its ar e c o n s tan tl y r e p e ate dats ho r t
in te r v al s s o as to p r o du c e in e ac har e ab o m b e das u s tain e d
an x ie ty
.Itis this r e c u r r e n tb o m b in g ,as o p p o s e dto is o l ate d
s p as m o dic attac k s ,w hic hin te r r u p ts in du s tr ial p r o du c tio n an d
u n de r m in e s p u b l ic c o n f ide n c e
."(5 5 )
Am o n g the "He ads o f Ag r e e m e n t as to the c o n s titu tio n o f
1 4 4

THE F RU ITS OF AF AL SE PHIL OSOPHY
the In te r -Al l ie dIn de p e n de n tAir F o r c e (an ag r e e m e n tr e ac he d
b e tw e e n B r itain an dF r an c e an dtr an s m itte d,thr o u g hthe
Su p r e m e War Co u n c il ,to the Am e r ic an an dItal ian Go v e r n -
m e n ts f o r ap p r o v al )"w e r e :
"i . The o b je c to f the f o r c e : To c ar r y w ar in to Ge r m an y
b y attac k in g he r in du s tr y ,c o m m e r c e an dp o p u l atio n .
"2 . The p l an o f c am p aig n : Air r aids m u s tb e o n al ar g e
s c al e an dr e p e ate d,f o r m in g p ar to f am e tho dic al p l an
an dc ar r ie do n w ithte n ac ity .
"3 (b ) .
D u r in g s te ady o r q u ie tp e r io ds : B o m b in g r aids o n
the in te r io r o f Ge r m an y b e c o m e the c hie f w o r k o f o u r
b o m b in g s q u adr o n s ."(5 6 )
Mr
.Win s to n Chu r c hil l ,w ho r e adthe Sp an is hNatio n al is ts
as e v e r e l e c tu r e w he n the y ado p te dthis p o l ic y an db o m b e d
B ar c e l o n a,w r o te as f o l l o w s :
"Ou r air o f f e n s iv e s ho u l dc o n s is te n tl y b e dir e c te dats tr ik in g
atthe b as e s an dc o m m u n ic atio n s u p o n w ho s e s tr u c tu r e the
f ig htin g p o w e r o f his ar m ie s an dhis f l e e ts o f the s e aan do f
the air de p e n ds .An y in ju r y w hic hc o m e s to the c iv il p o p u l a-
tio n f r o m this p r o c e s s o f attac k m u s tb e r e g ar de das in c ide n tal
an din e v itab l e ."(5 7 )
Sir D o u g l as Haig an dMar s hal F o c he n do r s e dthe s e v ie w s
.
(5 8
)
D u r in g the Sp an is hCiv il War the Re p u b l ic an s e n jo y e dthe
s u p r e m ac y o f the air in the e ar l ie r p e r io ds ,an ds y s te m atic al l y
b o m b e dNatio n al is tto w n s w itho u te x c itin g an y p r o te s ts ,
o f f ic ial o r o the r w is e ,f r o m the En g l is han dAm e r ic an Pr o -
g r e s s iv e s w ho w e r e p e r tu r b e db y the b o m b in g o f B ar c e l o n a .
The Natio n al is ts hav e p u b l is he ds tatis tic s ac c o r din g to w hic h
the r e hav e b e e n 2,o g I r aids o n
3 7 3
dif f e r e n tc e n tr e s in
Natio n al is tSp ain r e s u l tin g in the de aths o f 1 8 ,9 8 5 c iv il ian s .
No B r itis hCo m m is s io n w as s e n to u tto Sp ain w he n the
Re p u b l ic an s e n jo y e dthe air s u p r e m ac y ,an dthe Co m m is s io n
w hic hv is ite dRe p u b l ic an te r r ito r y in Au g u s t,1 9 3 8 ,s u b s tan -
tial l y ju s tif ie dthe Natio n al is tc l aim thatthe ir air b o m b ar d-
THE F RU ITS OF A F AL SE PHIL OSOPHY
1 4 5
m e r its ar e dir e c te dto w ar ds m il itar y o b je c tiv e s al o n e .(5 9 )The
Co m m is s io n r e p o r te dthat
4 1
o u to f the 4 6 r aids w hic hthe y
hadin v e s tig ate dw e r e l e g itim ate attac k s o n m il itar y o b je c tiv e s .
Of the r e m ain in g f iv e tw o w e r e du e to m is tak e s o f in -
e x p e r ie n c e dair m e n ,an do n e to ap il o t' s n e e dto e s c ap e ,
u n l o ade d,as q u ic k l y as p o s s ib l e .On l y o n e r aidw as c o n de m n e d
as ade l ib e r ate attac k o n ac iv il ian p o p u l atio n .
Sin c e the b o m b in g o f to w n s ap p e ar s to in v al idate the dis -
tin c tio n w hic hIhav e dr aw n b e tw e e n ac ts o f w ar f ar e c o n f in e d
to b e l l ig e r e n ts an dthe m as s ac r e o f the de f e n c e l e s s ,Ihav e
e x am in e dthe q u e s tio n s r ais e db y the n e w an dte r r ib l e
w e ap o n s .In w ar s w hic har e w ag e db e tw e e n p o p u l atio n s ,the
o l ddis tin c tio n b e tw e e n the s o l die r an dthe c iv il ian has l o s t
m u c ho f its f o r c e .Mil itar y e x p e r ts e s tim ate thatitw il l tak e
e ig htm e n w o r k in g in af ac to r y to k e e p am ac hin e -g u n in the
f ie l d,an df o r ty m e n to k e e p atan k .Itis dif f ic u l tto u n de r s tan d
w hy f ac to r y w o r k e r s w ho p r o du c e an dk e e p in the f ie l dthe s e
m o de r n w e ap o n s o f w ar s ho u l de x p e c tto b e im m u n e f r o m
attac k .(6 0 )The r e is an im m e n s e dif f e r e n c e b e tw e e n atte m p t-
in g to p u to u to f ac tio n the m il l io n s e s s e n tial to the
m ain te n an c e o f the ar m e df o r c e s in the f ie l dan dthe m as s ac r e
o f de f e n c e l e s s p r is o n e r s in o n e ' s p o w e r .The r e is an e v e n
g r e ate r dis tin c tio n b e tw e e n the in c ide n tal k il l in g o f c iv il ian s
as the r e s u l to f an air b o m b ar dm e n tdir e c te dag ain s tam il itar y
o b je c tiv e ,o r ,as in the c as e o f the Gr e atWar ,as e ab l o c k ade ,
an dthe de l ib e r ate m as s ac r e o f u n ar m e dc iv il ian s
.F in al l y ,
the r e is the dis tin c tio n w hic hto the p o te n tial v ic tim o f v io l e n c e
w o u l dp r o b ab l y s e e m al l -im p o r tan t,the dis tin c tio n b e tw e e n
k il l in g an dto r tu r e .
Atr o c itie s o c c u r n o to n l y in e v e r y w ar ,b u tin p e ac e ,f o r
the r e is ac r u e l s tr e ak in m an k in d
.The g r adu al de v e l o p m e n t
thr o u g ho u tthe c e n tu r ie s o f the Chr is tian c o n s c ie n c e has n o t
b an is he dc r u e l ty an dv io l e n c e f r o m the w o r l d,b u thas ac te d
as ac u r b o n the p as s io n s o f f al l e n m an .Hig hs tan dar ds ar e
n o tas e f f e c tiv e as w e c o u l dw is h,b u tthe y ar e l e s s in e f f e c tiv e
than w e w e r e s o m e tim e s in c l in e dto b e l ie v e b e f o r e So v ie t
Ru s s iahadr e v e al e dto the w o r l dthe b itte r f r u its o f af al s e
p hil o s o p hy .
1 4 6 THEF RU ITSOF AF AL SEPHIL OSOPHY
REF ERENCES
(I) Stal in : Pr o b l e m s o f L e n in is m , In te r n atio n al Pu b l is he r s ,
Ne w Y o r k ,p .
2
5 -
(2)Q u o te db y Wal de m ar Gu r ian : B o l s he v is m : The o r y an d
Pr ac tic e , tr an s l ate db y E.I.Watk in ,She e dan d
War d,P
.3 0 2-
(3 )-(5 )
Wal te r D u r an ty : I Wr ite as IPl e as e , Sim o n an d
Sc hu s te r ,p p .1 6 6 ,1 8 7 ,1 8 8 .
(6 )-(8 ) S.P.Me l g o u n o v : The Re dTe r r o r in Ru s s ia, D e n t,
PP-3 9 ,4 0 ,21
.
(g )Man c he s te r Gu ar dian , Se p te m b e r I Ith,1 9 3 6 .,
(I o )Wal te r D u r an ty : I Wr ite as IPl e as e ,p . 27 1 .
(I1 )
Q u o te db y Wal de m ar Gu r ian : B o l s he v is m : The o r y an d
Pr ac tic e ,p .
9 4 -
(1 2)Wil l iam He n r y Cham b e r l in : Ru s s ia' s Ir o n Ag e ,
D u c k -
w o r th,p
.
1
5 7 .
(1 3 )-(1 6 ) Eu g e n e L y o n s : As s ig n m e n tin U to p ia, Har r ap ,
p p
.27 6 ,28 0 ,28 1 ,
28 3 -
( 1
7 )Sidn e y an dB e atr ic e We b b
: So v ie tCo m m u n is m : ANe w
Civ il iz atio n , V ic to r Go l l an c z ,p .5 6 7 .
(1 8 )G.D . H. Co l e : Pr ac tic al Ec o n o m ic s , Pe l ic an B o o k s ,
PP-5 2,5 9
.
(Ig ) W .H.Cham b e r l in : Ru s s ia' s Ir o n Ag e ,p . 7 6 .
(20 )Sidn e y an dB e atr ic e We b b : So v ie tCo m m u n is m ,p
.
27 0 -
(2 1 ) Eu g e n e L y o n s : As s ig n m e n tin U to p ia,p . 4 9 1 .
(22)-(25 ) W .H.Cham b e r l in : Ru s s ia' s Ir o n Ag e ,p p . 8 6 , 8 8 ,
8 g ,
8 2 .
(26 )&(27 )Eu g e n e L y o n s : As s ig n m e n tin U to p ia,p
.
5 7 3 ,
5 7 9 .
(28 )
Sidn e y an dB e atr ic e We b b : So v ie tCo m m u n is m ,p .
1 2
4 5 -
(29 )Eu g e n e L y o n s : As s ig n m e n tin U to p ia,p p .
5 7 3
-
5 7 9 -
(3 o )Ro b e r tSe n c o u r t : Sp ain ' s Or de al , L o n g m an s ,1 4 3 -1 4 6 .
THE F RU ITS OF
A F AL SE PHIL OSOPHY
1 4 7
(3 1 ) The Ob s e r v e r , J u n e 27 th,
1 9 3 7 -
(3 2)The D u c he s s o f Atho l l ,
M.P. : Se ar c hl ig ht o n
Sp ain ,
Pe n g u in B o o k s ,p . 1 1
4 .
(3 3 )He n r y Char l e s L e a : The Sp an is hIn q u is itio n ,
Mac m il l an ,
V o l .IV ,p .5 1 8 .
(3 4 )
B u l l e tin o f the Che k aNo
. 3 ,p . 7 f f .,q u o te db y W
.H.
Cham b e r l in : The Ru s s ian Re v o l u tio n ,V o l .II,p .
4 7 5 -
W)&
(3 6 )Sidn e y an dB e atr ic e We b b :
So v ie tCo m m u n is m ,
PP-5 8 4 ,5 8 1 -
(3 7 )-(4 1 )
S.P.Me l g o u n o v : The Re dTe r r o r
in Ru s s ia,
PP
.1 8 5 ,1 8 7 ,1 8 7 ,1 22,1 21 .
(4 2)L e tte r f r o m J .Mc Nair o f the In de p e n de n tL ab o u r Par ty ,
Au g u s t1 5 th,
1 9 3 8
-
(4 3 )-(4 5 )V ic to r Se r g e :
Ru s s iaTw e n ty Y e ar s Af te r , tr an s l ate d
b y Max Shac htm an ,Hil l m an -Cu r l ,p p
. 6
3 ,7 3 ,7 4 -
(4 6 )&(4 7 )Eu g e n e L y o n s :
As s ig n m e n tin U to p ia,p p .
4 5 9 ,
4 6 0 .
(4 8 )V ic to r Se r g e :
Ru s s iaTw e n ty Y e ar s Af te r ,p . 1 8 1 .
(4 9 )State m e n tp u b l is he db y the Sp an is hEm b as s y in L o n do n ,
No v e m b e r ,1 9 3 6 .
(5 o )-(5 2)
The s e e x tr ac ts ar e f u l l y q u o te din
Sp an is hRe he ar s al ,
Hu tc hin s o n ,p p .24 9 ,25 0 ,25
0 -
(5 3 )&(5 4 )Wal te r D u r an ty
: IWr ite as IPl e as e ,p p .
1 6 7 ,1 8 8 .
(5 5 )-(5 8 )
H.A.J o n e s : The War in the Air ,
Cl ar e n do n Pr e s s ,
Ap p e n dix V I,p .26 ,Ap p e n dix XI,p
.4 1 ,Ap p e n dix
IV ,p . 1 g , Ap p e n dix III,p
.1 5 ,an dAp p e n dix V III,
P.
29 .
(5 9 ) The Tim e s ,
Se p te m b e r 2n d,
1 9 3 8 -
(6 o )Q u o te db y Wil l s o n Wo o ds ide in
Har p e r ' s Mag az in e ,
Se p te m b e r ,1 9 3 8 ,f r o m the
F r an k f u r te r ,Z e itu n g ,J u l y
1 4 th, 1
9 3 7 •
t
CHAPTER XV
THEB OL SHEV IK PERSECU TIONOF REL IGION
"THERE e x is ts n o dif f e r e n c e b e tw e e n the Or tho do x ,the Catho l ic ,the
Mo ham m e dan ,an dthe J e w is hChu r c he s .We r e p u diate the m al l
.Y o u r
r e l ig io n "(tu r n in g to the p r is o n e r s in the do c k ),"Is p ito n it,as Ido o n
al l
r e l ig io n s -o n
Or tho do x ,J e w is h,Mo ham m e dan ,L u the r an an dthe r e s t
.
No r e l ig io u s de n o m in atio n has an y p o l itic al r ig hts o r an y l e g al s tatu s
w ithin the te r r ito r y o f the Re p u b l ic ."(i)
K RY L ENK O, Pu b l ic Pr o s e c u to r in the Cie p l ak Tr ial
.
"The thin g s Iw an tm y Chu r c hto s tan df o r l ie b e hin dw hatRu s s ia
has do n e ." (2)

THED EANOPCANTERB U RY , in as tate m e n tm ade af te r
v is itin g Re p u b l ic an Sp ain in 1 9 3 7 -
"Aw o n de r f u l an dho r r ib l e thin g is c o m m itte din the l an d .The p r o p he ts
p r o p he s y f al s e l y ,an dthe p r ie s ts b e ar r u l e b y the ir m e an s ; an dm y p e o p l e
l o v e to hav e its o
: An dw hatw il l y e do in the e n dthe r e o f ? "
J e r e m iah,Chap te r V ,v e r s e s 3 0 -3 1 .
The ap o l o g is ts f o r the r e l ig io u s p e r s e c u tio n s w hic hc an n o
l o n g e r b e de n ie du s u al l y f al l b ac k o n the p l e athatthe p e r s e -
c u tio n is n o tr e l ig io u s b u tp o l itic al
.The atte m p tis b e in g m ade
o u ts ide Ru s s iato p r o v e thatCo m m u n is ts hav e n o q u ar r e l w ith
r e l ig io n as s u c h .This p r o p ag an daw il l o n l y s u c c e e dw iththo s e
w ho ar e to o il l -in f o r m e dto r e al iz e thatim p l ac ab l e ho s til ity to
r e l ig io n is w o v e n in to the v e r y te x tu r e o f Mar x is tp hil o s o p hy .
So v ie tRu s s ia,w hic hhas ado p te dMate r ial is m as its State
c r e e d,c an n o tc o n s is te n tl y to l e r ate r e l ig io n .The de g r e e an d
in te n s ity o f p e r s e c u tio n w il l b e de te r m in e do n l y b y q u e s tio n s
o f tac tic s .
In the U n ite dState s ,f o r in s tan c e ,tac tic al c o n s ide r atio n s
de m an dan e x p l ic itr e p u diatio n o f v io l e n c e an dp e r s e c u tio n
.As
ac l as s ic e x am p l e o f Co m m u n is ttac tic s Im ay c o m m e n dto the
r e ade r the r e p o r to f Ear l B r o w de r ' s dis c u s s io n w ithag r o u p
o f s tu de n ts o f the U n io n The o l o g ic al Se m in ar y o n F e b r u ar y
3 5 th,1 9 3 5 ,ar e p o r to f w hic hhe p r in ts in his b o o k ,
Co m m u -
n iB tn in the U n ite dState s .
Ear l B r o w de r ,s e c r e tar y o f the
Co m m u n is tPar ty o f the U n ite dState s ,p o s s e s s e s o n e im p o r tan t
1 4 8
B OL SHEV IK PERSECU TIONOF REL IGION
1 4 9
q u al if ic atio n f o r his p o s itio n ,adis c r e e tl y s e l e c tiv e m e m o r y .
No te v e n the We b b s hav e f o r g o tte n m o r e f ac ts o f c o n te m -
p o r ar y Ru s s ian his to r y
.B r o w de r has f o r g o tte n ,am o n g o the r
tr iv ial itie s ,the f ac tthattw e n ty -e ig htb is ho p s an d 1 ,20 0 p r ie s ts
hav e b e e n p u tto de athb y Co m m u n is ts in Ru s s ia .(3 )He m ig ht
dis p u te the s e f ig u r e s ,b u te v e n if he r e du c e dthe m b y o n e hal f ,
he w o u l ds til l de s e r v e to b e c o n g r atu l ate db y the Co m in te r n
o n the au dac io u s im p u de n c e o f his r e m ar k ,"The Co m m u n is t
Par ty is ab s o l u te l y o p p o s e dto an y f o r m o f c o e r c io n o n r e l ig io u s
m atte r s ."(4 )In B r o w de r ' s addr e s s to the the o l o g ic al s tu de n ts
he an tic ip ate dthe Par ty l in e l aiddo w n atthe F if thWo r l d
Co n g r e s s .Ac c o r din g to ar e s o l u tio n w hic hw as ado p te dat
thatCo n g r e s s ,the c am p aig n ag ain s tr e l ig io n m u s tb e c o n du c te d
w ithal l the n e c e s s ar y tac tan dp r u de n c e am o n g tho s e s e c tio n s
o f the p r o l e tar iatin w ho s e dail y l if e r e l ig io n has hithe r to b e e n
f ir m l y r o o te d .Ev e n B r o w de r ' s s e l e c tiv e m e m o r y r e tain s s o m e
in c o n v e n ie n tf ac ts ab o u tCo m m u n is m .Whe n c hal l e n g e dto
de f in e the p o s itio n o f the Co m m u n is tPar ty o f the U n ite d
State s o n the q u e s tio n o f r e l ig io n he r e p l ie d,"The Co m m u n is t
Par ty tak e s the p o s itio n thatthe s o c ial f u n c tio n o f r e l ig io n an d
r e l ig io u s in s titu tio n s is to ac tas an o p iate to k e e p the l o w e r
c l as s e s p as s iv e ,to m ak e the m ac c e p tthe b adc o n ditio n s u n de r
w hic hthe y hav e to l iv e in the ho p e o f ar e w ar daf te r de ath .
F r o m this e s tim ate o f the s o c ial r o l e o f r e l ig io n itis q u ite c l e ar
thatthe Co m m u n is tPar ty is the e n e m y o f r e l ig io n ."(5 )
In s tate m e n ts in te n de dn o tf o r Am e r ic aan dEn g l an db u tf o r
ho m e c o n s u m p tio n Co m m u n is ts m ak e n o atte m p ts to c o n c e al
the f ac tthatitis n o tthe al l e g e dab u s e s o f r e l ig io n ,b u tr e l ig io n
its e l f ,w hic hthe y ar e c o n c e r n e dto e r adic ate
.In J u n e ,1 9 29 ,
K al in in ,Pr e s ide n to f the Ex e c u tiv e Co m m itte e o f the Co n g r e s s
o f So v ie ts ,in s is te dthatthe w ar ag ain s tr e l ig io n w as "r e al l y a
p hil o s o p hy ,f o r itm e an s the e s tab l is hm e n to f m ate r ial is m
ag ain s tide al is m ."(6 )Itis im p o s s ib l e f o r an o r tho do x Co m -
m u n is tto r e n o u n c e af u n dam e n tal p r in c ip l e o f Mar x is to r tho -
do x y as de f in e db y the f o u n de r o f his s e c t ."Re l ig io n ,"w r o te
Mar x ,"is the s ig ho f the o p p r e s s e dc r e atu r e ,the k in dl in e s s o f
ahe ar tl e s s w o r l d,the s p ir ito f u n s p ir itu al c o n ditio n s .Itis the
p e o p l e ' s o p iu m . The r e m o v al o f r e l ig io n as the
il l u s o r y
1 5 0

B OL SHEV IK PERSECU TION OF REL IGION
hap p in e s s o f the p e o p l e is the de m an df o r its r e al hap p i-
n e s s ."(7 )
Co m m u n is ts w ag e w ar n o tag ain s tan y p ar tic u l ar r e l ig io n ,
n o te v e n ag ain s tthe r e l ig io n do m in an tin the c o u n tr y in w hic h
the y o p e r ate ,b u tag ain s tr e l ig io n as s u c h .Ro m an Catho l ic s
w e r e p e r s e c u te din Im p e r ial Ru s s ia,b u tin So v ie tRu s s iathe y
w e r e r e g ar de dw ithe v e n m o r e l o athin g than the Ru s s ian
Or tho do x . "The Catho l ic Chu r c hdo e s n o ts tan dal o n e ,"
w r o te E.Y ar o s l av s k y ."Ev e r y o the r e c c l e s ias tic al o r g an iz atio n
-L u the r an ,An g l ic an ,J e w is h,B u ddhis t,Mo ham m e dan an d
o the r s ,l ik e w is e he l p s the c ap ital is ts an dl an do w n e r s o f its
c o u n tr y to e x p l o itan ds tu p e f y the m as s e s . . . . Whatab o u t
the J e w is hr e l ig io n ? Itis o f v e r y g r e atv al u e to the J e w is h
c ap ital is ts ,w ho ,w iththe he l p o f the r ab b is ,an dthe an c ie n t
` s ac r e d' He b r e w to n g u e (w hic hthr o w s g l am o u r o v e r the ir
in n u m e r ab l e m u m m e r ie s )ho l dthe p e o p l e in b o n dag e ."(8 )
Gal iIb r ag im o v ,aMo ham m e dan in the s e r v ic e o f the So v ie t,
r idic u l e s Mo ham m e dan is m ,an dtr ie dto p r o v e thatitw as the
e n e m y o f Hy g ie n e .(9 )
Mau r ic e Hin du s ,w ho w as b o r n in Ru s s ia,de s c r ib e s the
c o l l ap s e o f r e l ig io n in his b o o k Hu m an ity U p r o o te d, f ir s t
p u b l is he din 1 9 3 1 .As Mr .Hin du s has s in c e r e tu r n e dto
Ru s s iaitm u s tb e p r e s u m e dthatthe So v ie tGo v e r n m e n tdid
n o to b je c tto the m ain te n o r o f his b o o k o r his v is aw o u l dhav e
b e e n r e f u s e d
."The g o l de n r u l e ,"w r ite s Mr .Hin du s ,"the y
f in du tte r l y s u b v e r s iv e an dag ain s titthe y s e tthe c l az s
-
s tr u g g l e ." (1 o )So v ie tRu s s iais o f te n p r ais e din the En g l is h-
s p e ak in g w o r l das ac o u n tr y in w hic h"p r ac tic al Chr is tian ity "
is n o to n l y p r e ac he db u tp r ac tis e d .Mr .Hin du s c o m m e n ts o n
"the de f ian tathe is m o f the y o u th"in So v ie tRu s s ia ."Ev e r y -
w he r e s o -c al l e dadv an c e dy o u this o p e n l y an dhil ar io u s l y
athe is tic ." (II)' Mr .Hin du s r e v is ite dhis o l dv il l ag e .The
w o o de n c r o s s e s w hic hhadm ar k e de v e r y tu r n in the r o adw e r e
g o n e .The y hadb e e n u s e df o r f ir e w o o d .He as k e dac r o w do f
c hil dr e n f r o m s e v e n to tw e l v e y e ar s o f ag e w he the r the y
b e l ie v e din Go d .Go o d-hu m o u r e dm ir thw as the o n l y r e s p o n s e
.
(1 2)
The Co m m u n is ts ar e as ho s til e to the c u l tu r e c r e ate db y
B OL SHEV IK PERSECU TIONOPREL IGION

1 5 1
r e l ig io n as to r e l ig io n its e l f
.The o l dik o n s ,m an y o f g r e at
b e au ty ,ar e r e p l ac e db y "p ic tu r e s o f the l e ade r s o f the Re v o l u -
tio n ; p ic tu r e s v iv idl y de p ic tin g e v il s o f dr in k in g v o dk a
."Chu r c h
c ho ir s ar e to b e r e p l ac e db y c ho ir s c han tin g r e v o l u tio n ar y
hy m n s ,Chu r c hb ap tis m s an dChu r c hf u n e r al s b y So v ie tc e r e -
m o n ie s
."Itis ,Ithin k ,"w r ite s Hin du s ,"ac hal l e n g e to r e l ig io n
as n e v e r b e f o r e f ac e din an y l an d,n o tatan y r ate in s u c h
b as ic an din te n s e l y div e r s if ie df o r m s
he f o r c e s o f
in f ide l ity b o r e de e p e r an dde e p e r in to the l if e o f the p e o p l e ."
(I3 )
The m o s tde tail e d,an datthe s am e tim e the m o s tm o v in g ,
his to r y o f the e ar l y p has e s o f r e l ig io u s p e r s e c u tio n in Ru s s ia
w il l b e f o u n din Cap tain F r an c is Mc Cu l l ag h' s b o o k ,
The
B o l s he v ik Pe r s e c u tio n o f Chr is tian ity . Cap tain Mc Cu l l ag h,
af am o u s War c o r r e s p o n de n t,w as im p r is o n e din the e ar l y
y e ar s o f the Re v o l u tio n in Ru s s ia,an dw as p r e s e n tdu r in g the
f am o u s Cie p l ak tr ial .In 1 9 22 the So v ie tGo v e r n m e n tas k e d
the Patr iar c hTik ho n to c o n tr ib u te Chu r c hv al u ab l e s to the
f am in e f u n d .The Patr iar c hag r e e din p r in c ip l e ,an dis s u e da
c ir c u l ar to the c l e r g y p e r m ittin g the m to han do v e r to the
Go v e r n m e n ttr e as u r e s o the r than the c o n s e c r ate dv e s s e l s
.In
Ru s s iac hal ic e s ar e u s u al l y o f s il v e r g il t,an dthe Go v e r n m e n t
w o u l dc e r tain l y hav e m ade an e x c e p tio n in f av o u r o f e u c har -
is tic v e s s e l s hadthe y n o tho p e dto p r o v o k e b y the s e iz u r e o f
the s e v e s s e l s r io ts w hic hw o u l dp r o v ide ap r e te x tf o r p e r s e -
c u tio n .The r e f u s al o f the Go v e r n m e n tto dis p o s e o f ,f o r f am in e
r e l ie f p u r p o s e s ,the s m al l e s tp o r tio n o f the f ab u l o u s l y v al u ab l e
c o l l e c tio n o f je w e l s in the K r e m l in ,w il l as s is te v e n the m o s t
o b tu s e to u n de r s tan dthe tr u e m o tiv e w hic hp r o m p te dthe ir
s e iz u r e o f c o m p ar ativ e l y w o r thl e s s e u c har is tic v e s s e l s .The
r u thl e s s b r u tal ity w ithw hic hthe c hu r c he s w e r e de s p o il e d
p r o v o k e dp o p u l ar r e s e n tm e n tan dr io tin g ,an das ar e s u l to f
the s e dis tu r b an c e s the Go v e r n m e n tb r o u g htto tr ial f if ty -f o u r
p e r s o n s ,in c l u din g s e v e n ar c hde ac o n s .Eig htp r ie s ts an dthr e e
de ac o n s w e r e c o n de m n e dto de ath,an do f the s e s e n te n c e s f o u r
w e r e e x e c u te d .
( 1 4 )
The B o l s he v ik s -hadb e e n s tar tl e db y the de p tho f f e e l in g
ar o u s e db y the p l u n de r o f the c hu r c he s ,an dthe y de c ide dthat
1 5 2

B OL SHEV IK PERSECU TIONOF REL IGION
ac tiv e p e r s e c u tio n s ho u l db e r e in f o r c e db y the s u b tl e r p r o c e s s
o f in te r n al dis in te g r atio n .The m o de r n tac tic s o f "l am ain
te n du e "w hic har e b e in g ado p te dw ithc o n s p ic u o u s s u c c e s s in
F r an c e an din Gr e atB r itain ,w e r e f ir s ttr ie do u tin the s p r in g
o f 1 9 22 . The So v ie tGo v e r n m e n tp e r s u ade dag r o u p o f
r e n e g ade p r ie s ts to f o r m an "in itiativ e g r o u p "w hic hs ho u l d
c o n c e r n its e l f w iththe r e f o r m o f the Chu r c h .The m o v e m e n t
w as l e db y B is ho p An to n in o f Mo s c o w ,b u tthe "L iv in g
Chu r c h,"w hic hw as f o u n de das the r e s u l to f his in itiativ e ,did
n o te n jo y al o n g o r g l o r io u s c ar e e r .In this
as
in o the r thin g s ,
the Ru s s ian Re v o l u tio n r an tr u e to r e v o l u tio n ar y ty p e .In
p r e -r e v o l u tio n ar y F r an c e the B is ho p s dide v e n l e s s than the
B is ho p s in p r e -r e v o l u tio n ar y Sp ain to c he c k the g e n e r al dr if t
to w ar ds the L e f t .In 1 7 9 0 the Co n s titu e n tAs s e m b l y c al l e d
u p o n the c l e r g y to tak e the o atho f l o y al ty to the n e w Co n s titu -
tio n .Af e w c o n f o r m e d ; m an y didn o t .The f aithf u l tr e ate d
the c o n f o r m in g p r ie s ts w ithc o n te m p t,an dc o n tin u e dto as s is t
atMas s e s o f f e r e db y the r e f r ac to r y c l e r g y in b ar n s an dde s e r te d
ho u s e s .The Co n s titu tio n al B is ho p o f Par is didn o tf ar e m u c h
b e tte r than B is ho p An to n in o f the "L iv in g Chu r c h,"w ho w as
e v e n tu al l y de p o s e d .The B is ho p o f Par is w as o r de r e din the
l as tp has e s o f the Re v o l u tio n to ab ju r e the Catho l ic r e l ig io n .
The w r e tc he do l dm an im p l o r e dhis p e r s e c u to r s to s p ar e him
this o r de al ,b u tthe y w e r e in e x o r ab l e ,an do n No v e m b e r 8 th,
1 7 9 3 ,he ap p e ar e db e f o r e the Co n v e n tio n an dde c l ar e dthat
"the w il l o f the s u p r e m e p e o p l e "hadn o w b e c o m e his "s u p r e m e
l aw ."Sin c e the s o v e r e ig n p e o p l e hads o w il l e ditthatthe r e
s ho u l db e n o o the r w o r s hip than thato f L ib e r ty an dHo l y
Eq u al ity ,he p l ac e d,in to k e n o f s u b m is s io n ,his c r o s s ,r in g an d
o the r in s ig n iao n the Pr e s ide n t' s de s k ,an dp u to n the r e dc ap
o f l ib e r ty . (1 5 )
The "L iv in g Chu r c h"o f Ru s s iaf o u n dite v e n m o r e dif f ic u l t
than the Co n s titu tio n al B is ho p s o f F r an c e to dis c o v e r o the r
B is ho p s w ho w e r e p r e p ar e dto c o l l ab o r ate in the ir w o r k o f
dis in te g r atio n .The f ir s tac tio n o f the r e n e g ade s w as to e x p e l
B is ho p s w ho w e r e s til l ho s til e to the Go v e r n m e n t
.B is ho p
B e n jam in ,Me tr o p o l itan o f L e n in g r ad,w as e x p e l l e d,an d
s ho r tl y af te r w ar ds ar r e s te db y the Go v e r n m e n t
.He w as s e n -
B OL SHEV IK PERSECU TIONOF REL IGION

1
5 3
te n c e dto
de athal o n g w ithan u m b e r o f p r ie s ts an dl aity ,al l
o f w ho m dis p l ay e de x c e p tio n al c o u r ag e du r in g the ir tr ial
. (1 6 )
The s adde s te p is o de in the p e r s e c u tio n w as the r e c an tatio n
o f the Patr iar c hTik ho n . His
n e r v e b r o k e u n de r the s tr ain o f
l o n g im p r is o n m e n t,an dhe s ig n e das tate m e n tto the e f f e c tthat
he had"c o m p l e te l y ado p te dthe So v ie tp l atf o r m
."Ag ain s t
the s q u al ids e r v il ity o f the ap o s tate p r ie s ts an dthe w e ak n e s s
o f the Patr iar c hm u s tb e s e tthe g l o r io u s m ar ty r do m s o f tw e n ty -
e ig htb is ho p s an d1 ,20 0 p r ie s ts
.Man y o f the s e die dte r r ib l e
de aths .
The So v ie tGo v e r n m e n tf o l l o w e du p this attac k o n the
Ru s s ian Or tho do x Chu r c hb y the tr ial o f the Catho l ic Ar c h-
b is ho p o f Pe tr o g r ad,Mo n s ig n o r Cie p l ak ,an ds e v e n te e n o the r
p r ie s ts
.The Co m m u n is ts in Ru s s iaw e r e p ar tic u l ar l y in c e n s e d
ag ain s tthe Ru s s ian Catho l ic s . "The ir o n r ig idity o f the
Catho l ic c o m m u n ity in Pe tr o g r adin f u r iate dZ in o v ie v an dhis
Re ds as f ar b ac k as 1 9 1 8 . . . the Catho l ic Chu r c hr e m ain e d
in c o r r u p tib l e ,in v u l n e r ab l e ,s o l id as ar o c k
.Ev e n its l aity c o u l d
n o tb e s e du c e d . . . .
The B o l s he v ik s c o u l dn o tg e tas in g l e
Catho l ic l ay m an to ac tas the ir to o l ."(1 7 )
On the n ig hto f Mar c h2n d-3 r d,1 9 23 ,al l the Catho l ic
p r ie s ts in Pe tr o g r adw e r e s u m m o n e dto ap p e ar b e f o r e the
Su p r e m e Tr ib u n al atMo s c o w .The tr ial o p e n e din the f o r m e r
Cl u b o f the No b il ity .Ar c hb is ho p Cie p l ak w as atal l ,s p ar e
m an ,u p r ig htan dg r e y -he ade d .In s p ite o f the Pr o s e c u to r ' s
b u l l y in g ,he r e m ain e ddig n if ie dan dc o u r te o u s
.Mo n s ig n o r
B u dk ie w ic z ,w ho w as c o n de m n e dto de athan de x e c u te d,w as
n o te df o r his f in e m an n e r s ."Itw o u l db e har d,"w r ite s Cap tain
Mc Cu l l ag h,"to f in dam o r e s tr ik in g c o n tr as tthan thatw hic h
e x is te db e tw e e n him an dthe s l o v e n l y ,l o n g -hair e dB o l s he v ik s
o n the b e n c h . . . .Mo n s ig n o r B u dk ie w ic z l o o k e dl ik e am an
w ho s e w o r l dhas n o tb e e n s hatte r e do r e v e n s hak e n ,w ho is as
s u r e o f his p r in c ip l e s as
e v e r ,an d as l ittl e in c l in e dto m ak e
an y c o n c e s s io n s to the te m p o r ar y in s an ity r ag in g ar o u n dhim
as aB r itis hGo v e r n o r o f the Go l dCo as tw o u l db e in c l in e dto
w o r s hip af e tis han dw e ar al o in c l o th ."(1 8 )
In 1 9 23 the So v ie tGo v e r n m e n tw as an x io u s n o tto p r e ju dic e
the ir ho p e s o f Am e r ic an an dB r itis hdip l o m atic r e c o g n itio n
1 5 4

B OL SHEV IK PERSECU TIONOF REL IGION
b y the Ov e r tp e r s e c u tio n o f r e l ig io n as s u c h
.The thin p r e te n c e
w as the r e f o r e m ain tain e dthatthe p r ie s ts w e r e b e in g tr ie dn o t
as p r ie s ts b u tas c itiz e n s w ho hadb r o k e n the l aw .The y w e r e
ac c u s e do f ac tiv itie s w hic hin p o in to f f ac tw e r e in s e p ar ab l e
f r o m the ir o f f ic e ,s u c has the te ac hin g o f r e l ig io n to the y o u n g .
The y w e r e c har g e dw ithf ail in g to s u b m itthe ir s e r m o n s to the
c e n s o r ,an dw ithr e l u c tan c e to s u r r e n de r c hu r c hv e s s e l s to the
f am in e f u n d .The m o de m te c hn iq u e o f tr an s f o r m in g the
s im p l e s tr e l ig io u s ac tin to p o l itic al o f f e n c e s w as il l u s tr ate d
du r in g the tr ial .F athe r Ru tk o v s k y ,f o r in s tan c e ,w as c har g e d
w ith"f al l in g de m o n s tr ativ e l y o n his k n e e s "w he n the m il itia
e n te r e dhis c hu r c hto c o n f is c ate the s ac r e dv e s s e l s .He c o u l d
n o tp r e v e n tthis ,he e x p l ain e d,s o he k n e l tdo w n to p r ay ."That
w as ac o u n te r -r e v o l u tio n ar y ac t,"e x c l aim e dK r y l e n k o . (1 9 )
K r y l e n k o l o s tn o o p p o r tu n ity o f in s is tin g thatw he r e the l aw o f
Go dc am e in to c o n f l ic tw iththe l aw o f Ru s s ia,the p r ie s tw as
e x e p e c te dto o b e y the l atte r ."In the c o n f l ic tb e tw e e n the s e tw o
l aw s ,"r e p l ie day o u n g p r ie s t,"Is hal l f o r e v e r f o l l o w the div in e
l aw an dthe l aw o f the Chu r c h ." (20 )
The e n dc am e o n Pal m Su n day .Ar c hb is ho p Cie p l ak w as
s e n te n c e dto de ath,as e n te n c e af te r w ar ds c o m m u te dto
im p r is o n m e n t .Mo n s ig n o r B u dk ie w ic z w as al s o s e n te n c e dto
de ath,an dthe r e m ain in g f o u r te e n p r is o n e r s to te r m s o f
im p r is o n m e n t .The s e n te n c e s o f de athp r o v o k e du n iv e r s al
in dig n atio n
.In En g l an dap r o te s tw as is s u e ds ig n e db y the
Ar c hb is ho p s o f Can te r b u r y an dY o r k ,Car din al B o u r n e ,the
l e ade r s o f the F r e e Chu r c he s ,the Mo de r ato r o f the Chu r c h
o f Sc o tl an d,the Ge n e r al o f the Sal v atio n Ar m y an dthe Chie f
Rab b i.This p r o te s ts av e dthe l if e o f Ar c hb is ho p Cie p l ak ,an d
the r e b y ag g r av ate dhis m ar ty r do m ,f o r the de aths e n te n c e w as
c o m m u te dto the m o r e te r r ib l e p u n is hm e n to f im p r is o n m e n t .
Mo n s ig n o r B u dk ie w ic z w as m o r e f o r tu n ate
.
The tr ial to o k p l ac e in Pas s io n We e k ,the p r ie s ts w e r e c o n -
de m n e do n Pal m Su n day ,an dMo n s ig n o r B u dk ie w ic z w as
e x e c u te do n Go o dF r iday .The e x p e r ie n c e o f c e n tu r ie s is e n -
s hr in e din the p r ay e r s o r dain e df o r Go o dF r iday ,an dw hat-
e v e r the s e m ay m e an to de v o u tChr is tian s in s e c u r ity ,the y
m u s thav e m e an tm o r e to the p r is o n e r s in the L u b y an k ac e l l
.
B OL SHEV IK
PERSECU TION OF
REL IGION

1
5 5
"He ar o u r p r ay e r s w hic hw e p o u r f o r thf o r the b l in dn e s s o f
this p e o p l e : thatb y ac k n o w l e dg in g the l ig hto f thy Tr u th
w hic his Chr is t' s the y m ay b e b r o u g hto u to f the ir dar k n e s s
."
Ap e r iate c ar c e r e s v in c u l adis s o l v atap e r ig r an tib u s r e ditu m .
An dthis p r ay e r atl e as tw as g r an te d,f o r as the day e n de dGo d
o p e n e dthe p r is o n ,b r o k e the c hain ,an dg r an te ds af e r e tu r n
to the tr av e l l e r o f Chr is t .Mo n s ig n o r B u dk ie w ic z s u f f e r e do n
Go o dF r iday ,an dr e p e ate din his m ar ty r do m the p atte r n o f
Cal v ar y e v e n to the de s ig n e din dig n ity o f an ig n o m in io u s
de ath .The p r ie s tw ho s e dig n ity an db r e e din g hadw o n the
e n v io u s r e s p e c to f his ju dg e s ,w as s tr ip p e dn ak e din his c e l l
an ddr iv e n do w n adar k c o r r ido r in to ar o o m l itb y p o w e r f u l
l ig hts .As he b l in k e dan dr e c o il e df r o m the g l ar e he w as
s ho tthr o u g hthe b ac k o f the n e c k ,an dthe s e r v an to f On e
w ho hadb e e n c r u c if ie db e tw e e n tw o thie v e s w as thr o w n c o n -
te m p tu o u s l y in to an am e l e s s g r av e in w hic hthe c o r p s e s o f n in e
b an dits w e r e aw aitin g in te r m e n t . (2I)
II.IB ANTGAU D ENTES
Of tho s e w ho dir e c te dthe f ir s tp has e o f the Ru s s ian Re v o l u -
tio n ,an dw ho o r g an iz e dthe p e r s e c u tio n ,r e l ig io u s an ds e c u l ar ,
tw o s til l s u r v iv e
."The l is to f tho s e s ho t,"w r ite s Max Eas tm an ,
"o r w ho s ho tthe m s e l v e s ,o r w ho w e r e n am e d
as im p l ic ate d
w iththe v ic tim s ,c o m p r is e s -w ithas in g l e e x c e p tio n -e v e r y
o n e o f the e m in e n tB o l s he v ik s w ho s atw ithStal in ar o u n dthe
c o u n c il -tab l e o f L e n in : * Tr o ts k y ,Z in o v ie v ,K am e n e v ,Ry k o v ,
B u k har in ,Rade k ,So k o l n ik o v ,Piatak o v (m e n tio n e din L e n in ' s
Te s tam e n t
as am o n g the ab l e s t),Y e v do k im o v ,Sm ir o v (o n c e
k n o w n as ` The L e n in o f Sib e r ia' ),To m s k y (he ado f the
F e de r atio n o f L ab o u r ),Se r e b r iak o v (Stal in ' s p r e de c e s s o r as
s e c r e tar y o f the p ar ty ),an ds e v e r al o the r s o n l y al ittl e l e s s
e m in e n t." (22)
* "The e x c e p tio n is Rak o v s k y ,w ho s e dis tin c tio n is that he w as the
l as to f al l to g iv e u p o p e n o p p o s itio n ,an dc ap itu l ate to Stal in ' s dic tato r -
s hip ,r e m ain in g in e x il e u n til 1 9 3 3 ,an dc ap itu l atin g al l to o o b v io u s l y in
as ic k if n o tas e n il e de s p air ."
1 5 6

B OL SHEV IK PERSECU TIONOF REL IGION
Te n J u das e s o u to f tw e l v e is ar athe r hig hp r o p o r tio n f o r a
n e w r e l ig io n .
Stal in has m ade thin g s v e r y dif f ic u l tf o r his s u p p o r te r s .If
w e r e je c tthe p o s s ib il ity thathe o r g an iz e dthe c o n v ic tio n o f
in n o c e n tm e n ,w e m u s tac c e p tthe dis q u ie tin g al te r n ativ e that
w iththe e x c e p tio n o f L e n in an dStal in ,the o l dB o l s he v ik
g u ar dw e r e al l tr aito r s to the c au s e w hic hthe y p r o f e s s e dto
s e r v e
.Itis o n l y af e w y e ar s s in c e w e w e r e in v ite db y o u r
l e adin g p r o g r e s s iv e s to w o r s hip Stal in ' s v ic tim s as dis in te r e s te d
p r o p he ts w ho w e r e l e adin g hu m an ity to the Pr o m is e dL an d
.
No w w e ar e in v ite dto b e l ie v e thatthe y w e r e o n e an dal l
c r y p to -F as c is ts ,tr aito r s to the p r o l e tar ian c au s e ,an din s o m e
c as e s ag e n ts o f J ap an o r Ge r m an y
.If o u r tr u s tin the s e m u c h
adv e r tis e dhe r al ds o f the Re dD aw n w as m is p l ac e d,w hat
c o n f ide n c e c an w e hav e in tho s e w ho m the Co m m u n is ts n o w
ac c e p t
as l e ade r s ? Ho w c an w e b e s u r e thatthe y to o w il l n o t
b e tr ay u s ? May n o tStal in him s e l f o n e day b e c o n de m n e d
as aTr o ts k y ite ?
The Ru s s ian te r r o r is s til l de v o u r in g its p ar e n ts ,an dr e p e atin g
the p atte r n o f the F r e n c hRe v o l u tio n .The r e is aGo din
he av e n ,an dthe r e is ju s tic e o n e ar th .The o l dB o l s he v ik
g u ar dw ho in s tig ate dan dap p r o v e dthe Ru s s ian te r r o r ar e
r e -e n ac tin g the s q u al idtr ag e dy o f the F r e n c hte r r o r is ts
.The
D u c d' Or l e an s ,p r o to ty p e o f ar is to c r atic s u b v e r s iv e s ,Cl o o tz ,
D an to n ,St
.J u s t,Ro b e s p ie r r e ,F o u q u ie r -Tin v il l e ,Car r ie r ,
b u tc he r o f Nan te s ,die do n the s c af f o l de n s an g u in e db y the
b l o o do f the ir v ic tim s
.B u tthe s e F r e n c hm e n atl e as tw e r e n o t
w ho l l y div o r c e df r o m thatg r e attr aditio n ag ain s tw hic hthe y
hadr e v o l te d .The y die dl ik e m e n
.St.J u s tp as s e din the
tu m b r il thr o u g hthe je e r in g c r o w ds ,c al m an ds tatu e s q u e .
D an to n f ac e dthe in e s c ap ab l e w ithir o n ic r e s ig n atio n
.
"Q u ' im p o r te s ije In c u r s ? J ' aib ie n jo u idap s l aRe v o l u tio n ,
j' aib ie n de p e n s e ,b ie n r ib o tte ,b ie n c ar e s s e de s f il l e s ,al l o n s
do r m ir ." (23 )
On the s c af f o l dhe s o f te n e din to a c r y o f f ar e w e l l
to his w if e w ho m he l o v e d,r e c ap tu r e dc o n tr o l -"Co m e ,
D an to n ,n o w e ak n e s s "-an dtu r n in g to the e x e c u tio n e r s aid,
"Sho w m y he adto the p e o p l e
.Itis w o r thit ."
The s e m e n w e r e F r e n c h,an dthe y die d as F r e n c hm e n c an
B OL SHEV IK PERSECU TION OF REL IGION

1 5 7
die . B u tac e n tu r y o f s u b v e r s iv e p r o p ag an dahas u n de r m in e d
the tr aditio n w hic hs u s tain e dthe m .
The de r ac in e in te r -
n atio n al s o f Mo s c o w hadn o r e s o u r c e s in the m s e l v e s ,an d
c o u l ddr aw n o c o n s o l atio n f r o m the ar iddu s tin e s s o f Mar x is t
Mate r ial is m .Go dk n o w s w hatthe y hade n du r e db e f o r e the y
w e r e de e m e dr ip e f o r the do c k an df o r the l o u ds p e ak e r s
thr o u g hw hic hthe y w e r e to de c l aim the ir s e tp ie c e s o f s e l f -
ab as e m e n t.B u tthe r e w e r e o the r s w ho hadf ac e dthe s am e
o r de al ,an dw ho didn o tw him p e r o r c r in g e b e f o r e the ir ju dg e s ,
o the r s w ho w e r e s u p p o r te db y af aithm o r e he l p f u l ats u c h
m o m e n ts than D ial e c tic al Mate r ial is m .
The r e c an hav e b e e n f e w Co m m u n is ts w ho didn o tl o s e
he ar tan ds tatu r e w he n the o l dB o l s he v ik g u ar dab as e dthe m -
s e l v e s in the do c k ,as k in g p ar do n n o to f Go df o r the c r im e s
w hic hthe y hadc o m m itte d,b u to f Stal in f o r o f f e n c e s o f w hic h
the y w e r e f o r the m o s tp ar tin n o c e n t
.Itis e as ie r to m e e t
in dig n atio n than c o n te m p t .Par l o u r Co m m u n is ts w ho de f e n d,
an de v e n g l o r y in the r u thl e s s n e s s o f the Ru s s ian te r r o r is t,f in d
itdif f ic u l tto e x p l ain aw ay the w r e tc he df ig u r e w hic hthe s e
s am e te r r o r is ts c u tw he n o v e r tak e n b y the v io l e n c e w hic hthe y
hadc al l e din to b e in g .Me n ar e m o r e as ham e do f c o w ar dic e
than o f c r im e .St .J u s tw e n tto the s c af f o l db e ar in g ar e d
c ar n atio n ,b u tw he n the r e dl ig httu r n s y e l l o w ,the r e ds tar
l o s e s its l u s tr e .
Tho s e w ho s e f aithin hu m an n atu r e has b e e n w e ak e n e db y
the s q u al ids to r y o f B o l s he v ik de r e l ic tio n in the do c k s ho u l d
r e adthe r e c o r ds o f the t
r ial s
.i
n w hic hChr is tian s ,Ro m an
Catho l ic an dRu s s ian Or tho do x ,f ac e dw ithc o u r ag e an dw ith
c al m n e s s the v itu p e r atio n o f ju dg e an dp r o s e c u to r .Itm ay b e
e as ie r to l iv e as aCo m m u n is tin So v ie tRu s s ia,b u titis c e r tain l y
e as ie r to die as aChr is tian
."An y s e n te n c e thaty o u p as s o n
m e ,"s aidF athe r Y u n e v ic h,"Iw il l r e c e iv e w ithdig n ity .I
w il l n o tp r o te s tag ain s tit,f o r Is e e in al l thin g s the w o r k in g s
o f Pr o v ide n c e ,an dIs ay ' Thy w il l b e do n e ."' "He r e in Is e e
the p r o v ide n c e o f Go d,"s aidF athe r L e o n idas F e do r o v ,"the
w il l o f Go d ; an din this f aithIac c e p tal l thatHe s hal l s e n d ."
(24 )
"Ib an tg au de n te s .C' e s tp o u r l e m e m e Maitr e ." The s e
G-w
1 5 8 ,

B OL SHEV IK PERSECU TIONOF REL IGION
w o r ds o f c o n s o l atio n s p o k e n b y am ar ty r o f the Par is Co m m u n e
(1 8 7 0 )to af e l l o w v ic tim ,e n s hr in e dthe s p ir ito f Chr is tian
m ar ty r do m .Co u r ag e is n o tthe m o n o p o l y o f Chr is tian m ar ty r s ,
b u tthe r e c u r r in g p atte r n o f r adian tjo y is the dis tin g u is hin g
c har ac te r is tic o f r e l ig io u s m ar ty r do m .The Ro m an am p hi-
the atr e ,the du n g e o n s o f Re v o l u tio n ar y F r an c e ,the c e l l s o f
Che k a,the f ir in g s q u ads o f Re p u b l ic an Sp ain ,hav e p r o v e d
p o w e r l e s s to dis p e l the hap p in e s s o f tho s e w ho "w e n tr e jo ic in g ."
III.THEPRESENTPOSITIONINRU SSIA
The Ru s s ian r e l ig io u s p e r s e c u tio n v ar ie s in in te n s ity f r o m
y e ar to y e ar .In the m ag n u m o p u s o f the We b b s the in de x
r e f e r e n c e to r e l ig io u s w o r s hip e n ds ap p r o p r iate l y w iththe
w o r ds "s e e al s o Pe r s e c u tio n ."
The We b b s q u o te w ithdis ap p r o v al Mr .W .H.Cham b e r l in ' s
as s e r tio n in his ar tic l e in F o r e ig n Af f air s (Ne w Y o r k )that
"r e p r e s e n tativ e s o f al l r e l ig io u s f aiths ar e b e in g p e r s e c u te d(in
the U .S.S.R.in 1 9 3 5 )atl e as tas v ig o r o u s l y as D is s e n te r s an d
Catho l ic s w e r e p e r s e c u te du n de r Char l e s II(in En g l an d) ."An d
the We b b s add,"F o r tu n ate l y ,Mr .Cham b e r l in e n u m e r ate s
c ar e f u l l y al l the f o r m s thatthe ` p e r s e c u tio n ' tak e s ."The w o r d
"f o r tu n ate l y "an dthe q u o tatio n m ar k s in w hic hthe We b b s
e n c l o s e the w o r d"p e r s e c u tio n "do n o tp r e p ar e u s f o r w hat
f o l l o w s
.Iw as e x p e c tin g al ittl e g e n tl e We b b ir o n y o n the
the m e o f an o n -e x is te n t"p e r s e c u tio n ."B u tthe We b b s c o n tin u e ,
"The So v ie tGo v e r n m e n tr e f u s e s to p r in to r to im p o r tr e l ig io u s
b o o k s .Pr ac tic al l y al l s e m in ar ie s f o r p r ie s ts ar e s u p p r e s s e d .
The c hu r c he s ar e f o r b idde n to c ar r y o n c har itab l e o r r e c r e a-
tio n al w o r k .The c hil dr e n o f p r ie s ts ar e de n ie dac c e s s to hig he r
e du c atio n .The r e is f r e q u e n tar b itr ar y c l o s in g o f p ar tic u l ar
c hu r c he s .Pr ie s ts an do the r s ac tiv e in r e l ig io u s w o r k ar e s o m e -
tim e s s u m m ar il y ar r e s te dan dde p o r te do n g r o u n ds thatthe y
do n o tu n de r s tan d ."(25 )Al l o f w hic h,o f c o u r s e ,is o n l y
"p e r s e c u tio n ."Is ho u l db e in te r e s te dto k n o w w hatc o n s titu te s
p e r s e c u tio n in the ju dg m e n to f the We b b s .
Mo r e o v e r ,the r e c e n tde v e l o p m e n ts in Ru s s iado n o ts u p p o r t
SOL SHEV IHPERSECU TIONOF REL IGION

1
5 9
the We b b s ' c o n te n tio n thatthe Ru s s ian p e r s e c u tio n is l e s s
s e v e r e thatthato f Catho l ic s an dD is s e n te r s u n de r Char l e s II.
The u n de r s tan dab l e an x ie ty o f the Ru s s ian Go v e r n m e n tto
c o n c e al the e x te n to f the p e r s e c u tio n m ak e s itdif f ic u l tto o b tain
ac c u r ate in f o r m atio n ,b u tif the s u m m ar y r e c e n tl y p u b l is he d
b y the War s aw Catho l ic Pr e s s Ag e n c y is e v e n ap p r o x im ate l y
c o r r e c t,r e l ig io u s p e r s e c u tio n is c e r tain l y n o tdim in is hin g in
in te n s ity .
"Ac c o r din g to in f o r m atio n p u b l is he db y the War s aw
Catho l ic Pr e s s Ag e n c y ,al to g e the r 4 2,8 0 0 Or tho do x p r ie s ts
w e r e l iq u idate din the f ir s thal f o f 1 9 3 6 ,s o m e b e in g s ho t,o the r s
de s p atc he dto the l ab o u r c am p s o f Sib e r ia
. Of the 20 0
Ev an g e l ic al p as to r s w ho w e r e w o r k in g in Ru s s iain 1 9 1 7 ,o n l y
f o u r ar e s til l al iv e .In the y e ar 1 9 3 6 o v e r 8 o o Catho l ic p r ie s ts
w e r e s e n tto p r is o n ,1 0 2w e r e s ho t,an dthe o the r s b an is he d .
The G.P
.U
.r e c e n tl y is s u e do r de r s f o r the ar r e s to f al l w an de r in g
Chr is tian s ,w ho m the B o l s he v is ts hav e s o f ar b e e n u n ab l e to
p r e v e n ttr av e l l in g f r o m dis tr ic tto dis tr ic tan dp r e ac hin g the
Go s p e l .The s e ' Stan n ik s ' w ie l dg r e atin f l u e n c e o v e r the p o p u l a-
tio n an dk e e p the f aithal iv e w he r e v e r the c l e r g y has b e e n
e x te r m in ate d .
"In the c o u r s e o f 1 9 3 7 ,1 ,g o o p l ac e s o f w o r s hip hav e b e e n
c l o s e db y the G.P.U .o n the p r e te x to f ar r e ar s in the p ay m e n t
o f r e l ig io u s tax e s .The y in c l u de 24 0 Ro m an Catho l ic
c hu r c he s , 20 0 m o s q u e s ,1 1 5 s y n ag o g u e s ,s ix ty -o n e L u the r an
c hu r c he s ,an do the r ho u s e s o f p r ay e r b e l o n g in g to v ar io u s
de n o m in atio n s ."(26 )
So m u c hf o r the "f r e e do m o f w o r s hip "g u ar an te e din Ar tic l e
1 24 o f the n e w So v ie tCo n s titu tio n .Ar tic l e 1 24 s tate s that
"F r e e do m o f w o r s hip an df r e e do m o f an ti-r e l ig io u s p r o p a-
g an daar e r e c o g n iz e df o r al l c itiz e n s ,"ahan ds o m e c o n c e s s io n
w hic hw as hail e dw ithho s an n ahs b y Co m m u n is ts y m p athiz e r s
in de m o c r atic c o u n tr ie s .On Oc to b e r 1 s t,1 9 3 5 ,K r y l e n k o w as
g o o de n o u g hto e x p l ain the m e an in g o f Ar tic l e 1 24 .He
p o in te do u tthat"s e p ar atio n m e an s thatthe Chu r c hdo e s n o t
an d .c an n o te n jo y an y k in do f ju r idic al r ig hts
.Co n s e q u e n tl y
itc an n o tan dm u s tn o te n jo y o r b e e n titl e dto r ig hts an d
p r iv il e g e s o f an y k in d,"an dhe adde dthatn o f o r m o f r e l ig io u s
i6 o

B OL SHEV IK PERSECU TIONOF REL IGION
e du c atio n w o u l db e to l e r ate din an y s c ho o l o r in s titu tio n o f
l e ar n in g .(27 )
Ar tic l e 1 24 s p e c if ic al l y p e r m its "f r e e do m o f an ti-r e l ig io u s
p r o p ag an da"b u tn o f r e e do m o f p r o -r e l ig io u s p r o p ag an da
.It
is f atu o u s to p r e te n dthatthe r e is n o p e r s e c u tio n in ac o u n tr y
in w hic hChr is tian s ar e de n ie dthe r ig htto p r o p ag ate the ir
f aith .L e tu s te s tthis al l e g e dto l e r atio n b y as im p l e an al o g y .
L e tu s s u p p o s e thate v e r y te ac he r in State s c ho o l s w e r e
in s tr u c te dto attac k So c ial is m ,an dn o te ac he r p e r m itte dto
de f e n dSo c ial is m
.L e tu s s u p p o s e thatSo c ial is ts w e r e al l o w e d
to ho l dm e e tin g s in p r iv ate ,an dde n ie dthe r ig htto p r o p ag ate
the ir v ie w s .An y Co n s titu tio n e m b o dy in g s u c hp r in c ip l e s w o u l d
n o tb e w e l c o m e db y So c ial is ts as atr iu m p hf o r p o l itic al
to l e r atio n
.
IV
.THEREL IGIOU SPERSECU TIONINSPAIN
Iw o n de r w he the r the We b b s w o u l dc l as s if y the attac k o n
Chr is tian ity in Re p u b l ic an Sp ain as p e r s e c u tio n o r "p e r s e -
c u tio n ."The y w o u l dc e r tain l y hav e b e e n o n s u r e g r o u n dhad
the y de f e n de dthe Ru s s ian B o l s he v ik s b y the p l e athatthe
Ru s s ian p e r s e c u tio n o f r e l ig io n w as r e l ativ e l y m il dc o m p ar e d
w iththe s av ag e p e r s e c u tio n in Re p u b l ic an Sp ain
.Su c hw as
the v e r dic to f the Sp e c ial Co r r e s p o n de n to f the Man c he s te r
Gu ar dian ,ap ap e r w hic hc o n s is te n tl y s u p p o r te dthe Re p u b l ic an
Go v e r n m e n t .In its is s u e f o r J u n e 24 th,1 9 3 7 ,ac o r r e s p o n de n t
w ho had-ju s tr e tu r n e df r o m Re p u b l ic an Sp ain
.w r o te as
f o l l o w s ,"The attac k o n r e l ig io n has b e e n m o r e r adic al in
l o y al is tSp ain than an y w he r e e l s e in the w o r l d,in c l u din g e v e n
Me x ic o an dRu s s ia .Al l Ro m an Catho l ic c hu r c he s hav e b e e n
c l o s e ddo w n as p l ac e s o f w o r s hip ,an dn e ar l y al l hav e b e e n
c o m p l e te l y de s tr o y e din s ide ,o n l y the w al l s ,r o o f ,an dto w e r
r e m ain in g .No r hav e the Pr o te s tan tc hu r c he s e s c ap e d,w ith
the e x c e p tio n (itw o u l dap p e ar to b e the o n l y o n e )o f the
s m al l Ge r m an c hu r c hin Madr id .In thatl ittl e c hu r c hdiv in e
s e r v ic e s til l g o e s o n ,than k s to the f an tas tic c o u r ag e an d
de v o tio n o f the p as to r ,D r
.F l ie dn e r ,an dhis p o p u l ar ity
B OL SHEV IK PERSECU TIONOF REL IGION

1 6 1
am o n g s tthe p o o r o f Madr id,than k s al s o to its p o s itio n (itis
v e r y s m al l an dis b u il tb e tw e e n ho u s e s an db e hin dag ar de n
w ithtr e e s ) .The En g l is hc hu r c hin B ar c e l o n ahas b e e n c l o s e d .
The tw o No n c o n f o r m is tp l ac e s o f w o r s hip atCl o tan dPu e b l o
Nu e v ahav e b e e n b u r n t . . . .
"V is ito r s to Madr idar e s ho w n ` an u n b u r n tc hu r c h' as a
p ie c e o f p r o p ag an da,an ds o m e f am il ie s in Madr idhav e had
p e r m is s io n to ho l dp r iv ate Mas s .B u tthe s e ar e the l o n e l ie s t
e x c e p tio n s . . . .
"The l o v e l y c hu r c he s o f V al e n c iahav e b e e n b u r n to u to r
de s tr o y e din s ide ,an dar e n o w u s e d as g ar ag e s ,r e p air s ho p s ,
de p o ts ,an ds o o n . . . .
"In Ru s s iathe c hu r c he s ar e f u l l an dr e l ig io n is ap o w e r
s til l .In Ru s s iap e r s e c u tio n has am e an in g .In l o y al is tSp ain
the r e is n o thin g l e f tto p e r s e c u te . . . ."
In Sp ain as in Ru s s iathe ap o l o g is ts f o r r e l ig io u s p e r s e c u tio n
hav e atte m p te dto p r o v e thatthe p e r s e c u to r s w e r e in s p ir e db y
an ti-c l e r ic al is m r athe r than b y hatr e do f r e l ig io n as s u c h .The
Chu r c hin Sp ain is r e p r e s e n te das r ic hin the m ids to f g r in din g
p o v e r ty .The w e al tho f the Chu r c his ap r o p ag an dam y th,f o r
the Sp an is hChu r c hhas b e e n the v ic tim o f al o n g s e r ie s o f
p ar tial an dc o m p l e te c o n f is c atio n s in the y e ar s 1 8 1 2,1 8 20 ,
1 8 3 5 ,1 8 3 7 ,1 8 6 8 an d1 9 3 1 .The State ,hav in g e x p r o p r iate d
an ddis e n do w e dthe Chu r c h,ag r e e dto p ay the s tip e n ds o f the
c l e r g y .In 1 9 1 3 the Pr im ate o f Sp ain r e c e iv e dthe e q u iv al e n to f
ab o u t£1 ,6 o o ay e ar .Eig htB is ho p s w e r e p aidatthe r ate o f
£4 0 o ay e ar ,an do f al l the p ar is hp r ie s ts o n l y f if ty w e r e l u c k y
e n o u g hto r e c e iv e an an n u al g r an to f
£Io o ,an d
3 ,4 9 5
r e c e iv e d
an n u al s tip e n ds v ar y in g f r o m £2o to £25 ay e ar .Sp an is h
p r ie s ts w e r e o v e r w o r k e dan du n de r p aidm e m b e r s o f the
p r o l e tar iat.
The c o n tin u e de x p r o p r iatio n s b y the State w e r e p ar tial l y
m ade g o o db y Catho l ic s w ho l e f tm o n e y to the Chu r c has
tr u s te e f o r ho s p ital s an ds c ho o l s .The r e c o r ds o f L ib e r al
Go v e r n m e n ts in Sp ain ,s o f ar as e du c atio n is c o n c e r n e d,has
b e e n ar e c o r do f de s tr u c tio n .The Chu r c he du c ate dm o r e than
hal f o f tho s e w ho w e r e e du c ate d,am ag n if ic e n te f f o r t,c o n -
s ide r in g its c r ip p l e dr e s o u r c e s ."B ac k w ar d as Sp ain has l o n g
1 6 2

B OL SHEV IK PERSECU TIONOF REL IGION
b e e n in this r e s p e c t,"w r ite s Pr o f e s s o r Al l is o n Pe e r s ,adis tin -
g u is he dAn g l ic an s c ho l ar ,"itis har dl y p o s s ib l e to im ag in e in
w hatc o n ditio n s he w o u l db e w e r e itn o tf o r the l ab o u r s o f
the c l e r g y ,an d,in p ar tic u l ar ,o f the r e l ig io u s Or de r s . . . if
the r e l ig io u s Or de r s ar e dis tr u s te d,itis n o tb y the p o o r ,the s ic k
an dthe hu n g r y
."(28 )
The p r e te x tthatthe Sp an is hp e r s e c u tio n w as in s p ir e ds o l e l y
b y an ti-c l e r ic al is m is f o r e x p o r to n l y ,an dw as r e p u diate db y
So l idar idadOb r e r a in its is s u e o f J an u ar y 28 th,1 9 3 7 .This
p ap e r is the o f f ic ial o r g an o f the An ar c ho -Sy n dic al is ts ,w ho ar e
r e p r e s e n te din the Re p u b l ic an Go v e r n m e n t,an dw ho s e v ie w s
w o u l dhav e b e e n s u p p r e s s e db y the Pr e s s c e n s o r hadthe y b e e n
r e g ar de das in c o n s is te n tw iththe Go v e r n m e n tp o l ic y .
"Itap p e ar s thatAl v ar e z de l V ay o ,"w r ite s So l idar idad
Ob r e r a, "f o u n dhim s e l f o b l ig e din the L e ag u e o f Natio n s to
de f in e the l im its o f o u r r e v o l u tio n
.` Sp ain w il l hav e ,' he s aid,
` as o c ial de m o c r ac y an dthe r e f o r e hav e f r e e do m o f r e l ig io n .'
Adm ir ab l e .We k n o w the v al u e o f w o r ds u s e db y dip l o m atis ts
if s p o k e n in Ge n e v am e e tin g s .
"L e n in s aidthatr e l ig io n w as o p iu m .He didn o ts ay e n o u g h .
Op iu m s tu p e f ie s ,e n e r v ate s .L ittl e b y l ittl e itr o b s m an o f his
o r g an ic e n e r g ie s ,b u titdo e s n o tg o b e y o n dan im al p hy s io l o g y
.
"We do n o tk n o w u p to w hatp o in tw e c an s p e ak o f the
` f r e e do m o f r e l ig io n ' . . . . The ` f r e e do m f o r e v il ' is an e x c e s -
s iv e l y l ib e r al p r in c ip l e .
"If w e do n o tal l o w the f r e e do m o f dr u n k e n n e s s ,p r o s titu tio n ,
s u ic ide ,m u s tw e al l o w f an atic is m ?
"Itis e n o u g hto ju dg e r e l ig io n b y the s im p l e f ac to f its b u r n t
c hu r c he s .No to n e r e m ain s s tan din g ,n o tan e f f ig y r e m ain s
in tac t .Har dl y as hr e dr e m ain s .Withal l this the y s til l hav e
p r e te n s io n s o f r e tu r n in g to the F aith . . . .
"This s p e e c ho f Al v ar e z de l V ay o w ithhis k in do f p r o m is e
o r c o m p r o m is e thatSp ain w il l r e -e s tab l is hthe Catho l ic
r e l ig io n ,m ay hav e s o u n de dv e r y w e l l in the L e ag u e o f Natio n s .
Itap p e ar s to hav e g iv e n to n e to the dis c u s s io n ; b u the r e in
Sp ain itm ak e s u s s m il e ."
D u r in g the Natio n al is tdr iv e f o r the s e ain the s p r in g o f
1 9 3 8 1 v is ite dm an y c hu r c he s in the te r r ito r y r e c ap tu r e df r o m
B OL SHEV IK
PERSECU TION
0 7
REL IG1 6 N

1 6 3
the Re p u b l ic an s .Mo s to f the s e ,as f o r in s tan c e atL e r ida,had
b e e n r u thl e s s l y de s tr o y e d .So m e hadb e e n tr an s f o r m e din to
c in e m as ,o r as atAl c an iz ,in to c o -o p e r ativ e s to r e s .In the
c athe dr al atAl c an iz the s ide c hap e l s w e r e s til l f u l l o f g r o c e r ie s
o n Pal m Su n day ,1 9 3 8 .I o n l y f o u n do n e c hu r c h,atMo r e l l a,
w hic hw as u n dam ag e d,ac hu r c ho f g r e atb e au ty w hic hhad
b e e n p r e s e r v e das
a
n atio n al m o n u m e n t .Man y c hu r c he s n o
l e s s b e au tif u l hadb e e n de s tr o y e d,an dthe p r e s e r v atio n o f the
f e w w hic hhade s c ap e dde s tr u c tio n w as du e to c han c e r athe r
than s e ttl e dp o l ic y .The Re p u b l ic an ar m y is b e l ie v e dto
c o n tain hig h-o f f ic e r s o u to f s y m p athy w iththe attac k o n
r e l ig io n ,an ditis to s o m e s u c ho f f ic e r thatthe c hu r c hat
Mo r e l l ao w e s its p r e s e r v atio n .Iv is ite dthe c e m e te r y atHu e s c a
w hic hhadb e e n o c c u p ie db y the Re p u b l ic an s .The l ittl e c hap e l
hadb e e n tr an s f o r m e din to ab ar b e r ' s s al o o n .Ev e r y c r o s s an d
e v e r y c r u c if ix hadb e e n b r o k e n .The w al l s w e r e c o v e r e dw ith
o b s c e n e dr aw in g s . Man y c o f f in s hadb e e n o p e n e dan d
de s e c r ate d .The s ig n if ic an c e o f Hu e s c ais the f ac tthatthe s e
o u tr ag e s w e r e n o tthe w o r k o f an in f u r iate dm o b in ap e r io d
o f e x c ite m e n t .The c e m e te r y w as o c c u p ie df o r e ig hte e n m o n ths
b y o f f ic e r s an dm e n w ho w e r e ap p ar e n tl y u n p e r tu r b e db y the
s q u al id,tr ag ic an dde s e c r ate de n v ir o n m e n t .
Itis dif f ic u l tto o b tain ac c u r ate e s tim ate s o f the as s as s in atio n s
o f p r ie s ts .Tw e n ty -e ig htr e l ig io u s Or de r s hav e s e n tin the ir
e s tim ate s ,an dthe l is tw as p u b l is he din The Tim e s f o r May 7 th,
1 9 3 8 .Ac c o r din g to the s e in c o m p l e te r e s u l ts 1 ,4 0 3 m e m b e r s o f
r e l ig io u s Or de r s ar e k n o w n to hav e b e e n k il l e d,b u tm an y o f
the g r e ate s tOr de r s in Sp ain ,s u c h as the D o m in ic an s ,hav e n o t
y e tc o m p il e dthe ir l is t .The e s tim ate s f o r the to tal n u m b e r o f
as s as s in atio n s o f the r e l ig io u s Or de r s an dthe s e c u l ar c l e r g y
r an g e f r o m io ,o o o to 1 4 ,0 0 0 . Man y o f the s e m ar ty r s w e r e
o f f e r e dthe c ho ic e b e tw e e n ap o s tas y an dde ath,o f te n ac r u e l
de athb y to r tu r e .The n u m b e r o f ap o s tas ie s w e r e n e g l ig ib l e .
Itis im p r o b ab l e thatthe Chu r c ho f En g l an dw il l r e m ain f o r
l o n g in its p r e s e n ts e c u r e p o s itio n .The r ic he s tan dm o s tp o w e r -
f u l Chu r c hin Chr is te n do m is p e c u l iar l y v u l n e r ab l e to attac k ,
an dif e v e r the An g l ic an c l e r g y ar e c al l e du p o n to die f o r the ir
F aith,w e s hal l he ar ag r e atde al ab o u ttithe s an dm in in g
1 6 4

B OL SHEV IK PERSECU TIONOF REL IGION
r o y al tie s ,an dw e s hal l b e as s u r e dthatthe ir m u r de r e r s ar e
in s p ir e dn o tb y hatr e do f r e l ig io n as s u c h,b u tb y av e r y p r o p e r
de te s tatio n o f c l e r ic al ab u s e s .Ev e n if the Chu r c ho f En g l an d
e s c ap e s ac tiv e p e r s e c u tio n ,the c am p aig n f o r dis e s tab l is hm e n t
an ddis e n do w m e n tis o n l y b e in g he l din r e s e r v e f o r am o r e
au s p ic io u s m o m e n t .Itw o u l db e dis as tr o u s if s u c hac am p aig n
w e r e to s u c c e e d .The o f f ic ial r e c o g n itio n o f Chr is tian ity as
the State r e l ig io n is s o m e r e s tr ain t,ho w e v e r s m al l ,o n the
g r adu al s e c u l ar iz atio n o f n atio n al l if e .Itis n o tin the n atio n al
in te r e s tthatf u n ds w hic hs u p p o r tthe c l e r g y ,Chu r c hs c ho o l s ,
c har itie s an dm is s io n s s ho u l db e de f l e c te dto f in an c e the e x tr a-
v ag an c e s o f So c ial is tic an db u r e au c r atic l e g is l atio n .
"The aim o f the e x tr e m is ts ,"w r ite s D r
.W .R.In g e ,"is to
b r e ak al l l in k s w iththe p as t .Natu r al l y the y w is hto de s tr o y the
Chr is tian r e l ig io n .The y do n o tw is hto r e f o r m the Chu r c h,
as is m o s tf al s e l y s tate d,b u tto r o o to u tal l r e l ig io n . . . . The
is s u e is p e r f e c tl y c l e ar .The e n e m y ,w e m ay al m o s ts ay ,is
an ti-Chr is tin p e r s o n .We m u s tf ig ht,an dc l o s e o u r r an k s as
f ar as w e c an .Re u n io n is f ar aw ay ,b u tin this b attl e w e m ay
s u r e l y al l f ig htto g e the r .The g ate s o f he l l s hal l n o tp r e v ail
ag ain s tthe Chu r c h,b u tthe b attl e w il l n o tb e s ho r to r
e as y
."(29 )
REF ERENCES
(I) Q u o te db y Cap tain F r an c is Mc Cu l l ag h : The B o l s he v ik
Pe r s e c u tio n o f Chr is tian ity , J o hn Mu r r ay ,p
.224 -
(2)The D e an o f Can te r b u r y : State m e n tm ade af te r v is itin g
Re p u b l ic an Sp ain .
(3 )Wal de m ar Gu r ian : B o l s he v is m : The o r y an dPr ac tic e ,
She e dan dWar d,p .9 4 .
(4 ) &(5 )Ear l B r o w de r : Co m m u n is m in the U n ite dState s ,
PP-3 3 4 ,3 3 4 -
(6 )Q u o te db y F athe r C.C.Cl u m p , S.J . : So v ie tAthe is m ,
Catho l ic Tr u thSo c ie ty ,p . I I .
B OL SHEV IK PERSECU TIONOF REL IGION

1 6 5
(7 )K ar l Mar x : In tr o du c tio n to aCr itiq u e o f He g e l ' s
Phil o s o p hy o f L aw .
(8 )E.Y ar o s l av s k y : Re l ig io n in the U .S.S.R., In te r n atio n al
Pu b l is he r s ,Ne w Y o r k ,p p .3 6 ,3 7 .
(9 )Q u o te db y F athe r C.C.Cl u m p , S.J . : So v ie tAthe is m ,
p .1 3 .
(Io )-( I3 )Mau r ic e Hin du s : Hu m an ity U p r o o te d, J o n athan
Cap e ,p p
. 5 2,4 9 ,24 - 27 5
6 - 5 9 -
(1 4 )Cap tain F r an c is Mc Cu l l ag h : The B o l s he v ik Pe r s e c u tio n
o f Chr is tian ity ,p .
24 -
(1 5 )Pau l d' Es tr e e : L e Pe r e D u c he s n e , q u o te db y Ne s taH.
We b s te r : The F r e n c hRe v o l u tio n , Co n s tab l e ,p
.4 3 0 -
(1 6 )-(21 )
Cap tain F r an c is Mc Cu l l ag h : The B o l s he v ik Pe r s e -
c u tio n o f Chr is tian ity ,p p . 5 o ,1 1 5 1 1 3 1 ,1 8 3 ,1 8 7 ,28 0 .
(22)Max Eas tm an : "The En do f So c ial is m in Ru s s ia,"
Har p e r ' s Mag az in e , F e b r u ar y ,
1 9 3 7 ,P• 3 1 3 -
(23 )
Me m o ir e s de Se n ar t, e ditio n de L e s c u r e ,p .7 1 ,q u o te d
b y Ne s taH.We b s te r : The F r e n c hRe v o l u tio n ,p . 4 4 6 .
(24 )Cap tain F r an c is Mc Cu l l ag h : The B o l s he v ik Pe r s e c u tio n
o f Chr is tian ity ,p . 26 6 ,27 1 .
(25 )Sidn e y an dB e atr ic e We b b : So v ie tCo m m u n is m ,
V ic to r
Go l l an c z ,p . 1 Q 1 0 .
(26 ) The Tab l e t, Ap r il 3 o th,
1 9 3 8 -
(27 )Mo n s ig n o r F u l to n J .She e n : Co m m u n is m an dRe l ig io n ,
The Pau l is tPr e s s ,p .6 .
(28 )Pr o f e s s o r Al l is o n Pe e r s in The Tab l e t,
May 1 5 th,1 9 3 7 -
(29 )D r .W .R.In g e in
U n ite dChr is tian F r o n t,p p .
4 6 , 4 7 .
o *
CHAPTERXV I
SOCIAL ISMAND SEX
IT
is r e g r e ttab l e thatthe c as e ag ain s tSo c ial is m s ho u l ds o
o f te n b e c o n f u s e db y e x ag g e r atio n .The attac k o n the s e x
p hil o s o p hy o f So c ial is m is o f te n w e ak e n e dn o to n l y b y as s e r -
tio n s w hic hc an n o tb e p r o v e d,b u tal s o b y s tate m e n ts thatc an
b e c o n c l u s iv e l y r e f u te d,w iththe in e v itab l e r e s u l tthatthe
So c ial is te m e r g e s tr iu m p han tf r o m ac o n tr o v e r s y in w hic hhis
o p p o n e n thas tho u g htf u l l y p r o v ide dhim w ithac o n v in c in g
r e p l y .The Co m m u n is to r So c ial is ts ho u l db e attac k e do n the
g r o u n dthathis c r e e dl o g ic al l y l e ads to p r o m is c u ity ,w hic his
p r o v ab l e ,b u tn o tthatitl e ads to the "o f f ic ial an do p e n c o m -
m u n ity o f w o m e n ,"w hic his f ar f r o m b e in g the c as e .Y e tin
an o the r w is e w e l l -do c u m e n te dc r itic is m o f Co m m u n is m this
s tate m e n tap p e ar s ,an dis s u p p o r te db y af o o tn o te r e f e r e n c e to
the Co m m u n is tMan if e s to . Hadthe Man if e s to b e e n q u o te d
in the f o o tn o te ,the s tate m e n tin the te x tw o u l dhav e b e e n
r e f u te d,f o r w hatMar x w r o te w as ,"The b o u r g e o is s e e s in his
w if e am e r e in s tr u m e n to f p r o du c tio n .He he ar s thatthe
in s tr u m e n ts o f p r o du c tio n ar e to b e e x p l o ite din c o m m o n ,an d,
n atu r al l y ,c an c o m e to n o o the r c o n c l u s io n than thatthe l o t
o f b e in g c o m m o n to al l w il l l ik e w is e f al l to the w o m e n ."
An dMar x adds ,"B o u r g e o is m ar r iag e is in r e al ity as y s te m
o f w iv e s in c o m m o n ,an dthu s ,atthe m o s t,w hatthe Co m -
m u n is ts m ig htp o s s ib l y b e r e p r o ac he dw ithis thatthe y de s ir e
to in tr o du c e ,in s u b s titu tio n f o r ahy p o c r itic al l y c o n c e al e d,an
o p e n l y l e g al iz e dc o m m u n ity o f w o m e n .F o r the r e s t,itis
s e l f -e v ide n tthatthe ab o l itio n o f the p r e s e n ts y s te m o f p r o du c -
tio n m u s tb r in g w ithitthe ab o l itio n o f the c o m m u n ity o f
w o m e n s p r in g in g f r o m thats y s te m ,i .e .o f p r o s titu tio n b o th
p u b l ic an dp r iv ate
."(i )
Itis n o l e s s f o o l is hto s u g g e s tthatal l So c ial is ts ar e l ic e n tio u s ,
o r thatthe r e v o l tag ain s ts e x u al r e s tr ic tio n s is the o n l y ,o r e v e n
1 6 6
SOCIAL ISM AND
SEX

1 6 7
the m o s tim p o r tan t,f ac to r in the w o r l dr e v o l u tio n ar y m o v e -
m e n t .L e n in ,p e r hap s the g r e ate s to f r e v o l u tio n ar ie s ,w as
as c e tic b y te m p e r am e n t .He de s p is e ds e l f -in du l g e n c e ,an d
e x p l ic itl y c o n de m n e dthe "g l as s o f w ate r "de f e n c e o f p r o m is -
c u ity ."Y o u ar e do u b tl e s s ac q u ain te dw iththe c ap ital the o r y ,"
he s aid,"thatin Co m m u n is ts o c ie ty the s atis f ac tio n o f the
in s tin c ts o f the c r av in g f o r l o v e is as s im p l e an du n im p o r tan t
as ` the dr in k in g o f ag l as s o f w ate r .' This ` g l as s o f w ate r
the o r y ' has dr iv e n s o m e o f o u r y o u n g p e o p l e c r az y ,q u ite
c r az y .Ithas b e e n the de s tr u c tio n o f m an y y o u n g m e n an d
w o m e n . Its s u p p o r te r s de c l ar e thatitis Mar x is t
. . . .I
c o n s ide r the f am o u s ` g l as s o f w ate r the o r y ' to b e u tte r l y
u n -Mar x ian ,an dm o r e o v e r u n -s o c ial
. . . . Of c o u r s e ,thir s t
c r ie s o u tto b e q u e n c he d
.B u tw il l an o r m al p e r s o n u n de r
n o r m al c o n ditio n s l ie do w n in the dir tin the r o adan ddr in k
f r o m ap u ddl e ? Or
e v e n f r o m ag l as s w ithar im g r e as y f r o m
m an y l ip s ? " (2)
Ev e n if w e av o id,as w e m u s t,c har g e s w hic hc an n o tb e
s u b s tan tiate d,w e s hal l f in dite as y to p r o v e thatr e v o l u tio n ar y
m o v e m e n ts hav e adis as tr o u s e f f e c to n tho s e m o r al s tan dar ds
w hic hw e r e o n c e ac c e p te das the u n q u e s tio n e db as is o f w e s te r n
c iv il iz atio n .The r e p u diatio n b y Co m m u n is ts o f the tr aditio n al
m o r al s tan dar ds in s e x is o n l y o n e as p e c to f the ir r e p u diatio n
o f al l o b je c tiv e m o r al ity .In this c hap te r Iam c o n c e r n e do n l y
w iths e x m o r al ity ,an dthe w o r ds "m o r al ity "an d"m o r al
s tan dar ds "m u s tb e u n de r s to o din this r e s tr ic te ds e n s e
.Is hal l
tr y to s ho w :
i .Thatthe attac k o n the tr aditio n al m o r al s tan dar ds o f
Eu r o p e p l ay s an im p o r tan tr o l e in the p r o p ag an da ` o f
r e v o l u tio n .
2 .
Thatthe l o w e r in g o f s tan dar ds in v o l v e s ac o r r e s p o n din g
c han g e o f b e hav io u r .
3
.Thatr e v o l u tio n ar y m o v e m e n ts ap p e al ,n o to n l y to
ide al is ts an do c c as io n al as c e tic s l ik e L e n in ,b u tto tho s e w ho
hav e ab an do n e dal l atte m p tto c o n f o r m to dif f ic u l ts tan dar ds ,
an dw ho r atio n al iz e the ir s e n s e o f f ail u r e b y r e p r o ac hin g n o t
the m s e l v e s b u tthe c o de w hic hc o n de m n s the m .
4
.Thatr e v o l u tio n ar y l e ade r s ar e f o r c e db y the l o g ic o f
I6 8

SOCIAL ISMAND SEX
r e v o l tto e x p l o it ag ain s tthe e s tab l is he do r de r the u n dis c ip l in e d
an dc r im in al e l e m e n ts o f the p o p u l atio n .
5 .Thatin c o n s e q u e n c e o f this al l ian c e the f ir s tp has e o f
as u c c e s s f u l r e v o l u tio n is c har ac te r iz e db y ag e n e r al r e v o l t
ag ain s tr e s tr ain tan ds e l f -dis c ip l in e .
6
.Thattr aditio n al m o r al ity is b as e do n l aw s w hic hc an n o t
b e de f ie dw ithim p u n ity ,an dthatthe r u l e r s o f aSo c ial is t
State ar e the r e f o r e f o r c e db y the l o g ic o f f ac ts to c u r b the
f o r c e s w hic hthe y hav e e x p l o ite din the ir attac k s o n tr aditio n ,
an dto im p o s e ag r adu al r e tu r n to the s tan dar ds w hic hthe y
hav e c o n de m n e d .
The adv o c ac y o f f r e e l o v e has b e e n c o n s is te n tl y e x p l o ite d
in the in te r e s ts o f w o r l dr e v o l u tio n
."Itis s ig n if ic an t,"w r ite s
v o n Mis e s ,"thatn o o the r Ge r m an So c ial is tb o o k w as m o r e
w ide l y r e ado r m o r e e f f e c tiv e as p r o p ag an dathan B e b e l ' s
Wo m an an dSo c ial is m , w hic his de dic ate dab o v e al l to the
m e s s ag e o f f r e e l o v e ."(3 )
F o u r ie r (1 7 7 2-1 8 3 7 ),
the f o u n de r o f F r e n c hSo c ial is m ,
adv o c ate dar e tu r n to n atu r e ,w hic hhe r e p r e s e n te das ac o n -
ditio n in w hic hp as s io n s c o u l db e in du l g e dw itho u tr e s tr ain t
.
Wis hf u l thin k in g ,w hic his the c o n c e al e db as is o f the p s e u do -
s c ie n tif ic So c ial is tic l ite r atu r e o f to day ,ap p e ar s u n dis g u is e din
F o u r ie r
.He l o o k e df o r w ar dto aday w he n the s e aw o u l db e
p u r g e do f b r in e ,an dw o u l db e tu r n e din to "ap l e as an tdr in k
l ik e l e m o n ade ,"w he n m e n w o u l dattain an ag e o f
1 4 4
y e ar s ,
o f w hic h 1 20
y e ar s w e r e to b e s p e n tin the e x e r c is e o f f r e e
l o v e . (¢ )
We is hau p t,f o u n de r o f the Il l u m in ati,p r o p o s e daf e s tiv al
to b e c al l e dthe Er o te r io n ,in ho n o u r o f the Go dde s s o f L o v e ,
as u g g e s tio n w hic hm ay p e r hap s hav e in s p ir e dthe f am o u s
s c e n e in No tr e D am e in w hic hap r o s titu te w as e n thr o n e do n
the Hig hAl tar .(5 )
The s e x -f r u s tr ate dar e to b e f o u n din l ar g e n u m b e r s in
al l r e v o l u tio n ar y m o v e m e n ts
.U n f o r tu n ate l y f e m in is ts hav e
r e c e iv e ds c u r v y tr e atm e n tf r o m the u n c hiv al r o u s l e ade r s o f
r e v o l t,w ho hadal w ay s b e e n r e ady to e x p l o itan dr e l u c tan t
to r e w ar dthe e n thu s ias m o f r e v o l u tio n ar y l adie s
."Mar k to o ,"
w r ite s Ro b is o n ,"w hatr e tu r n the w o m e n hav e m e tw ithf o r
SOCIAL ISMAND SEX

I6 9
al l the ir ho r r ids e r v ic e s ,w he r e ,to e x p r e s s the ir s e n tim e n ts o f
c iv is m an dab ho r e n c e o f r o y al ty ,the y thr e w aw ay the
c har ac te r o f the ir s e x , . .the r e is n o tas in g l e ac to f the ir
g o v e r n m e n tin w hic hthe s e x is c o n s ide r e das hav in g an y
r ig hts w hate v e r ,o r thatthe y ar e thin g s to b e c ar e df o r ."(6 )
The s am e u n c hiv al r o u s p atte r n r e ap p e ar s in the Re v o l u tio n o f
1 8 4 8 .F e m in is ts hadc o n tr ib u te dn o tal ittl e to the u n r e s t
w itho u tw hic hthe r e v o l u tio n w o u l dn e v e r hav e s u c c e e de d .
"Ce s he r o in e s de l ' am o u r m an q u e f o n t a g r an ds c r is l e p r o c e s
du m ar iag e b o u r g e o is : ' Af f air e de b o u r s e q u ' o n tr aite p ar
c o u r tag e . . . .Al l iag e m o n s tr u e u x de l ab e au te e tde l a
de c r e p itu de
. . . .Im m e n s e m ais o n de p r o s titu tio n o u l e s
p e r e s v e n de n tl e u r s f il l e s . .' " (7 )Ge o r g e s San dde c l ar e d
thatadu l te r y s ho u l dn o l o n g e r b e c o n s ide r e dan o f f e n c e .
Othe r f e m in is ts de m an de dthatc hil dr e n s ho u l dtak e the n am e
o f the ir m o the r ,ap r o p o s al w hic hw as s u p p o r te db y the ir r e -
f u tab l e s tate m e n tthatw he r e as ac hil d' s p ate r n ity is aq u e s tio n
o f o p in io n ,its m ate r n ity is aq u e s tio n o f f ac t
.F o u r ie r f o u n d
e ag e r dis c ip l e s am o n g tho s e p io n e e r s o f
s e x r e f o r m .The y
w e r e c har m e db y his p r o p o s al thaty o u n g g ir l s s ho u l db e
in v ite dto c ho o s e ,ats ix te e n ,b e tw e e n the "v e s tal at"an dthe
"de m o is e l l at
."D e m o is e l l e s s ho u l db e e n titl e dto p r ac tis e f r e e
l o v e w itho u tf u r the r de l ay ,w he r e as the m o r e as c e tic v e s tal s
w o u l dtak e v o w s o f c has tity te r m in ab l e attw e n ty -o n e
.(8 )
The s e c ham p io n s o f s e x e q u al ity w e r e ap p l au de du n til the
r e v o l u tio n hads u c c e e de d,b u tthe ir ide al s w e r e ig n o r e dw he n
the r e v o l u tio n ar y g o v e r n m e n tis s u e dthe ir s c al e o f p ay f o r the
"Natio n al Wo r k s ho p s
."Me n w e r e p aidatthe r ate o f tw o o r
thr e e f r an c s aday ,b u tthe in dig n an tf e m in is ts hadto b e
s atis f ie dw ithtw e l v e s o u s .
Al l o f w hic hs u g g e s ts ac e r tain r e s e r v e to w ar ds the s p ir ite d
p r o p o s al s f o r s e x u al e q u al ity w hic hhav e b e e n f o r m u l ate db y
thatdis tin g u is he dF r e n c hSo c ial is t,M
.L e o n B l u m . Itis
p o s s ib l e thatM.B l u m is s in c e r e l y dis tr e s s e dthatthe l ap s e s o f
u n m ar r ie dg ir l s ar e s til l r e g ar de dw ithl e s s b e n ig n ity than
b ac he l o r l iais o n s ,b u this f e m in in e dis c ip l e s hadb e tte r b e
p r e p ar e df o r dis ap p o in tm e n ts if M
.B l u m is e v e r e n tr u s te d
w ithdic tato r ial p o w e r s in ar e v o l u tio n ar y F r an c e
.M.B l u m
1 7 0
has the dis tin c tio n o f b e in g the f ir s tPr im e Min is te r o f a
Eu r o p e an State to de f e n din c e s tdu r in g his te r m o f o f f ic e ,f o r
tho u g hhe w r o te D u Mar iag e as ay o u n g m an ,he r e p u b l is he d
itw ithan e w p r e f ac e in May ,1 9 3 7 .B l u m is n o an ar c his t,f o r
he de s ir e s n o tto ab o l is hb u tto r e f o r m the in s titu tio n o f
m ar r iag e ,b u tIdo u b tif tr aditio n al is ts w il l b e r e as s u r e db y
his p r o p o s al s ,f o r he de f e n ds the the s is thaty o u n g p e o p l e
s ho u l dm atr ic u l ate b y p r o m is c u ity b e f o r e tak in g the ir de g r e e
in m ar r iag e
.He b e l ie v e s thaty o u n g p e o p l e s ho u l db e f r e e
to y ie l dto the
c han g in g im p u l s e s o f in s tin c t,an dw he n the ir
tas te s ar e f o r m e d,to s e ttl e do w n in adu r ab l e m ar r iag e .
"Why s ho u l do n e f o r b ido n e s e l f to y ie l dto as in c e r e an d
l iv e l y attr ac tio n ? "he w r ite s
."F o r w ho m s ho u l do n e p r e s e r v e
o n e s e l f in tac t,o r r athe r v ir g in ? The c o n ditio n o f v ag u e
u n e as in e s s ,this an o n y m o u s s e n s ib il ity ,if Im ay s o de s c r ib e it,
w hic ho n e f in ds am o n g the l o v e r s o f to day ,w il l dis ap p e ar
w iththe r e s tr ain ts w hic har e its c au s e ,an dm o r e o v e r ,atthe
ag e atw hic ho u r y o u n g g ir l s o f to day hav e ac q u ir e ds u f f ic ie n t
f r e e do m to e x p e r ie n c e dir e c tf am il iar ity w ithm e n ,the y o u n g
g ir l s o f af u tu r e ag e w il l al r e ady hav e hads e v e r al l o v e r s .The y
w il l b e l e s s de f l o w e r e db y b e in g p o s s e s s e dthan the g ir l s o f
to day b y c o l dc o m p l ac e n c e o r l e w dc u r io s ity . (9 )In M.
B l u m ' s U to p ia"y o u n g g ir l s w il l r e tu r n f r o m the ir l o v e r s as
n atu r al l y as the y n o w r e tu r n f r o m s c ho o l o r f r o m tak in g te a
w ithaf r ie n d ." (I o )
On c e the w o r l dhas ac c e p te dthe s e m o de s tp r o p o s al s ,
hu m an ity w il l b e r ip e f o r af u r the r adv an c e o n the r o adto
s e x u al f r e e do m
.To av o idthe c har g e o f m is r e p r e s e n tatio n I
hadb e tte r q u o te f r o m the o r ig in al F r e n c hM
.B l u m ' s dis c r e e t
c o m m e n ts o n in c e s t .
"J e n ' aijam ais dis c e r n e c c q u e l ' in c e s te ade p r o p r e m e n t
r e p o u s s an t,e t,s an s r e c he r c he r p o u r q u e l l e s r ais o n s l ' in c e s te ,
to l e r e o u p r e s c r itdan s c e r tain e s s o c ie te s ,e s tte n u p o u r u n
c r im e dap s l an o tr e ,je n o te s im p l e m e n tq u ' il e s tn atu r e l e t
f r e q u e n td' aim e r d' am o u r s o n f r e r e o u s as o e u r
."* (II)
* "Ihav e n e v e r dis c o v e r e dw hatis in he r e n tl y r e p u l s iv e in in c e s t,an d
w itho u tatte m p tin g to dis c o v e r w hy in c e s t,to l e r ate do r e n jo in e din c e r tain
s o c ie tie s ,is c o n s ide r e dac r im e in o u r o w n ,Im e r e l y n o te that' itis
n atu r al an du s u al am o r o u s l y to l o v e o n e ' s b r o the r o r o n e ' s s is te r ."
1
SOCIAL ISMAND SEX
SOCIAL ISMAND SEX

1 7 1
An dthatb r in g s m e to m y s e c o n dp o in t,thatthe l o w e r in g o f
s tan dar ds in v o l v e s ac o r r e s p o n din g c han g e in b e hav io u r
.In
F o u r ie r ' s day r e b e l s w e r e c o n te n tto de f e n dp r o m is c u ity an d
adu l te r y .B u to n c e the s e r ig hts hadb e e n c o n c e de d,the r e b e l
m u s tb u s y him s e l f w ithde s tr o y in g s u c htab o o s as r e m ain .
The r e is an in e v itab l e l ag b e tw e e n c o de an dp r ac tic e ,an d
w he r e the c o de is l o w e r e dthe p r ac tic e is c o r r e s p o n din g l y
l o w e r e d,an dthe adu l te r e r o f y e s te r day adv o c ate s in c e s tto day .
Al l o f w hic hs u g g e s ts s o m e dis q u ie tin g c o m m e n ts o n the
p o p u l ar the o r y thatitdo e s n o tm atte r w hatam an b e l ie v e s
p r o v ide dthathe b e hav e s him s e l f ,f o r its e e m s as if the r e r e al l y
is s o m e c o n n e c tio n b e tw e e n c r e e dan dc o de .Ev e n in as o c ie ty
w hic hc o n de m n s adu l te r y m e n o f n o r m al p as s io n s hav e n o t
f o u n dite as y to r e m ain m o n o g am o u s ; in as o c ie ty w hic hc o n -
do n e dp r o m is c u ity s e l f -c o n tr o l in s e x w o u l db e n o to n l y
dif f ic u l tb u ts l ig htl y ab s u r d .
Tr aditio n al Chr is tian ity has f o l l o w e dChr is tin c o m b in in g
in to l e r an c e o f s in w ithto l e r an c e o f s in n e r s
.The r e is n o thin g
u n c har itab l e in the de f e n c e o f r ig ids tan dar ds ,o r in to l e r an tin
the c o n v ic tio n thatade g r adatio n o f s tan dar ds in v o l v e s a
c o r r e s p o n din g de g r adatio n o f b e hav io u r
.If m o r al ity b e
m e r e l y am atte r o f tas te o r l o c al c o n v e n tio n ,M
.B l u m is as
e n titl e dto de f e n din c e s tas p r o m is c u ity . In de e d,l ik e the
Ru s s ian Co m m u n is ts ,he s ho u l db e p r ais e df o r dr aw in g c o n -
c l u s io n s w hic hf o l l o w l o g ic al l y f r o m the p r e m is s e s o f that
s e c u l ar hu m an itar ian is m w hic his the do m in an tp hil o s o p hy o f
the m o de r n w o r l d .
F r e e l o v e is am is l e adin g s l o g an .Ev e r y b o dy is f r e e to l o v e ,
b u tn o b o dy is f r e e to c o m p e l l o v e .The de m an df o r f r e e
l o v e f in ds ar e ady r e s p o n s e am o n g s ttho s e w ho s e de s ir e s hav e
b e e n f r u s tr ate d,an dw ho in te r p r e tthe Co m m u n is ts l o g an ,
"To e v e r y m an ac c o r din g to his n e e ds "as the c o m p u l s o r y
e q u al ity o f as e x u al U to p iain w hic he v e r y de s ir e s hal l b e
au to m atic al l y g r atif ie d .The r e al is tic Sp an iar dhas l ittl e u s e
f o r v ag u e s l o g an s .An ar c his ts in Sp ain ap p r e c iate the tr u e
s ig n if ic an c e o f f r e e l o v e ,an dhav e tak e n p r ac tic al m e as u r e s
to c o m p e l the de s ir e dr e ac tio n s am o n g tho s e w ho s til l de f e n d
the f r e e do m to b e c has te .Atam e e tin g o f the C.N.T.at
1 7 2

SOCIAL ISMAND SEX
Sar ag o s s aju s tb e f o r e the c iv il w ar ,the Sp an is hAn ar c his ts
"p as s e dar e s o l u tio n ,"w r ite s Mr .J o hn L an g do n -D av ie s ,"that
if an y o n e ,m al e o r f e m al e ,c han c e dto r o u s e the s e x u al f e e l in g s
o f an o the r ,itam o u n te dto ag r o s s an dp al p ab l e in te r f e r e n c e
w iththe f r e e do m an dhap p in e s s o f thato the r ,u n l e s s the g u il ty
p e r s o n w as p r e p ar e dto r e l ie v e the f e e l in g s he o r s he had
p r o du c e d.The y the r e f o r e c ar r ie dw ithac c l am atio n the p r o -
p o s itio n thats u c hap e r s o n ,if the y r e f u s e dto al l e v iate the
s u f f e r in g the y hadim p o s e do n an o the r b y r o u s in g s e x u al
f e e l in g ,m u s tb e e x il e df r o m the to w n o r v il l ag e w he r e the y
r e s ide df o r ap e r io dl o n g e n o u g hf o r al l f ir e s to b e q u e n c he d ."
( 1 2 )
The c am p aig n f o r f r e e l o v e ap p e al s n o to n l y to tho s e w ho
b e l ie v e ,as al l g o o dSo c ial is ts do b e l ie v e ,in u n iv e r s al c o m -
p u l s io n ,b u tal s o to tho s e w ho s u f f e r ,n o tf r o m u n r e q u ite d
l o v e ,b u tf r o m an u n c o n s c io u s r e s p e c tf o r the c o de w hic hthe y
p r o f e s s to de s p is e .
Co n s c ie n c e ,de ade n e d,m o r ib u n dan d
r e p r e s s e d,s til l in tr u de s l ik e an u n e as y g ho s tin to the s e x u al
El D o r ado o f F o u r ie r .The p r o f l ig ate has n o ty e tac hie v e d
his f in al g o al o f s e r e n e p r o m is c u ity
.He c o n tin u e s to p r e ac h
w hathe p r ac tis e s in the ho p e o f c o n v e r tin g the m o s tim p o r tan t
m e m b e r o f his au die n c e -him s e l f .He r e b e l s ag ain s tn o n -
e x is te n tr e s tr ic tio n s ,f o r n o State de n ie s to its c itiz e n s f r e e do m
to l o v e . The c am p aig n f o r f r e e l o v e is c har ac te r is tic o f
So c ial is tp r o p ag an dain its dis ho n e s ty ,f o r the u n av o w e d
o b je c tiv e o f this c am p aig n is n o tthe r e m o v al o f n o n -e x is tin g
r e s tr ain ts ,b u tthe r e m o v al o f al l s tig m af r o m p r o m is c u ity .
"F r e e l o v e "is af o r m u l aw hic hdis g u is e s the s e ar c hf o r a
p hil o s o p hy w hic hw il l c o m b in e the hy p e r x s the s iao f the
s e n s e s w iththe an x s the s iao f c o n s c ie n c e .Its r e al o b je c tiv e
is n o tf r e e l o v e b u tc ar e f r e e l u s t .
"The l ib e r atio n w e de s ir e d,"w r ite s Al do u s Hu x l e y ,"w as
s im u l tan e o u s l y l ib e r atio n f r o m ac e r tain p o l itic al an de c o n o m ic
s y s te m an dl ib e r atio n f r o m ac e r tain s y s te m o f m o r al ity
.We
o b je c te dto the m o r al ity b e c au s e itin te r f e r e dw itho u r s e x u al
f r e e do m ." (1 3 )
The Ru s s ian Re v o l u tio n r an tr u e to ty p e .The de s tr u c tio n
o f the o l dr e g im e w as f o l l o w e db y an ab an do n m e n to f m o r al
i
SOCIAL ISM AND SEX

1 7 3
r e s tr ain ts .This g e n e r al c o l l ap s e du r in g the f ir s ty e ar s o f the
Ru s s ian Re v o l u tio n is adm itte db y the Co m m u n is ts the m s e l v e s .
"The B o l s he v ik au tho r itie s ,"w r ite s Mr .H.G.We l l s in his
r e c o r do f his v is itto Ru s s iain Se p te m b e r , I9 2o ,"hav e c o l l e c te d
an dp u b l is he dv e r y s tar tl in g ,v e r y s ho c k in g f ig u r e s o f the m o r al
c o n ditio n o f y o u n g p e o p l e in Pe te r s b u r g ,w hic hIhav e s e e n
. . . the r e c an b e n o do u b tthatin the Ru s s ian to w n s ,c o n -
c u r r e n tl y w ithin c r e as e de du c atio n al e f f o r tan dan e n han c e d
in te l l e c tu al s tim u l atio n o f the y o u n g ,the r e is al s o an in c r e as e d
l aw l e s s n e s s ,o n the ir p ar t,e s p e c ial l y in s e x u al m atte r s ,an dthat
this is g o in g o n in ap has e o f u n e x am p l e ds o b r ie ty an dhar s h
p u r itan ic al de c o r u m s o f ar as adu l tl if e is c o n c e r n e d
."This
he c tic m o r al f e v e r o f the y o u n g is the dar k s ide o f the
e du c atio n al s p e c tac l e in Ri m % ia."
(I4 )
D u r in g this p e r io dthe f o r m u l ao f p r o l e tc u l tu r e ,"Ev e r y thin g
is al l o w e d,"p r o du c e dde v as tatin g e f f e c ts o n Ru s s ian l if e .
"Co m m u n is ty o u th,"w r o te Madam e Sm ido v ic hin Mar c h,
1 9 25 ,
"e v ide n tl y b e l ie v e s thatthe m o s tp r im itiv e ap p r o ac hto
q u e s tio n s o f s e x u al p as s io n is r e al l y aCo m m u n is to n e .Ev e r y -
thin g w hic hdo e s n o tf al l in to aw ay o f l if e w hic hm ig htb e
g o o de n o u g hf o r Ho tte n to ts ,o r e v e n s til l m o r e p r im itiv e
r ac e s ,is q u al if ie das b e in g b o u r g e o is ."
(1 5 )
D u r in g this p e r io d
ab o r tio n w as l e g al iz e d,an ddiv o r c e c o u l db e hadf o r the
as k in g ,an dw itho u tde l ay ,b y e ithe r p ar tn e r ."The ap p l ic an ts
f o r m ar r iag e an ddiv o r c e ,"w r ite s Mr .W.H.Cham b e r l in ,
"w aite dthe ir tu r n in the in e v itab l e q u e u e s in an an te -r o o m
w he r e al o u d-s p e ak e r e n te r tain e dthe m w ithde n u n c iatio n s o f
the he r e s ie s o f the ` r ig htde v iatio n is ts ' in the Co m m u n is tPar ty
."
(i6 )
Chr is tian s ar e e n titl e dto attac k the Co m m u n is tc o de ,an d
to m ain tain thatMar x is tm ate r ial is m in e v itab l y l e ads to the
de s tr u c tio n o f m ar r iag e ,ac o n s e q u e n c e w hic his de s ir ab l e if
the Co m m u n is tp r e m is s b e c o r r e c t,an dde p l o r ab l e if the
Chr is tian p r e m is s b e w e l l f o u n de d .Chr is tian s s ho u l du n -
s p ar in g l y attac k the Co m m u n is tc o de ,b u tc an n o tr e as o n ab l y
de n o u n c e the Co m m u n is ts f o r p r ac tis in g w hatthe y p r e ac h .
Itis f o o l is hto attac k the So v ie tr e g u l atio n s f o r m ar r iag e an d
div o r c e as if the s e r e g u l atio n s r e p r e s e n te dn o tm e r e l y the l e g al
1 7 4

SOCIAL ISM AND SEX
e x p r e s s io n o f the Mar x is tc o de ,b u taf u r the r r e f in e m e n to f
Mar x is tw ic k e dn e s s
.The Chr is tian w ho b e l ie v e s thatm ar r iag e
is in dis s o l u b l e b as e s his b e l ie f o n the w o r ds o f Chr is tas
q u o te db y St .Mar k ,"Whatthe r e f o r e Go dhathjo in e d
to g e the r ,l e tn o tm an p u tas u n de r ."
(1 7 )
" "Ridic u l o u s ,' f l am e s
the r e v o l u tio n ar y ,` n e ithe r aGo dn o r m an has o r c an hav e
an y thin g to do w iththe jo in in g an dthe s u n de r in g o f m e n
an dw o m e n f r o m o n e an o the r ,' " w r ite s Mr .Mau r ic e Hin du s .
"` "U n til de athdo u s p ar t? "Ru b b is h,s ho u ts the r e v o l u -
tio n ar y ,l if e is to o p r e c io u s to w aitf o r de athto o f f e r r e de m p -
tio n f r o m au n io n thatm ay b e b l ig htin g y o u r e v e r y ho u r o f
e x is te n c e .' " ( 1 8 )
B o ththe Chr is tian an dthe Mar x is tar g u e c o r r e c tl y f r o m
the ir r e s p e c tiv e p r e m is s e s .The s in c e r e Chr is tian b e l ie v e s thatt
te m p o r al hap p in e s s is r e l ativ e l y u n im p o r tan tc o m p ar e dw ith
e te r n al hap p in e s s ,an dthatthe l atte r m u s tn o tb e je o p ar diz e d
to e s c ap e f r o m the dis c o m f o r to f an u n hap p y m ar r iag e .B u t
the s in c e r e Co m m u n is thas n o r atio n al g r o u n ds f o r c o n tin u in g
to l iv e w ithadis ag r e e ab l e m ate f o r the f e w s ho r ty e ar s o f
hu m an l if e .He c an n o tr e as o n ab l y b e b l am e df o r f r am in g
his m atin g l aw s w ithin the c o n te x to f the o n l y w o r l din w hic h
he b e l ie v e s .Chr is tian s s ho u l dattac k the Co m m u n is tp r e m is s ,
an ds ho w thato b je c tio n ab l e c o n c l u s io n s f o l l o w f r o m that
p r e r n is s .
Whe r e v e r date s hav e b e e n av ail ab l e f o r Co m m u n is ts tate -
m e n ts ,b o o k s o r l e g is l ativ e e n ac tm e n ts ,Ihav e g iv e n the m .It
is m is l e adin g to c ite c o n ditio n s w hic h,tho u g htr u e o f o n e
p has e ,s u c has the e ar l y p has e o f the Re v o l u tio n ,ar e n o t
n e c e s s ar il y tr u e to day
.Av al u ab l e w itn e s s to So v ie tc o n ditio n s
is Mr .Mau r ic e Hin du s ,an Am e r ic an c itiz e n w ho w as b o r n
in Ru s s ia .His c r itic is m s ar e n e c e s s ar il y dis c r e e t,s in c e he is
c o n s tan tl y r e v is itin g Ru s s iain s e ar c ho f n e w m ate r ial f o r
b o o k s an dl e c tu r e s .He w o u l db e de p r iv e do f an e n tr an c e
v is aif he w as r e g ar de das aho s til e c r itic .In his in te r e s tin g
b o o k , Hu m an ity U p r o o te d,
he w r ite s ,"No w w he n w o m e n
e n jo y the s am e s e x l ib e r tie s as m e n ,the an c ie n tdo c tr in e o f
v ir g in ity to p p l e s do w n l ik e ahe ap o f s n o w s tr u c k b y ar o c k .
The r e is n o thin g to ho l ditto g e the r .Chas tity ,as ap r in c ip l e
SOCIAL ISM AND SEX

1
7 5
an dap r ac tic e ,as ac an o n an dac u s to m ,in an do f its e l f ,
c e as e s to hav e an y m e an in g ,an y v ir tu e ,an y g l o r y . . . .
Chas tity is n o l o n g e r ab adg e o f ho n o u r o r g l o r y
.Its l o s s is
n o l o n g e r adis g r ac e o r as o u r c e o f to r m e n t,s av e o n l y to the
e x te n tthatthe o l dtr aditio n is s til l ap ar to f the in div idu al ' s
c o n s c io u s n e s s ." (1 9 )
Mr
.Hin du s do e s n o tde n y thatthis n e w s e x m o r al ity is
g r adu al l y de s tr o y in g the f am il y ,w hic his al s o b e in g u n de r -
m in e db y the m e tho ds ado p te dto im p o s e u p o n the y o u n g
an ide o l o g y w hic hm an y o f the o l de r g e n e r atio n hav e n o ty e t
ac c e p te d .The c hil din c o n s e q u e n c e g r o w s to m an ho o du n de r
in f l u e n c e s w hic har e in dif f e r e n tan do f te n ho s til e to the
in f l u e n c e o f the ho m e
.Atthe ag e o f f iv e o r s ix the y o u n g
Ru s s ian e n te r s the Pio n e e r s ,an dis e n c o u r ag e dn o to n l y to
de f y p ar e n tal au tho r ity ,b u tal s o to r e p o r tr e c al c itr an tp ar e n ts
to the au tho r itie s . "The s o -c al l e d .Pio n e e r s ,"w r ite s D r .
Wal de m ar Gu r ian ,"ar e an in s titu tio n f o r c hil dr e n u p to
ab o u tthe ag e o f f if te e n • o r s ix te e n . Itis ap r e p ar ato r y
o r g an iz atio n f o r the L e ag u e o f Co m m u n is tY o u th,the
K o m s o m o l .The Pio n e e r s de v o te the m s e l v e s p ar tic u l ar l y to
in f l u e n c in g the o l de r g e n e r atio n .The y ar e e n c o u r ag e dto
in tr o du c e the B o l s he v ik s p ir itin to the f am il y ,w itho u tthe l e as t
r e g ar dto p ar e n tal au tho r ity o r the r e s p e c tdu e f r o m c hil dr e n
to p ar e n ts -f o r the p ar e n ts ' c o m m an ds m u s ty ie l dto the
B o l s he v ik p r in c ip l e s o f the Pio n e e r s .Ho w f ar the de s tr u c tio n
o f p ar e n tal au tho r ity has g o n e is s ho w n b y the f ac tthatdu r in g
Ram s in ' s tr ial f o r w r e c k in g ,the s o n o f Sy n tin ,o n e o f his
f e l l o w ac c u s e d,w r o te to the p ap e r s de m an din g the in f l ic tio n
o f the de athp e n al ty u p o n his o w n f athe r ."(z o )
Mr .Hin du s b e l ie v e s thatthe o dds ar e s tac k e dag ain s tthe
f am il y in Ru s s ia ."The f o r c e s o f dis s o l u tio n ,b o tho b je c tiv e
an ds u b je c tiv e ,w o u l dap p e ar to b e to o m u l titu din o u s an dto o
p e r s is te n t .""The f am il y is p e r s is tin g in Ru s s ia,b u titis in the
p r o c e s s o f b e c o m in g am e r e s hado w o r s k e l e to n o f the o l d
f am il y
.""On e c an n o the l p w o n de r in g if the Ru s s ian s ar e in
dan g e r o f s in k in g in to am o r as s o f an im al ity ."
The n ig htis dar k ,b u tthe r e ar e f ain ts ig n s o f daw n ,an d
the Re dStar has c e r tain l y l o s ts o m e o f its b r il l ian c e .Co m -
1 7 6

SOCIAL ISMAND SEX
m u n is ts m ay c o n tin u e to r e af f ir m the ir c o n te m p tf o r tr aditio n al
m o r al ity ,b u tan o te o f do u b tc an b e de te c te din the ir r o b u s t
de f ian c e .The y ar e r ig htto as s o c iate m o r al ity w iththe r e l ig io n
w hic hthe y b o thde te s tan dp e r s e c u te ,b u tthe y ar e b e g in n in g
to dis c o v e r thate v e n in the n atu r al o r de r b r e ac he s o f the
m o r al l aw e n tail the ir in e v itab l e p u n is hm e n t .No b o dy w o u l d
ac c u s e Mr
.Hav e l o c k El l is o f ab ias in f av o u r o f tr aditio n al
m o r al ity ,an dy e to f the f am il y he w r ite s ,"Its e x is te n c e m ay
e v e n b e s aidto b e w o v e n in to the te x tu r e o f the s p e c ie s
." (2I)
The m o r e e n l ig hte n e do f m o de m hu m an is ts ar e b e g in n in g
to r e dis c o v e r the tr u ths w hic hChr is tian s hav e n e v e r c e as e d
to af f ir m
."Itis n o to r io u s to day ,"w r ite s Mr .C.E
.M.J o ad,
"thathe av e n l y r e w ar ds n o l o n g e r attr ac tan din f e r n al p u n is h-
m e n ts n o l o n g e r de te r w iththe ir p r is tin e f o r c e ; y o u n g p e o p l e
ar e f r an k l y de r is iv e o f b o th,an d,s e e in g n o p r o s p e c to f div in e
c o m p e n s atio n in the n e x tw o r l df o r the w in e an dk is s e s that
m o r al ity b ids the m e s c he w in this o n e ,tak e m o r e o r l e s s
u n an im o u s l y to the w in e an d k is s e s . U n f o r tu n ate l y the
p l e as u r ab l e r e s u l ts an tic ip ate df r o m the s e s o u r c e s f ail to
m ate r ial is e .Thatu n c he c k e din du l g e n c e in the m o r e o b v io u s
ty p e s o f p l e as u r e is u n s atis f y in g is the u n an im o u s te ac hin g o f
tho s e w ho hav e hadthe l e is u r e an do p p o r tu n ity to tr y the m
in al l ag e s .Itis the m o r e u n f o r tu n ate thatitis atr u thw hic h
n o b o dy b e l ie v e s to b e tr u e u n til he has dis c o v e r e ditf o r
him s e l f
. . . .
Y o u c an n o ttak e the k in g do m o f p l e as u r e ,an y
m o r e than y o u c an tak e the k in g do m o f b e au ty ,b y s to r m ."
An dhe adds ,"F o r the f ir s ttim e in his to r y the r e is c o m in g
to m atu r ity ag e n e r atio n o f m e n an dw o m e n w ho hav e n o
r e l ig io n ,an df e e l n o n e e df o r o n e .The y ar e c o n te n tto ig n o r e
it .Al s o the y ar e v e r y u n hap p y ,an dthe s u ic ide r ate is
ab n o r m al l y hig h ." (22)
As ,in de e d,the Ru s s ian Co m m u n is ts ar e b e g in n in g to dis -
c o v e r ."The e x tr e m e s e x u al p r o m is c u ity w hic hw as b o th
f as hio n ab l e an dg e n e r al am o n g the Y o u n g Co m m u n is ts an d
the ` e m an c ip ate d' So v ie ty o u n g e r g e n e r atio n ade c ade ag o
is n o w o f f ic ial l y f r o w n e do n ,"w r ite s Mr .Cham b e r l in .
"Ex c e s s iv e l o o s e l iv in g ,l ik e e x c e s s iv e dr in k in g ,is ar e c o g n iz e d
g r o u n df o r e x p u l s io n f r o m the Co m m u n is tPar ty o r f r o m the
U n io n o f Co m m u n is tY o u th ." (23 )
SOCIAL ISM AND SEX

1 7 7
The So v ie tState has b e g u n to r e g r e tits e n c o u r ag e m e n to f
l e g al iz e dab o r tio n ,an dthe r e ar e s ig n s o f ar e tu r n to w ar ds the
tr aditio n al r e s p e c tf o r the f am il y .If the s e te n de n c ie s b e c o m e
m o r e p r o n o u n c e dthe y w il l b e e x p l o ite dto p r o v e the b e n e f ic e n t
c o n s e q u e n c e s o f the Co m m u n is tr e g im e ,w he r e as s u c he v ide n c e
o f r e tu r n in g s an ity m e r e l y ju s tif ie s the g l o o m y b e l ie f ,s o f ir m l y
he l db y Max Eas tm an an do the r Tr o ts k y ite s ,thatw e ar e
w itn e s s in g "the e n do f So c ial is m in Ru s s ia ."The r e tu r n o f
the Ru s s ian p r o dig al to his F athe r ' s ho u s e w il l b e in s p ir e db y a
p hil o s o p hy v e r y dif f e r e n tf r o m thatMar x is tc r e e dw hic hw ith-
ho l ds f r o m m an e v e n "the hu s k s thatthe s w in e dide at ."
REF ERENCES
(1 ) Man if e s to o f the Co m m u n is tPar ty , b y K ar l Mar x an d
F r ie dr ic hEn g e l s ,In te r n atio n al Pu b l is he r s ,Ne w Y o r k ,
PP
.27 ,28 .
(2)L e n in ,q u o te db y F .Hal l e : Wo m e n in So v ie tRu s s ia,
p .1 1 2 .
(3 )L u dw ig v o n Mis e s : So c ial is m , tr an s l ate db y J .K ahan e ,
J o n athan Cap e ,p . 8
7 -
(4 )Thu r e au -D an g in : L aMo n ar c hie de J u il l e t,v i, 8 9 ,q u o te d
b y Ne s taH.We b s te r : Wo r l dRe v o l u tio n , Co n s tab l e ,
p .
1 0 7 -
(5 )&(6 )J o hn Ro b is o n : Pr o o f s o f Co n s p ir ac y ,
1 7 9 8 ,PP-
25 2
,
2 5 0 -
(7 )&(8 )J u l e s B e r tau t : 1 8 4 8 e tl aSe c o n de Re p u b l iq u e ,
Ar thim e F ay ar d,p p .28 ,29 .
(9 )-(1 1 ) L e o n B l u m : D u Mar iag e , Al b in Mic he l ,p p .28 0 ,
24 3 ,8 2
.
(1 2)J o hn L an g do n -D av ie s : B e hin dthe Sp an is hB ar r ic ade s ,
Mar tin Se c k e r ,p
.5 1 -
(1 3 )Al do u s Hu x l e y : En ds an dMe an s , Chatto an dWin du s ,
P. 2 7 3 • -
1 7 8

SOCIAL ISMAND SEX
(1 4 )H.G.We l l s : Ru s s ia in the Shado w s ,
Ho dde r an d
Sto u g hto n ,p p .1 0 3 ,1 0 4 .
(1 5 ) Pr av da, Mar c h24 th,
1 9 2 5 -
(1 6 )
Wil l iam He n r y Cham b e r l in :
Ru s s ia' s Ir o n Ag e , D u c k -
w o r th,p
.24 5 -
(1 7 )St
.Mar k ,x ,9 .
(1 8 )& (1 9 ) Mau r ic e Hin du s : Hu m an ity U p r o o te d,
J o n athan
Cap e ,p . III, Chap te r s V I-IX.
(20 )Wal de m ar Gu r ian : B o l s he v is m , tr an s l ate db y
E.I.
Watk in ,She e dan dWar d,p .
1 8 3 -
(2 1 ) Hav e l o c k El l is ,q u o te db y Mau r ic e Hin du s :
Hu m an ity
U p r o o te d,p .
1 4 4 -
(22)C.E.M
.J o ad :
Pr e s e n tan dF u tu r e o f Re l ig io n ,
B e n n ,
p p
.8 2, 9 1
.
(23 ) Wil l iam He n r y Cham b e r l in : Ru s s ia' s Ir o n Ag e ,p
. 24 9 .
CHAPTER XV II
THE OPIU M
OF THEF EEB L E
REV OL U TIONARY
p r o p ag an dab y its o v e r -e m p has is o n the e v il s
o f Cap ital is m o b s c u r e s the e x is te n c e o f aw ide s p r e adr e v o l t
ag ain s tthe m o r al an dc u l tu r al s tan dar ds o f the p as t
.Ev e r y
c iv il iz atio n is the c r e atio n o f ap hil o s o p hy
.Pe r ic l e an Athe n s
an dMe diae v al Eu r o p e r e f l e c te dthe ir r e s p e c tiv e p hil o s o p hie s
in the ir ar tan din the ir e thic s .The c u l tu r e o f Me diae v al Eu r o p e
w as the f l o w e r o f ap hil o s o p hy in w hic hf r e e do m w as s af e -
g u ar de db y r e s tr ain t
.Pr iv ate p r o p e r ty w as p r o te c te db y a
p hil o s o p hy o f s o c ial s af e g u ar ds w hic hc o n de m n e d,as Pr o f e s s o r
L as k ihim s e l f in s is ts ,"the p u r s u ito f w e al thf o r its o w n s ak e ."
Chr is tian ity is as y s te m n o to f u n c o m p r o m is in g v e to e s ,b u to f
b al an c e dr e s tr ain ts
. The Chu r c hde n o u n c e dav ar ic e ,b u t
de f e n de dthe l e g itim ac y o f p r iv ate p r o p e r ty ag ain s tthe p r e de -
c e s s o r s o f m o de r n c o m m u n is ts
; s he e n de av o u r e dn o tto ab o l is h,
b u tto r e s tr ain the p r o f itm o tiv e b y de te r m in in g the p r in c ip l e s
o f thatju s tPr ic e w hic hs ho u l db e f air to m e r c han t,w o r k e r
an dc o n s u m e r
.She c o n de m n e dadu l te r y an df o r n ic atio n ,b u t
de f e n de dthe p u r ity o f m ar ital r e l atio n s ag ain s tthe Cathar i
w ho c o n de m n e ds e x as in tr in s ic al l y u n c l e an .She c o n de m n e d
dr u n k e n n e s s ,b u tr e f u s e dto f o l l o w the Man ic he e in his c o n -
de m n atio n o f w in e .She s tr o v e f o r p e ac e ,b u ts he p ar te df r o m
the e x tr e m e r p ac if is ts in he r atte m p ts to de f in e the e x ac tin g
c o n ditio n s w hic hju s tif ie dw ar o r r e b e l l io n .
The Chr is tian e thic is ,an dhas al w ay s b e e n ,to o e x ac tin g
f o r the "av e r ag e s e n s u al m an ,"b u thig hs tan dar ds ar e n o t
n e c e s s ar il y v al u e l e s s b e c au s e f e w p e o p l e attain the m .The r e
m u s tal w ay s b e al ag b e tw e e n p r e ac hin g an dp r ac tic e ,an d
w he r e s tan dar ds ar e l o w e r e dthe p r ac tic e is c o r r e s p o n din g l y
l o w e r e d
.Within the f r am e w o r k o f r e s tr ain tthe Chr is tian l if e
f l o w e r s in an o r de r e df r e e do m al l the m o r e p r e c io u s b y c o n -
tr as tw iththe e n s l av e m e n to f m in dan db o dy im p o s e db y
' 7 9
1 8 0

THE OPIU M OF THEF EEB L E
athe is tic Co m m u n is m .Itis n o ts e l f -c o n tr o l b u ts e l f -in du l g e n c e
w hic his the e n e m y o f l ib e r ty .The ab an do n m e n to f s e l f -c o n tr o l
w hic hdis g u is e s its e l f as ac r u s ade f o r f r e e do m has f l av o u r e d
the w o r d"r e s tr ain t"w ithas e n s e o f dim in u tio n .We ar e
b e g in n in g to f o r g e tthatr e s tr ain ts o f te n s e r v e to c an al is e p o w e r
an dto p r e v e n tthe w e ak dis in te g r atio n o f f o r c e
.B e l o w V is p ,
the Rho n e ,w hic hin the p as to f te n w as te dits e n e r g y in dif f u s e
f l o o ds ,n o w f l o w s in as tr o n g s tr e am b e tw e e n r e s tr ain in g b an k s
w hic he n g in e e r s hav e s tr e n g the n e dan dr e in f o r c e d .Itis a
tir e dan de n f e e b l e dc iv il iz atio n w hic hc haf e s atr e s tr ain ts .The
m o s ts tr ik in g c har ac te r is tic o f Me die v al Eu r o p e w as the
dy n am ic e n e r g y w hic hdr e w s tr e n g thf r o m aChr is tian s o u r c e .
B e r g s o n ,b y r ac e aJ e w ,an db y c o n v ic tio n f ar r e m o v e df r o m
Chr is tian ity ,p r ais e s "the e n e r g y an dau dac ity ,the p o w e r b o th
to c o n c e iv e an dto r e al iz e ,w hic his the c har ac te r is tic o f the
g r e atChr is tian s ain ts .On e has o n l y to r e m e m b e r ,"he c o n -
tin u e s ,"al l thatw as ac c o m p l is he din the r e al m o f ac tio n b y
St .Pau l ,St .The r e s a,St .Cathe r in e o f Sie n n a,St .F r an c is o r
St .J o an o f Ar c ."(r )B e r g s o n ' s c as e w o u l db e s tr e n g the n e db y
as tu dy o f We s l e y ' s jo u r n al s ,w hic hb e ar r e c o r dto an e n e r g y ,
m o r al ,in te l l e c tu al an dp hy s ic al ,f o r the l ik e o f w hic hy o u w il l
s e ar c hin v ain am o n g the r e c o r ds o f r e v o l u tio n ar y l e ade r s .
St
.Pau l ,dy n am ic ar c he ty p e o f the Chr is tian m is s io n ar y ,
c o n c e iv e dr e l ig io n n o tas o p iu m f o r the p e o p l e ,b u t as af l am e
w hic hte m p e r e dthe s te e l o f c har ac te r .He tak e s his an al o g ie s
n o tf r o m b al m s an dm e dic am e n ts ,b u tf r o m the as c e s is ` o f
athl e tic tr ain in g .Adm itte dl y the r e ar e Chr is tian s to w ho m
r e l ig io n is n o thin g m o r e than adr u g an das u b s titu te f o r ac tio n ,
b u tthe e n e r g y o f Chr is tian Eu r o p e w hic hf l o w e din to a
tho u s an dc han n e l s w as n o tc o n f in e dto the s ain ts o r e v e n to
tho s e w ho m ade ac o n s is te n tatte m p tto m o de l the ir l iv e s do
Chr is t .
The m o de m r e v o l tag ain s tthatg r e atc u l tu r e w hic hw as
m o u l de db y Chr is tian ity as s u m e s m an y f o r m s ,e c o n o m ic ,
e thic al an dar tis tic . .The e n du r in g e l e m e n tin the s e p r o te an
s hap e s is the ap p e al to s l o th .Co m m u n is m ,adm itte dl y ,has
s o m e dy n am ic l e ade r s ,an dam o n g the r an k an df il e the r e ar e
m an y w ho ar e r e ady b o thto f ig htan dto die f o r the ir f aith .
THEOPIU MOF THEF EEB L E

1 8 1
Sp ain ,in de e d,s u g g e s ts adis q u ie tin g c o m p ar is o n b e tw e e n the
dy n am ic e n e r g y o f m an y Co m m u n is ts an dthe in e r tiao f to o
m an y Catho l ic s
.B u tr e v o l u tio n ar y m o v e m e n ts ar e r e c r u ite d
n o to n l y an dn o tm ain l y f r o m the m il itan tan ddy n am ic ,f o r
the ar m y o f r e v o l tin c l u de s v as tn u m b e r s w ho e n thu s ias tic al l y
ap p l au dthe ab o l itio n an dl o w e r in g o f s tan dar ds w hic hthe y
hav e ab an do n e dal l ho p e o f attain in g .
The b as ic c au s e o f the r e v o l tag ain s tc iv il iz atio n is af ail u r e
o f n e r v e .Co w ar dic e is f ir s tc o u s in to s l o th,f o r itis the c o w ar d
w ho s hir k s the dif f ic u l tie s o f m o r al an din te l l e c tu al p r o b l e m s
.
F r o m the dif f ic u l tie s o f s e l f -c o n tr o l the e s c ap is tf l ie s to the
g o s p e l o f F r e e L o v e ,ag o s p e l w hic hb e ar s u n w ittin g te s tim o n y
to the r e je c te dc o de ,f o r the f r e e do m w hic hitp r o c l aim s is n o t
the f r e e do m to l o v e ,b u tf r e e do m f r o m the tw in g e s o f ac o n -
s c ie n c e w hic he v e n the o p iu m o f ab o g u s p hil o s o p hy c an n o t
w ho l l y an e s the tiz e .The r e is ac l o s e c o n n e c tio n b e tw e e n l az y
l iv in g an dl az y thin k in g .V e r b o s ity an din do l e n c e ar e the
dis tin g u is hin g c har ac te r is tic s o f r e v o l u tio n ar y l ite r atu r e .If
Mar x is q u o te dag ain s tm e Ir e p l y thatm e n tal in do l e n c e
de p r iv e dhim o f the r e w ar ds o f his l ab o r io u s r e s e ar c he s .Mar x ,
l ik e o the r l e thar g ic thin k e r s ,to o k r e f u g e f r o m the c o m p l e x itie s
o f l if e in o v e r -s im p l if ic atio n .The s o c ial o r de r is the p r o du c to f
m an y ag e n c ie s
; Mar x c o n c e n tr ate do n the e c o n o m ic ag e n c y
an dig n o r e dthe r e s t .The av e r ag e m an ,the r aw m ate r ial o f
the s o c ial e n g in e e r ,is ac o m p l e x o f av ar ic e ,s e l f is hn e s s ,s l o th
an dide al is m ; Mar x p o s tu l ate s thatCo m m u n is m w il l p r o du c e
the p e r f e c tc itiz e n an dl e av e s itatthat .The U to p iao f Co m -
m u n is m is the p ar adis e o f the e s c ap is ttak in g r e f u g e f r o m
r e al ity in aw o r l do f w is hf u l thin k in g .
"Whe n the s o c ial o r de r is l ik e aw e l l -o il e dm ac hin e ,"w r ite s
the au tho r o f The A.B .C.o f Co m m u n is m , " . . . the r e w il l
b e n o n e e df o r s p e c ial m in is te r s o f State ,f o r p o l ic e an dp r is o n s ,
f o r l aw s an dde c r e e s ,n o thin g o f the s o r t ."V e r y tr u e ,b u tthe
p r o b l e m is to p r o du c e the w e l l -o il e dm ac hin e ,n o tto de s c r ib e
w hathap p e n s w he n the p r o b l e m is s o l v e d .In as o c ie ty o f
s ain ts the r e w o u l db e n o n e e df o r "p o l ic e an dp r is o n s ,"b u t
tho s e w ho ar e in te r e s te din r e al itie s w il l w as te l ittl e tim e o v e r
Co m m u n is tU to p ias .
1 8 2

THE OPIU M OF THE F EEB L E
Ag o o dc o n tr o v e r s ial is t,s aidChe s te r to n ,m u s tb e ag o o d
l is te n e r ,b u ty o u w il l s e ar c hCo m m u n is tl ite r atu r e in v ain f o r
an y e v ide n c e o f "l is te n in g "to the c as e ag ain s tCo m m u n is m
.
Mr
.J o hn Str ac he y ,to q u o te o n e e x am p l e ,is p e r hap s the ab l e s t
o f m o de r n Co m m u n is ts ,b u the is s o b u s il y e n g ag e din e x p l ain -
in g w hatMar x m e an tthathe has n o l e is u r e to p r o v e thatthe
r e f u tatio n s o f Mar x ar e u n s o u n d .Itis ir r itatin g w he n o n e has
r e adde s tr u c tiv e c r itic is m s o f ,s hal l w e s ay ,the L ab o u r The o r y
o f V al u e ,an dtu r n e dw ithim p atie n c e to Mr .Str ac he y ' s w o r k s
in the ho p e o f ade tail e dr e p l y ,o n l y to dis c o v e r ,as Ihav e
al r e ady r e m ar k e d,thatthe au tho r s o f the s e c r itic is m s ,Mr
.
A.D .L in ds ay ,the Mas te r o f B al l io l ,an dMr
.
H. W.B
. J o s e p h
o f Ne w Co l l e g e ,ar e dis m is s e din ac o n te m p tu o u s f o o tn o te
. (2)
The y m ay b e w r o n g ,b u tthe g u l f b e tw e e n Mr
.Str ac he y ' s
in te l l e c tan dthe ir s is n o ts o w ide thathe c an af f o r dto tr e at
the m w iths u c hc u r tdis dain .
The Mar x ian r e v o l tin the s p he r e o f e c o n o m ic s is p ar al l e l e d
' in the s p he r e o f l ite r atu r e an do f ar t ."We ar e c o n f r o n te d
to day ,"w r ite s Mr .Al f r e dNo y e s ,"b y the e x tr ao r din ar y
s p e c tac l e o f io ,o o o l ite r ar y r e b e l s ,e ac hc hain e dto his o w n
s o l itar y he ig ht,an de ac hc han tin g the s am e p e r e n n ial s o n g
o f hate ag ain s te v e r y thin g thathas b e e n ac hie v e db y p as t
g e n e r atio n s ."(3 )This r e v o l tag ain s tthe p as tis the r e v o l to f
idl e n e s s ag ain s te x ac tin g s tan dar ds .D is c ip l in e is as u n p o p u l ar
in ar t as in l if e ,an dthe m o de r n r e b e l de m an ds thats am e
f r e e do m f r o m r e s tr ain tin ar t as he has ac hie v e din s e x .F r o m
the r e g im e n te dr an k s o f the c o n v e n tio n al l y u n c o n v e n tio n al
r is e s the p ar r o tc r y "Co n v e n tio n s k il l ar t ."On the c o n tr ar y ,
w itho u tc o n v e n tio n s the r e c an b e n o ar t .
The s am e s y m p to m s o f atir e dc iv il iz atio n ar e ap p ar e n tin
the w o r k o f m an y ar c hite c ts o f to day .The g r e atm e diae v al
c athe dr al s b e ar w itn e s s to the p atie n c e n o l e s s than to the
e n e r g y o f the ir b u il de r s .The f o u n datio n s w e r e l aidb y m e n
w ho s aw l if e s u b s p e c ie ae te r n itatis , an dw ho w e r e c o n te n tto
w o r k f o r the in s p ir atio n o f u n b o r n g e n e r atio n s
.The m e dix v al
s c u l p to r w as n o l e s s c o n s c ie n tio u s w he n he c ar v e ds o m e s tatu e
o n ar e m o te p ar to f ac athe dr al r o o f , as atMil an ,o r the Chr is t
o v e r the We s tPo r c hw hic he v e r y w o r s hip p e r s aw ,an ds til l s e e s ,
THEOPIU MOF THEF EEB L E

1 8 3
as he e n te r s Char tr e s c athe dr al
.In the Re n ais s an c e w e f in d
n o to n l y the dy n am ic e n e r g y o f ac u l tu r al r e v iv al ,b u tal s o the
f ir s ts ig n s o f an ag e in g c iv il iz atio n .The n e w s p ir itf in ds e ar l y
e x p r e s s io n in the to m b o f the D o g e An dr e aV e n dr am in in the
V e n e tian c hu r c ho f St .J o hn an dSt
.Pau l .Ru s k in c l im b e d
u p to this to m b an ddis c o v e r e dthatthe "w r e tc he de f f ig y had
o n l y o n e han dan dw as am e r e b l o c k o n the in n e r s ide
. . .
ithav in g b e e n s u p p o s e dthr o u g ho u tthe w o r k thatthe
e f f ig y
w as o n l y to b e s e e n f r o m b e l o w an df r o m o n e s ide
."To day
the e n e r g y has s p e n tits e l f ,an dthe w e ar in e s s b e c o m e s e v e r
m o r e ap p ar e n t
.The m o de r n c u l to f s im p l ic ity in ar c hite c tu r e
has g iv e n u s s o m e f in e w o r k ,b u tto o m u c ho f m o de r n
s im p l ic ity c o n s is ts in the e v as io n o f dif f ic u l tie s b y de n y in g the ir
e x is te n c e
.The r e is the s im p l ic ity w hic he x p r e s s e s as s im p l y
as p o s s ib l e an ide aw hic his w o r the x p r e s s in g ,an dthe r e is the
s im p l ic ity w hic hb e tr ay s the b ar r e n n e s s o f m e n w ithn o ide as
to e x p r e s s
."Whe n p e o p l e c o n te n df o r the ir l ib e r ty ,"s aidan
e ar l ie r L o r dHal if ax ,"the y s e l do m g e tan y thin g f o r the ir
v ic to r y b u tac han g e o f m as te r s
."This ap o the g m il l u s tr ate s the
s im p l ic ity w hic hr e s o l v e s c o m p l e x ity ,f o r in the s e s e v e n te e n
w o r ds Hal if ax c r y s tal l iz e dw hatw as tr u e in the Mar x is t
an al y s is o f p as this to r y ,an dr e f u te dw hatw as f al s e in the
Mar x is tp r o p he c y o f the f u tu r e .
On the f ac ade o f the l ittl e c hu r c hatCam p io n e the r e is
e n g r av e datr ib u te to the m as o n s o f Mil an c athe dr al w hic h
m ay b e r e n de r e dthu s
B y w hatr e m o te p ar e n tag e ,b y w hats il e n tp r e p ar a-
tio n ,b y w hatv as tag r e e m e n ts is n o u r is he dthe e te r n al
dr e am o f ar t.
The B o l s he v ik o f to day ,u s in g this w o r din its w ide s ts e n s e ,
is in r e v o l tag ain s tthe r e m o te p ar e n tag e o f Eu r o p e an c u l tu r e ,
ag ain s tthe s il e n tp r e p ar atio n w hic his as n e c e s s ar y in s o c ial
r e c o n s tr u c tio n as in ar t,an dag ain s tthe v as tag r e e m e n ts w hic h
he dis m is s e s as c o n v e n tio n s ,ag r e e m e n ts w hic har e the f o u n da-
tio n o f Eu r o p e an c u l tu r e .
The f as hio n o f the m o m e n tf o r c e s e v e n tho s e w ho hav e
s e r v e dthe ap p r e n tic e s hip o f "s il e n tp r e p ar atio n "to dis o w n
1 8 4 THEOPIU MOF THEF EEB L E .
the te c hn iq u e an ds k il l w hic hthe y hav e ac q u ir e d .Ev e r y
de g r e e o f te c hn ic al s k il l an dte c hn ic al in c o m p e te n c e is r e p r e -
s e n te din e x hib itio n s o f adv an c e dar t .Itw o u l ds e e m that
s o m e ar tis ts ,Ho dl e r f o r e x am p l e ,hav e de l ib e r ate l y p ain te d
b adl y in o r de r n o tto l o s e c as te w ithp r o g r e s s iv e c r itic s .Ho dl e r
p r o v e dthathe c o u l dp ain tthe hu m an b o dy w itham as te r y o f
tac til e v al u e s w hic hr e m in ds u s o f Mas ac c io ,b u the c o u l dal s o
de f il e his c an v as s e s w ithm is -s hap e n ,b adl y dr aw n an dc r u de l y
c o l o u r e df o r m s .
The w ide s p r e adr e v o l tag ain s tdis c ip l in e in m o r al ity an din
ar tis the u n m is tak ab l e s y m p to m o f atir e dan ddy in g c iv il iz a-
tio n .In the s p r in g tim e o f o u r w e s te r n c iv il iz atio n m e n b e l ie v e d
thatGo dhadm ade the m al ittl e l o w e r than the an g e l s ,ab e l ie f
w hic hw as ato n c e ac hal l e n g e to m an ' s e n e r g y an das af e g u ar d
o f his r ig hts .F o r if m an is m ade in the im ag e o f Go dhe has
r ig hts w hic hn o D ic tato r is e n titl e dto dis r e g ar d,b u tif m an
is n o thin g m o r e than f ir s tc o u s in to the c him p an z e e ,he has n o
r e dr e s s if ,l ik e the c him p an z e e ,he is p u tb e hin db ar s .Itis n o
c o in c ide n c e thattho s e w ho hav e r e f u s e dto adm itthe o b l ig a-
tio n s o f m an ' s hig he s tate hav e l o s tthe c o r r e s p o n din g p r iv il e g e s .
Ir r e l ig io n is the o p iu m o f the f e e b l e ,an dathe is m adr u g w hic h
du l l s the r e g r e ts o f tho s e w ho hav e s u r r e n de r e dthe ir b ir thr ig ht
b e c au s e the y hav e n e ithe r the s tr e n g thn o r the c o u r ag e to f ac e
the de m an ds o f ac iv il iz atio n s til l in f o r m e db y the f adin g v is io n
o f as u p e r n atu r al o r de r .
REF ERENCES
(I) He n r iB e r g s o n : L e s de u x s o u r c e s de l am o r al e e tde l a
r e l ig io n , F e l ix Al c an ,p . 2
4 3 -
(2) J o hn Str ac he y : The The o r y an dPr ac tic e o f So c ial is m ,
V ic to r Go l l an c z ,p
.
4 5 9 -
(3 )Q u o te db y L o thr o p Sto ddar d : The Re v o l tag ain s t
Civ il iz atio n , Chap m an an dHal l ,p . 1 28 , f r o m Al f r e d
No y e s ' s l e c tu r e b e f o r e the Ro y al In s titu tio n o f L o n do n
o n "So m e As p e c ts o f Mo de r n Po e tr y ,"F e b r u ar y ,
1 9 20 .
CHAPTERXV III
THEPROF ITMOTIV E
L ANGU AGE is an in s tr u m e n tde s ig n e df o r the c l ar if ic atio n o f
tho u g ht,an dn o t,as So c ial is ts to o o f te n as s u m e ,as as u b s titu te
f o r tho u g ht.This is n o n e w de v e l o p m e n t,f o r the dis c u s s io n
g r o u p s o f Mr
.V ic to r Go l l an c z ' s L e f tB o o k Cl u b c ar r y o n the
tr aditio n o f the r e v o l u tio n ar y c l u b s in e ig hte e n th-c e n tu r y
F r an c e .
"D an s l av ie ,"w r ite s Pie r r e Gax o tte ,"c c q u ic o m p te ,c c
s o n tl e s ac te s ; ic i,c c s o n tl e s p ar o l e s
.D an s l av ie ,c c q u e l ' o n
r e c he r c he ,c c s o n tde s r e s u l tats m ate r ie l s ,tan g ib l e s
; ic i,c c s o n t
de s v o te s .D an s l av ie ,g o u v e r n e r ,c ' e s tl u tte r c o n tr e s de s c ho s e s ,
p r e v o ir ,p r e p ar e r ,o r g an is e r ,ag ir ; ic i,l e g r an dar tc o n s is te
a
c o m p o s e r l ' o r dr e du jo u r e t a f air e l am ajo r ite
.D an s l av ie ,
u n e p e n s e e s e ju g e a 1 ' e x p e r ie n c e , a 1 ' e p r e u v e de s f aits .Ic i,
c ' e s tl ' o p in io n q u ir e g n e
.Es tr e e l ,c c q u ie m p o r te l ' as s e n tim e n t
de s au dite u r s ; e s tv r ai,c c q u ie n tr ain l e u r adhe s io n
. . . .
D an s l as o c ie te de p e n s e e ,l ' in itie f aittab l e r as e de to u tc c q u i
n ' e s tp as ab s tr ac tio n e tr ais o n r ais o n n an te
.1 1 r e tr an c he de
l u i-m e m e to u tc c q u il u ie s tv r aim e n tp e r s o n n e l
; its e r e du it a
c e tte p e tite f ac u l te de du c tiv e q u ie s tl ac ho s e du m o n de l ap l u s
r e p an du e ."* (i)
Wo r df e tis his m p l ay s an im p o r tan tp ar tin the p r o p ag an da
o f the L e f t .The Ox f o r dD ic tio n ar y de f in e s "f e tis h"as an
* This m ay b e b al dl y r e n de r e d :
"In l if e w hatc o u n ts ar e ac ts ; he r e itis w o r ds .In l if e w hato n e s e e k s
ar e m ate r ial ,tan g ib l e r e s u l ts
; he r e itis v o te s .In l if e to g o v e r n is to
s tr u g g l e ag ain s tthin g s ,to f o r e s e e ,to p r e p ar e ,to o r g an iz e ,to ac t
; he r e
the g r e atar tc o n s is ts in c o m p o s in g the o r de r o f the day an din m ak in g
am ajo r ity .In l if e atho u g htis ju dg e db y e x p e r ie n c e an db y the p r o o f
o f f ac ts .He r e it is o p in io n w hic hr e ig n s .Thatis r e al w hic hc ar r ie s the
as s e n to f l is te n e r s ; thatis tr u e w hic he n g ag e s the ir al l e g ian c e . . In
the s o c ie ty o f tho u g htthe in itiate m ak e s ac l e an s w e e p o f al l thatis n o t
ab s tr ac tan dr e as o n in g r e as o n .He ab s tr ac ts f r o m him s e l f al l thatis tr u l y
p e r s o n al ; he r e du c e s him s e l f to this l ittl e de du c tiv e f ac u l ty w hic h
is the
m o s tdif f u s e dthin g in the w o r l d ."
1 8 5
1 8 6

THE PROF ITMOTIV E
"in an im ate o b je c t
w o r s hip p e d b y s av ag e s
f o r its m ag ic al
p o w e r s
."To the So c ial is ts in an im ate w o r ds s e e m in v e s te dw ith
m ag ic al p o w e r s
."D e m o c r ac y "is s u c haw o r d
.No g e n u in e
So c ial is tw o r s hip s the f ac t o f de m o c r ac y ,f o r the In te l l e c tu al
So c ial is thas ac o n te m p tf o r the p e o p l e an dis am b itio u s n o tto
b e g o v e r n e db y b u tto dic tate to the de m o s
.Itis the w o r d
"de m o c r ac y "w hic hhe l o v e s ,aw o r dw hic hhe ap p l ie s w ithn o
s e n s e o f in c o n s is te n c y to the ir o n dic tato r s hip o f Ru s s ia
.
"Hu m an ity "
is an o the r m ag ic al w o r d, an ab s tr ac tio n
dis s o c iate df r o m r e al l if e
. "Y o u do n ' tm atte r ,"s ay s the
hu m an itar ian do c to r in
Me n in White ,"I
do n ' tm atte r .
Hu m an ity al o n e m atte r s
."Hu m an ity is ac o l l e c tio n o f "y o u ' s "
an d "I' s ,"
an dif y o u do n ' tm atte r an dif Ido n ' tm atte r ,
hu m an ity do e s n o tm atte r ,f o r the s u m o f an in f in ite n u m b e r
o f z e r o s e q u al s z e r o
.The w o r df e tis his tl ik e s to in v e s tn e u tr al
w o r ds w ithe thic al s ig n if ic an c e
."Pr o g r e s s "is an e u tr al w o r d,
f o r p r o g r e s s is g o o dif y o u ar e p r o g r e s s in g to w ar ds ag o o de n d,
an de v il if y o u ar e p r o g r e s s in g to w ar ds an e v il e n d .Itis the
dir e c tio n o f the m o v e m e n t,n o tthe f ac to f m o v e m e n t,w hic h
is de c is iv e
.The w o r d"p r o g r e s s "ac q u ir e dits p r e s e n tf l av o u r
in the V ic to r ian ag e ,w hic hw as n aiv e e n o u g hto b e l ie v e in
an e v o l u tio n ar y p r o c e s s w hic hw as in e v itab l y b e n e f ic e n t
.
U n de r the b l in din f l u e n c e o f Natu r al Se l e c tio n the p r o to p l as m
hadau to m atic al l y e v o l v e din to Mr
.D ar w in ,f r o m w hic hit
f o l l o w e dthatPr o g r e s s w as ao n e -w ay s tr e e tl e adin g in e v itab l y
to the s u p e r m an
.We ar e w is e r than o u r f athe r s ,f o r Pr o g r e s s
has p r o du c e dSo v ie tRu s s iaan dNaz iGe r m an y ,an dMr
.J o ad
has r e c o v e r e dhis c hil dho o d' s f aithin Or ig in al Sin ,b u tthe
w o r d"p r o g r e s s ,"e v e n in Mr
.J o ad' s p o s t-c o n v e r s io n w r itin g s ,
s til l r e tain s its V ic to r ian f l av o u r
.
The Ox f o r dD ic tio n ar y de f in e s "tab o o "as "as y s te m ,ac t,o f
s e ttin g ap ar tp e r s o n o r thin g as ac c u r s e do r s ac r e d
."The tab o o
w o r d"p r o g r e s s "has b e e n s e tap ar t as s ac r e d ; the tab o o w o r d
"p r o f it"as ac c u r s e d .Y e t"p r o f it"is aw o r dw hic h,p r o p e r l y
u s e d,is as
n e u tr al o f e thic al s ig n if ic an c e as "p r o g r e s s ,"an d
ju s t as
p r o g r e s s is g o o dif dir e c te dto w ar ds ag o o de n d,an d ,
b adif dir e c te dto w ar ds ab ade n d,s o p r o f it is
ju s tif iab l e if it
b e aju s tp r o f it,an du n ju s tif iab l e if itb e u n ju s t .The p r o b l e m
THE PROF ITMOTIV E

1 8 7
is ,o f
c o u r s e ,to de c ide w hatc o n s titu te s aju s tp r o f it,b u ta
u n iv e r s al p r in c ip l e is n o tin v al idate db y the dif f ic u l ty o f -
ap p l y in g itto ap ar tic u l ar c as e
.Pr o f itis o n l y af o r m o f
p ay m e n t,an dthe f ac tthatm an y p e o p l e e x tr ac tu n f air p r o f its
is n o m o r e v al idas an ar g u m e n tag ain s tp r o f itthan the f ac tthat
s o m e p e o p l e ar e o v e r -p aidis an ar g u m e n tag ain s tp ay m e n t,
Ev e n Co m m u n is ts e x p e c tto b e p aidf o r the ir s e r v ic e s ,b u tu n de r -
l y in g So c ial is tp r o g ag an dais the idio tic im p l ic atio n thatm an -
k in dm ay b e div ide din to So c ial is ts w ho w o r k f o r n o thin g ,an d
Cap ital is ts w ho e x p l o itthe w o r k o f o the r s f o r p r o f it .Adm itte dl y
n o So c ial is t w o u l dc o m m ithim s e l f to the e x p l ic its tate m e n to f
s o in de f e n s ib l e ap o s itio n ,f o r So c ial is tp r o p ag an dar e l ie s o n
s u g g e s tin g atr ain o f tho u g htw hic his n e v e r de f in e din e x ac t
w o r ds
.Itis al w ay s e as y f o r Mar x is ts to q u o te s o m e c au tio u s
q u al if ic atio n dis c r e e tl y b u r ie db y Mar x in p ag e s o f c o n f u s e d
w r itin g ,aq u al if ic atio n w hic his u s e f u l as ade f e n c e ag ain s t
c r itic is m s b as e do n the g e n e r al te n de n c y o f the dif f u s e r p as s ag e s .
The Cap ital is te c o n o m y ,w e ar e to l d,is p l an n e dto m ak e
p r o f its ; the So c ial is te c o n o m y to s atis f y hu m an n e e ds .This
is an e x c e l l e n te x am p l e o f in do l e n to v e r -s im p l if ic atio n ,f o r it
is c l e ar thatthe Cap ital is te c o n o m y c an n o tm ak e ap r o f itu n l e s s
its atis f ie s hu m an n e e ds ,an dthe So c ial is te c o n o m y c an n o t
s atis f y hu m an n e e ds u n l e s s itm ak e s ap r o f it .Mo r e o v e r ,n o
So c ial is tState c an m ak e ac o l l e c tiv e p r o f itu n l e s s itm ak e s f u l l
u s e o f the p r o f itm o tiv e in the in div idu al w o r k e r s ."The So v ie t
e c o n o m y ,"w r ite s Mr .G.D .H.Co l e ,"is p l an n e df o r w e l f ar e ,"
(2),
b u tu n l e s s the Cap ital is tp l an s f o r w e l f ar e he w il l m ak e n o
p r o f it,s in c e p r o f itis the p ay m e n tf o r s e r v ic e s w hic hthe c o n -
s u m e r r e g ar ds as ac o n tr ib u tio n to his w e l f ar e .The So c ial is t
w il l r e to r tthatw he r e as the r u l e r s o f aSo c ial is tState w il l as k
the m s e l v e s ,"Ho w m an y b o o ts m u s tw e m an u f ac tu r e to p r o v ide
the b o o tl e s s w ithf o o tw e ar ? "the
Cap ital is t
in q u ir e s ,"Ho w
m an y b o o ts c an w e s e l l atap r o f it? "B u titis n o tm o tiv e s b u t
r e s u l ts thatm atte r s o f ar as p r o du c tio n is c o n c e r n e d .
So c ial is ts p r e f e r to e v ade the e c o n o m ic c as e f o r the p r o f it
m o tiv e an dto c o n c e n tr ate o n de n o u n c in g the p r o f itm o tiv e as
u n e thic al .B u titis dif f ic u l tto u n de r s tan dw hy the f o r m o f
p ay m e n tf o r s e r v ic e s w hic hw e de s c r ib e as p r o f its ho u l db e the
1 8 8

THE
PROF ITMOTIV E
o b je c to f in te m p e r ate ab u s e ,w he r e as the f o r m
o f p r o f itw hic h
w e de s c r ib e as w ag e s ,s ho u l db e the the m e o f u n q u al if ie d
ap p r o v al .Ip ay m y c o al m e r c han tm o r e f o r m y c o al than the
c o al m e r c han tp ay s atthe p ithe adb e c au s e Ido n o tw an tto
b e b o the r e dto tr av e l to the p ithe ad .Ip ay the c o al m e r c han t
to b r in g the c o al f r o m the p ithe adto m y c e l l ar ,an dhis p r o f it
is n o thin g m o r e than p ay m e n tf o r s e r v ic e s r e n de r e d .
An o the r f o r m o f p r o f itm ay b e il l u s tr ate db y as im p l e
e x am p l e .J o n e s an dB r o w n ar e s k il l e dw o r k m e n ,b u tw he r e as
J o n e s is thr if ty B r o w n is e x tr av ag an t .
Ro b in s o n ,w ho is
an x io u s to s e tu p as atax idr iv e r ,ap p l ie s to B r o w n f o r al o an ,
b u tB r o w n has n o c ap ital to in v e s t .J o n e s adv an c e s the hu n dr e d
p o u n ds w hic hRo b in s o n n e e ds to m ak e u p the n e c e s s ar y c ap ital
f o r the p u r c has e o f atax i .Thr e e y e ar s l ate r he r e p ay s J o n e s
his hu n dr e dp o u n ds an dan ag r e e ds har e o f his p r o f its du r in g
the p e r io d.Is the r e an y r e as o n w hy J o n e s ,w ho has s av e dhis
m o n e y an dthe r e b y de p r iv e dhim s e l f o f its e n jo y m e n t,s ho u l d
r e c e iv e n o r e w ar df o r his ab s tin e n c e ? Is the r e an y r e as o n w hy
Ro b in s o n s ho u l dm ak e n o p ay m e n tto J o n e s f o r the s e r v ic e
w hic hhe has r e n de r e din adv an c in g him m o n e y ? Su r e l y
J o n e s ' p r o f itis m e r e l y al e g itim ate p ay m e n tf o r s e r v ic e s
r e n de r e d .*
The p hr as e "p r o f itm o tiv e "has b e e n ag o ds e n dto So c ial is ts ,
f o r its u g g e s ts n o tp ay m e n tf o r s e r v ic e s r e n de r e db u tan u n f air
in c r e m e n tc ap r ic io u s l y adde dto the ju s tp r ic e ,an de x tr ac te d
b y atr ic k f r o m an in n o c e n tp u r c has e r
.F e w p e o p l e ar e l u c k y
e n o u g hto g e ts o m e thin g f o r n o thin g ,an df e w p u r c has e r s ar e
s o dis in te r e s te das to al l o w v e n do r s to addan ar b itr ar y p r o f it
.
If Ip ay m y g r o c e r m o r e p e r p o u n df o r ham than he p aidp e r
p o u n df o r the p ig ,itis n o tb e c au s e he has hy p n o tiz e dm e in to
c e din g him ap r o f itto w hic hhe is n o te n titl e d,b u tb e c au s e I
* Ar is to tl e ,Mo s e s an dthe Me dix v al Chu r c hc o n de m n e du s u r y ,b u t
the y didn o tc o n de m n p r o f its har in g
.J o n e s adv an c e dthe m o n e y w itho u t
s e c u r ity o n the as s u m p tio n thatif Ro b in s o n f ail e dthe r e w o u l db e n o
p r o f its an dhis c ap ital w o u l db e l o s t
.HadJ o n e s adv an c e dahu n dr e d
p o u n ds o n the s e c u r ity o f aho u s e w o r thatho u s an dp o u n ds k n o w in g
thathe c o u l ddr aw in te r e s tataf ix e dr ate s o l o n g as Ro b in s o n w as
s o l v e n tan dr e c o v e r his c ap ital w ithc o m p l e te s e c u r ity b y f o r e c l o s in g w he n
Ro b in s o n w e n tb an k r u p t,his l o an m ig hthav e b e e n c r itic iz e das u s u r io u s
.
In p r ac tic e the m e dim v al the o l o g ian s f o u n ditdif f ic u l tto de c ide w he r e
l e g itim ate p r o f ite n de dan du s u r y b e g an .
THE PROF ITMOTIV E

1 8 9
am p ay in g him f o r s e r v ic e s r e n de r e d.The p ay m e n tw hic hw e
c al l p r o f itto the g r o c e r ,an dthe p ay m e n tw hic hw e c al l w ag e s
to the g r o c e r ' s as s is tan t,ar e b o thp ay m e n tf o r s e r v ic e s r e n de r e d .
Whe the r the g r o c e r g e ts to o m u c ho r the as s is tan tto o l ittl e is
an o the r q u e s tio n .
So c ial is ts hav e c l e v e r l y c o n f u s e dtw o dif f e r e n tis s u e s ,the
l e g itim ac y o f p r o f itas s u c han dthe l e g itim ac y o f the p r e s e n t
dis tr ib u tio n o f p r o f its .The p r o f itm o tiv e is an ap p e tite w hic h,
l ik e o the r ap p e tite s ,m u s tb e c o n tr o l l e d .Te m p e r an c e in p r o f it-
m ak in g is as im p o r tan t as te m p e r an c e in e atin g .Pr o f ite e r in g
m ay b e c o m p ar e dto g l u tto n y ,b u tthe c u r e f o r g l u tto n y is to
c u r b r athe r than to ab o l is hap p e tite ,an dthe c u r e f o r
p r o f ite e r in g is to r e s tr ain r athe r than to e l im in ate the ap p e tite
f o r p r o f it .The b as ic p r o b l e m o f s o c ial ju s tic e is the p r o b l e m
o f aju s tdiv is io n o f the n atio n al in c o m e .If o n e c l as s r e c e iv e s
to o l ar g e as har e itm atte r s l ittl e w he the r the s har e is de s c r ib e d
as "p r o f it," as "s al ar y "o r as "w ag e s ."On l y the u n c an dido r
the ig n o r an ts til l p r e te n dthatSo v ie tRu s s iahas s o l v e dthe
p r o b l e m o f dis tr ib u tio n .Max Eas tm an ,w ho is s til l aCo m -
m u n is t,b u tw ho has l o s this il l u s io n s ab o u tRu s s ia,q u o te s an
ar tic l e b y L e o n Se do v in The Ne w In te r n atio n al f o r F e b r u ar y ,
1 9 3 6
"The r e is har dl y an adv an c e d c ap ital is t c o u n tr y w he r e the
dif f e r e n c e in w o r k e r s ' w ag e s is as g r e atas atp r e s e n tin the
U .S.S.R.In the m in e s ,an o n -Stak han o v is tm in e r g e ts f r o m
4 0 0 to 5 0 o r u b l e s am o n th,aStak han o v is tm o r e than 1 ,6 o o
r u b l e s .The au x il iar y w o r k e r ,w ho dr iv e s ate am b e l o w ,g e ts
o n l y 1 7 o r u b l e s if he is n o taStak han o v is tan d 4 0 o r u b l e s
if he is (Pr av da, No v e m b e r 1 6 th,1 9 3 5 )-thatis ,o n e w o r k e r
g e ts ab o u tte n tim e s as
m u c has an o the r .An d 1 7 o r u b l e s
b y n o m e an s r e p r e s e n ts the l o w e s tw ag e ,b u tthe av e r ag e w ag e ,
ac c o r din g to the datao f So v ie ts tatis tic s .The r e ar e w o r k e r s
w ho e ar n n o m o r e that1 5 0 ,
1 20 o r e v e n l o o r u b l e s am o n th .
. . .
The e x am p l e s w e g iv e b y n o m e an s in dic ate the e x tr e m e
l im its in the tw o dir e c tio n s .On e c o u l ds ho w w itho u tdif f ic u l ty
thatthe w ag e s o f the p r iv il e g e dl ay e r s o f the w o r k in g c l as s
(o f the l ab o u r ar is to c r ac y in the tr u e s e n s e o f the te r m )ar e
2o
tim e s hig he r ,s o m e tim e s e v e n m o r e ,than the w ag e s o f
a
I9 0

THE
PROF IT MOTIV E
the p o o r l y -p aidl ay e r s
.An dif o n e tak e s the w ag e s o f s p e c ial is ts ,
the p ic tu r e o f the in e q u al ity b e c o m e s p o s itiv e l y s in is te r
.
Os tr o g l iado v ,the he ade n g in e e r o f ap it,w ho m o r e than
r e al iz e s the p l an ,g e ts 8 ,6 o o r u b l e s am o n th
; an dhe is a
m o de s ts p e c ial is t,w ho s e w ag e s c an n o t,the r e f o r e ,b e c o n -
s ide r e de x c e p tio n al .Thu s ,e n g in e e r s o f te n e ar n f r o m 8 o to
I o o tim e s as m u c has an u n s k il l e dw o r k e r ."
Max Eas tm an c ite s atab l e w hic hap p e ar e din the Ne w
Re p u b l ic f o r J u l y I5 th,1 9 3 6 ,"c o m p ar in g the s al ar ie s o f o f f ic e r s
in s o m e o f o u r w e al thie r Am e r ic an c o m p an ie s w iththe av e r ag e
w e e k l y w ag e o f the w o r k e r s e m p l o y e db y the m ."F r o m this
tab l e itap p e ar s thatthe r atio o f the b e s tp aido f f ic ial s to the
w o r s tp aidw o r k e r s is 4 1 to I in the Chil e Co p p e r Co
.,5 1 to I
in the Cu r tis Pu b l is hin g Co
.,8 2to iin Co n s o l idate dOil .
Co m r ade Os tr o g l iado v is l u c k y to b e ahe ade n g in e e r in a
c o u n tr y w hic hr e c o g n iz e s the c o m m e r c ial v al u e o f s p e c ial is ts .
U n l ik e the g r o s s l y u n de r p aido f f ic ial s o f the Chil e Co p p e r Co .,
w ho hav e to s tr u g g l e al o n g o n as al ar y o n l y 4
1
tim e s as g r e at
as thato f the w o r k e r s ,Co m m u n is tOs tr o g l iado v ,u n de r the
b e n e f ic e n tr e g im e o f Stal in ,dr aw s f r o m the n atio n al p o o l a
s u m e q u iv al e n tto the dr aw in g s o f e ig hty -s ix l ab o u r e r s in his
Co m m u n is tp it .(3 )
An dr e Gide ,w ho l ik e Max Eas tm an w as o n c e aCo m m u n is t,
v is ite dRu s s iaan ddis c o v e r e dthattho u g hthe w o r k m an in
Ru s s iais n o te x p l o ite db y c ap ital is ts ,he is n o n e the l e s s
e x p l o ite din the s u b tl e s tan dm o s tin g e n io u s f as hio n (4 ), an dit
is ,as Gide in s is ts ,the in s u f f ic ie n ts al ar ie s o f the u n de r p aid
w hic hal o n e m ak e p o s s ib l e the dis p r o p o r tio n ate s al ar ie s o f the
hig he r -p aido f f ic ial s .Mar x attac k s the c ap ital is ts f o r e x p l o itin g
the "s u r p l u s v al u e "p r o du c e db y the w o r k m e n
.In So v ie t
Ru s s iaitis n o tthe w o r k m an w ho p r o f its f r o m his e x tr aw o r k ,
b u ttho s e w ho m Gide de s c r ib e s as "l e s f av o r is e s ,l e s b ie n -v u s ,"
the f av o u r ite s o f the r e g im e
.If itb e tr u e thatthe Co m m u n is t
e c o n o m y is p l an n e d"to s atis f y hu m an n e e ds ,"itis al s o tr u e
thatSo v ie tRu s s iais e ig hty -s ix tim e s m o r e s u c c e s s f u l in s atis -
f y in g Co m r ade Os tr o g l iado v ' s n e e ds than the n e e ds o f his
w o r k e r s
.The w o r df e tis his tw il l r e p l y thatCo m r ade Os tr o -
g l iado v is n o tw o r k in g to m ak e p r o f its f o r s har e ho l de r s b u t
THE PROF IT
MOTIV E

1 9 1
f o r the State
.The w o r df e tis his tf o r g e ts thate v e n in c ap ital is t
En g l an dthe State e x tr ac ts al ar g e s har e o f an y p r o f its that
ar e m ade
.
The b as ic p r o b l e m s o f the e c o n o m ic o r de r ar e ,as Ihav e
s aid,the p r o b l e m o f p r o du c tio n an dthe p r o b l e m o f dis tr ib u -
tio n
.The f ir s tis p r im ar il y e c o n o m ic ,the s e c o n dp r im ar il y
e thic al
.D is tr ib u tio n de p e n ds o n p r o du c tio n ,f o r u n l e s s g o o ds
ar e p r o du c e dthe y c an n o tb e dis tr ib u te d
.Ou r f ir s ttas k m u s t
the r e f o r e b e to dis c o v e r an in c e n tiv e to p r o du c tio n
.So v ie t
Ru s s iahas b e e n f ar l e s s s u c c e s s f u l in s o l v in g the p r o b l e m o f
p r o du c tio n ,an dn o m o r e s u c c e s s f u l in s o l v in g the p r o b l e m o f
dis tr ib u tio n ,than c ap ital is tc o u n tr ie s .As in de e dis adm itte db y
tho s e f e r v e n tp an e g y r is ts ,Mr .an dMr s .Sidn e y We b b
.
"The
U .S.S.R.",the y w r ite ,"c an n o ty e tb e s ho w n to hav e
r e ac he dthe l e v e l o f p r o du c tiv ity p e r he ado f p o p u l atio n
e n jo y e db y the U n ite dK in g do m o r s o m e o the r Eu r o p e an
c o u n tr ie s ,o r in the y e ar s p r io r to 1 9 29 ,b y the U n ite dState s
."
(5 )
On the q u e s tio n o f dis tr ib u tio n the We b b s w r ite ,"The
m ax im u m div e r g e n c e o f in div idu al in c o m e s in the
U .S.S.R.,
tak in g the e x tr e m e in s tan c e s ,is p r o b ab l y as g r e atas the
c o r r e s p o n din g div e r g e n c e ,in in c o m e s p aidf o r ac tu al p ar tic i-
p atio n in w o r k ,in Gr e atB r itain if n o tin the U n ite dState s
.
Itis n o tc l e ar w he the r the div e r g e n c e b e tw e e n the e x tr e m e
in s tan c e s in the So v ie tU n io n is ac tu al l y w ide n in g
."(6 )
F o r tw e n ty y e ar s the Co m in te r n has e n jo y e du n dis p u te d
c o n tr o l o v e r an e m p ir e ab u n dan tl y p r o v ide dw ithn atu r al
r e s o u r c e s an de q u al in ar e ato o n e -s ix tho f the e ar th' s s u r f ac e .
The c o s to f the Co m m u n is te x p e r im e n thas b e e n as u m o f
hu m an s u f f e r in g b e y o n dal l c o m p u tatio n ,an dthe r e s u l t
ac hie v e dhas b e e n
a
tr ag ic al l y l o w s tan dar do f l iv in g .
Whe n An dr e Gide c r itic iz e dthe g r o s s e x p l o itatio n o f the
Ru s s ian w o r k e r s ,"u n e x c e l l e n tm ar x is te "r e p l ie d,"Y o u u n de r -
s tan dn o thin g
.Co m m u n is m is n o to p p o s e dto the e x p l o itatio n
o f m e n b y Man
.Ho w m an y tim e s n e e dIr e p e atthis ? An d
ac c e p tin g this y o u c an b e as r ic has Al e x is To l s to y o r as in g e r
in Gr an dOp e r ap r o v ide dthaty o u hav e ac q u ir e dy o u r f o r tu n e
b y y o u r o w n p e r s o n al w o r k
.In y o u r c o n te m p tan dhatr e df o r
1 9 2

THE PROF IT MOTIV E
m o n e y an dp r o p e r ty
Is e e
ar e g r e ttab l e s u r v iv al o f y o u r e ar l y
Chr is tian ide as ."(7 )An dthe Co m m u n is tadde dthatthe s e
Chr is tian ide as hadn o thin g in c o m m o n w ithMar x is m
.
Tr u e e n o u g h,b u tthe Co m m u n is ts in En g l an d,F r an c e an d
the U n ite dState s w ho ar e e n de av o u r in g to f o r m ac o m m o n
f r o n tw ithChr is tian s as the f ir s ts te p to w ar ds the de s tr u c tio n
o f Chr is tian ity ar e l e s s c an didthan Gide ' s Mar x is tf r ie n d .
Wo r k m ay b e div ide din to the w o r k w hic his its o w n r e w ar d
an d the dr u dg e r y w hic hr e q u ir e s
a
s p e c ial in c e n tiv e .
Adm itte dl y c r e atio n is as n e c e s s ar y to the ar tis tas p r o c r e atio n
to the l o v e r ; adm itte dl y r e s e ar c his its o w n r e w ar dto the tr u e
s c ie n tis t .The tr u e ar tis tan dthe tr u e s c ie n tis to n l y as k f r o m
s o c ie ty the m o de s tl iv e l iho o dw hic hw il l l e av e the m f r e e f o r
the ir w o r k an dl ib e r ate the m f r o m s o r didan x ie tie s .D o c to r s
ar e o f te n c ite db y So c ial is ts as m e n w ho w o r k w itho u ttho u g ht
o f the p r o f itm o tiv e .The r e ar e c e r tain l y m an y p hy s ic ian s to
w ho m m e dic in e is av o c atio n ,b u tthe r e ar e o the r s ,as that
e m in e n tSo c ial is t,Mr .B e r n ar dShaw ,has b e e n ats o m e p ain s
to p r o v e in the p r e f ac e to his p l ay , The D o c to r ' s D il e m m a .
The p r o f e s s io n o f ar m s s u p p l ie s So c ial is ts w ithy e tan o the r
m is l e adin g an al o g y .Itw as n o t,w e ar e to l d,the p r o f itm o tiv e
w hic hin s p ir e dthe v o l u n te e r s in the Gr e atWar ."If m e n ar e
p r e p ar e dto die f o r the ir c o u n tr y w hy s ho u l dthe y n o tb e r e ady
to w o r k f o r it? "So c ial is ts hav e al w ay s e n v ie dthe m il itar y
tr aditio n ,ho w e v e r m u c hthe y m ay in v e ig hag ain s tm il itar is m .
Mar x o b s e r v e dw ithdis g u s tthatthe o f f ic e r s w ho hadg o n e
o v e r to the p e o p l e in the 1 8 4 8 Re v o l u tio n hadp r o v e du n -
s atis f ac to r y ."This m o b o f m il itar y m e n p o s s e s s e s an in c r e dib l y
dis g u s tin g c o r p s s p ir it .The y hate e ac ho the r l ik e p o is o n an d
e n v y e ac ho the r the s l ig hte s tdis tin c tio n l ik e s c ho o l b o y s ,b u t
the y s tan dto g e the r l ik e o n e m an ag ain s tthe ` c iv il ian s ' "(8 )
No w this "in c r e dib l y dis g u s tin g c o r p s s p ir it"is e s s e n tial l y
ar is to c r atic .The o f f ic e r ,l ik e the p r ie s t,m ay b e r e c r u ite df r o m
an y c l as s ,b u tu n l e s s ,l ik e the p r ie s t,he f e e l s thathe b e l o n g s
to ac as te s e tap ar tf r o m o the r m e n he is u n l ik e l y to b e a
s u c c e s s f u l l e ade r in the e x ac tin g e m e r g e n c ie s o f w ar .
Adm itte dl y itis n o tthe p r o f itm o tiv e w hic hk e e p s m e n in
f r o n t-l in e tr e n c he s ,b u tas p ir itw hic his e s s e n tial l y f e u dal an d
THE PROF IT MOTIV E

1 9 3
ar is to c r atic ,an dthe r e f o r e as p ir itw hic hthe So c ial is tde te s ts .
The f e u dal tr aditio n thate v e r y p r iv il e g e in v o l v e s ac o r r e s p o n d-
in g o b l ig atio n s til l s u r v iv e s in the f r o n t-l in e tr e n c he s ,f o r ` the
o f f ic e r c o m m an ds r e s p e c tb e c au s e his p r iv il e g e s ar e b al an c e d
b y the g r e ate r r is k w hic hhe r u n s .The c as u al itie s am o n g
o f f ic e r s ar e p r o p o r tio n ate l y hig he r than the c as u al itie s in the
r an k s ,an dthe c o m r ade s hip o f the tr e n c he s is b as e dn o to n
ap ar tn e r s hip o f p r o f itb u to n ap ar tn e r s hip o f ho n o u r .B u t
tho u g hitis ap o in to f ho n o u r n o tto s hir k dan g e r atthe f r o n t,
itis al m o s tap o in to f ho n o u r to s hir k w o r k b e hin dthe l in e s .
If the c o n du c to f m e n u n de r f ir e is c ite das an ar g u m e n tf o r
So c ial is m ,the b e hav io u r o f as o l die r o n f atig u e du ty c as ts a
c e r tain do u b to n the v al u e o f w o r k u n in f e c te db y the p r o f it
m o tiv e ,an ddir e c te ds o l e l y f o r the c o m m o n g o o d .
The c o n s e r v atis m w hic his c har ac te r is tic o f al l State c o n -
tr o l l e din s titu tio n s ,w he the r Cap ital is to r So c ial is t,is v e r y
p r o n o u n c e din the Ar m y .Ge n e r al J .F .C.F u l l e r te l l s m e
thathis r e g im e n t(Ox f o r dL ig htIn f an tr y )w as in 1 8 9 8 f ar
s u p e r io r in dr il l to o the r r e g im e n ts b e c au s e the y w e r e o n l y
n in e ty y e ar s b e hin dthe tim e s ,hav in g ado p te dthe dr il l s y s te m
o f Sir J o hn Mo o r e ,w he r e as the o the r r e g im e n ts w e r e s til l
dr il l in g o n the b as is o f m e tho ds u s e din the m iddl e o f the
e ig hte e n thc e n tu r y .F ir e dr il l f o r ab r e e c hl o ade r r e m ain e d
f o r m an y y e ar s the s am e as thatf o r am u z z l e l o ade r .The
Max im g u n o r ig in al l y w e n tin to ac tio n as as m al l c an o n o n
w he e l s w ithas o l die r r idin g o n e ac hs ide .Ev e n tu al l y itw as
p l ac e do n atr ip o d
.B e c au s e Max im g u n s hadb e e n p l ac e do n
tr ip o ds the L e w is g u n ,w hic hw as de s ig n e dto b e p r o p p e du p
o n atr e n c h,w as al s o p r o v ide dw ithtr ip o ds .The F ie l dSe r v ic e
Re g u l atio n s is s u e daf te r the War w e r e v e r y s im il ar to tho s e is s u e d
b e f o r e the War .The do c tr in e w as s til l p r e ac he dthatthe b ay o n e t
w as n e c e s s ar y to c o n s o l idate the v ic to r y w hic hthe r if l e had
p r e p ar e d,in s p ite o f the f ac tthatb ay o n e tc har g e s ar e
u n k n o w n in m o de r n w ar
.*
The im m e n s e w as tag e o f f o o dan dam m u n itio n in the Gr e at
War w as s y m p to m atic o f al l State c o n tr o l l e din s titu tio n s .
Was tag e is n o tu n k n o w n u n de r c ap ital is m ,b u tthe in c e n tiv e
* Se e al s o Ge n e r al F u l l e r ' s b r il l ian tb o o k , The Ar m y in My Tim e .
1 9 4

THE PROF IT MOTIV E
to e c o n o m y is e v e r p r e s e n t,s in c e the m e r c han tw ho s e p r o du c e
is w as te dis l iab l e to g o b an k r u p t .His b al an c e s he e ts r e c o r d
w ithu n w e l c o m e ac c u r ac y the r e s u l ts o f al l u n p r o du c tiv e
de v e l o p m e n ts ,b u ttho u g haState m ay g o b an k r u p t,a .
Go v e r n m e n tde p ar tm e n tc an c o n tin u e to w as te m o n e y
in de f in ite l y w itho u tan y au to m atic w ar n in g s u c has is p r o v ide d
b y an n u al b al an c e s he e ts .The r e is aw o r l do f dif f e r e n c e
b e tw e e n s p e n din g o n e ' s o w n m o n e y an ds p e n din g Go v e r n m e n t
m o n e y .
Ec o n o m ic r e f o r m e r s m ay b e div ide din to tho s e w ho r e al iz e
thatc e r tain ac tiv itie s ,s u c has the ar m y ,m u s tb e State c o n -
tr o l l e d,an dthato the r e c o n o m ic ac tiv itie s m u s tb e p ar tial l y
c o n tr o l l e dto p r e v e n tthe e x p l o itatio n o f the w e ak ,b u tw ho
r e g ar de v e r y e x te n s io n o f State c o n tr o l w ithdar k dis tr u s t,an d
the ar de n tp l an n e r s f o r w ho m b u r e au c r atic c o n tr o l is an e n d
in its e l f ,an dw ho w e l c o m e e v e r y e x te n s io n o f State c o n tr o l as
as tag e to w ar ds the U to p iao f c o m p l e te s o c ial iz atio n .The r e
is n o thin g in the e x p e r ie n c e o f m an k in dto al l ay the do u b ts o f
the an ti-So c ial is t,o r to e n c o u r ag e the ho p e s o f the So c ial is t .
The b u r e au c r ac ie s o f to day s til l r e v e al the s am e in he r e n t
w e ak n e s s e s w hic hhav e p r o v ide ds atir is ts f r o m Ar is to tl e to
Go g o l w ithab u ttf o r the ir ir o n y .So c ial is m m u l tip l ie s o f f ic e
ho l de r s al l je al o u s l y c o n c e r n e dto de f e n dthe ir o w n s tatu s ,
an dr e s e n tf u l o f an y in tr u s io n o n the ir p ar tic u l ar te r r ito r ie s ,
y e tl o athto as s u m e r e s p o n s ib il ity .
"F o r al l its o f f ic io u s n e s s ,"w r ite s v o n Mis e s ,"s u c hab u r e au -
c r ac y o f f e r s a c l as s ic e x am p l e o f hu m an in do l e n c e .No thin g
s tir s w he n n o e x te r n al s tim u l u s is p r e s e n t .In the n atio n al iz e d
c o n c e r n s ,e x is tin g w ithin as o c ie ty b as e df o r the m o s tp ar to n
p r iv ate o w n e r s hip o f the m e an s o f p r o du c tio n ,al l s tim u l u s to
im p r o v e m e n ts in p r o c e s s c o m e s f r o m tho s e e n tr e p r e n e u r s w ho
as c o n tr ac to r s f o r s e m i-m an u f ac tu r e dar tic l e s an dm ac hin e s
ho p e to m ak e ap r o f itb y the m .The he ads o f the c o n c e r n its e l f
s e l do m ,if e v e r ,m ak e in n o v atio n s .The y c o n te n tthe m s e l v e s
w ithim itatin g w hatg o e s o n in s im il ar p r iv ate l y -o w n e du n de r -
tak in g s .B u tw he r e al l c o n c e r n s ar e s o c ial iz e dthe r e w il l b e
har dl y an y tal k o f r e f o r m s an dim p r o v e m e n ts
."(g )
The So c ial is tdr e am o f as o c ie ty in w hic hm e n w il l g l adl y
THE PROF IT MOTIV E

1 9 5
w o r k n o tf o r p r o f itb u tf o r the State is ,as Mr .Wal te r L ip p m an n
r e m ar k s ,b as e do n "ac r u de l y n aiv e c o n c e p tio n o f the n atu r e
o f p r o p e r ty ."(io )The So c ial is tide n tif ie s p r o p e r ty w iththe
r e s idu al titl e de e ds .The r e s idu al o w n e r o f al l the l an do f
En g l an dis ,as Mr .L ip p m an n p o in ts o u t,the K in g ,b u tthe
l an ds o f En g l an dar e n o tadm in is te r e df o r the b e n e f ito f the
K in g
.So c ial is ts as s u m e thatthe l e g al tr an s f e r e n c e o f o w n e r -
s hip to the State w il l au to m atic al l y tr an s f e r to the c itiz e n s the
e n jo y m e n to f the p r o p e r ty thu s tr an s f e r r e d .This s im p l e f aith
in the m ag ic o f titl e de e ds is an e x am p l e o f w o r df e tis his m .
No So c ial is thas atte m p te dto p r o v e thatthe m e r e ac to f
tr an s f e r r in g o w n e r s hip to the State p r o v ide s an y g u ar an te e
ag ain s te x p l o itatio n o f c itiz e n s b y State o f f ic ial s .Itis e as y to
tr an s f e r titl e de e ds ,l e s s e as y to de c ide ho w the p r o p e r ty
the o r e tic al l y o w n e db y al l c itiz e n s is to b e adm in is te r e din the ir
in te r e s ts .The e x p e r ie n c e o f c e n tu r ie s n e g ate s thatf ac il e an d
u n s c ie n tif ic as s u m p tio n w hic his the c o r n e r -s to n e o f the
So c ial is tic s tr u c tu r e ,thatp r o p e r ty w hic his he l din tr u s tf o r
the p e o p l e w il l b e adm in is te r e din the in te r e s ts o f the p e o p l e
an dn o tin the in te r e s to f the o f f ic ial tr u s te e s .
"In s ho r t,Co m m u n is m ,"w r ite s Mr .Wal te r L ip p m an n ,
"w he n itab o l is he s p r iv ate p r o p e r ty in p r o du c tiv e c ap ital ,
e s tab l is he s an e w k in do f p r o p e r ty in the p u b l ic o f f ic e s w hic h
m an ag e the c o l l e c tiv e c ap ital .The c o m m is s ar s r e p l ac e the
c ap ital is ts ,e x e r c is in g the s am e p o w e r s o r g r e ate r o n e s ,e n jo y -
in g the s am e s o c ial p r iv il e g e s o r g r e ate r o n e s ,an dtho u g hthe ir
m o n e y in c o m e s m ay b e l e s s ,the ir l u x u r ie s l e s s f l o r id,the y hav e
e v e r y thin g thatc o u l dte m p tthe l e s s f av o u r e dto e n v y the m ,
to c hal l e n g e the m ,an dto s tr iv e to r e p l ac e the m .The s o c ial
s itu atio n an dthe p s y c ho l o g ic al m e c han is m w hic he x is tto day ,
an dw hic hac c o r din g to Co m m u n is tthe o r y div ide s o c ie ty in to
an tag o n is tic c l as s e s ,r e m ain in tac tin the Co m m u n is to r de r .
The o n l y dif f e r e n c e is thatw he r e as u n de r c ap ital is m s o c ial
adv an tag e s g iv e p o l itic al p o w e r ,u n de r Co m m u n is m p o l itic al
p o w e r g iv e s s o c ial adv an tag e s .Thu s the s tr u g g l e f o r w e al th
is tr an s m u te din to as tr u g g l e f o r p o w e r ,an dthe p ar ty o f
Stal in p u ts to de aththe p ar tis an s o f Tr o ts k y ." (i I)
1 9 6

THE PROF IT MOTIV E
REF ERENCES
(I) Pie r r e Gax o tte : L a Re v o l u tio n F r an c ais e , Ar the m e
F ay ar d,p .6 4 .
(2)G.D
.H
.Co l e : Pr ac tic al Ec o n o m ic s , Pe n g u in B o o k s ,
P.24 9 -
(3 )
Har p e r ' s Mag az in e ,
F e b r u ar y ,
1
9 3 7 ,PP-3 0 3 -3 1 4 -
(4 )An dr e Gide
: Re to u c he s dm o n Re to u r de
l ' U .R.S.S.,
Gal l im ar d,p
.3 7 -
(5 )&(6 )Sidn e y an dB e atr ic e We b b : So v ie tCo m m u n is m ,
V ic to r Go l l an c z ,p p .1 0 3 6 ,1 20 7 .
(7 )An dr e Gide : Re to u c he s a m o n Re to u r de l ' U .R.S.S.,
p .6 o .
(8 )F r an z Me hr in g : K ar l Mar x , tr an s l ate db y Edw ar dF itz -
g e r al d,J o hn L an e ,p .23 6 .
(9 )L u dw ig v o n Mis e s : So c ial is m , tr an s l ate db y J .K ahan e ,
J o n athan Cap e ,p .20 7 .
(1 o )
&
(II)
Wal te r L ip p m an n : The Go o dSo c ie ty , Ge o r g e
Al l e n an dU n w in ,p p .7 2,8 3 .
CHAPTERXIX
THEINHERENTWEAK NESSESOF THE
SOCIAL ISTSTATE
SOCIAL ISTS e v ade the p r o b l e m s o f So c ial is m b y p o s tu l atin g a
n e w ty p e o f m an w ho s e in c e n tiv e w il l b e n o tp r o f itb u tjo y
o f s e r v ic e .En g e l s f o r e c as tas o c ie ty in w hic h"p r o du c tiv e l ab o u r
w il l b e n o tam e an s f o r e n s l av in g b u tf o r l ib e r atin g m an k in d,
w hic hw il l g iv e e v e r y in div idu al the o p p o r tu n ity to de v e l o p
an dto e x e r c is e al l his c ap ab il itie s ,b o dil y an dm e n tal ,in al l
dir e c tio n s ,an dw il l tr an s f o r m ab an e in to ab o o n ."(i)Mar x
p r o m is e dthe dis ap p e ar an c e o f "the s l av is hs u b je c tio n o f the
in div idu al u n de r the div is io n o f l ab o u r ,"
(2)
an dp ain ts the
p ic tu r e o f as o c ie ty in w hic h"the c o n tr as tb e tw e e n m e n tal an d
p hy s ic al w o r k has dis ap p e ar e d,"an d"l ab o u r has b e c o m e n o t
o n l y am e an s o f l if e ,b u tthe f ir s tn e e do f l if e its e l f ."Max
Adl e r p r o m is e dthatthe So c ial is tSo c ie ty o f the f u tu r e w il l n o t
as s ig n an y b o dy w o r k "w hic hm u s tc au s e him p ain ."(3 )
F o u r ie r an dhis s c ho o l ho p e dto p r o v ide the n e c e s s ar y in c e n tiv e
to l ab o u r b y c o m p e titio n b e tw e e n dif f e r e n tg r o u p s o f w o r k e r s
w ho w il l b e in s p ir e db y "u n s e n tim e n tde r iv al ite jo y e u s e o u
de n o b l e e m u l atio n ."(4 )So c ial is ts n e v e r tir e o f de n o u n c in g
the c o m p e titiv e as p e c ts o f o u r s o c ial s y s te m ,b u tin Ru s s ia
the y hav e b e e n f o r c e dto ado p tF o u r ie r ' s p l an -an dhav e
r e in tr o du c e dc o m p e titio n af te r the c o l l ap s e o f c o -o p e r ato n .
So f ar ,ho w e v e r ,the r e has b e e n n o e v ide n c e o f "r iv al ite
jo y e u s e ."
The s c ie n tis tar g u e s f r o m the p r e m is s o f v e r if iab l e f ac ts ,
the So c ial is tf r o m the p r e m is s o f u n v e r if iab l e p r o p he c ie s .The
s c ie n tis tp r o l o n g s the p as tin to the f u tu r e ,the So c ial is tig n o r e s
b o thp as tan dp r e s e n t,an ddis r e g ar ds the c u m u l ativ e e v ide n c e
o f the c e n tu r ie s .Atho u s an dy e ar s o f s l av e l ab o u r s ho u l d
p r o du c e e v e n in the m o s ts an g u in e ac e r tain s c e p tic is m as to
the v al u e o f w o r k p e r f o r m e db y w o r k e r s w ho hav e n o dir e c t
1 9 7
1 9
8

' THE WEAK NESS OF THE SOCIAL IST STATE
s har e in the p r o f its f r o m the ir w o r k .Co n te m p o r ar y e x p e r ie n c e
r e in f o r c e s the l e s s o n s o f the p as t .Pay m e n tb y tim e is f ar
l e s s p r o du c tiv e o f g o o dw o r k than p ay m e n tb y r e s u l ts ,f o r
the m o r e s k il l e dw o r k e r s hav e n o in c e n tiv e to do b e tte r than
the l e s s s k il l e dw he r e al l r e c e iv e the s am e dail y w ag e .So c ial is ts
c o n te n dthatthe w o r k e r u n de r So c ial is m f e e l s thathe is
w o r k in g f o r the c o m m u n ity an dn o tf o r p r iv ate p r o f it,an d,
the r e f o r e ,m ak e s v e r y s p e c ial e f f o r ts to g iv e o f his b e s t .B u t
the e x p e r ie n c e s o f m u n ic ip al an dGo v e r n m e n to f f ic e s ,w he r e
e m p l o y e e s ar e n o tw o r k in g f o r p r iv ate p r o f it,p r o v e s the
o p p o s ite .The w o r k e r u n de r So c ial is m w ho w o r k s tw ic e as
har das his c o l l e ag u e do e s n o tr e c e iv e tw ic e his w ag e ,b u t
b e n e f its b y af r ac tio n al p ar to f am il l io n tho f the e x tr ap r o du c t
p r o du c e d .Whe n So c ial is ts b e g an to r e al iz e thatan e q u al
dis tr ib u tio n o f in c o m e w o u l daddv e r y l ittl e to the av e r ag e
in c o m e o f the w ag e -e ar n in g c l as s e s ,the y de v e l o p e dthe the s is
thatthe p r o du c tiv ity o f l ab o u r ,an dthe r e f o r e the av e r ag e
in c o m e to b e dis tr ib u te d,w o u l db e v as tl y in c r e as e du n de r
So c ial is m .K au ts k y m ain tain e dthataSo c ial is tState w o u l d
in c r e as e p r o du c tio n b y c o n c e n tr atin g p r o du c tio n in the m o s t
e f f ic ie n t,an db y c l o s in g do w n the l e as te f f ic ie n t,o r g an iz atio n s
.
So c ial is ts ,o n the c o n tr ar y ,ar e al w ay s te m p te dto m ain tain
in e f f ic ie n tc o n c e r n s r athe r than p r o v o k e l o c al o p p o s itio n b y
c l o s in g the m do w n ."On m o s tState r ail w ay s al l r e f o r m s o f
this k in dar e f r u s tr ate db y the atte m p tto av o idthe har m to
p ar tic u l ar dis tr ic ts w hic hw o u l dr e s u l tf r o m the e l im in atio n o f
s u p e r f l u o u s b r an c ho f f ic e s ,w o r k s ho p s ,an dp o w e r s tatio n s
.
Ev e n the ar m y adm in is tr atio n has e n c o u n te r e dp ar l iam e n tar y
o p p o s itio n w he n f o r m il itar y r e as o n s ithas b e e n de s ir e dto
w ithdr aw ag ar r is o n f r o m ap ar tic u l ar p l ac e ."(5 )So c ial is ts
al s o in s is tthatp r o du c tio n w o u l db e in c r e as e db y the e l im in a-
tio n o f e x p e n s e s in he r e n tin the Cap ital is ts y s te m .No w
adm itte dl y c e r tain e x p e n s e s w o u l ddis ap p e ar u n de r So c ial is m ,
s u c has the e x p e n s e s in v o l v e din adv e r tis in g ,c o m m e r c ial
tr av e l l e r s ,e tc .,b u tas v o n Mis e s r ig htl y in s is ts ,itis f al l ac io u s
to s e l e c tc e r tain c o s ts in he r e n tin the Cap tal is ts y s te m an dto
tr e atthe e l im in atio n o f the s e c o s ts as an e ttg ain ."Itis m o r e
_than p r o b ab l e ,"w r ite s v o n Mis e s ,"thatSo c ial is m w o u l d
e m p l o y m an y m o r e p e r s o n s in the s e r v ic e o f the ap p ar atu s o f
dis tr ib u tio n .War -tim e e x p e r ie n c e has tau g htu s ho w c u m -
b r o u s an de x p e n s iv e the s o c ial ap p ar atu s o f dis tr ib u tio n c an
b e .We r e the c o s ts o f b r e ad,f l o u r ,m e at,s u g ar ,an do the r
c ar ds r e al l y l e s s than the c o s ts o f adv e r tis e m e n t? Has the
e n o r m o u s p e r s o n n e l r e q u ir e d to r u n a r atio n in g s y s te m b e e n
c he ap e r than the e x p e n ditu r e o n c o m m e r c ial tr av e l l e r s an d
ag e n ts ? "(6 ) Ac c o r din g to An dr e Gide the b u r e au c r ac y in
Ru s s iac o n s u m e d
8 -5 %
o f the n atio n al in c o m e b e f o r e the
War ,an d1 9 % in 1 9 27
.The in c r e as e dc o s to f aSo c ial is t
b u r e au c r ac y m u s tb e s e tag ain s tthe s av in g in adv e r tis in g an d
o the r e x p e n s e s o f aCap ital is tr e g im e . (' 7 )
In c o m p ar in g
Cap ital is m w ithSo c ial is m w e m u s tc o m p ar e to tal c o s ts ,to tal
r e c e ip ts an dthe r e s p e c tiv e b al an c e s af te r de du c tin g r e c e ip ts
f r o m c o s ts .The e x p l an atio n o f af ac tw hic hGide m e n tio n s
w itho u tc o m m e n t,the ab s e n c e o f c o r r e s p o n din g s tatis tic s af te r
1 9 27 ,is g iv e n b y Tr o ts k y .(8 )Stal in c o u n te r e dthe g r o w in g
c r itic is m o f the in c r e as in g p r o p o r tio n o f the n atio n al in c o m e
al l o c ate dto o f f ic ial s b y dis c o n tin u in g the p u b l ic atio n o f
r e l e v an ts tatis tic s ,w iththe r e s u l tthatitis n o l o n g e r p o s s ib l e
to c al c u l ate w hatp r o p o r tio n o f the n atio n al in c o m e is c o n -
s u m e db y the b u r e au c r ac y .
The e f f ic ie n c y o f ap r o du c tiv e s y s te m de p e n ds v e r y l ar g e l y
o n the p e r s o n n e l b y w hic hthe s y s te m is o p e r ate d .No w the
c ho ic e o f p e r s o n n e l p r e s e n ts in s u p e r ab l e dif f ic u l tie s in a
So c ial is tr e g im e .The Cap ital is tis dir e c tl y in te r e s te d in the
s e l e c tio n o f c ap ab l e p e r s o n n e l ,f o r b adju dg m e n tm ay m e an
b an k r u p tc y in ak e e n l y c o m p e titiv e e c o n o m y . Mo r e o v e r ,
u n de r Cap ital is m b an k r u p tc y c an n o tb e c o n c e al e d,w he r e as
u n de r So c ial is m a
de p ar tm e n tm ay c o n tin u e in de f in ite l y to b e
r u n atal o s s
.Cap ital is tc o m p e titio n e l im in ate s in e f f ic ie n t
p e r s o n n e l ,b u tthe in e f f ic ie n tar e s e l do m dis c har g e df r o m
State -c o n tr o l l e din s titu tio n s ,f o r aCiv il Se r v an tis v ir tu al l y
ir r e m o v ab l e s av e f o r c r im in al o r q u as i-c r im in al o f f e n c e s .
No b o dy ,o f c o u r s e ,m ain tain s thatState c o n tr o l de s tr o y s al l
in itiativ e .The m an o f g e n iu s an dv is io n c an s u c c e e din Civ il
Se r v ic e s as e l s e w he r e . Ou r o w n Civ il Se r v ic e has b e e n
l ar g e l y r e c r u ite df r o m f am il ie s w ithatr aditio n o f p u b l ic
20 0

THE WEAK NESSOF THE SOCIAL IST
STATE
s e r v ic e ,atr aditio n w hic hte m p e r s an dc o u n te r ac ts the n o r m al
w e ak n e s s o f b u r e au c r ac y ,an dm o r e o v e r ,o u r Civ il Se r v ic e
has an u n tar n is he dr e c o r do f in te g r ity
.B u tthis is n o tthe
u n iv e r s al e x p e r ie n c e
. "Sir ,y o u s te al to o m u c hf o r y o u r
p o s itio n ,"s ay s the o l do f f ic ial to his s u b o r din ate in o n e o f
Go g o l ' s p l ay s ,an dithas y e tto b e p r o v e dthatthe Ru s s ian
b u r e au c r ac y o f to day has c han g e dv e r y m u c hin this r e s p e c t
.
U n de r So c ial is m o f f ic ial s in c har g e o f p r o du c tio n ar e
ap p o in te de ithe r dir e c tl y b y aD ic tato r o r Se c r e tar y o f State ,
o r ` b y s o m e s u b o r din ate w ho m ak e s ap p o in tm e n ts in
ac c o r dan c e w iththe p o l ic y dic tate dto him f r o m ab o v e
.In
the s e c ir c u m s tan c e s itis in e v itab l e thatthe s e l e c tio n o f
o f f ic ial s in c har g e o f p r o du c tiv e p r o c e s s e s s ho u l db e l ar g e l y
g o v e r n e db y u n e c o n o m ic c o n s ide r atio n s s u c has p o l itic al
o r tho do x y ,p o l itic al af f il iatio n s ,p e r s o n al c o n n e c tio n s ,r e l atio n -
s hip to the g r e atan ds o f o r th .In the m o dif ie dSo c ial is m o f
State e n te r p r is e s p r o m o tio n te n ds to b e au to m atic al l y de te r -
m in e db y s e n io r ity o r b y e x am in atio n te s ts .B u tb u s in e s s
c ap ac ity is n o tn e c e s s ar il y te s te din r o u tin e e x am in atio n s ,n o r
in e v itab l y ac q u ir e dw iththe p as s in g o f tim e .
In c o m p ar in g the p r o du c tiv e p o s s ib il itie s o f Cap ital is m an d
So c ial is m w e m u s ttak e q u al ity in to c o n s ide r atio n n o l e s s than
q u an tity .In aSo c ial is te c o n o m y State o f f ic ial s de c ide w hat
g o o ds ar e to b e p r o du c e d,an dthe ir p r e f e r e n c e s ,w hic hm ay
b e b ias e db y am u l titu de o f n o n -e c o n o m ic c o n s ide r atio n s ,an d
the ir tas te s ,w hic har e n o tn e c e s s ar il y f as tidio u s ,de te r m in e
n o to n l y the q u an tity b u tthe q u al ity o f p r o du c tio n
.In a
Cap ital is ts o c ie ty the dis c r im in atin g c o n s u m e r is r e s p o n s ib l e
f o r q u al itativ e im p r o v e m e n ts .Itis the c o n s u m e r w ho de te r -
m in e s b o ththe q u an tity an dq u al ity o f p r o du c tio n
.
"Al l p r o du c tio n ,"w r ite s v o n Mis e s ,"m u s tb e n dto the
c o n s u m e r s ' w il l
.F r o m the m o m e n titf ail s to c o n f o r m to the
c o n s u m e r s ' de m an ds itb e c o m e s u n p r o f itab l e
.Thu s f r e e c o m -
p e titio n c o m p e l s the o b e die n c e o f the p r o du c e r to the c o n -
s u m e r s ' w il l an dal s o ,in c as e o f n e e d,the tr an s f e r o f the
m e an s o f p r o du c tio n f r o m the han ds o f tho s e u n w il l in g o r
u n ab l e to ac hie v e w hatthe c o n s u m e r de m an ds in to the han ds
o f tho s e b e tte r ab l e to dir e c tp r o du c tio n
.The l o r do f p r o -
THEWEAK NESSOF THESOCIAL ISTSTATE

20 1
du c tio n is the c o n s u m e r .F r o m this p o in to f v ie w the c ap ital is t
s o c ie ty is ade m o c r ac y in w hic he v e r y p e n n y r e p r e s e n ts ab al l o t
p ap e r .Itis ade m o c r ac y w ithan im p e r ativ e an dim m e diate l y
r e v o c ab l e m an date to its de p u tie s ."(g )
V o n Mis e s ' an al o g y is n o tb as e do n o n e m an ,o n e v o te
de m o c r ac y ,b u to n p l u r al v o tin g .The l ab o u r e r w iththe s m al l
in c o m e has f ar f e w e r v o te s than his e m p l o y e r ,b u the has
o n e v o te f o r e v e r y p e n n y he e ar n s ,an dhis v o te s ,tho u g hthe y
c o n tr ib u te n o thin g to the im p r o v e m e n to f m o to r -c ar de s ig n ,
ar e in f l u e n tial in de te r m in in g the r e l ativ e m e r its o f "Go l d
F l ak e "an d"Pl ay e r s ."Itis ir r e l e v an tto r e p l y ,as the We b b s
r e p l y ,thatthe e f f e c tiv e c ho ic e o f the En g l is hp r o l e tar iatis
s e v e r e l y r e s tr ic te dto an ar r o w r an g e o f c o m m o ditie s (io ),an d
s til l l e s s r e l e v an tto in s is tthatthe w ag e e ar n e r s ar e u n de r p aid
in Cap ital is tc o u n tr ie s ,f o r o n e n e e dn o t -b e a So c ial is t to
r e g r e tthe u n e q u al dis tr ib u tio n o f p u r c has in g p o w e r .The
s m u g as s u m p tio n thatthe So c ial is tal o n e is c o n c e r n e dto r ais e
the w ag e s o f the u n de r p aidis o n e o f the m o r e e x as p e r atin g
f e atu r e s o f So c ial is tp r o p ag an da .Mr
.Cham b e r l in ,w ho ,u n l ik e
the We b b s ,w as n o te s c o r te dr o u n dRu s s iaas an ho n o u r e d
v is ito r ,b u tw ho w o r k e din Ru s s iaf o r te n y e ar s as ajo u r n al is t,
w r ite s as f o l l o w s
:
"Whe n Ir e tu r n e dto the So v ie tU n io n f r o m Am e r ic aan d
r e adto s o m e Ru s s ian f r ie n ds al is to f the r atio n s w hic h
u n e m p l o y e df am il ie s in Mil w au k e e r e c e iv e d,the Ru s s ian s
e x c l aim e d : ` Thats o u n ds m o r e l ik e the r atio n o f a"r e s p o n s ib l e
w o r k e r "(aSo v ie to f f ic ial o f f air l y hig hg r ade )than o f o u r
o r din ar y w o r k e r o r e m p l o y e e .' The y w e r e e s p e c ial l y am az e d
atthe v ar ie ty o f f r u it,v e g e tab l e s ,an dc an n e dg o o ds .The
av e r ag e Ru s s ian w o r k e r ' s m o n thl y w ag e (1 25 r u b l e s ),r e c k o n e d
in g o l dr u b l e s atthe g e n e r al c u r r e n tu n o f f ic ial r ate o f
e x c han g e (f o r ty p ap e r r u b l e s to o n e g o l dr u b l e ),w o u l dn o t
b u y thr e e do l l ar s ' w o r tho f p r o v is io n s in aTo r g s in s ho p
.
. . .
Whe n e v e r y al l o w an c e has b e e n m ade f o r the f av o u r ab l e
s ide s o f the Ru s s ian w o r k e r ' s l if e ,the r e c an b e n o do u b tthat
the Am e r ic an o r We s tEu r o p e an w o r k e r ,s u dde n l y tr an s -
p l an te dto Ru s s ia,w o u l db e c o n s c io u s o f as har p l y l o w e r
s tan dar do f l iv in g ,w hic hhe w o u l dr e q u ir e ag o o dde al o f
20 2

THE- WEAK NESSOF THESOCIAL ISTSTATE
s tr e n g thin the Co m m u n is tf aithto b e ar w ithp atie n c e an d
ho p e f o r the f u tu r e
."
(I
I)
Ev e r y ar g u m e n tw hic hthe We b b s adv an c e to p r o v e that
f e w w o r k e r s in Cap ital is tc o u n tr ie s c an f air l y b e de s c r ib e das
"dis c r im in atin g c o n s u m e r s "ap p l ie s w ithf ar m o r e f o r c e to
So v ie tRu s s ia .In Ru s s iathe dis c r im in atin g c o n s u m e r has
l o n g s in c e dis ap p e ar e d ; itis the u n dis c r im in atin g c o n s u m e r o f
an y f o o dthatw il l k e e p b o dy an ds o u l to g e the r w ho is the
p r in c ip al v ic tim o f Ru s s ia' s So c ial is te c o n o m y . Gide ,a
f as tidio u s F r e n c hm an ,w as de p r e s s e db y the r e s tr ic te dc ho ic e
o f in f e r io r m e r c han dis e w hic hthe So v ie tState o f f e r s to the
u n dis c r im in atin g c o n s u m e r ."Y o u p ity ,"he w r ite s ,"tho s e
w ho hav e to s tan din the q u e u e f o r ho u r s ,b u tthe y f in dit
q u ite n atu r al to w ait .The b r e ad,v e g e tab l e s an df r u its e e m
b adto y o u ,b u tthe r e ar e n o al te r n ativ e s .The s e s tu f f s , - the s e
o b je c ts w hic hthe y o f f e r ,s e e m u g l y to y o u ,b u ty o u hav e n o
c ho ic e ."
(1 2)
L u dw ig v o n Mis e s atte m p ts to s ho w thate c o n o m ic c al .
c u l atio n is im p o s s ib l e in aSo c ial is tc o m m u n ity .Iam n o t
c o n v in c e dthatac c u r ate e c o n o m ic c al c u l atio n s ar e im p o s s ib l e
in aSo c ial is tState ,b u the has c e r tain l y p r o v e dthatthe y
w o u l db e v e r y dif f ic u l t .The dr e am w o r l do f the So c ial is t
f u tu r e is u n c l o u de db y s u c hp r o b l e m s .L e n in n aiv e l y as s u m e d
thatac c o u n tan c y didn o tr e q u ir e an y s p e c ial q u al if ic atio n s .
"Ar m e dw o r k e r s "c o u l ds af e l y b e e n tr u s te dw ith"au ditin g
o f p r o du c tio n an ddis tr ib u tio n "an d"k e e p in g the r e c o r ds o f
l ab o u r an dp r o du c ts ."
(1 3 )
L e n in dis tin g u is he s b e tw e e n the
w o r k o f Cap ital is ts an dc l e r k s ,an dthe w o r k o f the te c hn ic al l y
tr ain e dhig he r p e r s o n n e l ,an das s u m e s thatf o r "this e x e r c is e
o f au dit"n o thin g m o r e is n e e de dthan "ak n o w l e dg e o f
e l e m e n tar y ar ithm e tic an db o o k e n tr y w ithin the g r as p o f
an y o n e ab l e to r e adan dw r ite ,"an dhe m ak e s itc l e ar thatin
his v ie w "itis the r e f o r e p o s s ib l e s tr aig htw ay to , e n ab l e al l
m e m b e r s o f as o c ie ty to do the s e thin g s f o r the m s e l v e s ."
( 1 4 )
This air y de n ig r atio n o f te c hn ic ian s is c har ac te r is tic o f
So c ial is tic p r o p ag an da .B ab e u f ,w ho s e c o n s p ir ac y w as the l as t
p has e o f the F r e n c hTe r r o r ,r e c o m m e n de dg e n e r al p il l ag e an d
m as s ac r e as the f ir s ts te p to w ar ds U to p ia,an din r e p l y to a
THE WEAHNESSOF THESOCIAL ISTSTATE

20 3
do u b tin g Tho m as w ho as k e dhim w hatp r e p ar atio n he had
m ade f o r "e r e c tin g the au g u s tte m p l e o f e q u al ity "af te r the
r ic hhadb e e n l iq u idate d,B ab e u f q u o te dD ide r o tto p r o v e that
itw o u l db e e as y e n o u g hto p r o v ide f o r the n e e ds o f the
c itiz e n s . "Al l thatis o n l y as im p l e af f air o f n u m b e r in g
thin g s an dp e o p l e ,as im p l e o p e r atio n o f c al c u l atio n an d
c o m b in atio n s ,an dc o n s e q u e n tl y s u s c e p tib l e o f av e r y f in e
de g r e e o f o r de r ." (I5 ) L o thr o p Sto ddar dhas de s c r ib e dthe
w o r l dr e v o l u tio n as the w ar o f the han dag ain s tthe b r ain .
The de n ig r atio n o f e du c atio n an ds p e c ial iz e dtr ain in g is a
v al u ab l e r e v o l u tio n ar y w e ap o n o f im m e n s e im p o r tan c e ,w ith
as u r e ap p e al to the l o w e s te l e m e n ts in the p o p u l atio n .
So c ial is ts ,adds v o n Mis e s ,"hav e n o g r e ate r p e r c e p tio n
o f the e s s e n tial s o f e c o n o m ic l if e than the e r r an db o y ,w ho s e
,o n l y ide ao f the w o r k o f the e n tr e p r e n e u r is thathe c o v e r s
p ie c e s o f p ap e r w ithl e tte r s an df ig u r e s ." (1 6 ) This is
p e r hap s to o e x tr e m e ,b u titis in te r e s tin g to c o m p ar e the
am o u n to f s p ac e thatMr .Str ac he y de v o te s to p r o v in g that
Cap ital is m has f ail e dan dthe l ittl e he de v o te s to the de tail e d
c r itic is m s o f the l e adin g an ti-So c ial is ts . Sp e c u l atio n has
b e c o m e ate r m o f ab u s e in So c ial is t l ite r atu r e ,b u t,as v o n
Mis e s p o in ts o u t,"e c o n o m ic ac tiv ity is n e c e s s ar il y s p e c u l ativ e
b e c au s e itis b as e du p o n an u n c e r tain f u tu r e
.Sp e c u l atio n is
the l in k thatb in ds is o l ate de c o n o m ic ac tio n to the e c o n o m ic
ac tiv itiy o f s o c ie ty as aw ho l e ."
Q 7 )
The e n v y w hic hs u c c e s s -
f u l s p e c u l atio n p r o v o k e s is p ar tial l y r e s p o n s ib l e f o r the il l
o do u r o f the w o r d"s p e c u l atio n ,"aw o r dw hic h,l ik e "p r o f it,"
is e thic al l y n e u tr al ."Al l s o c ial is ts ,"w r ite s v o n Mis e s ,"o v e r -
l o o k the f ac tthate v e n in as o c ial is tc o m m u n ity e v e r y e c o n o m ic
o p e r atio n m u s tb e b as e do n an u n c e r tain f u tu r e ,an dthatits
e c o n o m ic c o n s e q u e n c e r e m ain s u n c e r tain e v e n if itis
te c hn ic al l y s u c c e s s f u l .The y s e e in the u n c e r tain ty w hic hl e ads
to s p e c u l atio n ac o n s e q u e n c e o f the an ar c hy o f p r o du c tio n ,
w hil s tin f ac titis an e c e s s ar y r e s u l to f c han g in g e c o n o m ic
c o n ditio n s ."
(1 8 )
V o n Mis e s is an e x tr e m e e x p o n e n to f
l ais s e z -f air e L ib e r al is m ,
b u te v e n tho s e an ti-So c ial is ts w ho ,l ik e the p r e s e n tw r ite r ,ar e
r e s ig n e dto af ar g r e ate r m e as u r e o f State c o n tr o l than
20 4

THE WEAK NESS OF THE SOCIAL IST STATE
v o n Mis e s c o n s ide r s n e c e s s ar y ,w il l f in ditdif f ic u l tto r e f u te
an y p ar tic u l ar in s tan c e c ite db y v o n Mis e s o f in c o m p e te n t
State c o n tr o l .His b r il l ian tb o o k r e p r e s e n ts aw e l c o m e r e ac tio n
f r o m au n iv e r s al te n de n c y e v e n in c o u n tr ie s w hic hf o r m al l y
r e je c tSo c ial is m ,an dif m o r e w ide l y r e ad,m ig htdo s o m e thin g to
c o u n te r ac tthe p r e v ail in g de f e atis m o f tho s e w ho dis l ik e
So c ial is m ,b u tw ho ar e tak in g n o ac tiv e s te p s to r e s is tthe e v e r -
in c r e as in g e n c r o ac hm e n ts o f the State .Itis c u r io u s that
w he r e as an ti-So c ial is tState s o f f e r s o l ittl e o p p o s itio n to the
in f il tr atio n o f So c ial is tic p hil o s o p hy ,So v ie tRu s s iais s te adil y
r e c e din g f r o m So c ial is m ,an dis r e v il e din c o n s e q u e n c e b y
c o n s is te n tSo c ial is ts s u c has Max Eas tm an ,w ho c o n tin u e s to
l am e n t"the e n do f So c ial is m in Ru s s ia ."B u titis ar g u ab l e
thatSo c ial is m ,s o f ar f r o m hav in g e n de din Ru s s ia,has p r o -
c e e de dw ithtr iu m p han tl o g ic f r o m its b as ic p r e m is s e s to its
in e v itab l e c o n c l u s io n
.If this b e s o itis n o ts u r p r is in g that
Eas tm an s ho u l db e r e l u c tan tto ide n tif y his c r e e dw iththe
p r ac tic e o f So v ie tRu s s ia,ac o u n tr y in w hic han o v e r -p aid
b u r e au c r ac y e x p l o its the tr ag ic al l y u n de r -p aidp r o l e tar iat,a
c o u n tr y in w hic hthe w o r k m an is de p r iv e do f al l ho p e o f
r e dr e s s ,an do f al l c o n s titu tio n al m e an s o f de f in in g his
g r ie v an c e s . In Cap ital is tEn g l an dw o r k e r s c an s tr ik e . In
So c ial is tRu s s iathe de athp e n al ty f o r c o u n te r -r e v o l u tio n ar y
ac tiv itie s is the p u n is hm e n tn o tf o r s tr ik e s ,w hic har e im p o s -
s ib l e ,b u tf o r the f o r m u l atio n o f l e g itim ate g r ie v an c e s .The
ide al is tic v is io n o f an e w w o r l din w hic hthe p r o f itm o tiv e
w o u l db e r e p l ac e db y "jo y o u s c o -o p e r atio n "has e n de din the
n ig htm ar e o f ab u r e au c r atic ty r an n y r e in f o r c e db y b u r e au -
c r atic te r r o r is m .
Me an w hil e So v ie tRu s s iap r e ac he s So c ial is m an dc o n tin u e s
its s e ar c hf o r the in c e n tiv e s w hic haCap ital is te c o n o m y au to -
m atic al l y p r o v ide s .The w o r k e r is in c ite dto in c r e as e p r o du c -
tio n b y b o n u s e s f o r g o o dw o r k ,the s p e c ial is tb y e n o r m o u s
s al ar ie s r e in f o r c e db y an e v e n s tr o n g e r in c e n tiv e than the
p r o f itm o tiv e ,the dr e ado f e x e c u tio n .Tho u s an ds o f s p e c ial is ts ,
e n g in e e r s ,m an ag e r s an df o r e m e n ,hav e b e e n s ho tf o r
"Tr o ts k y is m ,"ag e n e r al te r m w hic hc o v e r s al m o s tan y f o r m
o f in e f f ic ie n c y .The r u l e r s w ho s til l p r o f e s s So c ial is m dar e
THEWEAK NESSOF THESOCIAL IST STATE

20 5
n o tadm itthatf ail u r e m ay b e du e n o tto dis l o y al ty o r c o u n te r -
r e v o l u tio n ar y ac tiv ity ,b u tto the in he r e n tw e ak n e s s e s o f a
So c ial is te c o n o m y ,an dar e the r e f o r e dr iv e n b y the l o g ic o f
B e dl am to c o n c e al f ail u r e b y in v e n tin g c r im e s .The in e v itab l e
de f e c ts o f al l State -c o n tr o l l e din s titu tio n s ar e ag g r av ate din
Ru s s iab y the s p in e l e s s n e s s w hic his the p r o du c to f te r r o r is m .
The r e is w ide s p r e adr e l u c tan c e to as s u m e r e s p o n s ib il ity o r to
ac c e p tp o s ts w ho s e p r o m in e n c e in v ite s the in q u is itiv e atte n tio n
o f the Og p u .Eu g e n e L y o n s ,ato n e tim e an e n thu s ias tic
Co m m u n is t,de s c r ib e s Stal in ' s s p e e c hatthe e n do f the thir d
y e ar o f the F iv e Y e ar Pl an ,as p e e c hw hic hw as "am o r e
de v as tatin g in dic tm e n to f Stal in ' s e c o n o m ic r e g im e than an y
o f his e n e m ie s hadm ade . . . .The v as tm ajo r ity o f w o r k e r s w e r e
de s e r tin g the ir jo b s ` to g o e l s e w he r e ,to adif f e r e n tp l ac e ,to s e e k
f o r tu n e .! ' Ratio n al iz atio n o f in du s tr y ,' he s aid,had` l o n g ag o
g o n e o u to f s ty l e .' So v ie te n te r p r is e s had` l o n g ag o c e as e dto
c o u n t,to c al c u l ate ,to m ak e u p ac tu al b al an c e s o f in c o m e s an d
e x p e n ditu r e s .' Man y o f the p l an s p r e s u m ab l y f u l f il l e d,o r e v e n
o v e r -f u l f il l e d,w e r e ju s t` o n p ap e r .' The n o n -s to p w o r k -w e e k ,
f o is te do n the p o p u l atio n in the m o s tc al l o u s dis r e g ar do f its
o w n c o m f o r to r w is he s ,Stal in n o w adm itte dto b e u n e c o n o m ic ,
har m f u l ,m e r e l y ` an u n in te r r u p te dw e e k o n p ap e r .' . . .
"' No b o dy is ac c o u n tab l e f o r an y thin g ,' Stal in c o m p l ain e d .
Wo r s e than that,the l e ade r s o f in du s tr y u n de r s tan dal l that,
b u t-Iq u o te Stal in ' s w o r ds ag ain -' the y ho l dthe ir to n g u e s .
Why ? F r o m al l e v ide n c e ,b e c au s e the y ar e af r aido f the
tr u th .' He didn o t,ho w e v e r ,e x p l ain
w hy the s e l e ade r s ar e
af r aido f the tr u th
.Thatw o u l din v o l v e p u b l ic adm is s io n
thatthe tr u this dan g e r o u s ,thattho s e w ho dar e to p r o te s t
e n du p in c o n c e n tr atio n c am p s ,thatan e c o n o m ic s y s te m
u n de r the k n o u to f the G.P.U
.m ak e s b l in do b e die n c e the
o n l y g u ar an te e o f s af e ty ." (Ig )
20 6 THEWEAK NESS OF THE SOCIAL IST STATE
REF ERENCES
(I)-(6 ) L u dw ig v o n Mis e s : So c ial is m ,
tr an s l ate db y J .K ahan e ,
J o n athan Cap e ,p p .1 6 8 ,1 6 8 ,1 6 9 ,1 6 9 ,1 8 2,1 8 3
.
(7 )An dr e Gide : Re to u c he s a m o n Re to u r
de
I' U
.R.S.S
.,
Gal l im ar d,p .4 6 .
(8 )L e o n Tr o ts k y : L aRe v o l u tio n Tr ahie , tr adu itdu r u s s e ,
p ar V ic to r Se r g e ,B e r n ar dGr as s e t,p p .1 6 3 ,
1 6
4 -
(9 )L u dw ig v o n Mis e s : So c ial is m ,p .
4 4 3 -
(Io )Sidn e y an dB e atr ic e We b b :
So v ie tCo m m u n is m ,
V ic to r
Go l l an c z ,p .6 9 2 .
(II) Wil l iam He n r y Cham b e r l in
: Ru s s ia' s Ir o n Ag e , D u c k -
w o r th,p .g 6 .
(1 2) An dr e Gide : Re to u r de l ' U .R.S
.S., Gal l im ar d,p
.5 0 -
(1 3 )&(1 4 )L e n in :
Staatan dRe v o l u tio n ,p . 9 4 ,9 6 .
(1 5 ) Pie c e s s ais is c he z B ab e u f ,II,
2
3 -
(1 6 )-(1 8 ) L u dw ig v o n Mis e s : So c ial is m ,p p .
21 4 ,20 5 ,21 3 .
(1 g )
Eu g e n e L y o n s : As s ig n m e n tin U to p ia, Har r ap ,p p .4 22-
4 23 .
CHAPTERXX
THEGREATESCAPIST
F o u R
b o o k s hav e e x e r c is e dade c is iv e in f l u e n c e in s hap in g
Eu r o p e an his to r y du r in g the l as ttw o c e n tu r ie s
: Ro u s s e au ' s
Co n tr atSo c ial ,
K ar l Mar x ' s K ap ital ,
Char l e s D ar w in ' s Or ig in
o f Sp e c ie s
an dHitl e r ' s Me in K am p f .
Itis am is tak e to c r e ditl e ade r s w ho hav e c han g e dthe c o u r s e
o f his to r y w ithc r e ativ e o r ig in al ity
.The g e n iu s w ho c r e ate s
an ddis c o v e r s is m u c hr ar e r than the g e n iu s w ho g iv e s f o r m to
ide as w hic hhav e al r e ady b e g u n to p e r m e ate the m e n tal c l im ate
o f the ag e
.Ro u s s e au w as n o tthe f ir s tto attr ib u te al l e v il to
c iv il iz atio n .Mar x to o k his dial e c tic f r o m He g e l ,an dhis the o r y
o f v al u e f r o m Ric ar do . D ar w in de v e l o p e dthe the o r y o f
e v o l u tio n w hic hhadb e e n f ir s tf o r m u l ate db y B u f f o n in the
e ig hte e n thc e n tu r y ,an dw hic hhadb e e n e l ab o r ate db y L am ar c k
an dD ar w in ' s o w n g r an df athe r b e f o r e D ar w in w as b o r n .
D ar w in is m is n o t,as Mar x is ts c o n s tan tl y im p l y ,the the o r y o f
e v o l u tio n ,b u tthe the o r y thatNatu r al Se l e c tio n is the m o du s
o p e r an di o f e v o l u tio n ,an de v e n this de v e l o p m e n to f an o l d
the o r y w as n o to r ig in al in D ar w in ,f o r the hy p o the s is o f Natu r al
Se l e c tio n as the p r in c ip al e v o l u tio n ar y ag e n c y hadb e e n f o r m u -
l ate din 1 8 1 3 b y D r .W .C.We l l s an din 1 8 3 1 b y Patr ic k
Mathe w .Hitl e r b o r r o w e dF as c is m f r o m Mu s s o l in ian dhis
r ac ial the o r ie s f r o m Ho u s to n Ste w ar tCham b e r l ain .
Ro u s s e au ,Mar x ,D ar w in an dHitl e r e x e r c is e dw o r l d-w ide
in f l u e n c e n o tb e c au s e the y w e r e c r e ativ e thin k e r s ,b u tb e c au s e
the y w e r e p r o p he ts w ho hadthe g o o df o r tu n e to p r o c l aim a
g o s p e l w hic hthe ir p u b l ic w as al r e ady ,u n c o n s c io u s l y ,b e g in n in g
to b e l ie v e
.As u c c e s s f u l p r o p he tm ay in tr o du c e his m e s s ag e
w iththe f o r m u l a,"Thu s s aiththe L o r d,"b u tu n l e s s his L o r d
an dhis au die n c e ar e al r e ady in s u b s tan tial ac c o r d,his c han c e s
o f s u c c e s s ar e g r e atl y r e du c e d .No thin g p l e as e s p e o p l e m o r e
than to b e to l dthatthe L o r dhas an tic ip ate dthe ir c o n c l u s io n s ,
20 7
20 8

THEGREATESCAPIST
an dn o p r o p he ts ar e m o r e p o p u l ar than tho s e w ho c r y s tal l iz e
the f o r m l e s s as p ir atio n s o f the ag e in w hic hthe y l iv e .Ro u s s e au
an dMar x ,D ar w in an dHitl e r ,p r o v ide df o r m f o r the s hap e l e s s
ide o l o g ie s w hic hw e r e al r e ady de v e l o p in g am o n g the ir c o n -
te m p o r ar ie s .Ro u s s e au c r y s tal l iz e dthe n e w hu m an is m ,o f w hic h
the r e v o l tag ain s tf e u dal is m w as the p o l itic al ,an dthe r e v o l t
ag ain s tChr is tian ity the p hil o s o p hic ,e x p r e s s io n ; Mar x the ju s t
in dig n atio n o f the p o o r in the m o s the ar tl e s s p has e o f n in e -
te e n th-c e n tu r y in du s tr ial is m .D ar w in ap p e ar e dto ju s tif y the
c u r r e n ts c ie n tif ic p r e ju dic e ag ain s ts p e c ial c r e atio n ,as a
c ap r ic io u s an du n tidy in tr u s io n in to the o r de r l y u n iv e r s e o f
n atu r al l aw ,an db y his do c tr in e o f the s u r v iv al o f the f itte s t,
s an c tif ie dthe c u t-thr o atm e tho ds o f in du s tr ial is ts w ho b e l ie v e d
in the s u r v iv al o f the m o s tu n s c r u p u l o u s .Hitl e r c an al iz e dthe
r e s e n tm e n to f ag r e atn atio n ag ain s tthe in ju s tic e o f the
V e r s ail l e s Tr e aty .
Mar x o w e s his in f l u e n c e n e ithe r to his p hil o s o p hic n o r to his
e c o n o m ic w r itin g s
.Ev e n am o n g p hil o s o p he r s attr ac te db y
Co m m u n is m as an e c o n o m ic the o r y ,the r e is n o to n e ,r e c o g -
n iz e das s u c hb y n o n -Mar x is ts ,w ho is p r e p ar e dw ho l e -
he ar te dl y to de f e n dD ial e c tic al Mate r ial is m .The L ab o u r
The o r y o f V al u e is an e v e n m o r e e m b ar r as s in g l iab il ity f o r
thin k in g Co m m u n is ts ."The the o r y is r e g ar de d,"w r ite s Mr .
A.D .L in ds ay ,w ho do e s n o tc o n c e al his s y m p athie s w ith
So c ial is m ,"b y m an y So c ial is ts as the k e y s to n e o f Mar x ian is m ,
b u titis al s o r e g ar de db y m an y o the r So c ial is ts ,as w e l l as b y
m o s t,if n o tal l ,s o -c al l e dac ade m ic e c o n o m is ts ,as an o u t-o f -
date an din de f e n s ib l e do c tr in e .The F ab ian So c ial is ts hav e l o n g
dis c ar de dit ; Mr .L as k i,in his o the r w is e s y m p athe tic ac c o u n to f
Mar x ,has n o u s e f o r his the o r y o f v al u e ; an de v e n Mr .B e e r ,
m o s to f w ho s e b o o k is av in dic atio n o f Mar x ,thin k s this p ar t
o f Mar x ' s do c tr in e in de f e n s ib l e ." (I)
Mar x w e n tto his to r y n o tto dis c o v e r tr u ths b u tto dis c o v e r
e v ide n c e w hic hw o u l ds u p p o r this r atio n al iz atio n o f r e s e n tm e n t .
He hadag e n u in e tal e n tf o r c o n c is e e x p r e s s io n ,an dthe ap p al -
l in g p r o l ix ity o f D as K ap ital is ab y -p r o du c to f in s in c e r ity .His
w r itin g b e c am e p r o l ix an dc o n f u s e das the r e s u l to f ac o n f l ic t
b e tw e e n f ac ts f atal to his the o r ie s an dthe the o r ie s w hic hhe
THE GREATESCAPIST

20 9
ho p e dw o u l dp r o v e f atal to Cap ital is m .Ev e n Mar x is ts ar e
dis m ay e db y his v e r b o s ity ."Whil e w e Mar x ian s ,"w r ite s the
Ital ian L ab r io l a,"ar e tr y in g to r e p atc hthe m as te r ' s c l o ak ,
p o l itic al e c o n o m y is m ak in g s o m e he adw ay e v e r y day .If w e
c o m p ar e Mar x ' s K ap ital w ithMar s hal l ' s Pr in c ip l e s -c hap te r
b y c hap te r ,thatis to s ay -w e s hal l f in dthatp r o b l e m s w hic h
r e q u ir e daf e w hu n dr e dp ag e s in the
K ap ital
ar e s o l v e din af e w
l in e s b y Mar s hal l ."
(2)
The g e n iu s o f Mar x f in ds e x p r e s s io n n o tin p hil o s o p hy n o r
in e c o n o m ic s ,b u tin p r o p ag an da .As aGe n e r al in the Cl as s
War he hadn o e q u al ."In this l ie s his o r ig in al ity ,"w r ite s
an o the r Ital ian c r itic ,B e n e de tto Cr o c e ,"n o tas ap hil o s o p he r
n o r as an e c o n o m is t(f o r in thatr e s p e c to n l y af e w f r ag m e n ts
o f his tho u g htar e s til l u s e f u l ),b u tas ac r e ato r o f p o l itic al
ide o l o g ie s o r m y ths ."(3 )
Mar x is athis b e s tin his de v as tatin g attac k s o n the o dio u s
in du s tr ial is m o f his day .We c an n o tde n y the e s s e n tial ju s tic e
o f his b u r n in g p r o te s tag ain s tthe in iq u ity o f e ar l y n in e te e n th-
c e n tu r y c ap ital is m ,b u tw e do n o ttu r n to Is aiahf o r m e tap hy s ic s
n o r to J e r e m iahf o r e c o n o m ic s .Mar x w as aHe b r e w f o r w ho m
the p r o l e tar iatw e r e the c ho s e n p e o p l e an dthe Cap ital is ts the
Ge n til e s .His the o r y o f v al u e is an in g e n io u s atte m p tto p r o v e
thato n l y tho s e c ho s e n b y an o n -e x is te n tg o dc o n tr ib u te v al u e
to the p r o du c ts o f l ab o u r .Me diae v al the o l o g ian s de v o te dr e al
tho u g htto the p r o b l e m o f thatju s tPr ic e w hic hs ho u l db e
ju s t-n o to n l y to the w o r k m an ,m e r c han tan dm iddl e m an ,b u t
al s o to the c o n s u m e r .The y tr ie dto tak e in to c o n s ide r atio n al l
r e l e v an tc l aim s an dal l r e l e v an tf ac ts
.Mar x ' s the o r y o f v al u e
m ig htb e de s c r ib e das an atte m p tto p r o v ide s c ie n tif ic ju s tif ic a-
tio n f o r thatU n ju s tPr ic e w hic his u n ju s tto al l s av e the m an u al
l ab o u r e r .The m e s s ian ic c o m p l e x l ate n tin the the o r y o f v al u e
is e x p l ic itin D ial e c tic al Mate r ial is m ."B e hin dthe har dr atio n al
s u r f ac e o f K ar l Mar x ' s m ate r ial is t an ds o c ial is tin te r p r e tatio n
o f his to r y ,"w r ite s Mr .Chr is to p he r D aw s o n ,"the r e b u r n s the
f l am e o f an ap o c al y p tic v is io n .F o r w hatw as thats o c ial r e v o l u -
tio n in w hic hhe p u ts his ho p e b u tan in e te e n th-c e n tu r y v e r s io n
o f the D ay o f the L o r d,in w hic hthe r ic han dthe p o w e r f u l o f
the e ar ths ho u l db e c o n s u m e dan dthe p r in c e s o f the Ge n til e s
21 0

THEGREATESCAPIST
b r o u g htl o w ,an dthe p o o r an ddis in he r ite ds ho u l dr e ig n in a
r e g e n e r ate du n iv e r s e ? "(4 .)
Mar x is tp hil o s o p hy is as tr an g e b l e n do f tr u is m an d' f al s e -
ho o dan dm e s s ian ic v is io n .Thatthe r u l in g c l as s te n ds to
g o v e r n in its o w n in te r e s t,thatthe s e l f is hn e s s o f the r u l e r s p r o -
v o k e s the r e s e n tm e n to f the r u l e d,thatf r o m the c o n f l ic t
b e tw e e n r u l e r s an dr u l e dan e w o r de r o f s o c ie ty m ay e m e r g e ,
ar e tr u is m s w ithw hic hthe w o r l dw as f am il iar l o n g b e f o r e
Mar x de c k e do u tthe s e tr ite c o m m o n p l ac e s in the taw dr y r o b e s
o f p o l y s y l l ab ic te r m in o l o g y .F r o m the tr u is m thatm ate r ial
f ac to r s in f l u e n c e s p ir itu al de v e l o p m e n tMar x p r o c e e de dto the
il l ic itc o n c l u s io n thatr e l ig io n its e l f is ap r o du c to f e c o n o m ic
p r o c e s s e s . Itw o u l db e in te r e s tin g to l e ar n ho w o r tho do x
Mar x is ts in te r p r e tin te r m s o f c o n te m p o r ar y e c o n o m ic p r o -
c e s s e s the l iv e s o f Chr is t,o f B u ddha,o f Mo ham m e d,o r o f
F athe r D am ie n .
Mar x is m o w e s its in f l u e n c e n e ithe r to tr u is m s n o r to f al s e -
ho o ds ,b u tto the m il l e n ar y v is io n o f the p e r f e c tw o r l d
.In the
c l as s l e s s s o c ie ty o f the Mar x ian f u tu r e the State w il l w ithe r
aw ay an dg r e e dan ds e l f is hn e s s w il l dis ap p e ar .Itis o n l y to o
o b v io u s thatw e hav e l e f tthe r e al m o f s c ie n c e f o r the l az y
w o r l do f f ac il e dr e am s
.
"Al l f e e b l e s p ir its ,"w r o te G.K .
Che s te r to n ,"l iv e n atu r al l y in the f u tu r e b e c au s e itis f e atu r e -
l e s s .Itis as o f tjo b
.Y o u c an m ak e itw haty o u w il l
. . . . It
r e q u ir e s r e al c o u r ag e to l iv e in the p r e s e n t
."
"Me n o f s c ie n c e ,"w r o te Pr o f e s s o r Ty n dal e ,"p r o l o n g the
m e tho do f n atu r e f r o m the p r e s e n tin to the p as t .The o b s e r v e d
u n if o r m ity o f n atu r e is the ir o n l y g u ide
."Sc ie n tif ic p r o p he ts
s ho u l dp r o l o n g the m e tho do f n atu r e f r o m the p r e s e n tin to the
f u tu r e .The o b s e r v e du n if o r m ity o f hu m an n atu r e s ho u l db e
the ir o n l y g u ide .Mar x ,thatn aiv e m il l e n ar ian ,b e l ie v e dthat
hu m an n atu r e c o u l db e c han g e db y ac han g e o f p o l itic al
e n v ir o n m e n t .He r e l ie do n the p e r f e c tio n o f the s y s te m to
p r o du c e p e r f e c tc itiz e n s ."The p l ain m an ,"w r ite s Mr .She e d,
"w o u l dte n dto s ay thaty o u c an n o tm ak e ag o o do m e l e tte w ith
b ade g g s .Mar x r e p l ie s thatthe g o o dn e s s o f the o m e l e tte w il l
its e l f m ak e b ade g g s in to g o o de g g s ; w hic hto the p l ain m an
s e e m s s he e r l u n ac y .F u n dam e n tal l y the o n e g r e atp r o b l e m o f
THE GREAT ESCAPIST

21 1
s o c io l o g y is m an ' s s e l f is hn e s s : Mar x har dl y b o the r s w ithitat
al l . Me n w il l ac q u ir e g o o dhab its in ag o o ds o c ie ty .In f ac t
L e n in c u ts the k n o tf o r Mar x : ` The g r e ats o c ial is ts ,in f o r e -
s e e in g the ar r iv al (o f the c l as s l e s s s o c ie ty )p r e -s u p p o s e d a p e r s o n
n o tl ik e the p r e s e n tm an in the s tr e e t
.'
Itis as e as y as that! "
(5 )
Co m m u n is m in Ru s s iais c o l l ap s in g b e c au s e itw as b as e do n
the p r e -s u p p o s itio n o f ap e r s o n "n o tl ik e the p r e s e n tm an in
the s tr e e t."Chr is tian ity p r e -s u p p o s e s thatm an w il l r e m ain in
the f u tu r e m u c hthe s am e as m an has p r o v e dto b e in the p as t,
an dChr is tian ity c o n tin u e s ,c o n v e r tin g in div idu al s ,an dthr o u g h
tho s e in div idu al s in f l u e n c in g the s tu b b o r n m as s o f u n c o n v e r te d
hu m an ity .Mar x w as al az y e s c ap is tw ho to o k r e f u g e f r o m the
har s hw o r l do f f al l e n m an in the m e s s ian ic f u tu r e o f the Mar x is t
f aith .Ev e n Mar x is ts w o u l dhe s itate to ac c l aim him as ap hil o -
s o p he r if his p hil o s o p hic p r e s tig e w e r e n o te s s e n tial to the
p r o p ag an dao f e x p r o p r iatio n ,f o r tho u g hitis p l e as an tto
l iq u idate the r ic h,itis s til l p l e as an te r to l iq u idate the m w itha
c l e ar c o n s c ie n c e .Co n s c ie n c e is av ar iatio n w ithan o b s tin ate
s u r v iv al v al u e ,aMe n de l ian r e c e s s iv e w hic hMar x is ts w il l n e v e r
b r e e do u to f the hu m an r ac e .As y s te m w hic hp r o v ide s an
an ae s the tic f o r c o n s c ie n c e has m o r e ap p e al than ac r e e dw hic h
is n ak e din its in c ite m e n tto p l u n de r .J u s tas the c am p aig n
f o r F r e e L o v e is an atte m p tto dis c o v e r ar e c ip e f o r c ar e -f r e e
l u s t,s o the l ab o u r the o r y o f v al u e is af o r m u l af o r c ar e -f r e e l o o t .
He n c e the an x ie ty o f Mar x is ts to m an u f ac tu r e p hil o s o p hic
p r e s tig e f o r aw r ite r w ho s e g e n iu s l ay in the e x p l o itatio n o f
e n v y .His c ham p io n s ar e tr u e Mar x is ts in the ir r e f u s al to m e e t
c r itic is m ,an din the ir r e l ian c e o n u n c o r r o b o r ate d as s e r tio n .
The y hav e b o r r o w e dthe ir te c hn iq u e f r o m tho s e w ho c o n tin u e d
to s ho u tw itho n e ac c o r d,"Gr e atis D ian ao f the Ep he s ian s ! "
Thu s Mr
.J o hn Str ac he y w r ite s ,"Mar x ' s s u b s tan tial l y c o r r e c t .
p r e dic tio n o f the f u tu r e c o u r s e o f c ap ital is tde v e l o p m e n t,c o n -
s ide r e das as he e r f e ato f in te l l e c t,has n e v e r b e e n s u r p as s e d ."
Mr
.Str ac he y c al l s u p o n u s to "m ar v e l an dde l ig htin the
s tar tl in g m e n tal p o w e r s w hic hc e r tain m e n hav e dis p l ay e d .
Whatf u tu r e tr iu m p hs f o r the m in do f m an ar e n o tp r o m is e d
u s b y the s e p r e s e n tan de x c e p tio n al p he n o m e n a? "(6 )
21 2

THEGREATESCAPIST
Mar x , as
w e s hal l s o o n s e e ,w as af al s e p r o p he t,b u te v e n
hadhis p r e dic tio n s p r o v e dc o r r e c t,w e s ho u l dr e q u ir e s o m e -
thin g m o r e than Mr
.Str ac he y ' s as s e r tio n s b e f o r e ac c e p tin g
Mr .Str ac he y ' s c o n c l u s io n s
.The r e ar e c e r tain te s ts w hic hw e
m ay ap p l y w ithc o n f ide n c e to al l c an didate s f o r the Pan the o n
o f the w o r l d' s g r e ate s tthin k e r s .Of the s e te s ts ,the f ir s tan d
m o s tim p o r tan tis o b je c tiv ity
.Ru b l e ,Mar x ' s de v o te db io -
g r ap he r ,adm its thatMar x w as c o m p l e te l y l ac k in g in the
s c ie n tif ic te m p e r
.He q u o te s f r o m Car l Sc hu r z ,w ho w as p r e -
s e n tatthe Co l o g n e Co n g r e s s o f 1 8 4 9
."Ne v e r hav e Is e e n
an y o n e w ho s e m an n e r w as m o r e in s u f f e r ab l y ar r o g an t
.He
w o u l dn o tg iv e am o m e n t' s c o n s ide r atio n to an y o p in io n that
dif f e r e df r o m his o w n
.He tr e ate dw itho p e n c o n te m p te v e r y -
o n e w ho c o n tr adic te dhim
.Ar g u m e n ts thatw e r e n o tto his tas te
w e r e an s w e r e d,e ithe r b y m o r dan ts ar c as m s u p o n the s p e ak e r ' s
l am e n tab l e ig n o r an c e ,o r e l s e b y c as tin g s u s p ic io n o n the
m o tiv e s o f his adv e r s ar y
."
(7 )
On this Riihl e c o m m e n ts ,"His
ar r o g an c e ,his s e l f -c o n c e it,his do g m atis m an ddis p u tatio u s n e s s
an dir r itab il ity ,m u s tr e v e al the m s e l v e s to e v e r y o n e w ho u n de r -
s tan ds hu m an n atu r e as m as k s f o r al ac k o f s e l f -c o n f ide n c e ,
u n de r s tr e s s o f w hic hhe w as p e r p e tu al l y tr y in g to av e r tthe
dan g e r o f e x p o s u r e
.He c o u l dn o tl is te n q u ie tl y to an o p p o n e n t,
b e c au s e he w as af r aidthathis o p p o n e n tm ig htg e tthe b e tte r
o f him if al l o w e dto c o n tin u e
.He hadto s ho u tdo w n e v e r y
ho s til e o p in io n b e c au s e he w as hau n te db y s p e c tr al do u b ts l e s t
this o p in io n s ho u l dg ain adhe r e n ts an dl e av e him u n s u p p o r te d
.
He tr ie dto dis c r e dithis adv e r s ar ie s b e c au s e he ho p e dthat
p e r s o n al o n s l au g hts w o u l ds hak e the v al idity o f o p p o s in g
ar g u m e n ts
."(8 )
If o b je c tiv ity b e the f ir s tc r ite r io n b y w hic hc an didate s f o r
the in te l l e c tu al Pan the o n m u s tb e ju dg e d,e x ac tn e s s o f de f in i-
tio n m ay p e r hap s b e ac c e p te das o u r s e c o n dc r ite r io n
.Eu c l id,
Ar is to tl e an dSt
.Tho m as Aq u in as de f in e dthe ir te r m s w ithc ar e ,
an dde v o te dim m e n s e r e s o u r c e to the c r e atio n o f s c ie n tif ic
te r m in o l o g y
.K ar l Mar x tr ie dto de f in e Mate r ial is m ,b u tn e v e r
de f in e dm atte r
.His dis c ip l e s ,l o u dl y tho u g hthe y m ay ab u s e
"v u l g ar Mate r ial is ts ,"e n tir e l y f ail to e x p l ain the dis tin c tio n
b e tw e e n o l d-f as hio n e dan dD ial e c tic al Mate r ial is m .
THEGREATESCAPIST

21 3
The thir d,an dp e r hap s m o s tim p o r tan tc r ite r io n ,is the p r e -
dic tio n v al u e o f tho s e the o r ie s f o r w ho s e f o r m u l ato r g r e atn e s s
is c l aim e d."The dis c o v e r ie s o f Ne w to n an dhis c o n te m p o r -
ar ie s ,"w r ite s Mr .Str ac he y ,"w e r e f o u n dto hav e p r e dic tio n
v al u e .B y the ir u s e itb e c am e p o s s ib l e to p r e dic ts o m e n atu r al
e v e n ts . . . . The dis c o v e r ie s o f D ar w in an dthe b io l o g is ts w ho
hav e s u c c e e de dhim hav e b e e n f o u n dto hav e the s am e c ap ac ity
.
An dn o w the dis c o v e r ie s o f Mar x an dEn g e l s ,w ho s tan din v e r y
m u c hthe s am e r e l atio n to s o c ial dy n am ic s as do e s Ne w to n to
p hy s ic s an dD ar w in to b io l o g y ,hav e al s o b e e n f o u n dto hav e
this s am e de c is iv e c ap ac ity o f e n ab l in g the p r e dic tio n ,an d
he n c e ,if ap p r o p r iate ac tio n is tak e n ,the c o n tr o l ,o f e v e n ts ."(g ;
Is ho u l dhav e b e e n in te r e s te dto hav e l e ar n e df r o m Mr
.
Str ac he y e x ac tl y w hic hp r e dic tio n s o f Char l e s D ar w in ' s hav e
b e e n v e r if ie d
.The e ar l y D ar w in ian s p r e dic te dthe dis c o v e r y o f
p r o -Av e s ,p r o -Ce tac e a,p r o -Chir o p te r a,e tc
.,n o n e o f w hic h
hav e y e tb e e n dis c o v e r e d
. If w e ac c e p tMr .Str ac he y ' s
c r ite r io n ,itw o u l db e dif f ic u l tto p r o v e thatD ar w in w as a
g r e ate r s c ie n tis tthan Me n de l e e f ,f o r w he n Me n de l e e f p r o -
p o u n de dhis p e r io dic l aw he p o in te do u tthatif his the o r y
w e r e tr u e ,the r e m u s te x is tan u m b e r o f u n k n o w n e l e m e n ts o f
w hic hhe w as ab l e to g iv e ap p r o x im ate l y the ato m ic w e ig ht
.
So m e o f the s e hav e s in c e b e e n is o l ate d .
Mar x do e s n o te m e r g e w ithc r e ditf r o m the p r e dic tio n te s t
.
He r e ar e as e l e c tio n o f his m o r e f am o u s p r e dic tio n s
.
I . In 1 8 4 7 Mar x m ain tain e dthatif s l av e r y w as ab o l is he d
Am e r ic aw o u l db e "w ip e do f f the m ap o f n atio n s
."En g e l s
atte m p te dto p r o v e in 1 8 8 5 thatthe p r e dic tio n w as tr u e f o r
1 8 4 7
.Itis as tr an g e p r o p he c y w hic his o n l y tr u e f o r the p r e s e n t .
He ju s tif ie dhis v ie w b y in s is tin g thatthe ab o l itio n o f s l av e r y :
l e dto the r u in o f the So u th
.He o v e r l o o k e dthe f ac tthatthe
So u thw as r u in e db e c au s e du r in g the r e c o n s tr u c tio n p e r io dthe
ag r ic u l tu r al in te r e s ts o f the So u thw e r e s ac r if ic e din the in te r e s ts
o f No r the r n in du s tr ial is m .' Itw as f an tas tic to im p l y in 1 8 4 7
thatac o n tin e n tw iththe r ic hn atu r al r e s o u r c e s o f No r th
Am e r ic aw o u l db e f ac e dw iththe al te r n ativ e s o f s l av e r y o r r u in
.
Itis ,o f c o u r s e ,e as y to u n de r s tan dw hy Mar x attac he du n du e
e c o n o m ic im p o r tan c e to s l av e r y ,s in c e in the Co m m u n is tU to p ia
I
21 4
THEGREATESCAPIST
e v e r y c itiz e n is c o m p e l l e dto l ab o u r atw o r k as s ig n e dto him b y
State o f f ic ial s .(io )
2 . Mar x p r o p he s ie dthe dis ap p e ar an c e o f the l o w e r s tr ata
o f the m iddl e c l as s ."The l o w e r s tr atao f the m iddl e c l as s ,"he
w r o te ,"the s m al l tr ade s p e o p l e ,s ho p k e e p e r s ,an dr e tir e dtr ade s -
m e n g e n e r al l y ,the han dic r af ts m e n an dp e as an ts -al l the s e
s in k g r adu al l y in to the p r o l e tar iat ."(ii)He didn o tf o r e s e e
the c r e atio n o f an e w w hite c o l l ar m iddl e c l as s ,o r the f ac tthat
the u p p e r s tr atao f the p r o l e tar iatw o u l db e ab s o r b e din to the
m iddl e c l as s .
3 .Mar x f o r e to l das te ady g r o w tho f u n e m p l o y m e n t .The r e
has b e e n n o s u c hs te ady g r o w th .U n e m p l o y m e n thas r is e n an d
f al l e n in dif f e r e n tc o u n tr ie s an datdif f e r e n ttim e s .Po s t-w ar
F r an c e w as im p o r tin g l ab o u r .
4
.Mar x f o r e to l dthe in c r e as in g m is e r y o f the w o r k e r s .
"Al o n g w iththe c o n s tan tl y dim in is hin g n u m b e r o f the
m ag n ate s o f c ap ital ,"he w r o te ,"w ho u s u r p an dm o n o p o l iz e al l
adv an tag e s o f this p r o c e s s o f tr an s f o r m atio n ,g r o w s the m as s
o f m is e r y ,o p p r e s s io n ,s l av e r y ,de g r adatio n ,e x p l o itatio n
." (1 2)
Ev e n Mar x is ts adm itthatthe s tan dar do f l iv in g has s te adil y
im p r o v e ds in c e Mar x w r o te
.The y atte m p tto s av e his r e p u ta-
tio n b y in s is tin g thathis p r e dic tio n s w o u l dhav e p r o v e dc o r r e c t
hadn o tCap ital is m b e e n m o dif ie d .The m o dif ie dCap ital is m
o f Mar x ' s day has g iv e n p l ac e to c o n tr o l l e dCap ital is m ,
m o dif ie db y s e m i-So c ial is tic l aw s ,an db y the in f l u e n c e o f Tr ade
U n io n s .Itw o u l ds e e m ,the n ,thatMr .Str ac he y ' s c l aim s f o r the
p r e dic tio n v al u e o f Mar x ' s the o r ie s m u s tb e q u al if ie db y the
adm is s io n thatMar x ' s p r o p he c ie s w o u l dhav e c o m e tr u e had
Mar x f o r e s e e n f ac ts w hic hMar x didn o tf o r e s e e .Its ho u l d
n o thav e r e q u ir e ds u p e r hu m an in te l l ig e n c e to f o r e s e e thatu n -
m o dif ie dCap ital is m w o u l dg r adu al l y b e r e p l ac e db y c o n tr o l l e d
Cap ital is m .
5
.Mar x b e l ie v e dthatCap ital is m w o u l dg e n e r ate c r is e s o f
e v e r -in c r e as in g s e v e r ity .The g r e atp o s t-w ar de p r e s s io n is o f te n
c ite das e v ide n c e o f the c o r r e c tn e s s o f his p r e dic tio n .On the
c o n tr ar y ,this de p r e s s io n p r o v e dthatCap ital is m c o u l dn o to n l y
f in an c e f o u r y e ar s o f w o r l dw ar ,b u tc o u l dal s o s u r v iv e the
in e v itab l e ,if de l ay e d,c o n s e q u e n c e s o f thatw ar .
THEGREATESCAPIST

21 5
6
.Ru s s ia,ac c o r din g to o r tho do x Mar x is ts ,s ho u l dhav e b e e n
the l as tEu r o p e an c o u n tr y to g o Co m m u n is t
.Mar x e x p e c te d
Co m m u n is m to de v e l o p f r o m the in c r e as in g m is e r y o f the
w o r k e r s in hig hl y de v e l o p e din du s tr ial c o u n tr ie s
.In an s w e r to
the q u e s tio n o f an Am e r ic an n e w s p ap e r m an in 1 8 7
1 ,
"D o y o u
e x p e c tto s e e its o o n in En g l an d? "Mar x de c l ar e d,"So o n e r
than in an y o the r c o u n tr y ."
0 3 )
Co m m u n is ts ar e in p o w e r in
Ru s s ia,an dw e r e f o r ab r ie f p e r io din c o n tr o l o f Mu n ic han d
o f B u daPe s th .The y ar e s til l in c o n tr o l o f Re p u b l ic an Sp ain .
The y n ar r o w l y m is s e ds e iz in g c o n tr o l o f Ital y .En g l an d,w hic h
o n the Mar x is tthe o r y s ho u l dhav e b e e n the f ir s tto g o Co m -
m u n is t,has s o f ar de f ie dthe Co m in te r n
.
The r is e o f Naz i-is m is ,in de e d,ac o m p l e te r e f u tatio n o f the
Mar x is tthe o r y thatCo m m u n is m w il l in e v itab l y de v e l o p f r o m
the in c r e as in g m is e r y o f the w o r k in g c l as s e s
.The c o l l ap s e o f
the m ar k r u in e dthe m iddl e c l as s e s in Ge r m an y ,an dp r o du c e d
am o n g the w o r k in g c l as s e s that"m as s m is e r y ,s l av e r y an d
de g r adatio n "w hic hMar x r e g ar de das the in e v itab l e p r e p ar a-
tio n f o r Co m m u n is m .The Co m m u n is ts c o n tr o l l e dab o u ta
thir do f the v o te s in p r e -Hitl e r Ge r m an y .Co m m u n is m f ail e d
to c ap tu r e Ge r m an y n o tb e c au s e the Co m m u n is ts w e r e w e ak ,
b u tb e c au s e the Co m m u n is tl e ade r s hip w as c o n te m p tib l e an d
b e c au s e the Co m m u n is ts l ac k e dthe r u thl e s s c o u r ag e o f the
Naz is .The in itiativ e ,f an atic is m an dv io l e n c e o f the in di-
v idu al tr iu m p he do v e r the he s itatio n s an dtim idity o f the m as s
.
The Mar x is tp hil o s o p hy dis c o u n ts the im p o r tan c e o f in div idu al s
an de x ag g e r ate s the im p o r tan c e o f m as s e s
.Ru s s ian p r o p ag an da
f il m s ar e de s ig n e dto de f l e c tatte n tio n f r o m f il m s tar s to f il m
m as s e s .Ital y an dGe r m an y hav e p r o v e dthe s u p r e m e s ig n if i-
c an c e o f in div idu al s in the s hap in g o f e v e n ts .If Mate r ial is m
w e r e tr u e ,an dif m e n w e r e l ittl e m o r e than m ac hin e s ,the
Mar x is tp r e dic tio n s w o u l dn o do u b thav e b e e n f u l f il l e din
Ge r m an y
.Ne v e r hadc o n ditio n s s e e m e dm o r e f av o u r ab l e f o r
aCo m m u n is tRe v o l u tio n .B u to n c e ag ain the f r e e w il l o f the
in div idu al tr iu m p he do v e r the f atal is m o f the m as s e s .
Ge r m an y has p r o v e dMar x af al s e p r o p he ts o f ar as the
c o n ditio n s f o r the adv e n to f Co m m u n is m to p o w e r ar e c o n -
c e r n e d
.Ru s s iahas s hatte r e dhis m il l e n ar y v is io n o f the e f f e c ts
2r 6

THEGREATESCAPIST
thats ho u l df o l l o w w he n Co m m u n is m has s e iz e dp o w e r .The
dic tato r s hip o f the p r o l e tar iathas n o tb e e n f o l l o w e db y the
w ithe r in g aw ay o f the State
; . o n the c o n tr ar y ,the State is
attain in g an e v e r w ide r s p he r e o f c o n tr o l in the l iv e s o f
in div idu al s .The dic tato r s hip o f the p r o l e tar iathas n o tin -
au g u r ate dac l as s l e s s s o c ie ty ; o n the c o n tr ar y ,the r u l in g c l as s
o f the Co m m u n is tb u r e au c r ac y is m o r e al o o f an dm o r e s har p l y
dif f e r e n tiate df r o m the to il in g m as s e s than the Civ il Se r v an ts
o f the Im p e r ial Go v e r n m e n tf r o m the hu m b l e s to f the Ru s s ian
p e as an ts .
REF ERENCES
(I) A.D .L in ds ay : K ar l Mar x ' s Cap ital , Ox f o r dU n iv e r s ity
Pr e s s ,P
• 5 3 -
(2)&(3 )Q u o te db y E.W .F .To m l in : The Ar e n a,J u l y ,
1 9 3 7 ,V o l .I,No .3 ,p .1 8 6 .
(q .)Chr is to p he r D aw s o n :
Pr o g r e s s an dRe l ig io n , She e dan d
War d,p
.229 .
(5 )F .J .She e d : Co m m u n is m an dMan ,
She e dan dWar d,
p .1 0 8 .
(6 )J o hn Str ac he y :
The The o r y an dPr ac tic e o f So c ial is m ,
V ic to r Go l l an c z ,p
.3 7 5 .
(7 )&(8 )Otto Riihl e : K ar l Mar x ,His L if e an dWo r k , tr an s -
l ate db y Ede n an dCe dar Pau l ,Ge o r g e Al l e n an d
U n w in ,p p .1 5 7 ,1 5 8
.
(9 )J o hn Str ac he y : The The o r y an dPr ac tic e o f So c ial is m ,
P• 3 5 5 .
(1 o ) Mar x : The Po v e r ty o f Phil o s o p hy ,
Mar tin L aw r e n c e ,
p .1 21 .
(Ii) Mar x : The Co m m u n is tMan if e s to ,p . 3 1 .
(1 2)Mar x : D as K ap ital ,V o l .I, Chap .XXXIV .
(1 3 )Q u o te db y F athe r D ' Ar c y ,
S.J ., in Chr is tian Mo r al s ,
L o n g m an s ,p .1 7 2
.
CHAPTERXXI
THEPHIL OSOPHICB ASISOF MARXIST
COMMU NISM
I.D IAL ECTICAL ID EAL ISM
"WITHOU T He g e l ,"w r o te L e n in ,"Mar x ' s
K ap ital is u n in te l l i-
g ib l e ." (I) It w il l
the r e f o r e b e as w e l l to b e g in o u r dis c u s s io n
o f D ial e c tic al Mate r ial is m b y ab r ie f s u m m ar y o f the He g e l ian
ide as w hic hf o r m e dthe s tar tin g p o in to f the Mar x ian
p hil o s o p hy .
He g e l w as b o r n o f m iddl e -c l as s p ar e n ts atStu ttg ar tin
1
7 7 0
.
He s tu die dp hil o s o p hy atTu b in g e n w itho u tm ak in g m u c h
im p r e s s io n o n his te ac he r s ,w ho de s c r ib e dhis k n o w l e dg e o f
p hil o s o p hy as in ade q u ate o n the c e r tif ic ate w ithw hic hthe y
r e w ar de dhis l ab o u r s
.In the c o u r s e o f his l if e he he l da
n u m b e r o f p r o f e s s o r s hip s ,an dhe die din
1 8 3 1 -
He g e l b e l ie v e dthatSp ir itis the o n l y r e al ity an din de e dthe
w ho l e o f r e al ity
.Itis o n l y the Sp ir ito f the Ide aw hic htr u l y
e x is ts ."Re as o n is the s o v e r e ig n o f the w o r l d
."He g e l ' s r e l u c -
tan c e to u s e the w o r d"Go d"in s te ado f "Ide a"w as n o tin s p ir e d
b y the s u s p ic io n ,s o c o m m o n am o n g m o de r n "p r o g r e s s iv e s ,"
thatap hil o s o p he r l o s e s c as te b y e m p l o y in g o l d-f as hio n e d
te r m in o l o g y
.He w as f u l l y ju s tif ie din u s in g an e w w o r df o r
an e w c o n c e p tio n o f the L o g o s .In de e d,Ip r e f e r his te r m in o -
l o g ic al ho n e s ty to the hab ito f m an y m o de m s ,s u c has Pr o f e s s o r
J u l ian Hu x l e y ,w ho attac ham e an in g o f the ir o w n to the w o r d
"Go d,"the r e b y ag g r av atin g the dif f ic u l tie s o f r atio n al
dis c u s s io n
.
He g e l ' s Sp ir ito r Ide adif f e r s f r o m the Chr is tian Go db e c au s e
its o m n is c ie n c e is o n l y p o te n tial
.Atthe b e g in n in g o f the w o r l d
p r o c e s s the Ide ais c o m p l e te l y ig n o r an t,an ditis o n l y in the
c o u r s e o f this p r o c e s s thatthe Ide aac hie v e s s e l f -c o n s c io u s n e s s ' ,
an ds e l f -k n o w l e dg e
.Mr .We l l s ,u n de r the s tr e s s o f w ar e m o tio n ,'
tr ie dto im p o s e aq u as i-He g e l ian the o l o g y o n the w o r l d."The
21 7
21 8

MARXISTCOMMU NISM
Go do f this n e w ag e ,"he w r o te ,"w e r e p e at,l o o k s n o tto o u r
p as tb u to u r f u tu r e ,an dif af ig u r e m ay r e p r e s e n thim itm u s t
b e the f ig u r e o f ab e au tif u l y o u th,' al r e ady b r av e an dw is e ,b u t
har dl y c o m e to his s tr e n g th ." (2) He g e l is l e s s e x p l ic it,b u tthe
He g e l ian Ide ais as im m atu r e as Mr .We l l s ' s g o o d-l o o k in g an d
p l u c k y b o y -de ity .Itis o n l y in the f u l n e s s o f tim e thatthe Ide a
w il l ac hie v e o m n is c ie n c e an db e e n titl e dm o de s tl y to de s c r ib e
its e l f as as e l f -m ade Go d .
The He g e l ian Ide ahas b e e n tr an s f o r m e din to the Ab s o l u te
o f the Ne o -He g e l ian s ,ade ity e v e n m o r e im p e r s o n al than the
L o g o s o f He g e l .My f r ie n d,D r .F .S.C.Sc hil l e r ,s ho w e dm e
in m y u n de r g r adu ate day s ade l ig htf u l p ar o dy o f thatp r o f o u n d
p hil o s o p hic p e r io dic al , Min d, e n titl e d Min d ! The f r o n tis p ie c e
w as ab l an k p ag e b u tf o r the l e g e n d"Po r tr aito f the Ab s o l u te ."
The adv e r tis e m e n ts in c l u de d"K e y to the jo k e s in Min d ! 3 /6 ."
D r .Sc hil l e r w as p r o u do f al e tte r f r o m aGe r m an p r o f e s s o r
e n c l o s in g ap o s tal o r de r f o r 4 /-to c o v e r p o s tag e ,an dar e q u e s t
f o r the v al u ab l e k e y to the jo k e s w hic hhadap p ar e n tl y de f e ate d
him
.
He g e l ' s Ide aac hie v e s s e l f -k n o w l e dg e b y the p r in c ip l e o f
D ial e c tic s .He to o k this w o r df r o m the Gr e e k s ,f o r w ho m
D ial e c tic s w as ap r o c e s s o f ar r iv in g attr u thb y de b ate .In the
D ial e c tic s o f the Gr e e k s the ap p r o ac hto tr u thw as b y de f in itio n ,
dif f e r e n tiatio n an dr e de f in itio n .He g e l dis c o v e r e d-o r m o r e
ac c u r ate l y ,r e -e m p has iz e d-the p r in c ip l e o f f r u itf u l c o n tr a-
dic tio n .Ev e r y thin g s av e the Ide ain its u l tim ate f o r m c o n tain s
w ithin its e l f n o to n l y its e l f b u tits o p p o s ite .The c o n c e p tio n
o f b e in g in v o l v e s the c o n c e p tio n o f n o n -b e in g ,f r o m w hic h
e m e r g e s the hig he r c o n c e p tio n o f b e c o m in g
.The c o n f l ic to f
o p p o s ite s p r o du c e s p r o g r e s s .Tr u thc o n s is ts n o tin as e r ie s o f
f ix e ddo g m as w hic hn e e do n l y to b e dis c o v e r e dan dl e ar n e d
b y he ar t,b u tin an e v o l v in g p r o c e s s w he r e b y e ac hn e w ,
ap p r o ac hto tr u this v al u ab l e b u tn o n e f in al ,s in c e e v e r y n e w
tr u thc o n tain s w ithin its w o m b u n dis c o v e r e dan dhig he r tr u ths .
He g e l s aw the w o r l dp r o c e s s w he r e in the Ide ar e al iz e s its e l f
l e s s as ac o n f l ic tb e tw e e n ab s o l u te g o o dan dab s o l u te e v il ,o r
b e tw e e n Ab s o l u te Tr u than dAb s o l u te Er r o r ,than as ac o -
o p e r ativ e p r o c e s s b e tw e e n p ar tial tr u ths s y n the s iz in g in a
MARXISTCOMMU NISM

21 9
hig he r b u tb y n o m e an s f in al tr u th .His c o n c e p tio n o f f r u itf u l ,
.as o p p o s e dto u n f r u itf u l ,dial e c tic s m ay b e il l u s tr ate db y tw o
e x am p l e s .F ir s t,l e tu s s u p p o s e thatam an w ho b e l ie v e s that
tw ic e tw o is f o u r is ar g u in g w itham an w ho b e l ie v e s that
tw ic e tw o is f iv e .This c o n tr o v e r s y s ho u l de n din the c o m p l e te
de f e ato f the e r r o r thattw ic e tw o is f iv e ,an din the tr iu m p han t
v in dic atio n o f the tr u ththattw ic e tw o is f o u r .The he r e tic al
ar ithm e tic ian c o n tr ib u te s n o thin g o f v al u e to the dis c u s s io n
s av e his de f e at : V e r y dif f e r e n tw o u l db e the dis c u s s io n b e tw e e n
tw o s tate s m e n ,ade m o c r atan daF as c is t,e n tr u s te db y a
p e r p l e x e dCab in e tw iththe f o r m u l atio n o f an e w c o n s titu tio n
f o r ac o u n tr y e m e r g in g f r o m r e v o l u tio n .The de m o c r atw o u l d
s tr e s s the s af e g u ar ds w hic hr e p r e s e n tativ e g o v e r n m e n tp r o v ide s
f o r the p o o r an do p p r e s s e d,the s p ir itu al v al u e s o f f r e e do m ,the
im p o r tan c e o f f r e e c r itic is m as the c o r r e c tiv e o f il l -c o n s ide r e d
s c he m e s ,an dthe r e s tr ain in g in f l u e n c e o f p u b l ic o p in io n o n
l e g is l ato r s w ho k n o w thatthe y c an n o tr e m ain in p o w e r w itho u t
the s u p p o r to f ap o p u l ar e l e c to r ate .The F as c is tw o u l dr e p l y
b y in s is tin g o n the v ac il l atin g w e ak n e s s o f de m o c r ac ie s ,an do n
the dan g e r s o f e n tr u s tin g the s af e ty o f the State to p o l itic ian s
w ho s u b o r din ate the w e l l -b e in g o f the c o u n tr y to the n e c e s s ity
o f p l ac atin g the e l e c to r ate
.F r o m the de m o c r atic the s is an d
the F as c is tan tithe s is dial e c tic s m ig hte v o l v e an e w s y n the s is
w hic hw o u l dc o n tain m an y o f the p e c u l iar v ir tu e s o f
de m o c r ac y an dF as c is m an dav o idthe ir c har ac te r is tic de f e c ts ,
de m o g o g y an dty r an n y .The te n s io n b e tw e e n tw o o p p o s ite s
w il l p r o du c e athir dthin g w hic hw il l s y n the s iz e the tw o
o p p o s ite s an dc o n tain the m .
Or g an iz e dg am e s il l u s tr ate the He g e l ian p r in c ip l e .
The s is : Pe r r y s e r v in g b al l s in to the o p p o s ite c o r n e r o f a
v ac an tc o u r t .This w o u l db e w o r thw atc hin g ,as w e s ho u l d
c e r tain l y l e ar n s o m e thin g f r o m his p r ac tic e s e r v e s
.
An tithe s is :
B u dg e r e tu r n in g the s e r v ic e in the Ce n tr e Co u r t
atWim b l e do n .
Sy n the s is : A w o n de r f u l m atc hin f in ite l y m o r e thr il l in g than
m e r e p r ac tic e s ho ts .
The b as ic do c tr in e s o f ap hil s o p hy w hic hhas c o m m an de d
w ide s p r e adas s e n tm ay b e f al l ac io u s o r e v e n f l ag r an tl y ab s u r d,
220

MARXISTCOMMU NISM
b u tif this p hil o s o p hy s u c c e e ds in m ak in g m an y dis c ip l e s ,it
m u s te ithe r hav e s o m e e l e m e n to f tr u th,ho w e v e r s m al l ,o r
ap p e al ,as D ial e c tic al Mate r ial is m ap p e al s ,to s o m e r ac ial o r
c l as s in te r e s t .He g e l o w e s his in f l u e n c e to his r e -e m p has is o f
o l dtr u ths ,in p ar tic u l ar to his in s is te n c e o n the v al u e o f
dis c u s s io n an ddial e c tic s .The Mar x is t,as w e s hal l s e e ,ac c e p ts
dial e c tic s in the o r y b u tr e je c ts itin p r ac tic e ,f o r n o p hil o s o p he r s
ar e m o r e c o n te m p tu o u s o f dis c u s s io n than the Mar x is ts ,o r
m o r e c o m m itte db y the ir p r e m is s e s to m e r e de n u n c iatio n
.On
the o the r han d,the Mar x is ts hav e ab s o r b e dw ithe ag e r n e s s al l
thatis m o s tir r atio n al in He g e l .Itis tr u e ,as He g e l in s is te d,
thatitis o f te n m o r e u s e f u l to c o n te m p l ate thin g s in m o v e m e n t
an din r e l atio n to o the r thin g s than in is o l atio n .Itis n o ttr u e
thatthe r e ar e n o ab s o l u te an dtim e l e s s tr u ths .He g e l s u b s titu te d
f o r the o l dp r in c ip l e thate v e r y thin g is ide n tic al w ithits e l f
an dthatn o thin g c o n tr adic ts its e l f ,the n e w p r in c ip l e that
e v e r y thin g is ide n tic al w ithits e l f an de v e r y thin g c o n tr adic ts
its e l f .He de n ie db y im p l ic atio n the l aw o f c o n tr adic tio n
thatathin g c an n o tb o thb e an dn o tb e .Ap hil o s o p hy
w hic hb e g in s b y de n y in g w hatthe o v e r w he l m in g m ajo r ity
o f p hil o s o p he r s s til l r e g ar das as e l f -e v ide n ttr u is m c an n o t
e s c ap e ir r atio n al c o n c l u s io n s . Itis n o c o in c ide n c e that
the v e r y te r m in o l o g y o f Mar x is m is in f e c te db y the b as ic
ir r atio n al ity ` o f He g e l .Pe o p l e w ho tal k ab o u t"the u n ity o f
o p p o s ite s "c an har dl y b e e x p e c te dto r e al iz e the dis tin c tio n
b e tw e e n tho s e an c ie n to p p o s ite s ,s e n s e an dn o n s e n s e .The r e is
n o u n ity b e tw e e n ab s o l u te w hite an dab s o l u te b l ac k ,b u tthe r e
is o f te n as y n the s is o f o p p o s ite s ,s u c has g r e y
.
Ihav e c o n f in e dm y s e l f to He g e l ' s te ac hin g o n the do c tr in e
o f the Ide aas m an if e s te din his to r y .Il e av e itto the n e o -
He g e l ian s to dis c u s s w he the r the Ide ahas al r e ady p as s e d
thr o u g hthe p r o c e s s o f s e l f -de v e l o p m e n tan ds e l f -k n o w l e dg e
b e f o r e al ie n atin g its e l f an dr e p e atin g the p r o c e s s in tim e an d
s p ac e .As Mr .F .J .She e dr e m ar k s in his p e n e tr atin g ,l u c id
an dr e adab l e b o o k ,
Co m m u n is m an dMan ,
"Al m o s tan y thin g
c an b e e s tab l is he df r o m s o m e p ar to r o the r o f tho s e s tr an g e
He g e l ian ju n g l e s w he r e l ig htis dar k e r than dar k n e s s ."(3 )No
tr u e He g e l ian c l aim s to u n de r s tan dHe g e l
."On l y o n e m an
e v e r u n de r s to o dm e ,"s aidHe g e l o n his de ath-b e d,"an dhe
didn ' tu n de r s tan dm e ."
II.D IAL ECTICAL MATERIAL ISM
F r o m He g e l Mar x to o k the p r in c ip l e o f D ial e c tic s an df r o m
Ric ar do the L ab o u r The o r y o f V al u e .He g e l w as as u b tl e
p hil o s o p he r ,Ric ar do ac o m p e te n t,if l im ite d,e c o n o m is t .Mar x
w as n e ithe r ap hil o s o p he r n o r an e c o n o m is tb u tag if te d
r e v o l u tio n ar y in s e ar c ho f as c ie n tif ic r atio n al iz atio n o f c l as s
w ar f ar e
.The r e al Mar x is ac u r io u s b l e n do f He b r e w p r o p he t
an dde m ag o g u e .He de te s te de x p l o itatio n an ds o c ial in ju s tic e ,
an dthe w hite he ato f his in v e c tiv e is as im p r e s s iv e as the
de n u n c iatio n s o f the m ajo r p r o p he ts .Itis ,in de e d,in te r e s tin g
to r e adac hap te r o f J e r e m iahaf te r r e adin g ac hap te r o f D as
K ap ital .
He g e l w as an ide al is tin the c o r r e c ts e n s e o f this m u c h-
' ab u s e dw o r d
.He b e l ie v e din the s u p r e m ac y o f the Ide aas
the v ital iz in g Sp ir ito f the U n iv e r s e .He m ain tain e dthatthe
D ial e c tic al p r o c e s s w o u l dl e adthr o u g hthe m e an in g l e s s to the
tr iu m p ho f m e an in g .The L o g o s ,the u l tim ate r atio n al ity o f
the U n iv e r s e ,m u s tu l tim ate l y tr iu m p h . Mar x tr an s l ate d
D ial e c tic al Ide al is m in to D ial e c tic al Mate r ial is m .He r e je c te d
the b e l ie f in Go dan dal l b e l ie f in the in de p e n de n c e o f s p ir it
an dm atte r
.He didn o ttr y to dis p r o v e the e x is te n c e o f Go d,
o r to p r o v e thatin this in f in ite u n iv e r s e the r e ar e n o m in ds
hig he r than m an ' s ,b u the ac c e p te dthe s e b as ic do c tr in e s w ith
the u n c r itic al f aitho f ac hil d .He hate din s titu tio n al r e l ig io n ,
w hic hhe ide n tif ie dw ithc ap ital is tic o p p r e s s io n .
L ik e He g e l he b e l ie v e din au n iv e r s al s u b s tan c e ,b u tw he r e as
He g e l ide n tif ie dhis s u b s tan c e w ithSp ir it,Mar x ide n tif ie dit
w ithm atte r .L ik e He g e l he b e l ie v e dthatthe u n iv e r s al s u b -
s tan c e w as c o m p e l l e db y its in he r e n tn atu r e to ap r o c e s s o f
s e l f -de v e l o p m e n t
.L ik e He g e l he b e l ie v e dthatthe p r in c ip l e
o f this de v e l o p m e n tw as dial e c tic al ,b u the s u b s titu te df o r
He g e l ' s c o n c e p tio n o f the dial e c tic o f tho u g htadv an c in g
f r o m the c o n f l ic tb e tw e e n p ar tial tr u ths to f u l l e r an dm o r e
c o n c r e te tr u th,the dial e c tic o f c l as s w ar adv an c in g b y the
2 ,22

MARXISTCOMMU NISM
c o n f l ic t b e tw e e n c l as s e s to w ar dthe Co m m u n is tic U to p ia
. The
in e v itab l e g o al o f D ial e c tic al Ide al is m
is the Ide af u l l y
c o n s c io u s o f its e l f .The n o l e s s in e v itab l e g o al o f D ial e c tic al
Mate r ial is m is the c l as s l e s s s o c ie ty s u f f ic ie n tf o r its e l f
.
The b as ic te n e to f Mar x is t Mate r ial is m
is the b e l ie f that
e c o n o m ic p r o c e s s e s ar e o m n ip o te n tin s hap in g n o to n l y m an ' s
s o c ial ac tiv itie s b u this r e l ig io n ,his p hil o s o p hy an dhis ar tis tic
c r e atio n s
."It' s n o tthe c o n s c io u s n e s s o f m e n ,"he w r o te ,"that
de te r m in e s the ir e x is te n c e ,b u t,o n the c o n tr ar y ,itis the ir
s o c ial e x is te n c e thatde te r m in e s the ir c o n s c io u s n e s s
."(¢ )En g e l s ,
in this as in e v e r y thin g e l s e ,e c ho e s Mar x ,"The u l tim ate
c au s e s o f al l s o c ial c han g e s an dp o l itic al r e v o l u tio n s ,"he
w r ite s ,"ar e to b e s o u g ht,n o tin the m in ds o f m e n ,in the ir
in c r e as in g in s ig htin to e te r n al tr u than dju s tic e ,b u tin c han g e s
in the m o de o f p r o du c tio n an de x c han g e
; the y ar e to b e s o u g ht
n o tin the p hil o s o p hy b u tin the
e c o n o m ic s o f the e p o c h
c o n c e r n e d ."(5 )
If this b e tr u e ,itf o l l o w s thatthe w in dm il l an do the r
p r im i=tiv e
e c o n o m ic ag e n c ie s o f the f e u dal p e r io dp r o du c e dm e diae v al
Catho l ic is m ,Go thic c athe dr al s an dthe f e u dal s y s te m ,thatthe
n as c e n tCap ital is m o f the s ix te e n thc e n tu r y p r o du c e dPr o -
te s tan tis m an dPal l adio ,an dthatthe n e w e c o n o m ic p r o c e s s e s o f
the in du s tr ial r e v o l u tio n p r o du c e dL ib e r al Pr o te s tan tis m ,the
b o u r g e o is p hil o s o p hy o f l ais s e z -f air e Cap ital is m , an dthe p o e tr y
o f Al f r e dTe n n y s o n .
Mar x ado p te df r o m He g e l the c o n c e p tio n o f aw o r l dp r o -
c e s s in w hic hp ar tial an dan tag o n is tic tr u ths ar e s y n the s iz e din
ahig he r tr u th .He tr an s l ate dthe D ial e c tic o f tr u ths in to the
D ial e c tic o f c l as s w ar f ar e .He b e l ie v e dthatc l as s e s r is e to
p o w e r b e c au s e the y f u l f il the e c o n o m ic n e e ds o f ap ar tic u l ar
p e r io d .He m ain tain e dthatthe r u l in g c l as s is c o m p e l l e db y
the l o g ic o f the D ial e c tic al p r o c e s s to e x p l o itthe o the r c l as s e s
.
No b o dy w ho has r e ade v e n af e w p ag e s o f Mar x w o u l de x p e c t
c o n s is te n c y o r s ho w as to n is hm e n tb e c au s e Mar x ,the He b r e w
p r o p he t,de n o u n c e s w ithu n m e as u r e din v e c tiv e the o p p r e s s io n
w hic hMar x ,the n e o -He g e l ian ,r e g ar ds as
the c o n s e q u e n c e o f
al aw n o to n l y in e s c ap ab l e b u tb e n e v o l e n t .Ex p l o itatio n is
du e n o tto the w ic k e dn e s s o f in div idu al s ,b u tto the in e v itab l e
MARXISTCOMMU NISM

223
l aw
o f e c o n o m ic e v o l u tio n .The e x p l o ite r s o w e the ir p o s itio n
to
the s e r v ic e s w hic hthe y r e n de r to the de v e l o p m e n to f p r o -
du c tiv e f o r c e s .Ap ar tf r o m the s e p u r e l y e c o n o m ic s e r v ic e s ,a
r u l in g c l as s ,b y aw ak e n in g the ho s til ity ,o f tho s e w ho m it
o p p r e s s e s ,r e n de r s in e v itab l e the n e x ts tag e in the p r o g r e s s
to w ar ds the Co m m u n is tic U to p ia .The the s is o f D ial e c tic al
Mate r ial is m c o m p e l s av e r dic to f No tGu il ty o n tho s e w ho m
the Mar x is ts de n o u n c e as c r im in al s in p as s ag e s in te n de df o r
p o l itic al p r o p ag an da .
It is s ig n if ic an tthatMar x ju s tif ie s s l av e r y ,f o r Ru s s iahas
p r o v e dthatSo c ial is m is im p o s s ib l e w itho u tf o r c e dl ab o u r ,b u t
e ar l ie r Mar x is ts w e r e e m b ar r as s e db y his de f e n c e o f Am e r ic an
s l av e r y as an "e c o n o m ic c ate g o r y o f the g r e ate s tim p o r tan c e
."
"Witho u ts l av e r y ,"he w r o te ,"y o u hav e n o c o tto n
; w itho u t
c o tto n y o u hav e n o m o de r n in du s tr y .Itis s l av e r y thathas
g iv e n the c o l o n ie s the ir v al u e ; itis the c o l o n ie s thathav e
c r e ate dw o r l dtr ade ,an ditis w o r l dtr ade thatis the p r e -
c o n ditio n o f l ar g e -s c al e in du s tr y .Thu s s l av e r y is an e c o n o m ic
c ate g o r y o f the g r e ate s tim p o r tan c e .Witho u ts l av e r y ,No r th
Am e r ic a,the m o s tp r o g r e s s iv e o f c o u n tr ie s ,w o u l db e tr an s -
f o r m e din to ap atr iar c hal c o u n tr y .Wip e o u tNo r thAm e r ic a
f r o m the m ap .o f the w o r l d,an dy o u w il l hav e an ar c hy -the
c o m p l e te de c ay o f m o de m c o m m e r c e an dc iv il iz atio n .Ab o l is h
s l av e r y an dy o u w il l hav e w ip e dAm e r ic ao f f the m ap o f
n atio n s ."(6 )
En g e l s is e v e n m o r e e x p l ic it
."Itis v e r y e as y ,"he w r ite s ,
"to in v e ig hag ain s ts l av e r y an ds im il ar thin g s in g e n e r al te r m s ,
an dto g iv e v e n tto hig hm o r al in dig n atio n ats u c hin f am ie s ."
En g e l s ,l ik e the c l as s ic e c o n o m is ts ,r e g ar de dthe div is io n o f
l ab o u r as the g r e ate s to f al l m e tho ds o f in c r e as in g p r o du c tiv ity
.
"The s im p l e s tan dm o s tn atu r al f o r m o f this div is io n o f
l ab o u r ,"he w r ite s ,"w as
in f ac ts l av e r y .In the his to r ic al
c o n ditio n s o f the an c ie n tw o r l d,an dp ar tic u l ar l y o f Gr e e c e ,
the adv an c e to as o c ie ty b as e do n c l as s an tag o n is m s c o u l d
o n l y b e ac c o m p l is he din the f o r m o f s l av e r y
.This w as an
adv an c e e v e n f o r the s l av e s
; the p r is o n e r s o f w ar ,f r o m w ho m
the m as s ,o f the s l av e s w e r e r e c r u ite d,n o w atl e as tk e p tthe ir
l iv e s ,in s te ado f b e in g k il l e d
as the y hadb e e n b e f o r e . . .
224
MARXISTCOMMU NISM
Whe n ,the r e f o r e ,He m D u hr in g tu r n s u p his n o s e atHe l l e n is m
b e c au s e itw as f o u n de do n s l av e r y ,he m ig htw ithe q u al
J u s tic e r e p r o ac hthe Gr e e k s w ithhav in g n o s te am e n g in e s an d
e l e c tr ic te l e g r ap hs ."(7 )
Sl av e r y s e r v e dau s e f u l p u r p o s e in its day
.So didf e u dal is m .
In de e d,Mar x the He b r e w p r o p he t,w r ite s w ithg e n u in e f e e l in g
o f "the f e u dal p atr iar c hal ,idy l l ic r e l atio n s "an d"the b e au tif u l
har m o n y b e tw e e n r ig hts an ddu tie s ,"b u tw ithe v e n g r e ate r
e n thu s ias m o f the b o u r g e o is c ap ital is m thatr e p l ac e dthe
f e u dal s y s te m an dp r e p ar e dthe w ay f o r the Co m m u n is ts tate
.
He g e l ian D ial e c tic is in v o k e dto p r o v e thatthe do m in an tc l as s
in e v itab l y de v e l o p s its o w n de s tr o y e r s
."F r o m the s e r f s o f the
Middl e Ag e s s p r an g the c har te r e db u r g he r s o f the e ar l ie s t
to w n s .
F r o m the s e b u r g e s s e s the f ir s te l e m e n ts o f the
b o u r g e o is ie w e r e de v e l o p e d
.The dis c o v e r y o f Am e r ic a,the
r o u n din g o f the Cap e ,o p e n e du p f r e s hg r o u n df o r the r is in g
b o u r g e o is ie s .
The Eas t-In dian an dChin e s e m ar k e ts ,the
c o l o n iz atio n o f Am e r ic a,tr ade w iththe c o l o n ie s ,the in c r e as e
in the m e an s o f e x c han g e an din c o m m o ditie s g e n e r al l y ,g av e
to c o m m e r c e ,to n av ig atio n ,to in du s tr y ,an im p u l s e n e v e r
b e f o r e k n o w n ,an dthe r e b y ,to the r e v o l u tio n ar y e l e m e n tin
the to tte r in g f e u dal s o c ie ty ,ar ap idde v e l o p m e n t
."(8 )
The o l do r de r o f f e u dal is m w as r e p l ac e db y the Cap ital is m
o f the Re n ais s an c e
.Su c his the D ial e c tic o f Cl as s War
.Ev e r y
s tag e is n e c e s s ar y ,an dthe o p p r e s s io n o f the r u l in g c l as s e s is
the e s s e n tial l in k in the r e al iz atio n o f the u l tim ate ide al ,the
c l as s l e s s s o c ie ty o f Co m m u n is m
.The ty r an n y o f the e x p l o ite r
p r o v o k e s the r e v o l u tio n w hic ho v e r thr o w s him ,an dthu s
c ar r ie s hu m an ity o n e s tag e f u r the r o n the r o adto U to p ia .
"F e u dal p r o du c tio n ,to o ,"w r ite s Mar x ,"hadtw o c o n tr a-
dic to r y e l e m e n ts w hic har e l ik e w is e c har ac te r iz e das the ` g o o d'
an d` b ad' s ide s o f f e u dal is m w itho u tr e g ar dto the f ac tthat
itis al w ay s the ` b ad' s ide w hic htr iu m p hs u l tim ate l y o v e r the
` g o o d' s ide
.Itis the b ads ide w hic hc al l s in to b e in g the
m o v e m e n tw hic hm ak e s his to r y ,in thatitb r in g s the s tr u g g l e
to ahe ad
.If ,atthe tim e o f the s u p r e m ac y o f f e u dal is m ,the
e c o n o m is ts ,in the ir e n thu s ias m f o r k n ig htl y v ir tu e s ,f o r the
b e au tif u l har m o n y b e tw e e n r ig hts an ddu tie s ,f o r the
MARXIST COMMU NISM

225
p atr iar c hal l if e o f the to w n s ,f o r the f l o u r is hin g ho m e in du s tr ie s
in the c o u n tr y ,f o r the de v e l o p m e n to f in du s tr y o r g an iz e d
in
c o r p o r atio n s ,c o m p an ie s an dg u il ds ,in aw o r d,f o r e v e r y thin g
w hic hf o r m s the f in e r s ide o f f e u dal is m ,hads e tthe m s e l v e s
the p r o b l e m o f e l im in atin g e v e r y thin g w hic hc o u l dthr o w a
s hado w o n this p ic tu r e -s e r f do m ,p r iv il e g e s ,an ar c hy -w he r e
w o u l dital l hav e e n de d? The y w o u l dhav e de s tr o y e de v e r y
e l e m e n tw hic hc al l e df o r ths tr if e ,the y w o u l dhav e n ip p e din
the b u dthe de v e l o p m e n to f the m iddl e c l as s .The y w o u l d
hav e s e tthe m s e l v e s the ab s u r dp r o b l e m o f b l o ttin g o u t
his to r y
."(9 )
The r e ade r w il l o b s e r v e thatMar x e n c l o s e s the w o r ds
"g o o d"an d"b ad"in in v e r te dc o m m as ,thu s in dic atin g his
o w n dis b e l ie f in the ab s o l u te s tan dar ds o f m o r al ity .
The c o n f l ic tb e tw e e n the f e u dal l an de dp r o p r ie to r s an dthe
r is in g b o u r g e o is ie p r o du c e dc ap ital is m
.Itw o u l db e dif f ic u l t
to de te r m in e w he the r the He b r e w p r o p he t' s de te s tatio n o f the
b o u r g e o is ie w as s tr o n g e r than the adm ir atio n w hic hthe
u r b an iz e dde m ag o g u e f e l tf o r the ir ac hie v e m e n tin the s p he r e
o f p r o du c tio n
.An c e s tr al m e m o r ie s o f ahap p ie r p as tw he n
the J e w s w e r e s til l ap atr iar c hal an dag r ic u l tu r al c o m m u n ity
m ay hav e s o f te n e dw ithr e g r e tMar x ' s v e r dic to n v an is he d
f e u dal is m
."The b o u r g e o is ie ,"he w r ite s ,"w he r e v e r ithas
g o tthe u p p e r han d,has p u tan e n dto al l f e u dal ,p atr iar c hal ,
idy l l ic r e l atio n s .Ithas p itil e s s l y to r n as u n de r the m o tl e y
f e u dal tie s thatb o u n dm an to his ` n atu r al s u p e r io r s ,' an dhas
l e f tn o o the r b o n db e tw e e n m an an dm an than n ak e ds e l f -
in te r e s t,than c al l o u s ` c as hp ay m e n t
.' Ithas dr o w n e dthe m o s t
he av e n l y e c s tas ie s o f r e l ig io u s f e r v o u r ,o f c hiv al r o u s e n thu -
s ias m ,o f p hil is tin e s e n tim e n tal is m ,in the ic y w ate r o f
e g o tis tic al c al c u l atio n
.Ithas r e s o l v e dp e r s o n al w o r thin to
e x c han g e v al u e ,an din p l ac e o f the n u m b e r l e s s in de f e as ib l e
c har te r e df r e e do m s ,has s e tu p thats in g l e ,u n c o n s c io n ab l e
f r e e do m -F r e e Tr ade
.In o n e w o r d,f o r e x p l o itatio n ,v e il e d
b y r e l ig io u s an dp o l itic al il l u s io n s ,ithas s u b s titu te d,n ak e d,
s ham e l e s s ,dir e c t,b r u tal e x p l o itatio n
." (Io )
B u tthe de r ac in e J e w ,w ho s e am b itio n w as to tr an s f o r m
"En g l an d' s g r e e n an dp l e as an tl an d"in to aNe w J e r u s al e m o f
226

MARXIST COMMU NISM
g ian tf ac to r ie s ,e m e r g e s f r o m his l y r ic al p r ais e o f b o u r g e o is
ac hie v e m e n t .The b o u r g e o is ie "has ac c o m p l is he dw o n de r s f ar
s u r p as s in g Eg y p tian p y r am ids ,Ro m an aq u e du c ts ,an dGo thic
c athe dr al s
; ithas c o n du c te de x p e ditio n s thatp u tin the s hade
al l f o r m e r m ig r atio n s o f n atio n s an dc r u s ade s
. .
. . The
b o u r g e o is ie has s u b je c te dthe c o u n tr y to the r u l e o f the to w n s .
Ithas c r e ate de n o r m o u s c itie s ,has g r e atl y in c r e as e dthe u r b an
p o p u l atio n as
c o m p ar e dw iththe r u r al ,an dhas thu s r e s c u e d
ac o n s ide r ab l e p ar to f the p o p u l atio n f r o m the idio c y o f r u r al
l if e .J u s t as ithas m ade the c o u n tr y de p e n de n to n the to w n s ,
s o ithas m ade b ar b ar ian an ds e m i-b ar b ar ian c o u n tr ie s
de p e n de n to n the c iv il iz e do n e s ,n atio n s o f p e as an ts o n n atio n s
o f b o u r g e o is ,the Eas to n the We s t ." (II )
In the e y e s o f Mar x the s u p r e m e s e r v ic e o f the b o u r g e o is ie
c o n s is ts in the c l ar if ic atio n o f c l as s w ar f ar e ."Ou r e p o c h,the
e p o c ho f the b o u r g e o is ie ,p o s s e s s e s ,ho w e v e r ,this dis tin c tiv e
f e atu r e : Ithas s im p l if ie dthe c l as s an tag o n is m s .So c ie ty as a
w ho l e is m o r e an dm o r e s p l ittin g u p in to tw o g r e atho s til e
c am p s ,in to tw o g r e atc l as s e s dir e c tl y f ac in g e ac ho the r -
b o u r g e o is ie an dp r o l e tar iat ." (1 2)
Mar x b e l ie v e dthatCap ital is m w o u l dde s tr o y its e l f b y its
o w n in he r e n tc har ac te r is tic s .Me an s o f p r o du c tio n w o u l d
b e c o m e in c r e as in g l y e f f ic ie n t,the m ar k e ts f o r e x p o r ttr ade
w o u l ddim in is hin p r o p o r tio n as o the r n atio n s b e c am e m o r e
e f f ic ie n tan dm o r e in du s tr ial iz e d
.The in c r e as in g m is e r y o f the
w o r k in g c l as s w o u l db e b al an c e db y the ir in c r e as in g p o w e r ,
w hic hw o u l dr e f l e c tthe in c r e as in g c e n tr al iz atio n o f c ap ital is tic
p r o c e s s e s . Mar x f o r e to l dthatf r o m the in e v itab l e c l as h
b e tw e e n Cap ital is m an dPr o l e tar iatw o u l de m e r g e the c l as s l e s s
U to p iao f Co m m u n is m .The dic tato r s hip o f the Pr o l e tar iat
w o u l de as e the tr an s itio n f r o m an e p o c ho f p r o du c tio n f o r
p r o f itto the ide al o f p r o du c tio n f o r u s e .The his to r ic p r o c e s s
w o u l de n d ; s in c e the r e w o u l db e o n l y o n e c l as s in the State ,
the r e w o u l db e n o f u r the r n e e df o r the D ial e c tic o f Cl as s
War f ar e .The m il l e n n iu m w o u l dar r iv e ,an dthe c ap ital is tic
l io n w o u l dl ie do w n w ithan db e e ate n b y the p r o l e tar ian
l am b .
III
.MATERIAL ISM: "V U L GAR"AND REJ INED
Mar x is ts
r e p u diate w ith c o n te m p t tho s e w ho m L e n in
de s c r ib e d as "v u l g ar m ate r i
al is
ts ," an d ar e an x io u s to
e m p has iz e the dis tin c tio n b e tw e e n D ial e c tic al an dMe c han ic al
Mate r ial is m .B u tthe ir e ag e r n e s s to r e p u diate Me c han ic al
Mate r ial is m is q u al if ie db y ac u r io u s r e l u c tan c e e x p l ic itl y to
r e je c tan y s p e c if ic do c tr in e ac c e p te db y n in e te e n th-c e n tu r y
m ate r ial is ts .
The Co n c is e Ox f o r dD ic tio n ar y
de f in e s Mate r ial is m as the
"o p in io n thatn o thin g e x is ts b u tm atte r an dits m o v e m e n ts an d
m o dif ic atio n s ,al s o ,thatc o n s c io u s n e s s an dw il l ar e w ho l l y du e
to m ate r ial ag e n c y
."The r e is n o thin g in this de f in itio n w hic h
Mar x ,En g e l s o r L e n in w o u l dhav e r e p u diate d,f o r the y al l
b e l ie v e thatn o thin g e x is ts s av e m atte r an dits m o v e m e n ts an d
m o dif ic atio n s ,am o n g w hic hm o dif ic atio n s the y w o u l dhav e
c l as s if ie dm e n tal ac tiv itie s ,an dthe y w o u l dhav e al l ag r e e d
thatc o n s c io u s n e s s an dw il l ar e ,in the f in al an al y s is ,w ho l l y
du e to m ate r ial ag e n c ie s .
The Ge r m an s c ie n tis tHae c k e l w as o n e o f the m o s tf am o u s
e x p o n e n ts in the n in e te e n thc e n tu r y o f thatm e c han ic al
Mate r ial is m w hic hm o de r n Mar x is ts p r o f e s s to de s p is e ,b u tit
is e as y to s ho w thatthe l e adin g Mar x is ts ac c e p tan de n do r s e
e v e r y b e l ie f thatHae c k e l w o u l dhav e r e g ar de das e s s e n tial .
Hae c k e l m ain tain e d :
i .Thatthe r e is n o Go d .
2 . Thatthe hu m an w il l is n o tf r e e .
3
.Thatim m o r tal ity is am y th .
Itis u n n e c e s s ar y to p r o v e thato r tho do x Mar x is ts r e je c t
the is m ,f r e e w il l an dim m o r tal ity .
To the s e thr e e b as ic do c tr in e s o f Mate r ial is m Hae c k e l w o u l d
c e r tain l y hav e adde dthe f o l l o w in g p r o p o s itio n s :
¢ .Matte r e x is te dp r io r to m in d
.
5
.Me n tal ac tiv itie s ar e ab y -p r o du c to f m atte r .
6
.En e r g y m ay b e tr an s f o r m e din to m e n tal ac tiv ity ,an d
m e n tal ac tiv ity is n o thin g m o r e than af o r m o f e n e r g y .
L e n in e n do r s e s 4
."Mate r ial is m ,"he w r ite s ,"in f u l l ag r e e
m e n tw ithn atu r al s c ie n c e ,tak e s m atte r as the
p r iu s , r e g ar din g
c o n s c io u s n e s s ,r e as o n an ds e n s atio n as de r iv ativ e s
."(1 3 )
No V ic to r ian m ate r ial is te x p r e s s e dp r o p o s itio n 5 m o r e
e x p l ic itl y than En g e l s
."Matte r is n o tap r o du c to f m in d,"he
w r ite s ,"b u tm in dits e l f is m e r e l y the hig he s tp r o du c to f
m atte r ."
He w as q u o tin g an de n do r s in g the v ie w s o f
F e u e r b ac h .(i4 )
L e n in r e s tate s o u r s ix thp r o p o s itio n in the f o r m to w hic h
Hae c k e l c o u l dn o tp o s s ib l y hav e tak e n e x c e p tio n ."Se n s atio n ,"
w r ite s L e n in ,"is n o thin g b u tadir e c tc o n n e c tio n o f the m in d
w iththe e x te r n al w o r l d
; itis the tr an s f o r m atio n o f e n e r g y o f
e x te r n al e x c itatio n in to am e n tal s tate
." (1 5 )
What,the n ,is this "v u l g ar "Mate r ial is m thatthe Mar x is ts
s o in dig n an tl y dis c l aim ? "En g e l s ,"w r ite s L e n in ,"o p p o s e d
the ` v u l g ar ' m ate r ial is ts ,V o g t,B iic hn e r an dMo l e s c ho tt,
b e c au s e the y as s u m e dthattho u g htis s e c r e te db y the b r ain as
b il e is s e c r e te db y the l iv e r ." (1 6 ) B u titis m is l e adin g to
c o n f u s e g e n u in e dif f e r e n c e s o f do c tr in e w iththe dif f e r e n c e s
b e tw e e n s u b tl e an dc r u de in te r p r e tatio n s o f the s am e do c tr in e
.
On this p o in t,as o n o the r s ,Mar x is ts c o n f u s e the is s u e b y
the e l o q u e n c e w ithw hic hthe y r e p u diate b e l ie f s w hic hn o b o dy
s u p p o s e s thatthe y ho l d,an dde f e n db e l ie f s w hic hthe ir
o p p o n e n ts ar e n o tc o n c e r n e dto c r itic iz e .Thu s the y r e p u diate
w ithin dig n atio n the the o r y thattho u g htis u n r e al ,an dthat
the his to r ic al p r o c e s s is o n l y af f e c te db y m ate r ial c au s e s an d
n o tb y m e n tal c au s e s s u c has am b itio n o r al tr u is m
.B u tthe
p o in tatis s u e b e tw e e n the Ide al is tan dthe Mate r ial is tis n o t,
w he the r tho u g htis r e al o r w he the r m e n tal ac tiv itie s c an
in f l u e n c e his to r y ,b u tw he the r tho u g htan d
s p ir itar e m e r e l y
b y -p r o du c to f m atte r .
An av al an c he f al l in g in to an ar r o w v al l e y o f te n c au s e s a
hu r r ic an e ,w hic hin tu r n s tar ts an o the r av al an c he
.No b o dy
s u g g e s ts thatthe hu r r ic an e has n o in f l u e n c e o n the s e c o n d
av al an c he ,b u tthe p r im ar y c au s e o f the s e c o n dav al an c he is
n o tthe hu r r ic an e b u tthe f ir s tav al an c he
.Sim il ar l y ,if tho u g ht
b e ap r o du c to f m atte r ,tho u g htm ay b e the s e c o n dar y c au s e
o f am ate r ial e v e n t,b u tthe p r im ar y c au s e is the m atte r ,an d
MARXISTCOMMU NISM

229
tho u g ht,the s e c o n dar y c au s e ,is am e r e b y -p r o du c t .It is n o
l e s s dis in g e n u o u s to e m p has iz e the r e al ity an dim p o r tan c e o f
m ate r ial c o n ditio n s .The Chr is tian do e s n o tde n y the r e al ity
o f m atte r o r the im p o r tan c e o f m ate r ial c au s e s . The s e
f ic titio u s ar g u m e n ts an ds ide is s u e s ar e e x as p e r atin g to tho s e
w ho ar e an x io u s to p e r s u ade Mar x is ts to dis c u s s the f al l ac ie s
o f Mar x ,an dn o tthe is s u e s w hic hb o thMar x an dhis c r itic s
ac c e p t.
This te c hn iq u e o f c o n f u s io n is e x p l o ite d,c o n s c io u s l y o r
u n c o n s c io u s l y ,to e s tab l is han ar tif ic ial dis tin c tio n b e tw e e n
Me c han ic al Mate r ial is m an d D ial e c tic al
Mate r ial is m .
Me c han ic al Mate r ial is m ,w e ar e as s u r e d,is p r im ar il y c o n -
c e r n e dw ithm atte r ,w he r e as D ial e c tic al Mate r ial is m is
p r im ar il y c o n c e r n e dw ithm o tio n .D ial e c tic s is the s c ie n c e o f
the g e n e r al l aw s o f m o tio n . B u t The Co n c is e Ox f o r d
D ic tio n ar y , as w e hav e s e e n ,de f in e s Mate r ial is m as the o p in io n
thatn o thin g e x is ts s av e m atte r an dits m o v e m e n ts .Itis the r e -
f o r e u n ju s tif iab l e to s u g g e s tthatMe c han ic al Mate r ial is m is
s o l e l y c o n c e r n e dw ithm atte r atr e s t. B o thMe c han ic al
Mate r ial is ts an dD ial e c tic al Mate r ial is ts atte m p tto in te r p r e t
the m o v e m e n ts o f m atte r ,an dtho u g hthe ir in te r p r e tatio n s
m ay dif f e r ,the ir m o de o f ap p r o ac his the s am e .No r ar e w e
an y n e ar e r atr u e dis tin c tio n if w e in s is tthatD ial e c tic al
m o tio n is m o tio n in adir e c tio n ,an dthatdir e c tio n in e v itab l e ,
f o r s u c hb e l ie f s ar e im p l ie din the de te r m in is m w hic hal l
Mate r ial is ts ac c e p t .AMate r ial is t,n o l e s s than aD ial e c tic al
Mate r ial is t,is r e ady to ag r e e thatthe l aw s o f m o tio n ap p l y to
m an an dto hu m an s o c ie ty .
Mr .She e dm ak e s ag al l an tatte m p tto I dis c o v e r this il l u s iv e
dis tin c tio n
."Whe r e as f o r Me c han is tMate r ial is m ,"he w r ite s ,
"m o tio n c o m e s as ar e s u l to f as ho c k f r o m w itho u t,f o r
D ial e c tic al Mate r ial is m the r e is ac o n tr adic tio n in the v e r y
he ar to f m atte r f r o m w hic hm o tio n n e c e s s ar il y c o m e s .
In f l u e n c e s f r o m w itho u tm ay af f e c tthe c o u r s e o f thatm o tio n ,
b u tthe y do n o to r ig in ate the m o tio n .Itis o f the e s s e n c e
o f m atte r thatits m o tio n is f r o m w ithin .Matte r is n o ts im p l y
p as s iv e ,athin g thatis m o v e d
:
itis ac tiv e ,itm o v e s b y an
in n e r n e c e s s ity o f its n atu r e . . . this is im p l ie din e v e r y thin g
23 0

MARXISTCOMMU NISM
Mar x an dEn g e l s w r o te .Itis e x p l ic itl y s tate db y Pl e k han o v
in his
F u n dam e n tal Pr o b l e m s o f Mar x is m , an dn o w u n de r the e
n am e o f "au to dy n am is m "-s e l f -m o v e m e n t-itis the c r e e d
o f
the c o n te m p o r ar y o r tho do x Mar x ian ."
(
1 7 )
B u tau to dy n am is m is im p l ie dn o to n l y in Mar x b u tin
Hae c k e l
.Hae c k e l ,as L e n in p o in ts o u t,"as s u m e s the e x is te n c e
o f ap r o p e r ty s im il ar to s e n s atio n ` in the f o u n datio n -s to n e s o f
the s tr u c tu r e o f m atte r its e l f .' " ( I8 ) Hae c k e l ,in f ac t,
atte m p te dto e v ade the in e s c ap ab l e dil e m m ao f athe is tic
Mate r ial is m b y s u g g e s tin g thatthe ato m m ig htp o s s e s s a
r u dim e n tar y ty p e o f c o n s c io u s n e s s w hic him p l ie s the p o s s i-
b il ity ,atl e as t,o f s e l f -m o v e m e n t
.On e n e e dn o tthe r e f o r e b e
aD ial e c tic al Mate r ial is tto b e l ie v e in "au to dy n am is m
."
Ido n o t,o f c o u r s e ,de n y thatD ial e c tic al Mate r ial is ts hav e
adde ds o m e thin g to the de p o s ito f Mate r ial is tic F aith,b u t
the s e additio n s ar e in te r p r e tatio n s r athe r than r e p u diatio n s .
The Po p e do e s n o tr e je c tw iths c o r n the "v u l g ar Catho l ic is m "
o f the Ear l y Chu r c h,e v e n tho u g hs u c c e s s iv e Co u n c il s hav e
c l ar if ie dp r im itiv e do c tr in e s w ithn e w de f in itio n s an dn e w
in te r p r e tatio n s
.
Tho u g hitis dif f ic u l tto de f in e the dis tin c tio n b e tw e e n ,
Me c han ic al an dD ial e c tic al Mate r ial is m ,itis e as
y to u n de r -
s tan dw hy Mar x is ts s ho u l db e an x io u s to r e p u diate the
im p l ic atio n o f do c tr in e s w hic hthe y c an n e ithe r de f e n dn o r
c o n s is te n tl y de n y .Mar x him s e l f w as f ar l e s s dis tu r b e db y the
in he r e n tdif f ic u l tie s o f Mate r ial is m ,f o r Mar x w as n o tap hil o -
s o p he r
.He w as ab r il l ian tp o l itic ian w ho e x p l o ite dp s e u do -
p hil o s o p hy in the in te r e s ts o f w o r l dr e v o l u tio n
.He hate d
Chr is tian ity b e c au s e Chr is tian s hadac q u ie s c e din w hathe
r e g ar de das as y s te m o f e x p l o itatio n
.He w as im p atie n to f
r e l ig io n w hic h,s o he b e l ie v e d,du l l e dthe r e s e n tm e n to f the
p r o l e tar iat,an dr e n de r e dthe m im p e r v io u s to r e v o l u tio n ar y
p r o p ag an da .He ado p te dMate r ial is m l e s s as ap hil o s o p hic
c r e e dthan as ap o l itic al l ab e l ,an de x p r e s s e dhis hatr e dan d
c o n te m p tf o r the r e l ig io n w hic hhe as s o c iate dw ithCap ital is m .
B u tMar x him s e l f w as f ar l e s s in te r e s te din p hil o s o p hy than
in ac tio n ."The p hil o s o p he r s ,"he w r o te ,"hav e o n l y
in te r -
MARXISTCOMMU NISM

23 1
p ie d the w o r l din v ar io u s w ay s ; the p o in tho w e v e r is to
c han g e it ."(ig )
Sin c e Mar x ' s day c o n s is te n tan dc o n tin u o u s c r itic is m has
e x p o s e dthe in he r e n tc o n tr adic tio n s o f Mate r ial is m . The
in c r e as in g dis c r e dito f Me c han ic al Mate r ial is m is p r in c ip al l y
du e to the f ac tthatthe Mate r ial is tc an n o te s c ap e f r o m the
s c e p tic al c o n s e q u e n c e s o f his c r e e d . "On the n atu r al is tic
hy p o the s is ,"w r o te Ar thu r B al f o u r ,"the w ho l e p r e m is e s o f
k n o w l e dg e ar e de ar l y du e to the b l in do p e r atio n o f m ate r ial
c au s e s ,an din the l as tr e s o r tto the s e al o n e .On thathy p o the s is
w e n o m o r e p o s s e s s f r e e r e as o n than w e p o s s e s s f r e e w il l . As
al l o u r v o l itio n s ar e the in e v itab l e p r o du c to f f o r c e s w hic har e
q u ite al ie n to m o r al ity ,s o al l o u r c o n c l u s io n s ar e the in e v itab l e
p r o du c to f f o r c e s w hic har e q u ite al ie n to r e as o n ." (20 )
F e w Mar x is ts an df e w the is ts hav e r e adthe l ate L o r d
B al f o u r ' s b r il l ian tb o o k ,b u tthe p r o f e s s io n al Mar x is ts ar e
f am il iar w ithSir Ar thu r Eddin g to n ' s de v e l o p m e n to f L o r d
B al f o u r ' s ,ar g u m e n t .Mar x is ts ar e b e g in n in g to r e al iz e the
dil e m m a.The Mar x is tr e je c ts He g e l ian Ide al is m ,an dho p e s
to e s c ap e the s c e p tic al c o n s e q u e n c e s o f Mate r ial is m b y the
in tr o du c tio n o f D ial e c tic s .The ho p e is v ain .Am o n g p hil o -
s o p he r s s y m p athe tic to So c ial is m the r e is ag r o w in g r e v o l t
ag ain s tthe c o m p u l s o r y m ar r iag e o f e c o n o m ic an dp hil o s o p hic
Co m m u n is m . Mr .E.F .Car r itt,f o r in s tan c e ,F e l l o w o f
U n iv e r s ity Co l l e g e ,Ox f o r d,an dal e c tu r e r in Phil o s o p hy ,
s tate s thathe is "in s y m p athy w iththe o b je c tiv e s o f Co m -
m u n is m ,"b u this u r b an e c o n te m p tf o r the in c o n s is te n c ie s o f
D ial e c tic al Mate r ial is m is e v ide n tin e v e r y l in e o f his m as te r l y
c r itiq u e ,w hic hw as p u b l is he din the May an dJ u n e n u m b e r s
o f L ab o u r Mo n thl y f o r 1 9 3 3 .The Mar x is ts r e p l ie din the
J u l y an dAu g u s tis s u e s .Itis e as y to te s taw r ite r ' s c o n f ide n c e
in his c r e e db y o b s e r v in g his r e ac tio n s to c r itic is m .If he is
an x io u s b o thto m e e tan dto r e f u te the s tr o n g e s tc as e ag ain s t
his o w n p o s itio n ,he m u s tb e c r e dite dw iths in c e r ity b o th
c o n s c io u s an du n c o n s c io u s .L e tthe r e ade r s e c u r e No s .5 ,6 ,7
an d8 o f the L ab o u r Mo n thl y f o r 1 9 3 3 an dap p l y this te s tto
Mar x is ts atte m p tin g to r e b u tMr .Car r itt' s c r itic is m s .
D ial e c tic al Mate r ial is m ag g r av ate s the dif f ic u l ty o f e v adin g
23 2

MARXIST
COMMU NISM
the s c e p tic al c o n s e q u e n c e s o f Mate r ial is m ,f o r if o u r r e l ig io u s
an do u r p hil o s o p hic b e l ie f s r e f l e c tthe e c o n o m ic p r o c e s s e s o f
the ag e ,the y hav e c l e ar l y n o o b je c tiv e v al idity .Mar x is m
its e l f is as m u c hap r o du c to f the
l ais s e z -f air e L ib e r al is m as
m e diae v al Catho l ic is m ,o n the Mar x is thy p o the s is ,is o f
m e die v al F e u dal is m .
The n e o -Mar x is tdis l ik e s Me c han is tic Mate r ial is m b e c au s e
he r e g ar ds itas ar e f l e c tio n o f thatEar l y V ic to r ian L ib e r al is m
w hic hac c e p te dthe o m n ip o te n c e o f the Ec o n o m ic L aw
.The
Mar x is tf e e l s m o r e o v e r thatMe c han is tic Mate r ial is m ,w hic h
s u g g e s ts the p as s iv e r e ac tio n o f m atte r to its e n v ir o n m e n t,is
ap o o r c r e e df o r an ac tiv e r e v o l u tio n ar y
.B u titis dif f ic u l tto
dis c o v e r the s u p e r io r ity o f D ial e c tic al Mate r ial is m as a
dy n am ic o f r e v o l u tio n ar y e n e r g y .Al l f o r m s o f Mate r ial is m
l o g ic al l y l e adto f atal is tic ac q u ie s c e n c e in thin g s as the y ar e
.
Ce r tain l y n o o r tho do x Mar x is tb e l ie v e s in F r e e Wil l ,b u tthe
m o r al in dig n atio n w hic hr e v o l u tio n ar ie s e x p l o itas o n e o f the ir
s tr o n g e s tw e ap o n s ag ain s tthe r u l in g c l as s is de p r iv e db y
de te r m in is m o f al l r e as o n ab l e b as is
.The de te r m in is tc an c o n -
s is te n tl y atte m p tto r e s tr ain de s tr u c tiv e f o r c e s ,hu m an o r
m ate r ial
.Pr is o n s f o r the r e s tr ain to f c r im e s e r v e an an al o g o u s
p u r p o s e to the av al an c he b ar r ie r s w ithw hic hAl p in e p e as an ts
atte m p tto r e s tr ain the av al an c he s w hic hw o u l do the r w is e
de s tr o y the ir ho m e s ,b u tthe p e as an tdo e s n o tde n o u n c e the
av al an c he as w ic k e d,an dthe r atio n al Co m m u n is tc an
c o n s is te n tl y l iq u idate b u tc an n o tc o n s is te n tl y s c o l dthe
Cap ital is t,the o p p r e s s o r an dthe ty r an t
.The Mar x is tv o c ab u -
l ar y is w e l l p r o v ide dw ithw o r ds w hic he x p r e s s m o r al
in dig n atio n ,s u c has "o p p r e s s io n ,""ty r an n y "an d"e x p l o ita-
tio n
."Itis ap ity thatthe Mar x is tp hil o s o p hy s ho u l dde p r iv e
the s e w o r ds o f r e al m e an in g
.No r e v o l u tio n ar y w o u l db e
dis p o s e dto de n y thatthe b e l ie f in F r e e Wil l ,if an il l u s io n ,
is atl e as tau s e f u l il l u s io n ,f o r r e v o l u tio n ar y l e ade r s m u s tu s e
the l an g u ag e o f f r e e w il l
.No m o b c o u l db e ar o u s e db y a
c o n s is te n tMar x is tw ho u s e dthe de te r m in is tic te r m in o l o g y
w hic hhis c r e e dde m an ds
."Co m r ade s ,Ic an n o tc o n tain m y
in dig n atio n w he n c o n f r o n te dw iththe s e c ap ital is tic c r im e s ,
b u tin dig n atio n is ,as y o u k n o w ,an e m o tio n w hic his its e l f
MARXIST COMMU NISM

23 3
ab y -p r o du c to f m atte r .Iam ate m p o r ar y c o m b in atio n o f
ato m s w hic hw il l b e dis s o l v e d b y de ath
.The s o u n ds w hic h
is s u e f r o m m y m o u thar e the r e s u l to f an in f in ite s e r ie s o f
p r e de s tin e dc au s e s an de f f e c t
.The y w il l ,Iho p e ,p r o du c e
c e r tain r e ac tio n s in y o u r m in ds ,an daw ak e n in y o u the f o r m
o f e n e r g y w hic hw e de s c r ib e as m o r al in dig n atio n
. In du e
c o u r s e this e n e r g y w il l b e tr an s f o r m e din to o the r f o r m s o f
ac tio n ,in the c o u r s e o f w hic h,Iho p e ,y o u w il l o v e r thr o w
the Go v e r n m e n tan dl iq u idate al l Cap ital is ts
.The r e s e n tm e n t
an dhatr e dw hic hIho p e to in s p ir e m ay b e ir r atio n al ,f o r the
Cap ital is tis p r e de te r m in e dto o p p r e s s ,b u tdo n o tl e tthat
dis m ay y o u ,f o r y o u r ir r atio n al e m o tio n s ar e as m u c hthe
p r o du c to f p r e de te r m in e dl aw s as y o u r m o r e r e as o n ab l e
c o n c l u s io n s ."
Mar x is tp hil o s o p he r s ar e w e l l aw ar e o f the dif f ic u l tie s o f
r e c o n c il in g D e te r m in is m w ithr e v o l u tio n ar y f e r v o u r ,an dthe ir
atte m p ts to s o l v e this p r o b l e m ar e n o tp ar tic u l ar l y c o n v in c in g
.
"If Is tr iv e to p r o m o te am o v e m e n t,"w r ite s Pl e k han o v ,
"w ho s e tr iu m p hs e e m s to m e ahis to r ic al n e c e s s ity thatis
b e c au s e Ithin k m y o w n ac tiv ity an e c e s s ar y l in k in the c o n -
ditio n s w hic hn e c e s s ar il y b r in g itab o u t,"an dMr
.Car r itt
adds ,"an dIs u p p o s e if Ido n o tp r o m o te it,thatis b e c au s e
(w he the r Ithin k s o o r n o t)m y in ac tio n is an e c e s s ar y l in k
.
The f ac tis he u s e s ` n e c e s s ar y ' he r e in tw o s e n s e s
: 1 ' . Sin e
q u a
n o n
(as ap p l ie dto m y ac tiv ity ) . 2 .
In e v itab l e (as ap p l ie dto the
tr iu m p ho f the m o v e m e n tan dthe b r in g in g o f itab o u t)
.That
the c o n ditio n s in w hic hw e hav e to ac tar e f ix e dis w hat
U to p ian is m f ail s to s e e
.Thatw ithin the l im its o f the s e c o n -
ditio n s w e ar e f r e e to ac tis w hatde te r m in is m f ail s to s e e
." (21 )
Mr
.Car r ittim p l ie s ,if Ir e adhim ar ig ht,thatMate r ial is m
is u n te n ab l e ,w he the r itde s c r ib e s its e l f
as
Me c han ic al o r
D ial e c tic al
.F o r tho u g hhe n o w he r e hin ts atthe u l tim ate
he r e s y ,b e l ie f in Go d,he w o u l dp r o b ab l y ag r e e thatitis
im p o s s ib l e to in je c tr e as o n in to
m atte r b y D ial e c tic s .
"Ob v io u s l y the the o r y is b e c o m in g m o r e c o m p l ic ate d,"he
w r ite s
."We hav e n o w n o to n l y the dial e c tic o f tho u g ht
adv an c in g f r o m ab s tr ac te r r o r o r p ar tial tr u thto f u l l e r m o r e
c o n c r e te tr u th,an dn o te v e n o n l y the dial e c tic o f tho s e hu m an
23 4
.

MARXIST COM) U 1 SM
in s titu tio n s w hic h,s in c e the y p ar tl y de p e n do n tho u g ht,m ig ht
b e e x p e c te dto f o l l o w its dial e c tic
(e .g . ty r an n y -l ic e n c e -
o r de r ,de p e n din g o n m e n ' s de v e l o p in g b e l ie f s ab o u ts o c ie ty )
.
We hav e al s o the s am e te r m dial e c tic ap p l ie dto the e v o l u tio n
o f s p e c ie s ,the g r o w tho f o r g an is m s ,the m o v e m e n to f m atte r
an de v e n to m athe m atic al f o r m u l as
.We ar e in de e dto l dthat
the dial e c tic al m o v e m e n to f tho u g htis o n l y ar e s u l to f the
dial e c tic al m o v e m e n to f m atte r ." (22)
B u tho w do e s tho u g hts u c c e e din in tr u din g its e l f in to
m atte r ? Itis im p o s s ib l e to e x tr ac tf r o m the p o tin g r e die n ts
w hic hitdo e s n o tc o n tain .If m atte r w as ,as L e n in as s e r ts ,
the p r iu s ,n o Mar x is ts l e ig hto f han d,n o ju g g l in g w ith
"q u an tity in to q u al ity " .c o u l dtr an s f o r m in o r g an ic m atte r o r
e x tr ac ttho u g htf r o m m atte r .If the r e w as n o in te l l ig e n c e
p r e s idin g o v e r the b e g in n in g o f the w o r l dp r o c e s s ,itis im -
p o s s ib l e to s u g g e s tan y n atu r al m e tho d,dial e c tic al o r o the r w is e ,
f o r the in tr o du c tio n o f r e as o n ,tho u g htan dc o n s c io u s n e s s in to
an ir r atio n al u n iv e r s e o f in o r g an ic m atte r .
REF ERENCES
(i)L e n in in Phil o s o p hic al No te s , p u b l is he dp o s thu m o u s l y .
(2)
H.G.We l l s :
Go d the In v is ib l e K in g , Cas s e l l ,p
.7 7 -
(3 )
F .J .She e d : Co m m u n is m an dMan , She e dan dWar d,
p . 6 .
(4.) K ar l Mar x
:
A
Co n tr ib u tio n to the Cr itiq u e o f Po l itic al
Ec o n o m y , K e g an Pau l ,p .ii .
(5 )F r ie dr ic hEn g e l s : An ti-D iihr in g , Mar tin L aw r e n c e ,
p p . 20 6 -20 8 .
(6 )K ar l Mar x :
The
Po v e r ty o f Phil o s o p hy , Mar tin
L aw r e n c e ,p . 1 21 .
(7 )F r ie dr ic h En g e l s : An ti-D iihr in g , Mar tin
L aw r e n c e ,
p .
3 0 0 -
(8 )K ar l Mar x an dF r ie dr ic hEn g e l s : Man if e s to o f the Co m -
m u n is tPar ty ,p .9 .
(g )K ar l Mar x : The Po v e r ty o f Phil o s o p hy ,p . 1 3 2
.
MARXIST COMMU NISM

23 5
(1 0 )-(1 2) K ar l Mar x an dF r ie dr ic hEn g e l s : Man if e s to o f the
Co m m u n is tPar ty ,p p .
II,II-I3 ,9 .
(I3 ) L e n in :
Mate r ial is m an dEm p ir io -Cr itic is m , Mar tin
L aw r e n c e .
(I4 .)
F r ie dr ic hEn g e l s : L u dw ig F e u e r b ac h, Mar tin L aw r e n c e ,
P• 3 5 -
( 1 5 )&
( I6 ) L e n in : Mate r ial is m an d
Em p ir io -Cr itic is m ,
Mar tin L aw r e n c e .
(r 7 )F .J . She e d : Co m m u n is m an dMan ,p .
4 2-
(1 8 )
L e n in :
Mate r ial is m an dEm p ir io -Cr itic is m .
(ig )K ar l Mar x : The s e s o n F e u e r b ac h :
Mar tin L aw r e n c e ,
P• 7 5 -
(2o )Ar thu r B al f o u r :
The F o u n datio n s o f B e l ie f , L o n g m an s .
(2I) E. F
.Car r ittin the L ab o u r Mo n thl y , J u n e ,
- 1 9 3 3 ,P• 3 8 8 -
(22) E.
F
.Car r ittin the L ab o u r Mo n thl y , May ,
1 9 3 3 ,P
• 3 28 .
CHAPTERXXII
THEL AB OU RTHEORY OF V AL U E
MARX' s L ab o u r The o r y o f V al u e s ho u l db e c l as s if ie das p r o -
p ag an dar athe r than as e c o n o m ic s ,f o r itp r o v ide s ap s e u do -
s c ie n tif ic r atio n al iz atio n o f the m an u al l ab o u r e r ' s je al o u s y o f
the b r ain w o r k e r .Its de p r e c iatio n o f the b r ain w o r k e r an d
the m iddl e m an is ir o n ic ,f o r Mar x w as ab r il l ian tm iddl e m an
in the r e al m o f ide as .He to o k his the o r y o f v al u e f r o m
Ric ar do ,an din the p r o c e s s de p r iv e dthis the o r y o f an y c l aim
to ab as is o f r e as o n .He to o k his dial e c tic f r o m He g e l ,an d
de p r iv e dHe g e l ian is m o f m e an in g b y tr an s l atin g the dial e c tic
o f tho u g htin to the dial e c tic o f m atte r
.Mar x w as n o tan
ho n e s tb r o k e r o f ide as ,b u ttho u g hthe c o m m o ditie s w hic h
p as s e dthr o u g hthe w ar e ho u s e o f m iddl e m an Mar x l o s tw e ig ht
o n the s c al e s o f r e as o n ,the y ac q u ir e dan e x p l o s iv e q u al ity in
tr an s itthe de s tr u c tiv e e f f e c to f w hic hitw o u l db e dif f ic u l tto
o v e r -e s tim ate .
Itis im p o s s ib l e in o n e b r ie f c hap te r to de al w ithal l as p e c ts
o f the Mar x is tthe o r y ,o r to e x p o s e al l its f al l ac ie s .Iho p e ,
ho w e v e r ,thatthis s ho r ts k e tc hw il l s e n dthe r e ade r w ho
w is he s f o r af u l l e r tr e atm e n tto Mar x ' s K ap ital an dto the
s c ho l ar l y an dc o m p l e te dis c u s s io n s o f Mar x ' s the o r ie s w hic h
w il l b e f o u n d
in K ar l Mar x ' s Cap ital , b y Mr .A.D .L in ds ay ,
Mas te r o f B al l io l Co l l e g e ,Ox f o r d,an din The L ab o u r The o r y
o f V al u e in K ar l Mar x , b y Mr .H.W .B .J o s e p h,F e l l o w an d
Tu to r o f Ne w Co l l e g e ,Ox f o r d
.Iw is hto ac k n o w l e dg e m y
o w n in de b te dn e s s to the s e b r il l ian te s s ay s .
The L ab o u r The o r y o f V al u e c an b e tr ac e dto Adam Sm ith
.
"The v al u e o f an y c o m m o dity ,"he w r o te , ". . . to the p e r s o n w ho
p o s s e s s e s it,an dw ho m e an s n o tto u s e o r c o n s u m e ithim s e l f ,
b u tto e x c han g e itf o r o the r c o m m o ditie s ,is e q u al to the
q u an tity o f l ab o u r w hic hite n ab l e s him to p u r c has e o r c o m -
m an d
.L ab o u r ,the r e f o r e ,is the r e al m e as u r e o f the e x c han g e -
ab l e v al u e o f al l c o m m o ditie s ."(i )
23 6
THE L AB OU RTHEORY OF V AL U E

23 7
Adam Sm ith' s the o r y o f v al u e w as e n thu s ias tic al l y ado p te d
b y n in e te e n th-c e n tu r y e c o n o m is ts ,n o t as an in s tr u m e n to f
c l as s w ar f ar e ,b u tas as c ie n tif ic ju s tif ic atio n o f thatu n b o u n de d
f aithin the ir f av o u r ite p an ac e as ,f r e e tr ade an dthe div is io n
o f l ab o u r .The y c o n de m n e dtar if f s as
af o r m o f p r o te c tio n
f o r the in c o m p e te n t,s in c e tar if f s e n ab l e in f e r io r p r o du c e r s to
c o m p e te o n e q u al te r m s w iththe ir m o r e e f f ic ie n tr iv al s
.U n de r
the r e g im e o f f r e e tr ade e v e r y c o u n tr y w o u l dp r o du c e the
g o o ds f o r w hic hthe ir w o r k m e n hadas p e c ial ap titu de ,an d
f o r the p r o du c tio n o f w hic hthe ir n atu r al r e s o u r c e s an d
c l im ate w e r e s p e c ial l y adap te d
.In the s e c ir c u m s tan c e s the
e x c han g e v al u e o f c o m m o ditie s w o u l db e de te r m in e db y the
l ab o u r w hic hthe y e m b o die d,an dw o u l dn o tb e ar tif ic ial l y
in c r e as e db y the u n e c o n o m ic e f f e c to f tar if f s .
Ric ar do in he r ite dthis the o r y f r o m Adam Sm ith,an d
tho u g hhe n e v e r atte m p te dto p r o v e thatm an u al l ab o u r al o n e
adds v al u e ,an dtho u g hhe g r u dg in g l y adm itte dthatthe v al u e
o f as m al l f r ac tio n o f c o m m o ditie s is de te r m in e db y s c ar c ity ,
his the o r y ,tho u g hl e s s in de f e n s ib l e than Mar x ' s ,w as o p e n to
de s tr u c tiv e c r itic is m .L ik e o the r e x p o n e n ts o f the L ab o u r
The o r y o f V al u e he v ir tu al l y ig n o r e dde m an d
.No w ,as Mr .
L in ds ay r e m ar k s ,"athe o r y o f v al u e w hic hs ay s p r ac tic al l y
n o thin g ab o u tde m an dis athe o r y o f v al u e w hic hs ay s p r ac -
tic al l y n o thin g ab o u tv al u in g ." (2)
As e ar l y as 1 8 5 o N.W.
Se n io r s u b je c te dto v e r y dam ag in g c r itic is m the the o r y w hic h
Mar x w as l ate r tp ado p tan dr e v is e
.He p o in te do u tthatan y
c au s e w hic hl im its s u p p l y is as
e f f ic ie n tac au s e o f v al u e 4 the
l ab o u r w hic hw e n tto its p r o du c tio n ,"an din f ac t,"he w r o te ,
"if al l the c o m m o ditie s u s e db y m an w e r e s u p p l ie db y Natu r e
w itho u tan y in te r v e n tio n o f hu m an l ab o u r ,b u tw e r e s u p p l ie d
in p r e c is e l y the s am e q u an titie s as
the y n o w ar e ,the r e is n o
r e as o n to s u p p o s e e ithe r thatthe y w o u l dc e as e to b e v al u ab l e
o r w o u l de x c han g e in an y o the r than the ir p r e s e n tp r o p o r -
tio n s ."(3 )
Ric har dWhate l e y hadan tic ip ate dthis ar g u m e n tin his
l e c tu r e s o n Po l itic al Ec o n o m y de l iv e r e datOx f o r din 1 8 3 1
.
"If the ae r o l ite s ,"he w r o te ,"w hic ho c c as io n al l y
.f al l ,w e r e
diam o n ds an dp e ar l s ,an dif the s e ar tic l e s c o u l db e o b tain e din
23 8

THEL AB OU RTHEORY ' OF V AL U E
n o o the r w ay ,b u tw e r e c as u al l y p ic k e du p ,to the s am e am o u n t
as is n o w o b tain e db y dig g in g an ddiv in g ,the y w o u l db e o f
p r e c is e l y the s am e v al u e
as n o w .In this ,as in m an y o the r
p o in ts in Po l itic al Ec o n o m y ,m e n ar e p r o n e to c o n f o u n d c au s e
an d e f f e c t .
Itis n o tthatp e ar l s f e tc hahig hp r ic e b e c au s e m e n
hav e div e df o r the m
; b u to n the c o n tr ar y ,m e n div e f o r the m
b e c au s e the y f e tc hahig hp r ic e
." (q .)
An ho n e s tau tho r do e s n o tr e s o l u te l y ig n o r e p u b l is he d
c r itic is m s o f athe o r y w hic hhe him s e l f ado p ts w ithm o dif ic a-
tio n s ,an dan in te l l ig e n tau tho r an tic ip ate s the m o r e o b v io u s
c r itic is m s o f his o w n m o dif ic atio n s o f an ac c e p te dthe o r y .
Mar x w as ap r o p he t,an dp r o p he ts s e l do m ar g u e .He m ak e s
n o atte m p tto m e e tthe c r itic is m s o f Se n io r an dWhate l e y ,
o r
to f o r e s tal l the o b v io u s o b je c tio n s ag ain s this o w n de v e l o p m e n t
o f Ric ar do ' s the o r y o f v al u e .In this ,as in o the r r e s p e c ts ,his
e x am p l e has b e e n f o l l o w e db y his dis c ip l e s
.Mar x do e s n o t
ar g u e ; he k n o w s .
Mar x didn o tm e e tthe s e c r itic is m s ,f o r he w as ap p e al in g
n o tto r e as o n b u tto r e s e n tm e n t,the r e s e n tm e n to f the m an u al
w o r k e r ag ain s tthe b r ain w o r k e r .In the w ar b e tw e e n the han d
an dthe b r ain ,Mar x ,the b r ain w o r k e r ,w as o n
the s ide o f the
han d .His l ab o u r the o r y o f v al u e is an atte m p tto s u g g e s tthat
m an u al l ab o u r al o n e c r e ate s v al u e
.Adm itte dl y he q u al if ie s the
c r u dity o f this u n te n ab l e the o r y b y o c c as io n al g r u dg in g c o n -
c e s s io n s b u r ie din the l ate r v o l u m e s o f
D as K ap ital , b u titis
to the the o r y in its c r u de f o r m thatMar x is m o w e s its
in f l u e n c e
.Mar x w as as u p r e m e de m ag o g u e ,b u the r e al iz e d
thatde m ag o g y w as n o te n o u g h
.He k n e w thatitw as n e c e s s ar y
to ap p e al n o to n l y to the r e s e n tm e n tb u tto the v an ity o f the
v ic tim s o f s o c ial in ju s tic e
.No thin g is m o r e f l atte r in g to o u r
v an ity than the dis c o v e r y thats c ie n c e ju s tif ie s o u r c o n v ic tio n
thatw e ar e u n de r p aid
.Mar x n o to n l y in c ite dthe p r o l e tar iat
to l iq u idate the ir e x p l o ite r s ,b u tp r o v ide dthe p r o l e tar iatw ith
ap ar ade o f s c ie n tif ic ju s tif ic atio n f o r c l as s hatr e d .
D as
K ap ital
w o u l dhav e b e e n l e s s in f l u e n tial haditb e e n l e s s l o n g ,
te dio u s an dc o n f u s in g .F e w r e ade r s s tr u g g l e as f ar as the
s e c o n dv o l u m e ,in w hic hMar x c o n c e de s ,b u to n l y b y im p l ic a-,
tio n ,thato the r s b e s ide the m an u al w o r k e r c o n tr ib u te to the
THE
L AB OU R
THEORY OF V AL U E

2
3 9
p r o du c ts o f l ab o u r .Itis the the o r y in its c r u de s tf o r m w hic h
al o n e has the dy n am ic p o w e r ,an dw hic hal o n e f o r m s the tr u e
b as is o f Mar x is tp r o p ag an da .
H.M.Hy n dm an "to the e n do f his l if e tau g htthatthe
g r o s s p r o f ito f the c ap ital is tc o m e s ` f r o m the l ab o u r o f the
w o r k e r s e m b o die din the g o o ds p r o du c e d,' an de v e n that
` s al ar ie ds e r v an ts ,s u p e r in te n de n ts ,c l e r k s ,
e tc .' ,
w ho ` ar e p aid
the ir s al ar ie s o u to f the g r o s s p r o f its ,' ` addn o v al u e to the
g o o ds p r o du c e d ."' (5 )
Mar x dis tin g u is he s ,as o the r e c o n o m is ts hav e do n e b e f o r e
him ,b e tw e e n u s e v al u e an de x c han g e v al u e
Athin g has u s e v al u e if its e r v e s hu m an n e e ds ,e v e n if it
has n o m o n e y v al u e .Air has im m e n s e u s e v al u e ,b u ts e l do m
has e x c han g e v al u e
.On the o the r han d,n o thin g has e x c han g e
v al u e if ithas n o tal s o u s e v al u e .
Whatis athin g ' s e x c han g e v al u e ? "If w e l e av e o u to f
ac c o u n tthe u s e v al u e o f c o m m o ditie s ,"w r ite s Mar x ,"the y
hav e o n l y o n e c o m m o n p r o p e r ty l e f t,thato f b e in g p r o du c ts
o f l ab o u r ."(7 )
L ab o u r ,as Mar x o f c o u r s e adm its ,dif f e r s in q u al ity .The
w e av e r ' s l ab o u r is n o tthe s am e as the s p in n e r ' s ,b u tthe s e
q u al itativ e dif f e r e n c e s in l ab o u r c an b e ig n o r e ds in c e the y ar e
o n l y c o n c e r n e dw ithw hatis c o m m o n to al l ty p e s o f l ab o u r ,
the m e r e f ac to f b e in g hu m an l ab o u r .Itis l ab o u r as s u c h,
n o tl ab o u r o f this o r thatp ar tic u l ar ty p e w hic hg iv e s v al u e
to the p r o du c ts o f l ab o u r .The m ag n itu de o f this v al u e is
de te r m in e db y the q u an tity o f l ab o u r m e as u r e db y du r atio n .
"As v al u e s ,c o m m o ditie s ar e o n l y de f in ite m as s e s o f c o n g e al e d
l ab o u r -tim e ."(8 )
Mar x do e s n o t,o f ,c o u r s e ,as s e r tthate x c han g e v al u e is
de te r m in e ds o l e l y b y du r atio n o f l ab o u r -tim e ir r e s p e c tiv e o f
the v al u e o f the l ab o u r e m p l o y e d ."So m e p e o p l e m ig htthin k ,"
* As the dis tin c tio n is f u n dam e n tal itm ay b e as w e l l to q u o te dir e c t
f r o m the Ge r m an te x t .
"D ie Nu tz l ic hk e it e in e s D in g e s , s e in e
Eig e n s c haf t,m e n s c hl ic he
B e diir f n is s e ir g e n de in e r Ar tz u b e f r ie dig e n ,m ac hte s z u m Ge r r au c hs w e r t
.
.
D e r Tau s c hw e r te r s c he in tz u n ac hs tal s das q u an titativ e V e r hal tn is ,
die Pr o p o r tio n ,w o r in s ic hGe r b r au c hs w e r te in e r Ar tg e g e n Ge b r au c h-
s w e r te an de r e r Ar tau s tau s c he n ,e in z u f al l ig e s V e r hal tn is ,das f o r t .
w ahr e n dm itZ e itan dOr tw e c hs e l t"(6 )
he w r ite s ,"thatif the v al u e o f ac o m m o dity is de te r m in e db y
the q u an tity o f l ab o u r s p e n to n it,the m o r e idl e an du n s k il f u l
the l ab o u r e r ,the m o r e v al u ab l e w o u l dhis c o m m o dity b e ,
b e c au s e m o r e tim e w o u l db e r e q u ir e din its p r o du c tio n ."(g )
He m e e ts this dif f ic u l ty b y p o s tu l atin g an im ag in ar y u n ito f
l ab o u r v al u e ,ahy p o the tic al u n itb as e do n s o c ial l y n e c e s s ar y
l ab o u r (g e s e l l s c haf tl ic h n o tw e n dig e r Ar b e it) . (io ) "The
l ab o u r -tim e s o c ial l y n e c e s s ar y is thatr e q u ir e dto p r o du c e an
ar tic l e u n de r the n o r m al c o n ditio n s o f p r o du c tio n ,an dw ith
an dav e r ag e de g r e e o f s k il l an din te n s ity p r e v al e n tatthe
tim e ."(ii )
B u tho w c an w e dis c o v e r as tan dar dto m e as u r e the hy p o -
the tic al u n ito f "s o c ial l y n e c e s s ar y l ab o u r ,"an dho w s hal l w e
de te r m in e ho w m an y s u c hu n its ar e c o n tain e din an y p ar -
tic u l ar c o m m o dity ?
Mar x r e je c ts the o b v io u s s o l u tio n ,c o m p ar in g dif f e r e n tk in ds
o f l ab o u r b y the p r ic e s p aidp e r ho u r to the l ab o u r e r s ,f o r he
r e je c ts n o to n l y as u n ju s tb u tas u n s c ie n tif ic the s tan dar ds o f
p ay m e n tin Cap ital is tic s o c ie ty
.He w r ite s n o tas an e c o n o m is t
b u tas ap r o p he to f s o c ial ju s tic e ."He is n o tc o n c e r n e d,"as
Mr .L in ds ay p o in ts o u t,"to g iv e af o r m u l aw hic hw il l e n ab l e
u s to p r e dic tw hatac o m m o dity w il l f e tc h,b u tto te l l u s u n de r
w hatc o n ditio n s w hatitw il l f e tc hw il l b e w hatitis w o r th ."
(1 2) An das Mar x is c o n c e r n e dn o tw ithe c o n o m ic s b u tw ith
e thic s ,he is atl e as tc o n s is te n tw he n he r e m ar k s ,"Wag e s is
ac ate g o r y thathas n o e x is te n c e atthe p r e s e n ts tag e o f o u r
in v e s tig atio n ."(
1 3 )
If w e ig n o r e w ag e s an dp r ic e s itis e s s e n tial to dis c o v e r s o m e
m e tho do f r e du c in g u n its o f
s k il l e d
l ab o u r to u n its o f u n s k il l e d
l ab o u r w itho u tr e f e r e n c e to w ag e s an dp r ic e s ."Sk il l e dl ab o u r ,"
w r ite s Mar x ,"c o u n ts o n l y as o r din ar y l ab o u r in te n s if ie d,' o r
r athe r as m u l tip l ie ds im p l e l ab o u r ,ag iv e n q u an tity o f s k il l e d
l ab o u r b e in g e q u al to ag r e atq u an tity o f s im p l e l ab o u r .
Ex p e r ie n c e s ho w s thatthis r e du c tio n is c o n s tan tl y m ade ."
(1 4 )
The r e du c tio n in de e dis c o n s tan tl y m ade ,b u to n l y b y r e f e r -
e n c e to p r ic e s de te r m in e db y the l aw o f s u p p l y an dde m an d .
"Itis ,"as Mr .J o s e p hin s is ts ,"e s s e n tial f o r Mar x ' s ar g u m e n t,
to s ho w thatthe r e du c tio n c an b e m ade w itho u tc o n s ide r in g
THEL AB OU RTHEORY OF V AL U E

24 1
the p r ic e s o f the c o m m o ditie s ; b u the c an n o ts ho w it. . . . (i5 )
B y w hatm e an s s hal l w e de te r m in e ho w m an y ho u r s o f the
s im p l e l ab o u r o f af ag o t-m ak e r ar e c o n tain e din o n e ho u r o f
ajo in e r ' s o r ac ab in e t-m ak e r ' s l ab o u r ? We c an o n l y do it
f r o m the dif f e r e n ts u m s w hic hthe y c har g e b y tim e ,o r add-
e r ho u r to the c o s t-p r ic e s o f the m ate r ial s o n w hic hthe y w o r k .
An dto de te r m in e itthu s is ,f o r Mar x ,to ar g u e in ac ir c l e ."
(i6 )
Mar x ' s w r itin g is n e v e r m o r e c o n f u s in g than w he n Mar x
the p r o p he tis e v adin g the c r itic is m s o f Mar x the thin k e r
.He
c o n c e al e dw iths o m e
s k il l
his c ir c u l ar ar g u m e n ts ,b u tthe s e
hav e b e e n e x p o s e dw ithde v as tatin g e f f e c tb y Mr .L in ds ay an d
Mr
.J o s e p h .Mr .J o s e p hg iv e s m an y e x am p l e s o f Mar x ' s
hab ito f atte m p tin g "to e s tab l is hap r in c ip l e b y p o in tin g to
f ac ts w ho s e al l e g e dc o n f o r m ity to itis its e l f in f e r r e df r o m the
p r in c ip l e to b e e s tab l is he d,"an dthis ,as Mr
.J o s e p hr e m ar k s ,
"is to ar g u e in ac ir c l e ."
( 1 7 )
No w ,o f c o u r s e ,the L ab o u r The o r y o f V al u e c o u l db e s tate d
in af o r m w hic hw o u l dc o m p e l u n iv e r s al ag r e e m e n t .If w e
in c l u de in the te r m "L ab o u r "n o to n l y m an u al l ab o u r b u tthe
w o r k o f the m e r c han t,the m iddl e m an ,the ac c o u n tan tan dthe
s p e c u l ato r ,itis c l e ar thatthe e x c han g e v al u e o f ac o m m o dity
c an b e m e as u r e din te r m s o f thr e e f ac to r s ,l ab o u r ,s c ar c ity an d
de m an d,b u tn o s u c hde f in itio n w o u l ds e r v e the p u r p o s e s w ith
w hic hMar x is s o l e l y c o n c e r n e d,f o r his o b je c tw as n o tto
an al y z e the f ac to r s thatp r o du c e v al u e ,b u tto p r o v e that
w o r k e r s ar e e x p l o ite d .He tr ie s ,the r e f o r e ,to s ho w thate x is tin g
p r ic e l e v e l s p r o v ide n o tr u e in de x to v al u e ,f o r v al u e is a
s o c ial p r o du c t .He m ain tain s thatCap ital is m has p e r v e r te d
v al u e in o r de r to tr an s f e r f r o m the w o r k e r s to the Cap ital is t
the s u r p l u s v al u e w hic hthe w o r k e r s hav e p r o du c e d .
Mar x is al w ay s m o r e e f f e c tiv e in c r itic is m than in c o n s tr u c -
tio n .He has l ittl e dif f ic u l ty in e x p o s in g the s m u g c o m p l ac e n c y
o f the V ic to r ian L ib e r al s w ho m ain tain e dthatthe ab o l itio n o f
m o n o p o l y an dtar if f s w o u l de n ab l e n o to n l y c o u n tr ie s b u t
in div idu al s to c o m p e te o n e q u al te r m s .Eq u al ity b e f o r e the
l aw is am o c k e r y u n l e s s the l aw atte m p ts to r e dr e s s the
in e q u al ity o f b ar g ain in g p o w e r b e tw e e n the Cap ital is tan dthe
9 4 2

THE
L AB OU RTHEORY
OF
V AL U E
w o r k m an .
The w o r k m an has n o p r o p e r ty in the m e an s o f
p r o du c tio n
.He is ho p e l e s s l y han dic ap p e din his atte m p tto
s e c u r e f r o m the Cap ital is taf air r e tu r n f o r his w o r k .
Mar x c o n te n ds thatthe tr u e s o c ial v al u e o f ac o m m o dity
c an b e c al c u l ate db y addin g the c o s to f the m ate r ial e m p l o y e d
to the e x c han g e v al u e p r o du c e db y the l ab o u r w hic hhas b e e n
u s e din p r o du c in g the c o m m o dity in q u e s tio n
.The Cap ital is t,
Mar x in s is ts ,adds n o r e al v al u e to the c o m m o dity ,an dthe r e -
f o r e the dif f e r e n c e in p r ic e b e tw e e n the tr u e e x c han g e v al u e
o f the c o m m o dity an dits s e l l in g p r ic e is s u r p l u s v al u e s to l e n
b y the Cap ital is tf r o m the w o r k e r
.Ev e n Mar x he s itate d
e x p l ic itl y to de f e n dthis do c tr in e in thatc r u de s tf o r m
w hic his im p l ie din e v e r y c hap te r o f
D as K ap ital . Itis p ar t
o f his the s is thatm e r e e x c han g e c an n o tc r e ate v al u e
.If he had
s u c c e e din g in p r o v in g this ,he m ig hthav e e s tab l is he dap r e m is s
f r o m w hic hhe c o u l dhav e ar g u e dw iths o m e s u c c e s s that
Cap ital is m p r o du c e s n o v al u e .
Mar x adm its thatv al u e
de p e n ds o n s o c ial l y n e c e s s ar y l ab o u r an dn o to n l ab o u r
ir r e s p e c tiv e o f its u s e f u l n e s s .
L ab o u r ,the r e f o r e ,w hic his
e x p e n de din p r o du c in g g o o ds f o r w hic hthe r e is n o de m an d,is
n o ts o c ial l y n e c e s s ar y l ab o u r
.On the o the r han d,the m e n tal
l ab o u r w hic hc o r r e c tl y an tic ip ate s de m an dan dthu s av o ids
w as tin g l ab o u r is s o c ial l y n e c e s s ar y
.Itf o l l o w s ,the r e f o r e ,that
tho s e p e r s o n s w ho ar e e n g ag e din p l an n in g the e q u al iz atio n
o f s u p p l y an dde m an dar e in c r e as in g v al u e b y s av in g w as te
.
In ap r im itiv e s o c ie ty w he r e the r e is l ittl e o r n o div is io n o f
l ab o u r ,the b o o t-m ak e r n o to n l y m ak e s b o o ts b u tc al c u l ate s
ho w m an y b o o ts he n e e ds to m ak e
.He c o m b in e s the f u n c -
tio n s o f the p r o du c e r w iththato f the s p e c ial is tan tic ip atin g
de m an ds
.Itis p ar to f the Mar x is tthe s is in he r ite df r o m
Ric ar do thatdiv is io n o f l ab o u r in c r e as e s p r o du c tiv ity
.Itis
the r e f o r e de s ir ab l e thatthe l ab o u r o f m ak in g b o o ts s ho u l db e
div ide df r o m the m e n tal l ab o u r o f an tic ip atin g the de m an d
f o r b o o ts .Mar x ,itis tr u e ,g r u dg in g l y c o n c e de s thatthe b u y in g
an ds e l l in g ag e n tp e r f o r m s n e c e s s ar y w o r k b y s e ttin g f r e e the
l ab o u r tim e an dp o w e r o f o the r s
."The m e r c han t,"s n e e r s
Mar x ,"m ay b e r e g ar de das am ac hin e w hic hr e du c e s au s e l e s s
e x p e n ditu r e o f e n e r g y w hic hhe l p s to s e tf r e e s o m e tim e f o r
TIE
' L AB OU RTHEORY OF V AL U E

24 3
p r o du c tio n ." (1 8 )
B u tw hy s ho u l dthe m e r c han tw ho r e n de r s
his in dis p e n s ab l e s e r v ic e b e dis m is s e das am ac hin e ? On l y
b e c au s e Mar x c an n o tb r in g him s e l f to adm itthatam e r c han t
is ahu m an b e in g .
In e f f e c t,ho w e v e r ,this s u l l e n adm is s io n thatthe m e r c han t
"r e du c e s au s e l e s s e x p e n ditu r e o f e n e r g y "de s tr o y s the p r o p a-
g an dav ir tu e s o f the L ab o u r The o r y o f V al u e
.Mar x r e c o il s
f r o m the c o n c l u s io n im p l ic itin his adm is s io n ,an dde f e r s f o r
an o the r hu n dr e dp ag e s (b y w hic htim e the r e ade r m ay hav e
f o r g o tte n his l ap s e )af u r the r c o n c e s s io n to the m e r c han tan d
m iddl e m an .Itis o n l y in the n e x tv o l u m e thatw e l e ar n that
"Co m m e r c ial c ap ital c r e ate s n e ithe r v al u e n o r s u r p l u s v al u e ,
b u tp r o m o te s o n l y the ir r e al iz atio n ."(ig )B u tas Mr
.L in ds ay
ju s tl y r e m ar k s ,"the dis tin c tio n b e tw e e n ` c r e atin g ' an d' p r o -
m o tin g r e al iz atio n o f s e e m s to the o r din ar y m in dadis tin c tio n
w itho u tadif f e r e n c e
.'
(20 )
Whe r e as Mar x ,in the f ir s tv o l u m e
o f D as K ap ital , im p l ie s thatb u y in g an ds e l l in g ar e s u p e r f l u o u s
an du n n e c e s s ar y o c c u p atio n s ,an dthe p r o f its o f b u y in g an d
s e l l in g ar e m e r e r o b b e r y ,he is dr iv e n ,to w ar ds the c o n c l u s io n o f
his b o o k ,to adm is s io n s w hic hde s tr o y the v e r y b as is
o f his
the o r y o f v al u e .Itis n o t,ho w e v e r ,the s e adm is s io n s w hic h
ar e q u o te din Hy de Par k o r in p r o p ag an dap am p hl e ts f o r
c ir c u l atio n am o n g the f aithf u l .
REF ERENCES
(1 ) Adam Sm ith :
The We al tho f Natio n s , B o o k I, Chap
.V .
(2) A.D .L in ds ay :
K ar l Mar x ' s Cap ital , Ox f o r dU n iv e r s ity
Pr e s s ,p . 6
4 -
(g ) N.W . Se n io r :
Po l itic al Ec o n o m y , e ditio n 1 8 5 0 ,p . 24 ,
q u o te db y H.W .B . J o s e p h :
The L ab o u r The o r y o f
V al u e in K ar l Mar x , Ox f o r dU n iv e r s ity Pr e s s ,p
. 1 2 .
(4 )Ric har dWhate l e y :
In tr o du c to r y L e c tu r e s o n Po l itic al
Ec o n o m y , thir de ditio n ,p
.23 4 ,q u o te db y H. W .B .
J o s e p h : The L ab o u r The o r y o f V al u e in K ar l Mar x ,
P. 1 3 .
24 4

THEL AB OU RTHEORY OF V AL U E
(5 )L e tte r to The Tim e s ,J an u ar y 1 9 th,1 9 21 ,q u o te db y
H.W .B .J o s e p h : The L ab o u r The o r y o f V al u e in
K ar l Mar x ,p .1 7 -
(6 )-(1 1 )K ar l Mar x
: D as K ap ital ,Al f r e dK r o l l e ditio n ,
V o l u m e I,p p .1 6 ,4 ,6 ,5 ,5 ,6
.

'
(1 2)A
.D .L in ds ay
: K ar l Mar x ' s Cap ital ,p .7 5 -
(1 3 )&(1 4 )K ar l Mar x
: D as K ap ital ,p p .1 2,1 1 .
(I5 )-(1 7 )H
.W .B .J o s e p h : The L ab o u r The o r y o f V al u e in
K ar l Mar x ,PP-4 2,6 4 ,9 1
(i8 )&(ig )K ar l Mar x
: D as K ap ital ,V o l .IIp .1 4 9 ,V o l .
IIIp
.3 3 1 -
(2o )A
.D .L in ds ay
: K ar l Mar x ' s Cap ital ,p .9 2 .
TOREDFLAG
f o r g e t t h e m f o r a w h i l e w i t h c h o r u s a n d b a l l e t g i r l s . Th i s w a s
t h e f a m o u s " r e s e r v e d r o o m . " Th e y p u t t h e i r h a t s s c o r n f u l l y
o n a s m a l l t a b l e b e f o r e a m i r r o r
.
" W h a t k i n d s o f p e o p l e h a v e
p u t t h e i r h a t s h e r e , " t h e y t h o u g h t .
" Lo o k , V e r a , " N a t a l i a B o r i s o v n a s a i d , - " t h e w h o l e m i r r o r
i s c o v e r e d w i t h i n s c r i p t i o n s . "
" Ah , y e s . Ah e a r t p i e r c e d b y a n a r r o w a n d ' A . S . ' b e n e a t h i t .
I s i t y o u b y a n y c h a n c e , Al e x a n d e r ? "
" M e s d a m e s , " Gr i t z e n k o s a i d , " i t i s n ' t t h e c u s t o m t o r e a d
a l o u d t h e i n s c r i p t i o n s o n m i r r o r s a n d f e n c e s . Y o u m a y r e v e a l
o t h e r p e o p l e ' s s e c r e t s . W h a t w o u l d y o u p r e f e r t o h a v e w i t h
t h e f i s h - s a u c e p r o v e n c a l e o r m u s h r o o m ? "
Gr i t z e n k o s e n t f o r t e a a n d c h a m p a g n e , b u t t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n
f l a g g e d . Th e o f f i c e r s f e l t c o n s t r a i n t b e f o r e t h e l a d i e s o f t h e
r e g i m e n t a n d c o u l d n o t g e t i n t o t h e s p i r i t o f t h e p l a c e
. At l a s t
t h e a c t r e s s M o r g e n s t e r n a r r i v e d . Al l k n e w t h a t s h e l i v e d w i t h
Gr i t z e n k o , t h a t s h e w a s a l a t e b u t r e a l l o v e o f P a v e l I v a n o v i t c h
a n d a l l w e r e i n t e r e s t e d t o s e e h e r . As l i m y o u n g g i r l i n a w h i t e
d r e s s w i t h a h i g h c o l l a r e n t e r e d t h e r o o m . S h e h a d a s i m p l e
f a c e w i t h l a r g e b l u e e y e s t h a t l o o k e d f r i g h t e n e d . Gr i t z e n k o a n d
Ro t b e k r u s h e d t o m e e t h e r .
" Al e x a n d e r N i c o l a i e v i t c h , " C o u n t e s s P a l t o f f a s k e d S a b l i n i n
a l o u d w h i s p e r , " w h a t m u s t w e d o ? M u s t w e s h a k e h a n d s ? "
S a b l i n s h r u g g e d h i s s h o u l d e r s a n d M a t z n e f f h a d t o s a v e t h e
s i t u a t i o n b y i n t r o d u c i n g h e r t o t h e l a d i e s
" M a r i a Fe o d o r o v n a On e g i n e , - C o u n t e s s N a t a l i a B o r i s o v n a
P a l t o f f , V e r a C o n s t a n t i n o v n a S a b l i n , N i n a V a s i l i e v n a v o n Ro t -
b e k . "
Th e l a d i e s c o l d l y s h o o k h a n d s . Ay o u n g m a n i n a b l a c k e v e -
n i n g d r e s s , b a l d i n s p i t e o f h i s y o u t h , m e a n w h i l e s l i p p e d t h r o u g h
t h e d o o r t o t h e p i a n o a n d s t r u c k s e v e r a l c h o r d s . Th e l a d i e s s a t
d o w n o n t h e s o f a , a r r a n g i n g t h e i r d r e s s e s w i t h d i s d a i n ; t h e o f f i -
c e r s s e t t l e d i n a r m c h a i r s a r o u n d t h e m .
Am o m e n t o f s i l e n c e
f o l l o w e d
. Th e s i n g e r d i d n o t f e e l a t e a s e b e f o r e t h e l a d i e s , w h o
w e r e u n c e r e m o n i o u s l y l o o k i n g h e r o v e r a n d e x c h a n g i n g r e m a r k s
a t h e r e x p e n s e .
" P e o p l e a l w a y s s e e k f o r c o n t r a s t s , " C o u n t e s s
P a l t o f f s a i d
[315]
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
q u i e t l y t o V e r a C o n s t a n t i n o v n a . " Th e d a r k Gr i t z e n k o a n d -
l o o k a t h e r - q u i t e a p r e t t y Fi n n i s h g i r l . "
" S h e i s n ' t p r e t t y a t a l l , " s a i d V e r a C o n s t a n t i n o v n a .
Th e s i n g e r t o l d t h e a c c o m p a n i s t b y a g l a n c e t o b e g i n a n d h e
s t r u c k s e v e r a l c h o r d s .
S h e s a n g a q u i e t , s a d s o n g s p e a k i n g o f r e c o l l e c t i o n s o f y o u t h .
I n v o l u n t a r y s a d n e s s w a s r e f l e c t e d i n h e r e y e s . S h e s a n g w e l l
a n d e a c h w o r d c o n v e y e d m u c h p o w e r o f f e e l i n g . B u t s h e
c r e a t e d a n a t m o s p h e r e o f s a d t h o u g h t s w h i c h d i d n o t a g r e e w i t h
t h e m o o d o f t h e v i s i t o r s . Th e y c o n t i n u e d t o w h i s p e r a m o n g
t h e m s e l v e s .
On e g i n a f i n i s h e d h e r s o n g , s a d l y l o o k e d r o u n d u p o n t h e
g u e s t s a n d b e g a n a n o t h e r w h i c h w a s f u l l o f p a s s i o n a t e g r i e f .
V e r a C o n s t a n t i n o v n a w a s i m p r e s s e d b u t t h e r e s t b e g a n t o b e
i m p a t i e n t . Gr i t z e n k o f e l t t h a t On e g i n a d i d n o t m e e t w i t h s u c -
c e s s a n d l e d h e r a w a y . Th e a c c o m p a n i s t f o l l o w e d h e r o u t w i t h
a b e n t h e a d l i k e a n o b e d i e n t d o g .
C o n s t r a i n e d s i l e n c e r e i g n e d i n t h e r o o m .
" Th e y a r e n i c e , t h e s e s o n g s w i t h t e a r s i n t h e m , " s a i d C o u n t e s s
P a l t o f f , " b u t ,
. . . t h e y n e e d a d i f f e r e n t m o o d i n t h e h e a r e r s . "
" Y o u
h a v e c h o s e n t h e w r o n g m o m e n t t o s e r v e t h i s d i s h , P a v e l
I v a n o v i t c h , " M a t z n e f f s a i d
. " I t w o u l d h a v e b e e n e x c e l l e n t a f t e r
d r i n k i n g a g o o d d e a l w h e n t h e h e a r t w o u l d b e o v e r c o m e a n d o n e
w o u l d f e e l i n c l i n e d t o w e e p a n d t o d r e a m . Th e n t h e s e s a d e y e s
a n d t h a t s t r a i n e d , p a s s i o n a t e v o i c e w o u l d h a v e b e e n g o o d . W e
w o u l d n o t e v e n n e e d p a s s i o n a f t e r b e i n g s u r f e i t e d b u t w e w a n t
s o m e t h i n g f i e r y f o r t h e s t a r t . As i t i s w e a r e c o l d
. "
At t h a t m o m e n t t h e d o o r s s w u n g o p e n a n d a l i t t l e b l a c k - a n d -
r e d f i e n d , a s N i n a V a s i l i e v n a c l a s s i f i e d h e r , r a n i n t o t h e r o o m .
I t w a s t h e d i s e u s e I v e t t e
. H e r b l a c k h a i r w a s p i l e d o n h e r h e a d ,
d i a m o n d s w e r e s c a t t e r e d o v e r i t a n d t w o b l a c k a i g r e t t e s r o s e
l i k e h o r n s o v e r h e r b r o w
. H e r t i g h t f i t t i n g b l a c k d r e s s w a s c u t
e x t r e m e l y l o w b o t h i n f r o n t a n d b a c k a n d s h e a p p e a r e d h a l f
n a k e d
. H e r b l a c k s k i r t , c a u g h t u p w i t h r e d r o s e s , b a r e l y r e a c h e d
h e r k n e e s . S i l k s t o c k i n g s , s o t r a n s p a r e n t t h a t t h e y w e r e h a r d l y
v i s i b l e , c o v e r e d h e r l e g s
. I v e t t e t r i p p e d l i g h t l y a m o n g t h e l a d i e s
a n d t h e o f f i c e r s , s a y i n g w o r d s o f g r e e t i n g a n d a l m o s t s i t t i n g
[ 316 ]
TOREDFLAG
d o w n o n t h e i r k n e e s
. S h e f i l l e d t h e r o o m w i t h a s h a r p a r o m a o f
p e r f u m e a n d p a s s i o n . V e r a C o n s t a n t i n o v n a n o t i c e d t h a t t h e
n o s t r i l s o f t h e m e n w e r e q u i v e r i n g a n d t h e i r e y e s b e c o m i n g
d i m m e d .
M a d e m o i s e l l e I v e t t e b e g a n t o t e l l a n a m u s i n g s t o r y , w a l k i n g
a b o u t t h e r o o m , s t r e t c h i n g h e r s e l f i n a n a r m c h a i r a n d r i s i n g
a g a i n t o s i p n e r v o u s l y a g l a s s o f c h a m p a g n e . Th e s t o r y w a s
q u i t e d e c e n t a n d t h e l a d i e s w e r e d i s a p p o i n t e d .
" W h e r e d o e s t h e ` v e r y ' c o m e i n t h e n ? " N i n a V a s i l i e v n a a s k e d
.
" I m m e d i a t e l y , " Gr i t z e n k o a n s w e r e d , - " M a d e m o i s e l l e I v e t t e ,
p l e a s e t e l l u s , ` c ' e s t i c i . "
" Oh !" s a i d I v e t t e , h e r e y e s r o u n d w i t h f e i g n e d h o r r o r , a n d
b e g a n t o s p e a k .
Th e l a d i e s n o w h a d t o s h i e l d t h e i r f a c e s w i t h f a n s s o a s n o t
t o s e e t h e m e n
. Th e y w e r e a s h a m e d o f t h e i r h u s b a n d s .
I v e t t e e n d e d t h e s t o r y , c l a p p e d h e r h a n d s , a n d t h e s a m e a c -
c o m p a n i s t s l i p p e d u p t o t h e p i a n o . S h e b e g a n t o s i n g a r i s q u e
s o n g " l e s n o i s e t t e s . "
" I s h o u l d n e v e r d r e a m t h a t a s o n g c o u l d b e
s o
. . . . " s a i d
N i n a V a s i l i e v n a .
" H o r r i b l e . . . " a d d e d V e r a C o n s t a n t i n o v n a .
" H o w c o r r u p t t h e m e n a r e , " d r a w l e d C o u n t e s s P a l t o f f .
Ro t b e k h a d m a d e e a c h l a d y s i p a t a s e p a r a t e g l a s s a n d h a d
d r u n k i t d o w n a f t e r w a r d s . H e w a s h a l f d r u n k a n d h u m m e d
" ` I l c u e i l l i t s i x n o i s e t t e s d a n s s o n a p r e s m i d i
. . . . '
S a s h a ,
c o u l d y o u d o i t ? S i x ? I c o u l d n ' t . "
" S t o p , P i k !
Y o u a r e q u i t e m a d !" s a i d C o u n t e s s P a l t o f f .
" P o o r N i n a i s a l m o s t f a i n t i n g . "
" P e t i a , I s h a l l l e a v e i f y o u d o n ' t s t o p t h i s i m m e d i a t e l y , " N i n a
V a s i l i e v n a s a i d w i t h t e a r s i n h e r e y e s .
" S i x !On l y t o t h i n k o f i t !Q u a t r e h a p p e n e d , b u t s i x . . .
.
H e m u s t h a v e b e e n a s m a r t f e l l o w t h i s C o l i n !"
XX
TH E s u p p e r p a s s e d m e r r i l y
. Ev e r y o n e j o k e d , l a u g h e d a n d t o l d
a n e c d o t e s .
[317 ]
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
" N o , f o r h e a v e n s s a k e , " e x c l a i m e d t h e l a d i e s , - " d o n ' t d o t t h e
` i ' s , ' i t ' s q u i t e c l e a r e n o u g h . "
B u t t h e y i m m e d i a t e l y p u t t h e s e d o t s t h e m s e l v e s . N i n a V a s i -
l i e v n a p r e t e n d e d t o b e n a i v e a n d p u t i m p o s s i b l e q u e s t i o n s . I t
w a s Ro t b e k ' s t u r n t h i s t i m e t o s t o p h e r b y e x c l a m a t i o n s , a l -
t h o u g h h e w a s h a l f c o n s c i o u s f r o m d r i n k .
" N i n a ! S h a m e !"
S t e p o c h k a o u t d i d h i m s e l f . S a b l i n t o l d a n e c d o t e s i n Ru s s i a n
a n d i n Fr e n c h . Th e l a d i e s w e r e n o w f e e l i n g q u i t e a t h o m e a n d
t h e a t m o s p h e r e o f t h e " r e s e r v e d r o o m " s u r r o u n d i n g t h e m m a d e
t h e m a p p e a r i n a n e w a n d a l l u r i n g l i g h t t o t h e i r h u s b a n d s . Th e
f r u i t h a d a l r e a d y b e e n f i n i s h e d , a n d t h e w a i t e r s h a d p l a c e d
c h a i r s f o r t h e t z i g a n e c h o i r b u t i t d i d n o t a p p e a r . Th e M a i t r e
d ' h o t e l t w i c e a p p r o a c h e d Gr i t z e n k o , w h i s p e r i n g s o m e t h i n g i n
h i s e a r . Gr i t z e n k o l e f t t h e r o o m a n d r e t u r n e d f l u s h e d a n d l o o k -
i n g a n g r y .
" W h a t ' s w r o n g ? " a s k e d S t e p o c h k a
.
" S t e s h a d o e s n ' t w a n t t o s i n g .
S h e s a y s t h a t t o o m a n y p e o -
p l e h a v e b e e n k i l l e d t o d a y . "
" H o w s t u p i d o f h e r . W h o i s s h e ? I s s h e a
` r e d ? " ' a s k e d
N a t a l i a B o r i s o v n a
.
" N o , s i m p l y a f o o l . S h e w i l l c o m e a l l r i g h t
. I t ' s m e r e c o -
q u e t t i s h n e s s . S h e w a n t s t o m a k e h e r s e l f m o r e h i g h l y v a l u e d
. "
Th e s i n g e r s e n t e r e d t h e r o o m a t t h a t m o m e n t a s i f t o p r o v e
t h e c o r r e c t n e s s o f h i s w o r d s . Ei g h t t z i g a n e w o m e n c a m e f i r s t
.
Al l w e r e d a r k , u g l y , w i t h b l a c k h a i r a n d l a r g e m y s t e r i o u s e y e s .
Th e y w e r e c l a d i n a m i x t u r e o f b a l l d r e s s e s a n d t h e b r i g h t c o l -
o u r e d r a g s o f a g y p s y c a m p w i t h b l a c k l a c e p e l e r i n e s . Th e m e n
c a m e b e h i n d , s o m e i n p l a i n c l o t h i n g , o t h e r s i n e m b r o i d e r e d
g y p s y j a c k e t s
. S a n d r o Da v i d o f f s t e p p e d f o r w a r d h o l d i n g a
g u i t a r w i t h a w h i t e r i b b o n a t t a c h e d t o i t .
Th e l a d i e s l o o k e d a t t h e g y p s i e s w h o b o l d l y r e t u r n e d t h e i r
g a z e , l a u g h i n g a n d t a l k i n g a m o n g t h e m s e l v e s , t h e m e n s t o o d b e -
h i n d , u g l y , s e r i o u s a n d w i t h a n a i r o f i m p o r t a n c e a b o u t t h e m
.
Th e s t o u t , b a l d S a n d r o w h o d i d n o t l o o k l i k e a g y p s y b e g a n
b y s i n g i n g i n a d e e p v o i c e a w e l l k n o w n r o m a n c e , t h e c h o r u s
a c c o m p a n y i n g h i m m e l o d i o u s l y
.
[ 318
]
TOREDFLAG
Ad a s h i n g d a n c e s o n g f o l l o w e d . Th e g y p s i e s d a n c e d i n w i l d
f r e n z y o n e a f t e r a n o t h e r , s h r i e k i n g t o t h e r h y t h m o f t h e s o n g .
S o n g f o l l o w e d s o n g , s o m e i n Ru s s i a n , o t h e r s i n g y p s y d i a l e c t .
Th e a i r w a s b e c o m i n g h o t a n d c l o s e i n t h e r o o m a n d S t e p o c h k a
p r o p o s e d t o o p e n t h e w i n d o w .
M a t z n e f f p u l l e d t h e c u r t a i n s a s i d e , a n d t h e p a l e m o r n i n g l i g h t
p e n e t r a t e d t h e r o o m . S m a l l w o o d e n h o u s e s a n d d a r k t r e e s c o v -
e r e d b y s o f t s n o w w e r e s e e n o u t s i d e .
Th r e e p e a s a n t s l e d g e s
p a s s e d d o w n t h e s t r e e t
. W o m e n w r a p p e d i n l a r g e g r e y s h a w l s
w e r e t a k i n g m i l k t o t h e t o w n .
Th e w i n d o w w a s o p e n e d a n d t h e c o l d a i r s t r e a m e d i n t o t h e
r o o m b r i n g i n g t h e m o r n i n g f r e s h n e s s w i t h i t .
" Th e l a d i e s w i l l c a t c h c o l d , " s a i d S t e p o c h k a .
Af r a g m e n t o f d i s t a n t s i n g i n g , h a r m o n i o u s a n d m a j e s t i c a l l y
s a d , s u d d e n l y f l o a t e d i n t o t h e r o o m . Al l s t a r t e d a n d l i s t e n e d .
Th e g y p s i e s r u s h e d t o t h e w i n d o w . Th e s i n g i n g c a m e n e a r e r
a n d n e a r e r . Th e l a d i e s w e r e s t a r t l e d . Al l r o s e a n d l o o k e d
t h r o u g h t h e w i n d o w .
Ah u g e b l a c k c r o w d o f p e o p l e w a s c o m i n g d o w n t h e s t r e e t .
Fo u r s i m p l e w o o d e n c o f f i n s c o v e r e d b y w r e a t h s w i t h r e d r i b b o n s
s w a y e d o v e r t h e i r h e a d s .
" Y o u h a v e f a l l e n i n d e s p e r a t e s t r i f e
Th e v i c t i m s o f l o v e f o r t h e p e o p l e
Fo r t h e i r f r e e d o m , h o n o u r a n d l i f e
Y o u h a v e g i v e n a l l t h a t y o u h a d "
y o u n g m a l e a n d f e m a l e v o i c e s s a n g i n t h e c r o w d
.
" Th e f u n e r a l o f t h e v i c t i m s o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n , " S t e s h a s a i d
s a d l y , - " y o u r v i c t i m s , g e n t l e m e n !" s h e s h r i e k e d a n d r u s h e d o u t
o f t h e r o o m .
Th e c h o r u s f o l l o w e d h e r .
" W h a t i s i t ? W h a t i s i t ? " S t e p o c h k a w a s r e p e a t i n g .
" Ta k e t h e l a d i e s h o m e , I w i l l p a y t h e b i l l , " s a i d Gr i t z e n k o .
" H o w d i s g u s t i n g !" m u t t e r e d M a t z n e f f .
" Th e y t h i n k t h e y ' l l p r o v e s o m e t h i n g b y a l l t h i s , " s a i d S a b l i n ,
h e l p i n g h i s w i f e t o p u t o n h e r s a b l e c o a t .
Ro t b e k w a s a l s o h e l p i n g h i s w i f e w i t h h e r c o a t . S h e w a s
[319 1
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
c r y i n g
. V e r a C o n s t a n t i n o v n a l o o k e d p a l e , a n d C o u n t e s s P a l t o f f
l a u g h e d n e r v o u s l y .
" Th e v i l l a i n s , " s h e w a s s a y i n g t h r o u g h f i t s o f l a u g h t e r , " t h e y
h a v e r e j e c t e d Go d , r e l i g i o n , e v e r y t h i n g a n d a r e p l e a s e d a b o u t i t .
V i c t i m s ! S t r i f e ! Gr e a t Go d !
To o f e w h a v e b e e n e x e c u t e d !"
Th e c r o w d h a d p a s s e d t h e r e s t a u r a n t a n d w a s d i s a p p e a r i n g
d o w n t h e s t r e e t . N o o n e h a d c l o s e d t h e w i n d o w a n d t h e w o r d s
o f t h e t o u c h i n g m e l o d y p e n e t r a t e d f e e b l y i n t o t h e r o o m , m i n g l e d
w i t h t h e f r o s t y m o r n i n g a i r .
" Th e s c o u n d r e l s !" M a t z n e f f s a i d o n c e m o r e t h r o u g h h i s t e e t h .
XXI
ON t h e 6 t h o f Oc t o b e r 19 0 5S a b l i n r o d e i n t o t h e y a r d o f a f a c -
t o r y i n t h e s u b u r b s o f t h e t o w n . Tw e n t y m o u n t e d t r o o p e r s a c -
c o m p a n i e d h i m . Th i n c o l d r a i n w a s p a t t e r i n g s l o w l y . Th e
C o s s a c k s , w h o m S a b l i n h a d c o m e t o r e l i e v e , w e r e p r e p a r i n g t o
d e p a r t . Ta l l , m u s c u l a r m e n l e d t h e i r b a y h o r s e s o u t o f a b a r n
a n d l i n e d u p i n t h e y a r d . Ay o u n g C o s s a c k C a p t a i n w i t h a l i t t l e
p o i n t e d r e d b e a r d w h i c h s p a r k l e d w i t h d r o p s o f r a i n s t o o d i n
t h e d o o r w a y o f t h e f a c t o r y o f f i c e a n d w a i t e d f o r S a b l i n .
" S o y o u h a v e f o u n d o u r h o l e , C a p t a i n , " h e s a i d , s h a k i n g h a n d s
a n d g i v i n g h i s n a m e . " Ar o t t e n p l a c e . Ev e r y t h i n g i s q u i e t a n d
n o s i g n s o f a s t r i k e . M o s t l y w o m e n w o r k h e r e . At a b l e i s r e -
s e r v e d f o r y o u a t t h e o f f i c e a n d t h e r e i s q u i t e a n i c e g i r l w o r k -
i n g t h e r e . S h e ' s a s t a u n c h m o n a r c h i s t . Y o u c a n p a s s t h e t i m e
q u i t e a g r e e a b l y i f y o u c h o o s e . I t i s a l i t t l e a w k w a r d t h a t y o u
w i l l h a v e t o t a k e y o u r m e a l s w i t h t h e m a n a g e r b u t h e i s a v e r y
n i c e m a n - a S w e d e - a n d a m o s t a m i a b l e h o s t
. H e s e e m s t o b e
c l e v e r a n d h i g h l y e d u c a t e d . "
Th e C o s s a c k c o r p o r a l s h o w e d S a b l i n ' s m e n w h e r e t o p u t
t h e i r h o r s e s . Th e C o s s a c k s m o u n t e d .
" W e l l , g o o d - b y e a n d g o o d l u c k
. I s h a l l h a v e t o r e l i e v e y o u
t o m o r r o w - a n u n f o r t u n a t e a n d u n p l e a s a n t f a c t f o r m e . Th e
w h o l e o f o u r r e g i m e n t i s o u t d o i n g p a t r o l w o r k . La s t w e e k I
s p e n t t h r e e d a y s a t t h e P u t i l o f f w o r k s . I t w a s d i s g u s t i n g . Th e
w o r k m e n w e r e o n s t r i k e b u t w e r e q u i t e f r i e n d l y w i t h u s . Th e
w h o l e s h o w i s s o s t u p i d !"
32 0 1
TOREDFLAG
Th e C a p t a i n l e a p t i n t o h i s s a d d l e a n d r o d e o u t o f t h e y a r d
f o l l o w e d b y h i s C o s s a c k s
. S a b l i n s a w t h e m l e a v e , l o o k e d r o u n d
t h e q u a r t e r s o f h i s m e n a n d w e n t u p a n a r r o w s t o n e s t a i r c a s e
l e a d i n g t o t h e o f f i c e .
Th e o f f i c e w a s i n a l a r g e r o o m w i t h t h r e e w i n d o w s , t h e w a l l s
c o v e r e d b y o i l p a i n t . Fi v e t a b l e s s t o o d i n i t
. At t h r e e o f t h e m
s a t y o u n g f e l l o w s i n p l a i n c l o t h e s w h o w e r e w r i t i n g b u s i l y
. Th e
f o u r t h w a s o c c u p i e d b y a n i c e l o o k i n g g i r l w i t h s l i g h t l y d i s -
h e v e l l e d h a i r f a l l i n g i n w a y w a r d l o c k s o v e r h e r e a r s , c h e e k s
a n d b r o w . S h e h a d a p r o v o k i n g l y t u r n e d u p n o s e , s m a l l b e a u t i -
f u l t e e t h a n d l a r g e h a z e l e y e s w i t h a b o l d s p a r k l e i n t h e m
. Th e
f i f t h w a s l e f t f r e e f o r S a b l i n
. H e b o w e d t o t h e c o m p a n y .
" H o w d o y o u d o , " t h e y o u n g g i r l s a i d q u i c k l y , " w e a r e s o
g l a d t h a t y o u h a v e c o m e
. B o r i s N i c o l a i e v i t c h , t h e C o s s a c k
o f f i c e r , q u i t e s c a r e d u s b y s a y i n g t h a t h e w o u l d l e a v e a t t h e a p -
p o i n t e d t i m e w i t h o u t w a i t i n g t o b e r e l i e v e d
. W e a r e s o a f r a i d
t o b e l e f t u n p r o t e c t e d . P l e a s e , w h a t i s y o u r n a m e ? "
" Al e x a n d e r N i c o l a i e v i t c h , " s a i d S a b l i n .
" Th i s i s y o u r t a b l e , Al e x a n d e r N i c o l a i e v i t c h . I c a n b r i n g
y o u a b o o k i f y o u l i k e . B u t I d o n ' t k n o w w h e t h e r i t w o u l d i n -
t e r e s t y o u : ` P r i n c e S e r e b r i a n n y . ' W h a t a n i c e n a m e y o u h a v e ,
Al e x a n d e r N i c o l a i e v i t c h . M i n e i s An n a I a k o v l e v n a , b u t I p r e -
f e r t o b e c a l l e d s i m p l y N e l l y . Do y o u l i k e t o g o t o t h e t h e a t r e ? "
" Y e s , " s a i d S a b l i n .
" I a l s o . I l i k e t h e b a l l e t , t h e o p e r a , b u t b e s t o f a l l t h e d r a m a
.
I h a v e s e e n t h e ` Th r e e S i s t e r s ' a t t h e M o s c o w t h e a t r e
. H o w
b e a u t i f u l i t w a s !Or ` Ts a r Fe d o r I v a n n o v i t c h ' a t S u v o r i n ' s
.
Or l e n e f f p l a y e d . C h e k h o f f i s m y f a v o u r i t e w r i t e r
. W h o m d o
y o u l i k e b e s t , C h e k h o f f o r Go r k y ? "
Th e q u e s t i o n w a s l e f t u n a n s w e r e d .
" I t h a s b e c o m e d i f f i c u l t t o l i v e n o w , w i t h t h e s e s t r i k e s . W h o
n e e d s t h e m ? Th e y a r e n o t u s e f u l t o a n y o n e . Ou r f a c t o r y h a s
n o t b e e n o n s t r i k e f o r a s i n g l e m o m e n t . Th a t i s w h y w e a r e s o
h a t e d i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d . S t u d e n t s c a m e h e r e a n d c a l l e d u s
a l l s o r t s o f b a d n a m e s b u t w e t h r e w t h e m o u t o u r s e l v e s a n d
t h e n t h e C o s s a c k s a r r i v e d . W h a t a n i c e m a n t h e i r o f f i c e r B o r i s
N i c o l a i e v i t c h i s
. "
[32 1]
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
S a b l i n l i s t e n e d t o h e r c h a t t e r a n d c o n t i n u e d t o s i t l o o k i n g
o u t t h e w i n d o w , o n t h e l o n g n a r r o w y a r d . Al o w b a r n , c o v e r e d
b y s h e e t i r o n , s t o o d a t t h e o p p o s i t e e n d . Th e r e d r o o f w a s
g l i s t e n i n g w i t h m o i s t u r e .
Da r k k i t c h e n g a r d e n s c o v e r e d b y
g l o o m y l o o k i n g c a b b a g e s t u m p s , c o u l d b e s e e n b e h i n d t h e b a r n
.
W e t , b r o w n f i e l d s s t r e t c h e d f a r t h e r o n a n d a f o r e s t l o o m e d i n
t h e d i s t a n c e . Fo g f l o a t e d o v e r t h e e a r t h , a t r a i n s p e d t h r o u g h
t h e f i e l d s a n d d e n s e w h i t e s t e a m f i r s t s t r e t c h e d u p i n l a r g e c u r l -
i n g c l o u d s , t h e n b r o k e a n d f l e w l o w o v e r t h e e a r t h . Ev e r y t h i n g
w a s d a m p , g r e y l o o k i n g a n d g l o o m y .
Am a n d r e s s e d i n a b l a c k w e t o v e r c o a t a n d b l a c k s o f t f e l t h a t
w h i c h s h o n e f r o m t h e r a i n , s t o p p e d i n t h e s t r e e t b e f o r e t h e g a t e s ,
l o o k e d i n t o t h e y a r d f o r s o m e t i m e i n i n d e c i s i o n a n d t h e n e n -
t e r e d a n d t u r n e d t o w a r d t h e b a r n . As o l d i e r , K u s h i n n i k o f f ,
c a m e o u t . S a b l i n c o u l d s e e h i s h a n d s o m e r o u n d f a c e w i t h a
b l a c k m o u s t a c h e . H e w a s w i t h o u t a n o v e r c o a t i n a n u n b u t t o n e d
t u n i c .
H e a s s u m e d a p i c t u r e s q u e a t t i t u d e a n d l i t a c i g a r e t t e .
Th e m a n i n b l a c k a p p r o a c h e d h i m a n d b e g a n t o s a y s o m e t h i n g .
K u s h i n n i k o f f l i s t e n e d a t t e n t i v e l y
. Th e m a n i n b l a c k p r o d u c e d
a s h e e t o f p a p e r f r o m h i s p o c k e t a n d t h e y b e g a n t o r e a d t o -
g e t h e r . K u s h i n n i k o f f l a u g h e d
. Th e n h e t o o k t h e s h e e t a n d r e -
t u r n e d t o t h e b a r n . Th e m a n i n b l a c k q u i c k l y w a l k e d o u t o f
t h e y a r d .
" H e h a s g i v e n h i m s o m e p r o p a g a n d a , " t h o u g h t S a b l i n a n d
r a n d o w n t h e s t a i r s .
Th e y a r d w a s e m p t y
. H e e n t e r e d t h e b a r n
. S a d d l e d h o r s e s
s t o o d t h e r e a n d p e a c e f u l l y m u n c h e d h a y . Ag u a r d d o z e d i n a
c o r n e r . S a b l i n s e n t h i m t o b r i n g t h e s e c t i o n c o r p o r a l a n d K u -
s h i n n i k o f f . Th e c o r p o r a l a p p e a r e d l o o k i n g s l e e p y a n d d i s c o n -
t e n t e d . K u s h i n n i k o f f s a l u t e d s m a r t l y a n d b o l d l y l o o k e d a t
S a b l i n w i t h h i s b r i g h t g r e y e y e s .
" K u s h i n n i k o f f , " S a b l i n s a i d . " Ac i v i l i a n w a s h e r e a f e w m i n -
u t e s a g o a n d g a v e y o u a s h e e t o f p a p e r . W h e r e i s i t ? Gi v e i t
u p i m m e d i a t e l y . "
" N o , Y o u r H o n o u r , I h a v e s e e n n o p a p e r . N o o n e h a s b e e n
h e r e , " K u s h i n n i k o f f a n s w e r e d , g r o w i n g p a l e .
" W h y d o y o u t e l l l i e s !" S a b l i n s a i d . " W h y ? I s a w y o u .
[32 2 ]
TOREDFLAG
Y o u c a m e o u t o f t h e b a r n a n d l i t a c i g a r e t t e
. Ac i v i l i a n d r e s s e d
i n a b l a c k o v e r c o a t c a m e u p t o y o u a n d g a v e y o u a s h e e t o f
p a p e r
. Y o u r e a d i t t o g e t h e r , y o u l a u g h e d a n d h e w e n t a w a y . "
" N o , Y o u r H o n o u r , " K u s h i n n i k o f f a n s w e r e d , - " t h i s d i d n o t
h a p p e n . "
" Am I l y i n g t h e n ? "
" I d o n ' t k n o w , Y o u r H o n o u r , o n l y I h a v e s e e n n o c i v i l i a n
. I
c a n s w e a r t o i t . "
" Ah , y o u v i l l a i n ! Y o u l i e !
I s h a l l h a v e y o u c o u r t - m a r -
t i a l l e d !"
" As y o u p l e a s e , Y o u r H o n o u r , " K u s h i n n i k o f f s a i d h u m b l y .
" S e a r c h t h e s c o u n d r e l !"
Th e c o r p o r a l t u r n e d o u t h i s p o c k e t s , s e a r c h e d u n d e r h i s c l o t h -
i n g .
" Th e r e i s n o t h i n g , Y o u r H o n o u r , " h e r e p o r t e d .
" S e a r c h o v e r a l l t h e q u a r t e r s . Ar r e s t t h i s s c o u n d r e l a n d s e n d
h i m b a c k t o t h e r e g i m e n t . H e i s t o b e k e p t u n d e r g u a r d u n t i l
I r e t u r n . Li a r ! Re c e i v e p r o p a g a n d a . . . . "
" N o , Y o u r H o n o u r , I c a n s w e a r t o i t . I t ' s a s y o u l i k e , y o u
c a n h a v e m e s e n t e n c e d , y o u ' r e a n o f f i c e r
. . . . " K u s h i n n i k o f f
s a i d , g r o w i n g d e a t h l y p a l e
.
" S i l e n c e !" s h o u t e d S a b l i n .
W o r k i n g m e n a n d w o m e n c r o w d e d i n t h e y a r d a t t r a c t e d b y
t h e n o i s e . S a b l i n p u l l e d h i m s e l f t o g e t h e r a n d r e t u r n e d t o t h e
o f f i c e . H e w a s b o i l i n g w i t h i n d i g n a t i o n . H e c o u l d n o t h a v e
b e e n m i s t a k e n . I t w a s K u s h i n n i k o f f . H e c l e a r l y r e c o l l e c t e d
h o w h e h a d t h o u g h t t h a t h e h a d a m o s t t y p i c a l l y Ru s s i a n f a c e
.
" At a n y r a t e , " h e d e c i d e d , - " I h a v e w i t n e s s e s . Tw o o f t h e
c l e r k s a n d An n a I a k o v l e v n a s a t a t t h e w i n d o w s , t h e y m u s t h a v e
s e e n t h e c i v i l i a n i n b l a c k . " H e r a i s e d h i s e y e s . Al l t h e o f f i c e
p e o p l e w e r e c r o w d i n g a t t h e w i n d o w s a n d d i s p l a y e d a m a r k e d
i n t e r e s t i n t h e p r o c e e d i n g s . Th e y m u s t h a v e s e e n t h e p r e c e d i n g
i n c i d e n t .
" Ge n t l e m e n , " h e s a i d e n t e r i n g t h e o f f i c e , " s e v e r a l m i n u t e s
a g o a c i v i l i a n e n t e r e d t h e y a r d a n d t a l k e d t o a s o l d i e r
. Di d y o u
s e e t h i s ? "
[ 32 3 ]
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
" W e h a v e s e e n n o t h i n g , " s a i d o n e o f t h e y o u t h s a s h e s a t
d o w n a t h i s t a b l e a n d r e s u m e d h i s w o r k .
" W e d i d n ' t l o o k o u t s i d e , " c o n f i r m e d a n o t h e r .
" An n a I a k o v l e v n a , a n d y o u , h a v e y o u a l s o s e e n n o t h i n g ? "
An n a I a k o v l e v n a b e c a m e c o n f u s e d a n d b l u s h e d
.
" I d i d n ' t l o o k o u t o f t h e w i n d o w , Al e x a n d e r N i c o l a i e v i t c h , I
w a s t a l k i n g t o y o u .
Th e r e i s n o t h i n g i n t e r e s t i n g o u t i n t h e
y a r d . P e r h a p s s o m e o n e d i d c o m e b u t I d i d n ' t n o t i c e i t . "
S a b l i n f e l t t h a t a l l o f t h e m h a d s e e n i t b u t t h a t t h e y s i d e d
w i t h t h e s o l d i e r a n d t h e m a n i n b l a c k b e c a u s e t h e y f e a r e d t h e m ,
b u t d i d n o t f e a r h i m , a n o f f i c e r . H e f e l t d i s g u s t e d
. H e u n -
b u c k l e d h i s s w o r d , t o o k o f f h i s g r e a t - c o a t , h u n g t h e m o n a p e g
n e a r h i s t a b l e a n d s a t d o w n . H e p r o d u c e d a Fr e n c h b o o k h e
h a d b r o u g h t a n d f e i g n e d t o r e a d i t .
Th e c l e r k s c o n t i n u e d t o
s c r i b b l e
. An n a I a k o v l e v n a w a s s i g h i n g a n d a t l a s t g r e w b o l d e r
.
" W h a t a r e y o u r e a d i n g , Al e x a n d e r N i c o l a i e v i t c h ? " s h e a s k e d
.
" Ab o o k , " h e r e p l i e d .
" Oh , I l o v e t o r e a d b o o k s . B u t I p r e f e r t h e o l d l i t e r a t u r e t o
t h e m o d e r n
. Th e r e c a n b e n o t h i n g b e t t e r t h a n t h e " Ob r i v " o f
Go n t c h a r o f f
. An d w h o m d o y o u l i k e b e s t , Le o n i d An d r e i e f f o r
Tu r g e n i e f f ? "
S a b l i n d i d n o t a n s w e r . Th e c l e r k s g i g g l e d a n d s c r i b b l e d m o r e
n o i s i l y .
An n a I a k o v l e v n a g r e w r e d , b u r i e d h e r s e l f i n a h u g e
o f f i c e b o o k , b u t c o u l d n o t k e e p s i l e n t .
" Do y o u k n o w b o o k k e e p i n g ? " s h e a s k e d .
S a b l i n d i d n o t a n s w e r . Th e c l e r k s g i g g l e d a g a i n a n d An n a
I a k o v l e v n a l o o k e d o f f e n d e d . " H a n g h e r !" t h o u g h t S a b l i n .
XXI I
ALL l e f t a t t h r e e o ' c l o c k . Th e c l e r k s i n s i l e n c e a n d w i t h o u t
b o w i n g , An n a I a k o v l e v n a s t r e t c h i n g o u t h e r l i t t l e h a n d a n d s a y -
i n g c a p r i c i o u s l y : " Au r e v o i r , u n t i l t o m o r r o w .
Aj a n i t o r s w e p t u p t h e o f f i c e a n d o p e n e d t h e w i n d o w . Ea r l y
a u t u m n d u s k w a s f a l l i n g o u t s i d e . Th e f a c t o r y c o n t i n u e d t o
w o r k n o i s i l y a n d t h e w h o l e b u i l d i n g s h o o k n e r v o u s l y
. Al a m p
w i t h a g r e e n s h a d e w a s l i t o n S a b l i n ' s t a b l e
.
At s i x
o ' c l o c k t h e j a n i t o r a p p e a r e d a g a i n .
[ 32 4 ]
TOREDFLAG
" Th e m a n a g e r i n v i t e s y o u t o d i n e w i t h h i m , s i r
. I w i l l s h o w
y o u t h e w a y . "
N o t i c i n g t h a t S a b l i n m a d e a m o v e m e n t t o w a r d s h i s g r e a t -
c o a t a n d s w o r d h e a d d e d :
" Le a v e i t h e r e , s i r , a l l w i l l b e i n o r d e r ,
I w i l l s e e t o i t p e r s o n a l l y . "
H e l e d S a b l i n u p a n d d o w n t h e s t a i r s a n d c o r r i d o r s a n d
s t o p p e d b e f o r e a d o o r w h i c h h e o p e n e d . S a b l i n e n t e r e d a
s p a c i o u s h a l l a n d p a s s e d i n t o a s t u d y w h e r e a c l e a n - s h a v e n b a l d
l i t t l e m a n r o l l e d u p t o h i m o n h i s s h o r t t h i c k l e g s . H e w a s e x -
t r e m e l y s t o u t .
" I a m g l a d , s i n c e r e l y g l a d t o s e e y o u , " h e s a i d e n v e l o p i n g
S a b l i n ' s h a n d i n h i s f i n g e r s , w a r m a n d s o f t a s i f s w o l l e n w i t h
f a t . " P l e a s e c o m e w i t h m e t o t h e d i n i n g r o o m , e v e r y t h i n g i s
r e a d y
. Th e ' s t a r k a ' i s w a i t i n g f o r u s
. "
H e s p o k e p e r f e c t Ru s s i a n w i t h a h a r d l y n o t i c e a b l e a c c e n t
.
Th e d i n i n g r o o m w a s a g r e e a b l y w a r m
. W o o d c r a c k l e d
p l e a s a n t l y i n a h u g e f i r e - p l a c e , a s h a d e d l a m p h u n g f r o m t h e
c e i l i n g , l i g h t i n g a t a b l e c o v e r e d b y a f a u l t l e s s l y c l e a n s t a r c h e d
c l o t h a n d l a i d f o r t w o p e r s o n s
. Ab i g f a t s m o k e d " s i g , " p i n k
s a l m o n c u t i n t h i n s l i c e s , m u s h r o o m s i n s a u c e , s a u s a g e s a n d h a m
d e c o r a t e d t h e t a b l e
.
" I l i k e g o o d f o o d , C a p t a i n , " s a i d t h e m a n a g e r , p o u r i n g y e l l o w
v o d k a i n t o s m a l l c r y s t a l g l a s s e s . " I a m a S w e d e . W e h a v e
t h e s a m e c u s t o m a s y o u r s t o p r o v o k e a p p e t i t e b e f o r e t h e d i n n e r
a n d I s p e c i a l l y r e c o m m e n d t h i s s i g t o y o u r a t t e n t i o n . I c h o s e
i t p e r s o n a l l y w h e n i t w a s a l i v e a n d h a v e h a d i t s m o k e d . I t
t a s t e s l i k e c r e a m . "
Os c a r Os c a r o v i t c h p l a c e d t h e b a c k o f t h e s i g w h i c h w a s c o v -
e r e d w i t h a t h i n l a y e r o f f a t o n S a b l i n ' s p l a t e
. I t w a s r e a l l y
e x c e l l e n t .
" I a l s o r e c o m m e n d t h e s a l m o n , I l i k e o u r n o r t h e r n f i s h , "
Os c a r Os c a r o v i t c h s a i d a s h e p o u r e d o u t a s e c o n d g l a s s .
Th e a m i a b l e h o s p i t a l i t y o f t h i s s t o u t l i t t l e m a n a n d t h e c o s y a t -
m o s p h e r e c r e a t e d b y t h e v o d k a , t h e " z a k o u s k a s " a n d t h e c r a c k -
l i n g o f t h e w o o d i n t h e f i r e p l a c e d i s p e l l e d S a b l i n ' s g l o o m y m o o d .
H e a t e w i t h a p p e t i t e t h e s i m p l e b u t g o o d f o o d t h a t w a s s e r v e d
.
B o t h l i t c i g a r s a f t e r d i n n e r . S a b l i n w a n t e d t o r i s e b u t Os c a r
( 32 5 1
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
Os c a r o v i t c h s t o p p e d h i m a n d s a i d , r o l l i n g u p a n a r m c h a i r t o
t h e f i r e p l a c e :
" S t a y a l i t t l e l o n g e r , C a p t a i n
. Ev e r y t h i n g i s q u i e t i n m y f a c -
t o r y
. Th e s t r i k e s a n d w o r k m e n ' s r i o t s a r i s e o n l y b e c a u s e o f a
m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s i t u a t i o n b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t . Th e y
d i r e c t t h e i r b l o w s a t t h e s h a f t s a n d n o t a t t h e h o r s e . I t i s a l l
t h e r e s u l t o f a p o l i c y w h i c h a i m s a t t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e Or -
t h o d o x f a i t h a n d a u t o c r a c y i n Ru s s i a a n d a t t h e e n s l a v e m e n t o f
t h e Ru s s i a n p e o p l e
.
" B u t t h e r e v o l u t i o n c o m e s t o u s u n d e r t h e b a n n e r o f l i b e r t y , "
s a i d S a b l i n .
Os c a r Os c a r o v i t c h p l a c e d h i s w a r m s o f t h a n d o n S a b l i n ' s k n e e
a n d s a i d , p u f f i n g a t h i s c i g a r
" Do y o u k n o w w h a t t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s ? "
" I h a v e h e a r d s o m e t h i n g a b o u t i t , b u t I k n o w n o t h i n g d e f i -
n i t e , " a n s w e r e d S a b l i n .
" I t ' s g o o d t h a t y o u d o n ' t k n o w
. Op i n i o n s d i f f e r a b o u t i t .
S o m e w a n t t o s e e i n i t s o m e t h i n g o f a h i g h e r o r d e r t h a n e v e n
C h r i s t i a n i t y , s o m e t h i n g a l l - h u m a n
. Th e y w a n t t o c r e a t e n o t a
S t a t e , n o t N a t i o n s , b u t s o m e t h i n g p e c u l i a r w h i c h w o u l d e m b r a c e
t h e w h o l e w o r l d . .
. i n o t h e r w o r d s a t o w e r o f B a b e l , t u r n e d
i n s i d e o u t
. I t h i n k o f i t d i f f e r e n t l y
. I d o n ' t k n o w w h e t h e r y o u
a r e a b e l i e v e r , C a p t a i n , b u t i t s e e m s t o m e t h a t t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l
i s a t e a c h i n g o f t h e An t i c h r i s t
. Th e i d e a s w i l l b r i n g t h e e n d o f
t h e w o r l d a n d t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f c i v i l i s a t i o n
. Ou r g o v e r n m e n t
i s s h o r t s i g h t e d a n d d o e s n o t s e e t h e e v i l
. Ei g h t h o u r s w o r k p e r
d a y , p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e w o r k m e n i n t h e m a n a g e m e n t o f i n -
d u s t r i e s a n d i n t h e g o v e r n m e n t a r e b e i n g c l a i m e d
. Th i s i s e x -
c e l l e n t a n d n o t s o t e r r i b l e a f t e r a l l
. B u t w h y d o t h e y s p e a k o f
w o r k m e n o n l y a n d n o t o f p e a s a n t s ? "
" Th e y g i v e a d m i s s i o n t o a l l , " s a i d S a b l i n
.
" N o , C a p t a i n , i t w o u l d s t i l l h a v e b e e n p o s s i b l e t o f i g h t t h e m ,
h a d t h a t b e e n s o
. B u t t h e y e x c l u d e e v e r y o n e e x c e p t t h e m s e l v e s
.
Un i v e r s a l , d i r e c t , e q u a l a n d s e c r e t v o t i n g h a s b e e n c r e a t e d f o r
t h e m
.
On e m u s t k n o w t h e i r l e a d e r s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e w h o l e
d a n g e r o f s u c h v o t i n g
. W i l l y o u v o t e ? N o , b e c a u s e i t d i s g u s t s
y o u
. W i l l a t r a d e s m a n v o t e ? N o , h e i s t o o l a z y f o r t h a t
. W i l l
f 32 6 1
TOREDFLAG
a p e a s a n t v o t e ? N o , h e i s t o o b u s y a n d i t a l l a p p e a r s t o b e t o o
d i s t a n t f r o m h i s v i l l a g e . W h o w i l l v o t e t h e n ? P r o l e t a r i a n s ,
h o o l i g a n s , i d l e r s a n d m e n o f a s i m i l a r k i n d . Fo r w h o m w i l l
t h e y v o t e ? Fo r t h e p e o p l e t h a t s h a l l b e p o i n t e d o u t t o t h e m .
Th e y w i l l v o t e a l i s t o f t h e l e a d e r s a p p o i n t e d b y t h e p a r t y a n d
t h e p a r t y i t s e l f h a s b e e n p r e p a r e d a b r o a d . Fi r s t o f a l l t h e y n e e d
a g e n e r a l a m n e s t y s o t h a t t h e s e a g e n t s o f S a t a n c a n c o m e h e r e
a n d s t a r t o n t h e i r w o r k o f d e s t r u c t i o n . Y o u h a v e m e n t i o n e d
t h e w o r d ` l i b e r t y . ' I t w o u l d b e b e t t e r t o s a y t h a t y o u h a v e r e -
p e a t e d i t . W h a t i s l i b e r t y ? Do y o u u n d e r s t a n d t h a t w o r d ?
Li b e r t y o f w h a t ? "
" Fr e e d o m o f m e e t i n g s , s p e e c h , s t r i k e s , i n v i o l a b i l i t y o f d w e l l -
i n g s a n d o f p e r s o n a l i t y , a s t h e y p u t i t , " s a i d S a b l i n
.
" Ex c e l l e n t , e x c e l l e n t . B u t d o e s n ' t a l l t h i s e x i s t ? C a n ' t y o u
a s s e m b l e a t a t h e a t r e , a t a c h u r c h , a t a c l u b o r a t y o u r h o m e ?
Y o u a r e o n l y p r e v e n t e d f r o m m e e t i n g f o r p u r p o s e s o f d e s t r u c -
t i o n a n d m u r d e r
. I s t h i s u n r e a s o n a b l e ? C a n y o u t o u c h o r
o f f e n d e v e n t h e l o w e s t b e g g a r ? I t i s a l l p r o v i d e d f o r i n o u r
l a w s . N o , C a p t a i n , t h e y w a n t s o m e t h i n g q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . Tw o
m o n t h s a g o I w a s i n S w i t z e r l a n d o n b u s i n e s s a n d t a l k e d t h e r e
t o a c e r t a i n K o r j i k o f f . At e r r i b l e p e r s o n a l i t y . "
S a b l i n s t a r t e d .
" W h a t w a s h i s n a m e ? "
" K o r j i k o f f . Do y o u k n o w h i m ? "
" N o , " S a b l i n s a i d i n a d u l l v o i c e . " W e l l , w h a t a b o u t t h i s
K o r j i k o f f ? "
" H e o c c u p i e s a s e c o n d a r y p o s i t i o n a m o n g t h e m a n d i s n o t
i n i t i a t e d i n t o a l l t h e i r s e c r e t p l a n s . B u t h e h a s a b o y o f n i n e
y e a r s o f a g e w h o m h e b r i n g s u p . H e h a s t h e f e a t u r e s o f a
c h e r u b . Y o u c a n s e e s u c h f a c e s o n o l d I t a l i a n p a i n t i n g s . AM
C a p t a i n , o n e c a n n e v e r f o r g e t t h i s c h i l d o n c e o n e h a s s e e n h i m
. "
" W h e r e d i d h e g e t t h i s c h i l d ? " a s k e d S a b l i n , f i x i n g h i s e y e s
o n t h e f i r e .
" H e i s h i s s o n . "
" H i s s o n ? K o r j i k o f f i s m a r r i e d t h e n ? "
" H e i s a w i d o w e r
. I t i s s a i d t h a t h i s w i f e w a s w o n d e r f u l l y
[ 32 7 ]
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
b e a u t i f u l a n d d i e d o n g i v i n g b i r t h t o t h i s c h i l d . I t i s r u m o u r e d
t h a t l i e i s n ' t e v e n K o r j i k o f f ' s s o n . . . . "
Os c a r Os c a r o v i t c h s t o p p e d t a l k i n g a n d p u f f e d a t h i s c i g a r
w h i c h h a d g o n e o u t .
" Y o u r s i s o u t t o o . W o u l d y o u l i k e a n o t h e r ? Ar e a l
H a v a n a ? "
" W e l l , w h a t a b o u t t h i s b o y ? W h o w a s h i s f a t h e r ? W h a t
w a s t h e n a m e o f h i s m o t h e r ? "
" I d o n ' t k n o w . Th a t i s n o t i m p o r t a n t . Th e p o i n t l i e s i n t h e
w a y K o r j i k o f f b r i n g s u p h i s s o n . Th e b o y h a s n o i d e a o f Go d .
W h e n t h e y s e e c h u r c h e s K o r j i k o f f t a l k s o f t h e m a s h e w o u l d
o f a n c i e n t Gr e e k m y t h o l o g y . Th e b o y h a s n o i l l u s i o n s . H e
k n o w s t h e s e c r e t o f h i s b i r t h a n d h a s b e e n c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e r e
i s n o s o u l , t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y v a n i s h e s a f t e r d e a t h a n d t h a t e v e r y -
t h i n g i s p e r m i s s i b l e b e c a u s e t h e r e i s n o f u t u r e l i f e , n o p u n i s h -
m e n t a n d n o r e w a r d . Th e b o y i s n i n e y e a r s o l d b u t h e m a k e s
m e t h i n k o f a d e m o n o f t h e f u t u r e . "
" I h a v e s e e n h i m t h r o w a s t o n e f r o m b e h i n d a c o r n e r a t a
l i t t l e En g l i s h g i r l , d a u g h t e r o f w e a l t h y p a r e n t s . H e u s e d t o
c u t k i t t e n s t o p i e c e s w i t h a p e n k n i f e a n d t o p i c k t h e i r e y e s o u t
w h i l e t h e y w e r e y e t a l i v e . I t o l d h i s f a t h e r a b o u t t h i s a n d h e
o n l y l a u g h e d , p u l l i n g a t h i s n a s t y l i t t l e b e a r d : ` Le t h i m g e t u s e d
t o t h e s i g h t o f b l o o d , ' h e s a i d . ` Th o s e w h o s h a l l b e s t r o n g
e n o u g h t o d a r e a n y t h i n g s h a l l b e t h e v i c t o r s . ' Th e s e a r e t h e
p e o p l e , C a p t a i n , w h o w i l l l e a d t h e r e v o l u t i o n i n Ru s s i a
. Do y o u
t h i n k t h a t i t w a s Ga p o n w h o w r o t e h i s l e t t e r s a n d a p p e a l s t o t h e
Ts a r ? N o , i t h a s a l l b e e n i n s p i r e d f r o m t h e r e . Th e y h o p e t o
d e s t r o y t h e w h o l e Eu r o p e a n c u l t u r e d w o r l d , t o b r i n g t h e p e o p l e s
t o a s t a t e o f d e s p a i r t h r o u g h h u n g e r t o e n s l a v e t h e m a n d t o
b u i l d u p t h e i r k i n g d o m , t h e k i n g d o m o f S a t a n
. K o r j i k o f f t o l d
m e o p e n l y : ` Y o u h a v e t h r e e w h a l e s o n w h i c h y o u r C h r i s t i a n
w o r l d r e s t s - Fa i t h , H o p e a n d Lo v e .
W e s h a l l d e s t r o y f a i t h
a n d p r o v e t h a t Go d d o e s n o t e x i s t , w e s h a l l r e p l a c e h o p e b y
d e s p a i r a n d l o v e f i r s t b y c l a s s , a n d t h e n b y g e n e r a l , h a t r e d
. ' I
r e m a r k e d t h a t p e o p l e w o u l d t h e n b e t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a n i m a l s
l i v i n g i n c a v e s a n d a v o i d i n g e a c h o t h e r .
` Th a t ' s e x a c t l y w h a t
w e w a n t , ' h e s a i d .
` W e s h a l l r e m a i n . Th e w o r k m e n ? Th e
[ 32 8 ]
TOREDFLAG
w o r k m e n a r e s l a v e s . W e u s e t h e m a s a t o o l , a s a d a r k p o w e r ,
a s c a n n o n f o d d e r . ' Th e s o c i a l i s t s d o n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h i s a n d
w o r k f o r t h e m . ` Ru s s i a n s o c i a l i s t s , ' K o r j i k o f f t o l d m e , ` a r e
d o c i l e g o o d n a t u r e d i d i o t s , w h o a r e r e a d y t o s a c r i f i c e t h e m s e l v e s
a s s o o n a s w e w a v e a r e d f l a g b e f o r e t h e m . Th e y a r e o u r s l a v e s ,
a l l t h e s e Ri s a k o f f s , J e l i a b o f f s a n d K o l i a e f f s . ' I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d o
a n y t h i n g , C a p t a i n , u n d e r o u r p r e s e n t Go v e r n m e n t . I t a l w a y s
c o m e s f i v e m i n u t e s l a t e . Ac o n s t i t u t i o n s h o u l d h a v e b e e n
g r a n t e d a t t h e c o r o n a t i o n o f t h e Em p e r o r N i c h o l a s I I - t h e
Du m a a n d a r e s p o n s i b l e C a b i n e t w o u l d h a v e t h e n d e s t r o y e d t h e
w o r k o f t h e s e d e m o n s , - b u t i t i s g o i n g t o b e g i v e n t o m o r r o w
w h e n i t h a s b e e n w r e n c h e d f r o m t h e Go v e r n m e n t b y s t r i k e s a n d
b y r i o t s . Ah , C a p t a i n , t h e y a r e s t r o n g e r t h a n w e a r e
. Ev i l i s
w i t h t h e m a n d e v i l i s s t r o n g e r t h a n g o o d . "
Os c a r Os c a r o v i t c h w a s s i l e n t a n d p u f f e d a t h i s c i g a r
.
" W h a t w o u l d y o u p r e f e r f o r s u p p e r , C a p t a i n , - b o i l e d s t u r -
g e o n w i t h m u s h r o o m s a u c e o r w h i t e p a r t r i d g e s w i t h b i l b e r r y
a n d k l u k v a j a m ? B o t h c a n b e s e r v e d . "
" I h o p e y o u w i l l e x c u s e m e , " S a b l i n s a i d r i s i n g , " i f I d e c l i n e
y o u r k i n d i n v i t a t i o n f o r s u p p e r . I d o n o t f e e l q u i t e w e l l a n d
w o u l d l i k e t o g o t o b e d e a r l i e r . "
" Y o u h a v e p r o b a b l y c a u g h t a c o l d o n y o u r w a y h e r e o r I m a y
h a v e w o r r i e d y o u b y m y c h a t t e r . B u t I w i l l s e n d y o u b o t h a n d
a b o t t l e o f w a r m B u r g u n d y . I t w i l l d o y o u g o o d b e f o r e y o u
g o t o s l e e p . Th e s t u r g e o n a n d t h e p a r t r i d g e s a r e r e a l l y f i n e
. I
h a v e p e r s o n a l l y c h o s e n t h e m a n d I s h o u l d b e r e a l l y p l e a s e d i f
y o u w o u l d a c c e p t . "
XXI I I
TH E l a r g e r o o m w i t h f i v e t a b l e s a n d t h r e e u n c u r t a i n e d w i n d o w s
h a d a q u e e r a p p e a r a n c e i n t h e d u s k . S a b l i n e x t i n g u i s h e d t h e
l i g h t . Ab e d h a d b e e n p r e p a r e d f o r h i m i n a c o r n e r a n d a w a s h -
s t a n d p l a c e d n e a r i t . B u t h e c o u l d n o t s l e e p . Al a n t e r n b u r n t
o u t s i d e i n t h e y a r d a n d i t s r e d d i s h r a y s p e n e t r a t e d t h e r o o m .
Th e r a i n h a d c e a s e d a n d t h e n i g h t f r o s t h a d c o v e r e d t h e p o o l s
o f w a t e r i n t h e y a r d w i t h i c e . Th e s k y w a s s t a r l i t a n d t h e m o o n
s h o n e b r i g h t l y . Th e w h i t e w a l l s o f t h e N o v v o d e v i t c h y m o n -
[32 9
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
a s t e r y a n d i t s c h u r c h y a r d w e r e s e e n t o t h e l e f t . Li g h t s t w i n k l e d
t h e r e o n s o m e g r a v e s i n e v e r - b u r n i n g i k o n l a m p s
. Th e f i e l d s
c o v e r e d b y c a b b a g e s t u m p s w e r e s t r a i g h t b e f o r e t h e w i n d o w s
.
S a b l i n h a d h a d e n o u g h o f t h e v i e w d u r i n g t h e d a y
. Th e f a c -
t o r y w a s w o r k i n g n o i s i l y a l l a r o u n d h i m
. Th e n i g h t - s h i f t w a s
o n d u t y .
Th e m o n o t o n o u s d u l l r u m b l e a n d v i b r a t i o n o f t h e
b u i l d i n g u n n e r v e d S a b l i n .
I t a r o u s e d t h o u g h t s a b o u t t h e p a s t
i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e w o r d s o f t h e m a n a g e r
. S e v e r a l c o u r s e s ,
a b o t t l e o f w i n e a n d t e a w e r e s e r v e d o n a t a b l e l i t b y t h e m o o n
.
S a b l i n t o u c h e d n o t h i n g .
Th e c o l d l i n e n o f t h e b e d a t t r a c t e d
h i s b o d y w h i c h w a s t i r e d f r o m b e i n g i n a t i g h t f i t t i n g t u n i c a l l
d a y , b u t h e d i d n o t t h i n k o f l y i n g d o w n
. H e w a l k e d u p a n d
d o w n t h e r o o m w a t c h i n g h i s o w n s h a d o w c a s t b y t h e m o o n a s
i t m o v e d o v e r t h e w a l l s
. S o m e t i m e s h e h a l t e d a n d l o o k e d f i x e d l y
i n t o t h e s i l v e r y g l o o m o f t h e n i g h t .
" M y P r i n c e !
M y P r i n c e !" H e s e e m e d t o h e a r a r i n g i n g b u t
d i s t a n t v o i c e
. Th e v i s i o n c a m e t o h i m o f a b e a u t i f u l f a c e w i t h
l a r g e r a d i a n t e y e s a n d a t i n y r e d b o d y l y i n g i n a n a r m c h a i r
.
H i s s o n
. W h y h a d h e n o t t h o u g h t t h a t t h i s u n p l e a s a n t l o o k i n g
l i t t l e c r e a t u r e w a s h i s s o n ? W h y h a d h e n o t t a k e n h i m ? Th e
s o n o f h i s g e n t l e M a r o u s i a h a d n o w b e c o m e b e a u t i f u l a s a n
a n g e l a n d w i c k e d a n d c r u e l a s a d e m o n
. C o u l d h e h a v e t a k e n
h i m t h e n ?
W h a t w o u l d h e h a v e d o n e w i t h h i m a t h i s f l a t ,
w h e r e w o u l d h e h a v e s e n t h i m ? M a r o u s i a ' s s e c r e t a n d t h a t o f
t h e i n s u l t h e h a d s u f f e r e d f r o m Lu b o v i n w o u l d t h e n h a v e b e e n
r e v e a l e d .
S a b l i n r a n h i s h a n d s t h r o u g h h i s h a i r
. N o . . . . I t w a s i m -
p o s s i b l e t h e n
. K o r j i k o f f w o u l d n o t h a v e g i v e n h i m h i s s o n . H e
c o u l d n o t h a v e f o u g h t K o r j i k o f f , - t h e l a w w o u l d h a v e b e e n o n
h i s s i d e , a n d i t w a s i m p o s s i b l e t o r e v e a l t h e w h o l e s e c r e t o f t h e
c h i l d ' s b i r t h
. N o w h i s s o n w a s g r o w i n g u p s o m e w h e r e i n d i s -
t a n t S w i t z e r l a n d
. Os c a r Os c a r o v i t c h s a i d t h a t h e h a d n o t b e e n
b a p t i z e d b u t t h a t t h e n a m e V i c t o r h a d b e e n g i v e n h i m b e c a u s e
h e w a s i n t e n d e d t o b e a c o n q u e r o r . H i s s o n V i c t o r . H e m u s t
b e a b o u t t e n y e a r s o l d n o w . S h o u l d h e g o t o S w i t z e r l a n d a n d
b r i n g h i m b a c k ? B u t w h a t w o u l d V e r a C o n s t a n t i n o v n a s a y
a b o u t t h i s ? I t w o u l d m e a n t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f h i s f a m i l y h a p p i
.
[ 330 ]
TOREDFLAG
n e s s .
N i c o l a s , Ta t i a n a a n d V i c t o r
. V i c t o r , b r o u g h t u p i n
n i h i l i s m a n d d e e p c y n i c i s m , c o u l d n o t l i v e w i t h h i s b r o t h e r
N i c o l a s a n d g o o d n a t u r e d s i s t e r Ta n i a
!
" V e r a , " h e w o u l d h a v e t o s a y , " h e i s m y s o n
. " An d e v e r y -
t h i n g t h a t h a d a l r e a d y b e e n f o r g o t t e n a b o u t M a r o u s i a , Lu b o v i n
a n d t h e i n s u l t w o u l d t h e n c o m e t o l i g h t .
Th e f a c t o r y v i b r a t e d w i t h t h e n o i s e o f m a c h i n e r y a n d o f h u n -
d r e d s o f l a t h e s
. Li g h t s s p a r k l e d o n t h e c e m e t e r y , t h e l a n t e r n
b u r n i n g i n t h e y a r d r e s e m b l e d a r e d b l u r r e d s p o t . Ug l y a n d
a r t i f i c i a l b u s t l e r e i g n e d e v e r y w h e r e . Th e g r e a t t o w n l i v e d a n d
s w a r m e d l i k e a m a s s o f w o r m s i n a t i n . Th e m y s t e r y o f l i f e
w a s r e v e a l i n g i t s e l f i n e v e r y h o u s e , b e y o n d e v e r y w i n d o w , d a r k
o r b r i g h t
. M e n w e r e l i v i n g a n d s u f f e r i n g t h e r e . S a b l i n t h o u g h t
o f t h e n u m e r o u s s u i c i d e s t h a t h a p p e n e d a t n i g h t i n P e t e r s b u r g .
Ev e r y h o u r c a r r i e d n e w v i c t i m s w i t h i t
. W e h e a r o f t h e m f r o m
p o l i c e a n d n e w s p a p e r r e p o r t s b u t w e d o n o t s e e t h e m b e c a u s e
t h e y h i d e f r o m o t h e r h u m a n b e i n g s , s e e k i n g f o r l o n e l i n e s s .
S a b l i n s e e m e d t o s e e t h r o u g h t h e g l o o m a d a r k b a r n i n a
l o n e l y y a r d f u l l o f o l d f u r n i t u r e a m o n g w h i c h a n a g e d m a n t r i e d
t o a t t a c h a r o p e t o a b e a m a n d t o t i e i t i n t o a l o o p
. Oh ! w h a t
h o r r o r a n d c o l d m u s t b e f i l l i n g h i s s o u l d u r i n g t h e s e l a s t t e r r i -
b l e m o m e n t s
. I t s e e m e d t o h i m t h a t y o u n g g i r l s w e r e r u n n i n g
t o w a r d s t h e d a r k w a t e r s o f m u d d y c a n a l s
. W h a t f a c e d t h e m
i n t h e d a r k d e p t h s a t t h a t m i n u t e ? H e s a w t h e l i t t l e r o o m s o f
d i r t y b o a r d i n g h o u s e s o n t h e o u t s k i r t s o f t h e t o w n w i t h c l o s e
a i r a n d t o r n w a l l p a p e r a n d y o u t h s w i t h r e v o l v e r s i n t h e i r h a n d s
.
V i s i o n s c a m e t o h i m o f g r e a t b a r e b l a c k t r e e s a m i d v a s t p a r k s
.
Th e s t r e t c h e d b o d i e s o f y o u t h s a n d o f y o u n g g i r l s h u n g o n t h e i r
c r o o k e d b r a n c h e s . H e s a w b e n c h e s o n t h e e d g e o f t h e w a t e r s
w h e r e y o u n g p e o p l e h a d g o n e f o r e t e r n a l s l e e p a f t e r a d o s e o f
p o i s o n . Th e p h a n t o m s o f t h e n i g h t s w e p t p a s t a n d s u r r o u n d e d
h i m , a t t r a c t i n g a n d i n v i t i n g h i m t o f o l l o w i n t h e i r w a k e
.
" W h a t i s y o u r l i f e !" t h e y t o l d h i m , - " s h a m e a n d t o r t u r e
.
H o w s h a l l y o u r e c o n c i l e t h e f a c t o f y o u r e a s y a n d w e a l t h y l i f e
w i t h V e r a C o n s t a n t i n o v n a w i t h t h a t o f V i c t o r ' s e x i s t e n c e ? Al l
y o u r p a s t i s a m i s t a k e . Y o u l i v e o n , a t t r a c t e d b y m i r a g e s , w h i l e
w e h a v e u n d e r s t o o d t h e m e a n i n g o f l i f e a n d w e h a v e l e f t i t . "
[
3311
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
Th e l i g h t s t w i n k l e d
a t t r a c t i v e l y i n t h e m o n a s t e r y c e m e t e r y
a n d t h e s h a d o w s o f t h e d e a d b e c k o n e d h i m t o j o i n t h e m i n t h e i r
c o l d r e s t . . . . " Fa i t h , t h e Ts a r , t h e M o t h e r l a n d , " t h e y w h i s -
p e r e d . " W e h a v e r e a l i s e d t h a t t h e y d o n o t e x i s t . Fa i t h i n Go d ,
b u t t h e r e i s n o n e , b e c a u s e m i r a c l e s c o u l d h a p p e n i f t h e r e w e r e a
Go d
. Y o u w a v e r ? P r a y e a r n e s t l y t h e n . Fi x y o u r e y e s o n t h e
S o u t h w e s t w h e r e S w i t z e r l a n d l i e s . K o r j i k o f f i s t h e r e w i t h y o u r
s o n . P r a y t h a t Go d m a y l e t y o u s e e h i m . " " Oh , m y Lo r d , I
i m p l o r e y o u w i t h a l l t h e p o w e r o f m y f a i t h t o l e a d m y g a z e
t h r o u g h s p a c e a n d l e t m e s e e t h e f a c e o f m y c h i l d t h r o u g h t h e
g l o o m o f t h e n i g h t !" S a b l i n w a i t e d . Th e t h o u g h t p a s s e d
t h r o u g h h i s f e v e r i s h b r a i n t h a t t h e m i r a c l e m i g h t b e a c c o m -
p l i s h e d . Th e d a r k n e s s o f t h e c o l d Oc t o b e r n i g h t w o u l d b e r e n t
a s u n d e r a n d t h e f a c e o f h i s s o n w o u l d a p p e a r a s i f o n t h e s c r e e n
o f a m a g i c l a n t e r n . S o m e i n v i s i b l e t h r e a d s c e r t a i n l y d i d u n i t e
t h e m . B u t i f n o t h i n g s h o u l d a p p e a r , t h e n t h e r e w a s n o Go d .
Th e s a m e s i l v e r y n i g h t r e i g n e d o u t s i d e , t h e s t a r s g l i m m e r e d
q u i e t l y , t h e i c e - c o v e r e d r o o f s h o n e w i t h t h e m o o n ' s r a y s a n d t h e
l a n t e r n b u r n e d d i m l y .
Th e n r e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e c o s y a t m o s p h e r e o f h i s o w n f a m i l y ,
o f V e r a C o n s t a n t i n o v n a , o f t h e p u r e a n d b e a u t i f u l K o l i a a n d
Ta n i a c a m e t o h i m . H e t h o u g h t o f h i s c h i l d r e n ' s b e d r o o m w i t h
a h u g e i k o n o f t h e H o l y V i r g i n a n d a t i n y l a m p b u r n i n g b e f o r e
i t .
H i s s w o r d a n d r e v o l v e r h u n g o n t h e w a l l
. I t w a s d a r k i n t h e
r o o m
. On l y t h e l i g h t o f t h e l a n t e r n o u t s i d e p a r t i a l l y p e n e t r a t e d
t h e r o o m a n d S a b l i n s a w t h e r e v o l v e r
. W h y t h e r e v o l v e r ?
W a s i t n o t a s p e c i a l s i g n ?
An a n s w e r o f Go d t o h i s d e f i a n c e .
" Ta k e i t , d a r e a n d y o u s h a l l w i t n e s s a m i r a c l e !"
S a b l i n t h o u g h t o f B a r o n K o r f f a s h e l a y i n h i s c o f f i n . H o w
c o l d a n d c o n t e m p t u o u s h i s f e a t u r e s h a d b e e n . S o m e t h i n g i m -
p o r t a n t s e e m e d t o h a v e b e e n r e v e a l e d t o h i m . Re v e a l e d t h e r e .
H e r e e v e r y t h i n g w o u l d b e a s u s u a l . At o r t u r e d c o n s c i e n c e , h i s
s o n V i c t o r a s a n a n a r c h i s t a n d a h o o l i g a n w i t h t h e n o b l e b l o o d
o f t h e S a b l i n s i n h i s v e i n s , Lu b o v i n ' s i n s u l t , t h e K u s h i n n i k o f f s ,
t h e s t r i k e s a n d t h e s h o u t s o f t h e c r o w d
: " m u r d e r e r s !"
C o u n t P a l t o f f h a d t o l d h i m o f a n e p i s o d e
. Ay o u n g o f f i c e r
[332 ]
TOREDFLAG
o f a n i n f a n t r y r e g i m e n t l e d a p a t r o l o f s o l d i e r s t o r e l i e v e p o s t s .
Aw o r k m a n r a n u p t o h i m , s t r u c k h i m a s w i n g i n g b l o w o n t h e
f a c e a n d r a n a w a y
. Th e o f f i c e r w a s a t a l o s s w h a t t o d o a n d
t h e g u a r d t o o k n o a c t i o n .
H e r e t u r n e d t o t h e r e g i m e n t , s a i d
n o t h i n g a b o u t t h e e v e n t a n d w e n t h o m e
. Th e r e h e s h o t h i m s e l f
i n t h e n i g h t
. Th e s o l d i e r s t o l d t h a t a w o r k m a n h a d s t r u c k t h e i r
o f f i c e r o n t h e f a c e a n d w e r e a s k e d w h y t h e y h a d n o t t r i e d t o
a r r e s t h i m .
S o m e a n s w e r e d t h a t t h e y h a d n o t d a r e d t o d o i t
w i t h o u t a n o r d e r , o t h e r s s a i d t h a t t h e y t h o u g h t t h e y c o u l d n o t
l e a v e t h e r a n k s w h e n o n t h e m a r c h . S e v e r a l r e p l i e d o p e n l y
" I t w a s H i s H o n o u r ' s b u s i n e s s a n d d i d n o t c o n c e r n u s
. " M o s t
o f t h e m k e p t s u l l e n s i l e n c e
. C o u n t a n d C o u n t e s s P a l t o f f a n d
t h e o f f i c e r s p r e s e n t c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e y o u n g o f f i c e r h a d d o n e
t h e r i g h t t h i n g .
An d S a b l i n c o n t i n u e d t o l i v e a f t e r Lu b o v i n ' s i n s u l t .
" V e n g e a n c e i s m i n e , I w i l l r e p a y !"
Th e v e n g e a n c e w a s a p p r o a c h i n g . Th e i n s o l e n t f e a t u r e s o f
t h e b o y w i t h t h e b e a u t y o f a n a n g e l s h o n e o u t o f t h e m i s t y d i s -
t a n c e a n d v e n g e a n c e a p p r o a c h e d f r o m t h e r e .
S a b l i n f e l t a c o l d c h i l l d o w n h i s s p i n e .
" S o y o u a r e a f r a i d ? "
S a b l i n w a l k e d f i r m l y u p t o t h e w a l l a n d t o o k t h e r e v o l v e r o u t
o f i t s c a s e .
" I f e a r n o t h i n g , " h e t o l d h i m s e l f .
" N o , y o u a r e a c o w a r d , " a n s w e r e d t h e s a m e v o i c e . " Da r e !
Y o u s h a l l s e e t h a t t h e r e i s n o Go d a n d n o e t e r n a l l i f e . Th a t
t h e r e i s n o t h i n g a f t e r d e a t h a n d t h a t y o u r ` e g o ' w i l l n o t e x i s t . "
S a b l i n f e l t t h i s " e g o " i n e v e r y p a r t o f h i s b o d y
. N o , i t c o u l d
n o t v a n i s h . H e l o o k e d a t t h e c e m e t e r y
. Th e w a l l s o f t h e
m o n a s t e r y b e h i n d i t s e e m e d w h i t e r . Th e n i g h t w a s p a s s i n g
a w a y .
H e e x a m i n e d t h e r e v o l v e r . Th e b r i g h t n i c k e l p l a t e
s h o n e a n d i t s e e m e d t o i n v i t e h i m t o u s e i t s p o w e r .
" W h a t a m I d o i n g ? H o w s t u p i d !, M y n e r v e s h a v e b e c o m e
t o o u n s t r u n g a f t e r a l l t h i s
. S o m e o n e . l e s s s t a b l e m i g h t h a v e
d o n e i t
. W e a r e a l l b a l a n c i n g o n a r o p e . On e w r o n g s t e p a n d
a l l i s f i n i s h e d . "
S a b l i n p u t t h e r e v o l v e r b a c k a n d r e t u r n e d t o t h e w i n d o w
.
[333]
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
Ap a l e c l e a r d a y w a s d a w n i n g
.
Th e c a b b a g e s t u m p s w e r e
l i t b y t h e s l a n t i n g r a y s o f t h e s u n w h o s e e d g e w a s a p p e a r i n g
o v e r t h e d i s t a n t w o o d
.
Th e l a n t e r n g a v e n o l i g h t i n t h e d e -
s e r t e d y a r d .
" Th e r e i s , t h e r e i s a Go d , " w h i s p e r e d S a b l i n
. " Le t Go d a r i s e
a n d h i s e n e m i e s w i l l s c a t t e r
. M y Lo r d , s a v e m e f r o m t h e
d e m o n s o f t h e n i g h t
!"
S o m e t h i n g h e a v e d o v e r h i m , r o a r e d a n d r u m b l e d w i t h t h o u -
s a n d s o f f e e t r u s h i n g d o w n s t a i r c a s e s a n d f i l l e d t h e a i r w i t h
h u m a n s h o u t s
. S a b l i n c l u t c h e d a t h i s h e a r t
. Th e f a c t o r y w h i s -
t l e w a s s c r e a m i n g p e r s i s t e n t l y , m a k i n g h i s e a r s r i n g
. W o r k i n g
m e n a n d w o m e n f i l l e d t h e y a r d , s h o u t i n g a n d l a u g h i n g
. Th e
n i g h t - s h i f t h a d f i n i s h e d i t s w o r k
. Da y w a s a s s u m i n g i t s r i g h t s
.
XXI V
B Y
t e l e p h o n e S a b l i n r e c e i v e d a n o r d e r t o r e t u r n t o t h e b a r r a c k s
.
Ac o n s t i t u t i o n h a d b e e n d e c l a r e d a n d f r e e d o m o f c o n s c i e n c e ,
p e r s o n a l i t y a n d o f m e e t i n g s h a d b e e n g r a n t e d
. Th e p e o p l e h a d
o b t a i n e d w h a t t h e y h a d s t r i v e n f o r .
Th e s u n w a s d u l l y s h i n i n g i n a p a l e s k y a n d t h e i c e w a s m e l t -
i n g u n d e r i t s r a y s . Th e s t r e e t s w e r e m u d d y
. C r o w d s o f p e o p l e
m o v e d t h r o u g h t h e m a n d g a t h e r e d i n g r o u p s
. Th e t o w n h a d a
h o l i d a y - l i k e a p p e a r a n c e .
Fl a g s d e c o r a t e d t h e h o u s e s , r e d r i b -
b o n s w e r e s e e n h e r e a n d t h e r e i n t h e c r o w d s a n d m u t i l a t e d n o t e s
o f t h e M a r s e i l l a i s e w e r e h e a r d
. Th e p o l i c e l o o k e d o n i n d i f f e r -
e n t l y
. I t h a d b e e n v a n q u i s h e d . S a b l i n a n d h i s s e c t i o n f e l t a w k -
w a r d a n d o u t o f p l a c e a m o n g t h e s e r e j o i c i n g m u l t i t u d e s
.
" Lo n g l i v e t h e Ar m y !" s h o u t e d a d r u n k e n w o r k m a n
.
" M u r d e r e r s !" c a m e f r o m a n o t h e r d i r e c t i o n
.
As t o u t m e r c h a n t d r o v e p a s t t h e s e c t i o n i n a l i g h t c a r r i a g e
.
" B e n e f a c t o r s ! B u t w h a t w i l l h a p p e n n o w ! Do n ' t d e l i v e r u s
t o t h e m , m y d e a r s !" h e e x c l a i m e d w a v i n g h i s b e a v e r f u r c a p a t
S a b l i n .
S a b l i n r e m e m b e r e d t h a t t h e Em p e r o r h a d b e e n a g a i n s t t h e
c o n s t i t u t i o n , a n d p o u n c e d u p o n t h e n e w s p a p e r s a s s o o n a s h e
r e t u r n e d h o m e .
Y e s . . . . Th e I m p e r i a l e d i c t w a s t h e r e c o n t a i n i n g t h e v a r i -
[ 334 1
TOREDFLAG
o u s l i b e r t i e s . B u t t h e w o r d s r e m a i n e d t h a t w e r e g o l d e n t o
S a b l i n : " B y t h e w i l l o f Go d , W e , t h e Au t o c r a t
. . . . " Al l t h e s e
l i b e r t i e s w e r e n o t t e r r i b l e s o l o n g a s t h e Ts a r w a s " b y t h e w i l l
o f Go d . " S a b l i n r e a d f u r t h e r a b o u t t h e f r e e d o m o f t h e p r e s s ,
o f m e e t i n g s , c o n s c i e n c e a n d o f p e r s o n a l i t y a n d a b o u t t h e c o n -
v o c a t i o n o f a S t a t e Du m a .
B l o o d r u s h e d t o h i s c h e e k s . " I t i s a f r a u d , " h e t h o u g h t
. . . .
" Af r a u d s i g n e d b y t h e Em p e r o r .
H o w c o u l d h e h a v e s i g n e d
i t ? "
Q u i t e s i m p l y
. Th e e d i c t h a d b e e n p r e p a r e d a n d b r o u g h t t o
h i m w i t h t h e w o r d s t h a t i t h a d t o b e s i g n e d f o r t h e w e l f a r e o f
t h e p e o p l e .
" Fo r t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e p e o p l e ? " t h e Em p e r o r m u s t h a v e
s a i d r a i s i n g h i s b e a u t i f u l e y e s
. Oh ! S a b l i n c o u l d s e e t h o s e
l a r g e g r e y e y e s a n d t h e b e a u t i f u l h a n d s l o w l y m o v i n g o v e r t h e
p a r c h m e n t w r i t i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i g n a t u r e . S a b l i n f e l t
s a d d e r t h a n e v e r
. H e w a s l o s i n g h i s f a i t h i n t h e Ts a r . H e h a d
o f t e n h e a r d p a r a l l e l s d r a w n b e t w e e n t h e Em p e r o r a n d t h e Ts a r
Fe o d o r , t h e l a s t Ts a r * o f t h e Ru r i k d y n a s t y . W h a t h a d f o l -
l o w e d t h e n .
.
. .
Go d u n o f f , t h e r u l e o f t h e s e v e n B o y a r s , t h e
To u s h i n s k y p r e t e n d e r , Z a r o u t s k y a n d t h e P o l e s , b l o o d a n d w a i l -
i n g e v e r y w h e r e , m a r t y r d o m a n d e n s l a v e m e n t o f t h e M o s c o w
k i n g d o m , l o n g y e a r s o f i n t e r n a l w a r f a r e a n d s t r i f e a n d t h e n t h e
e l e c t i o n o f M i h a i l Fe o d o r o v i t c h , t t h e f i r s t Ro m a n o f f a n d t h e n
P e t e r t h e Gr e a t . H i s t o r y w a s b e i n g r e p e a t e d .
B u t w o u l d h e
l i v e l o n g e n o u g h t o w i t n e s s a s e c o n d P e t e r
Th e s l e e p l e s s n i g h t h e h a d p a s s e d t o r m e n t e d b y h i s c o n s c i e n c e
r e a c t e d n o w n o t i n w e a r i n e s s b u t i n a n e r v o u s t e n s i o n
. H i s
h e a r t b e a t q u i c k l y a n d h i s e y e s s p a r k l e d f r o m u n d e r s w o l l e n r e d
e y e l i d s . H i s f a c e b u r n e d f r o m t h e c o l d w a t e r w i t h w h i c h h e
h a d r e f r e s h e d i t
.
S a b l i n a s k e d t h e s e r v a n t w h o w a s w a i t i n g
u p o n h i m w h e r e V e r a C o n s t a n t i n o v n a w a s .
" M a d a m e i s i n t h e d i n i n g r o o m .
Th e l u n c h i s w a i t i n g f o r
y o u , s i r . M r
. Ob l e n i s s i m o f f i s t h e r e , " a n s w e r e d t h e s e r v a n t
.
* Di e d i n 159 8 .
t 16 13.
[ 335 1
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
Ob l e n i s s i m o f f w a s t h e h u s b a n d o f S a b l i n ' s a u n t . H e w a s a
l a r g e , t a l k a t i v e m a n , a w o r k e r o f t h e " Z e m s t v o , " e x t r e m e l y u n -
b a l a n c e d i n h i s i d e a s , i d e a l i s i n g t h e m o u j i k s a n d t h e p e o p l e a t
t i m e s , a n d c u r s i n g t h e m a t o t h e r s . H e u s u a l l y l e f t f o r N i c e a n d
f o r M o n t e C a r l o a f t e r h i s m o m e n t s o f d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t t o h e a l
t h e w o u n d s t h a t h a d b e e n i n f l i c t e d o n h i s f e e l i n g s . H e w a s a
g e n t l e m a n , a Ru s s i a n " b a r i n " i n t h e f u l l m e a n i n g o f t h e w o r d ,
t a l l , s t o u t , w i t h g r e y h a i r a n d c a r e f u l l y t r i m m e d b e a r d f r a m i n g
a h a n d s o m e f l o r i d f a c e . H i s f i n g e r s w e r e c o v e r e d w i t h r i n g s
a n d h i s c l o t h e s w e r e a l w a y s o f t h e l a t e s t f a s h i o n a b l e c u t . Ob -
l e n i s s i m o f f k n e w h o w t o t i e h i s c r a v a t w i t h t a s t e a n d t o w e a r
a f l o w e r i n h i s b u t t o n - h o l e s o t h a t i t w o u l d h a v e a p o l i t i c a l m e a n -
i n g
. La t e l y h e h a d d e v o t e d m u c h t i m e t o p o l i t i c s a n d h a d c o m -
p o s e d l e t t e r s a n d p e t i t i o n s t o t h e Ts a r a n d t h e M i n i s t e r s .
S a b l i n e n t e r e d t h e d i n i n g r o o m .
XXV
" An ! a t l a s t !" e x c l a i m e d Ob l e n i s s i m o f f r i s i n g t o m e e t h i m a n d
c l a s p i n g h i m i n h i s a r m s . Ar e d c a r n a t i o n a d o r n e d h i s b u t t o n -
h o l e .
" W e h a d a l m o s t d e c i d e d n o t t o w a i t f o r y o u .
I c o n -
g r a t u l a t e y o u , S a s h a , a h ! t h e s p r i n g h a s c o m e a n d a n e w e r a o f
l i f e i s b e g i n n i n g
. Th e Ts a r h a s g o n e w i t h t h e p e o p l e . Th e
p e o p l e h a v e r e c e i v e d t h e p o w e r a n d t h e l a w o u t o f h i s h a n d s .
Th e s p r i n g , S a s h a !"
" W h y a r e y o u s o g l a d , u n c l e ? " s a i d S a b l i n , f r e e i n g h i m s e l f
f r o m h i s e m b r a c e a n d c o m i n g u p t o h i s w i f e .
" Th a t i s w h a t I h a v e t o l d Eg o r I v a n o v i t c h , " s a i d V e r a C o n -
s t a n t i n o v n a , " h i s j o y i s p r e c o c i o u s . "
" Li b e r t y !" e x c l a i m e d Ob l e n i s s i m o f f . " I a m f i l l e d w i t h j o y .
At l a s t w e a r e g o i n g t o b e c o m e a r e a l p a r t o f Eu r o p e
. W e s h a l l
n o l o n g e r h a v e t h e n a g a i k a s , k n o u t s a n d p r i s o n s , b u t l i b e r t y
a s a m e t h o d o f g o v e r n m e n t
. Th e p e o p l e w i l l e l e c t t h e i r r e p r e -
s e n t a t i v e s a n d t h e y w i l l f i l l t h e c h a m b e r s o f t h e Du m a
. "
" W h o m s h a l l o u r p e o p l e e l e c t ? W h a t d o o u r p e o p l e d e s i r e ?
- l a n d a n d f r e e d o m
. Th e s a m e f r e e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l a n d t h a t
t h e y h a v e b e e n d e m a n d i n g s i n c e t h e r e i g n o f C a t h e r i n e t h e Gr e a t
a n d w h i c h P u g a t c h e f f g a v e t h e m d u r i n g t h e m u t i n y h e r a i s e d
.
[ 336 ]
TOREDFLAG
Do y o u w a n t a s i m i l a r m u t i n y t o b e r e p e a t e d , d o y o u w a n t t h e
` i l l u m i n a t i o n ' o f l a n d o w n e r s ' m a n o r h o u s e s a n d t h e d e s t r u c t i o n
o f c u l t u r e d l i f e ? . . . "
" Le t a l l t h a t b e . Ag r e a t w o r k o f c o n s t r u c t i o n c a n n o t p a s s
w i t h o u t e x c e s s e s . Th e p e o p l e a r e n o t s o w i l d a n d s t u p i d a s
y o u t h i n k , S a s h a , a n d t h e n t h e y h a v e l e a d e r s . "
" W h o a r e t h e s e l e a d e r s ? V i l l a g e t e a c h e r s - s o c i a l i s t s . H a v e
y o u r e a d t h e i r m o t t o : ` P r o l e t a r i a n s o f a l l c o u n t r i e s u n i t e , ' d o
y o u k n o w w h a t o u r m o d e r n p r o l e t a r i a n i s l i k e ? M a x i m Go r k y
h a s g i v e n u s t h e i r b e a u t i f u l i m a g e s i n a l l t h e i r p r i m w v a l s i m -
p l i c i t y . S h a l l t h e M a k a r C h o u d r a s o f Go r k y b e a t t h e h e a d o f
t h e Go v e r n m e n t ? Y o u m u s t u n d e r s t a n d t h a t Ru s s i a i s b e i n g s e t
a s i d e . P r o l e t a r i a n s o f a l l c o u n t r i e s , w o r t h l e s s f e l l o w s w h o h a v e
b e e n u n a b l e t o c r e a t e e v e n t h e i r o w n p e r s o n a l w e l f a r e a r e g o i n g
t o b e i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f Ru s s i a ' s w e l -
f a r e . M e n w h o a r e d e s t r o y i n g a n d w h o d e s p i s e e v e r y t h i n g a r e
i n v i t e d t o c r e a t e t h e p o w e r o f a c o u n t r y . Oh , Gr e a t Go d ! . . .
N o g o o d w i l l c o m e o u t o f s u c h a b e g i n n i n g !"
" B u t w h o t o l d y o u , S a s h a , t h a t h o o l i g a n s a n d r a g g a m u f f i n s
w i l l h a v e a p l a c e i n o u r p a r l i a m e n t ? "
" Th e p r o l e t a r i a n s w i l l b e t h e r e , " S a b l i n a n s w e r e d .
" N o , t h e p a r t i e s !Li f e a n d t h e s t r u g g l e o f p a r t i e s s h a l l r e i g n
t h e r e
. Y e s t e r d a y I w a s a t a m e e t i n g o f o u r y o u n g C o n s t i t u -
t i o n a l De m o c r a t i c p a r t y
. Ro d i t c h e f f a n d M u r o m t z e f f , * d e -
l i v e r e d s p e e c h e s
. W h a t b r a i n s t h e s e m e n h a v e ! Th e y c l e a r l y
a n d b r i g h t l y d e s c r i b e d Ru s s i a ' s h a p p y f u t u r e
. Th e Ts a r h a s
p l a c e d Ru s s i a ' s d e s t i n y i n t h e h a n d s o f t h e Ru s s i a n p e o p l e a n d
t h e y w i l l b e a b l e t o p r e s e r v e t h e i n t e g r i t y o f a l l t h a t o n c e b e -
l o n g e d t o t h e Ro m a n o f f s a l o n e . "
" P r o l e t a r i a n s o f a l l c o u n t r i e s , t h a t m e a n s J e w s , Ar m e n i a n s ,
Gr e e k s , Ge o r g i a n s a n d o u r o w n y e l l o w b e a k e d y o u t h s w h o h a v e
b e e n e x p e l l e d f o r m i s c o n d u c t f r o m s c h o o l s - t h e s e a r e t h e o n e s
w h o m y o u r p e o p l e a r e c a l l i n g t o p o w e r !"
" S a s h a ! S a s h a !
S h a m e ! P r o f e s s o r s w i t h g r e a t n a m e s ,
* AM o s c o w l a w y e r , P r e s i d e n t
o f t h e f i r s t Du m a c o n v o k e d a t P e t e r s -
b u r g o n t h e
2 7 t h Ap r i l 19 0 5 .
[

337 1
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
f a m o u s s c h o l a r s i n l a w a n d i n p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e !M u r o m t z e f f , a
p a t r i a r c h w i t h a h u g e g r e y b e a r d , a u t h o r s o f s c i e n t i f i c r e -
s e a r c h e s , m e n o f k n o w l e d g e a n d o f l i g h t !"
" I h a v e n o t r e a d t h e i r w o r k s . "
" Y o u o u g h t t o b e a s h a m e d t h e n . Y o u h a v e m e d i a e v a l i d e a s
a b o u t t h i n g s , S a s h a
. K n i g h t s , t o w n f o l k s a n d p e a s a n t s . Th e
k n i g h t s s p e n d t h e i r t i m e i n h u n t i n g a n d i n r e v e l r y , t h e t o w n
f o l k w o r k f o r t h e m , a n d t h e p e a s a n t s t i l l t h e g r o u n d f o r t h e m .
I t i s a b s u r d !"
" An d b e a u t i f u l , " a d d e d S a b l i n .
" N o , b e a u t y l i e s i n g e n e r a l w o r k . "
" Th e k n i g h t s h o u l d t i l l t h e g r o u n d a n d t h e p e a s a n t s b u r n t h e i r
c a s t l e s a n d c u t t o p i e c e s p a i n t i n g s o f V a n d y k e a n d Te n i e r s -
e h ? "
" I t i s a p i t y y o u d i d n ' t h e a r M u r o m t z e f f ' s s p e e c h
. "
Th e s e m e n h a v e b e e n i n p r i s o n s a n d i n e x i l e
. Th e y k n o w t h e
p e o p l e a n d w i l l b e a b l e t o m a n a g e t h e m . "
" C r i m i n a l s . "
" N o , s u f f e r e r s f o r t h e t r u t h , f o r t h e p e o p l e . "
S a b l i n s h r u g g e d h i s s h o u l d e r s . At t h a t m o m e n t C o u n t a n d
C o u n t e s s P a l t o f f a r r i v e d .
N a t a l i a B o r i s o v n a g r e e t e d V e r a
C o n s t a n t i n o v n a a n d r u s h e d t o w a r d s S a b l i n a n d Ob l e n i s s i m o f f .
" Eg o r I v a n o v i t c h , w h a t d o e s a l l t h i s m e a n ? Al e x a n d e r
N i c o l a i e v i t c h , e x p l a i n i t t o m e , I d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d i t a t a l l . C a n
i t m e a n ` e g a l i t e , l i b e r t e , f r a t e r n i t e . ' W i l l o u r e s t a t e b e t a k e n
a w a y f r o m u s ? Am I n o l o n g e r a C o u n t e s s ? "
" Ac i t i z e n . . . . N a t a l i a B o r i s o v n a , " s a i d Ob l e n i s s i m o f f , -
" i s t h e w o r d ` c i t i z e n ' w o r s e t h a n ' C o u n t e s s ? ' Th e g r e a t i d e a l s
o f t h e Fr e n c h r e v o l u t i o n . . . . "
" W i t h t h e Ru s s i a n p e o p l e , " p u t i n S a b l i n .
" M u r d e r o f t h e K i n g , t h e Te r r o r , Ro b e s p i e r r e , M a r a t , Da n -
t o n
. . . "
s a i d V e r a C o n s t a n t i n o v n a
.
" I h a v e a l r e a d y s e e n o n e f e l l o w o f t h a t t y p e t o d a y . H e s a t
o n a l a m p p o s t a n d e x o r t e d t h e c r o w d t o s t o r m t h e P e t r o p a v l o v -
s k y f o r t r e s s a n d t o l i b e r a t e t h e c r i m i n a l s w h o a r e i m p r i s o n e d
t h e r e . Th e p o l i c e h a d t o p u l l h i m d o w n b y t h e f e e t w h i l e h e
[ 338 1
TOREDFLAG
h o w l e d ` l i b e r t y !' Th e p o l i c e g a v e f u l l l i b e r t y t o t h e i r n a g a i k a s
w h i l e t h r a s h i n g h i m , " s a i d P a l t o f f .
" C o u n t !
Y o u a r e i n c o r r i g i b l e !
N o , g e n t l e m e n , y o u d o n o t
u n d e r s t a n d t h e g r e a t a c t o f I m p e r i a l c l e m e n c y
. Y o u a r e b a d
s e r v a n t s o f t h e Ts a r . "
" W h a t e l s e c o u l d o n e d o ? " s a i d S a b l i n w i t h f e e l i n g
. " C a n
p e o p l e b e a l l o w e d t o i n s t i g a t e t h e l i b e r a t i o n o f c r i m i n a l s ? Th e
Em p e r o r s i g n e d t h e e d i c t a g a i n s t h i s w i l l
. H e d i d n o t w a n t i t
b u t h e w a s f o r c e d t o . "
" W h a t c a n o n e d o !" r o a r e d Ob l e n i s s i m o f f
. " On e m u s t g o
t o t h e s t r e e t s a n d t h e s q u a r e s o f t h e c i t y a n d p r e a c h t h e w o r d s
o f t h e Ts a r a n d h i s s a c r e d w i l l
. Y e s , o n e s h o u l d d i s b a n d t h e
a r m y , b e a t t h e s w o r d s i n t o p l o u g h s h a r e s , g i v e t h e l a n d t o t h e
m e n w h o t o i l o n i t a n d g o t o t h e Ts a r a r m - i n - a r m w i t h w o r k -
m e n a n d p e a s a n t s a n d c a l l h i m t o f o l l o w y o u i n t o t h e h e a r t o f
t h e h o l y Ru s s i a n p e o p l e , i n t o q u i e t , o r t h o d o x Ru s s i a
. Li b e r t y !
S p r i n g !
I c a n n o t s t a y i n d o o r s w h e n e v e r y t h i n g s p e a k s o f
s p r i n g
. I w i l l g o i n t o t h e s t r e e t s a n d l i s t e n t o w h a t i s b e i n g s a i d
t h e r e , I w i l l g o t o t h e p a r t y m e e t i n g a n d r e j o i c e a t t h e g r e a t m e n
w h o a r e c o m i n g t o t h e f r o n t
. - Ag r e a t d a y !As i f i t w e r e
Ea s t e r !
I f e e l l i k e s i n g i n g ` C h r i s t i s r i s e n !" '
Ob l e n i s s i m o f f s h o o k h a n d s w i t h e v e r y o n e a n d l e f t .
" I s h e m a d , y o u r u n c l e ? " C o u n t P a l t o f f a s k e d .
" N o , h e s o l d a l l h i s e s t a t e s a t a v e r y h i g h p r i c e t w o m o n t h s
a g o a n d h a s t r a n s f e r r e d t h e m o n e y t o S w i t z e r l a n d . H e c a n
r e j o i c e n o w . "
" Q u e e r m a n , " s a i d N a t a l i a B o r i s o v n a . " W e a r s a r e d c a r -
n a t i o n i n h i s b u t t o n - h o l e a n d s h o u t s l i k e a w o r k m a n . "
" Te r r i b l e t i m e s a r e a p p r o a c h i n g
. M y f a t h e r w r o t e t o m e
f r o m h i s e s t a t e t h a t t h e Es t h o n i a n s w e r e g e t t i n g q u i t e o u t o f
h a n d t h e r e
. Th e y b u r n t d o w n s o m e y o u n g f o r e s t p l a n t a t i o n s
l a s t w e e k .
Th e d a m a g e i s e s t i m a t e d a t o v e r f i v e t h o u s a n d
.
S o m e p a i d t h e r e n t f o r t h i s y e a r , b u t o t h e r s d i d n ' t
. "
" Ap o l i c e m a n w a s k i l l e d n e a r o u r e s t a t e , " s a i d P a l t o f f .
" Fa t h e r c a l l e d o u t t h e C o s s a c k s , a s b y a l u c k y c h a n c e h e w a s
o n f r i e n d l y t e r m s w i t h t h e Go v e r n o r
. B u t t h e w h o l e m a n o r
o f o u r n e i g h b o u r s w a s b u r n t d o w n a n d n o o n e c o u l d b e p u n -
[ 339 ]
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
i s h e d
. Th e y d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e w h o l e v i l l a g e h a d d e c i d e d t o d o
i t . "
" H a v e y o u h e a r d w h o t h e s e M u r o m t z e f f s a n d Ro d i t c h e f f s
a r e ? " a s k e d S a b l i n .
" N o , S a s h a , I h a v e n ' t
. Th e y m u s t b e s c h o l a r s o r w r i t e r s . "
" W r i t e r s ? " S a b l i n s a i d m e d i t a t i v e l y
. I w o u l d u n d e r s t a n d i t
i f t h e y h a d s u c h n a m e s o f w o r l d r e n o w n a s Le o To l s t o i , M e n -
d e l e i e f f , b u t t h e s e . .
. . "
" Th e y p o s s e s s s o m e t h i n g m o r e i m p o r t a n t , " N a t a l i a B o r i s o v n a
r e m a r k e d b i t i n g l y .
" W h a t i s i t ? " a s k e d S a b l i n .
" Th e y h a v e b e e n i n p r i s o n . "
S a b l i n s h r u g g e d h i s s h o u l d e r s a n d s a i d n o t h i n g . Th e g e n -
e r a l s i l e n c e b e c a m e d e p r e s s i n g
. Th e f e e l i n g s o f e a c h v a r i e d b u t
a l l w e r e g l o o m y .
XXV I
Y EARS
p a s s e d . N o t h i n g w a s c h a n g e d , a s S a b l i n w a n t e d t o t h i n k
.
Th e Em p e r o r s t i l l h e l d t h e t i t l e o f Au t o c r a t a n d e m p h a s i z e d
w h e r e v e r h e c o u l d t h a t h e w a s a n Au t o c r a t .
Th e f i r s t Du m a
h a d b e e n d i s s o l v e d a f t e r i t h a d b e g u n t o s p e a k t o o f r e e l y
. I t
a s s e m b l e d a g a i n a t V i b o r g a n d w a s a r r e s t e d
. Th e p e o p l e a n -
s w e r e d b y b l o o d y r i o t s , p o g r o m s a n d " i l l u m i n a t i o n s " o f t h e
e s t a t e s , - t h e t r o o p s q u e l l e d t h e r i o t s
. C a p i t a l p u n i s h m e n t ,
w h i c h h a d n o t b e e n h e a r d o f f o r a l o n g t i m e , n o w b e c a m e a n
o r d i n a r y e v e n t
. I n c e n d i a r i e s , m u r d e r e r s a n d p r o p a g a n d i s t s
w e r e h u n g a n d s h o t e v e r y w h e r e
. S a b l i n t h o u g h t t h a t t h e y d e -
s e r v e d w h a t t h e y g o t f o r h a v i n g a c t e d a g a i n s t t h e l a w , b u t t h e
p e o p l e b l a m e d t h e Go v e r n m e n t
. . . a n d t h e Em p e r o r . . . f o r
e v e r y t h i n g .
Th e w o r d s " t h e h a t e d Go v e r n m e n t " b e c a m e o f
c o m m o n u s e .
S o m e g l o r i f i e d t h e Du m a , c a l l e d i t " t h e Du m a o f N a t i o n a l
W r a t h , " a n d p r e d i c t e d a g r e a t f u t u r e f o r i t
; o t h e r s o n l y l a u g h e d
a t i t a n d c a l l e d i t a " p l a c e f o r t a l k i n g
. " S a b l i n o n c e t a l k e d w i t h
P e s t r e t z o f f o n t h i s t o p i c
.
" Th e Em p e r o r m a k e s a g r e a t m i s t a k e b y h i s p r e s e n t p o l i c y , "
P e s t r e t z o f f s a i d .
" Ei t h e r t h e Du m a i s a P a r l i a m e n t w h i c h
[ 34 0 1
TOREDFLAG
r u l e s t h e c o u n t r y , b e f o r e w h i c h t h e r e s p o n s i b l e M i n i s t e r s t r e m -
b l e a n d w h i c h p e r f o r m s t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e Em p e r o r ' s e y e s , o r
n o Du m a i s n e e d e d a t a l l a n d o n l y ` W e , b y t h e w i l l o f Go d
. . . '
s h o u l d r e m a i n . "
" I t h i n k t h a t w e h a v e b o t h , " r e m a r k e d S a b l i n
. " As f a r a s I
k n o w t h e Em p e r o r d o e s n o t w a n t t o g i v e u p a u t o c r a c y . "
" Th e n n o Du m a i s n e e d e d , S a s h a
. "
" W h y , l e t t h e m t a l k .
I t a m u s e s t h e p e o p l e . I h a v e h e a r d
s o m e s p e e c h e s a t t h e Du m a a n d h a v e r e a d a l l t h e r e p o r t s o f t h e
s i t t i n g s . Th e y a r e
a l l d e v o i d o f r e a l a c t i v i t y . Th e p a r t i e s
q u a r r e l a n d f i g h t e a c h o t h e r
. Th e M i n i s t e r s p a y n o a t t e n t i o n t o
w h a t i s g o i n g o n t h e r e a n d t h e Em p e r o r s t i l l l e s s
. . . . "
" Y o u a r e w r o n g , S a s h a
. Th e Du m a i n i t s p r e s e n t s t a t e r e p -
r e s e n t s a t e r r i b l e e v i l
. Th e p e o p l e c r e a t e n o t h i n g t h r o u g h t h e i r
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s b u t o n l y c r i t i c i s e
. Th a t i s e a s y . Th e Du m a f i t s
o u t m e n w h o a r e c a p a b l e o n l y o f t a l k i n g a n d c r i t i c i s i n g w h i l e
t h e c o u n t r y w i l l s o o n r e q u i r e m e n c a p a b l e o f c r e a t i v e w o r k
.
S a s h a , t h e d i s t u r b a n c e s d o n o t c e a s e . Th e t r o o p s a r e b e c o m i n g
u n r e l i a b l e a n d t h e d i s c i p l i n e i s w e a k e n e d
. I t i s t h e w o r k o f t h e
Du m a !Th e Du m a u n d e r m i n e s t h e S t a t e , i t c o r r u p t s t h e p e o -
p l e . B y i t s c r i t i c i s m , f o u n d e d o r u n f o u n d e d , - t h a t d o e s n o t
m a t t e r , a s t h e p o i n t o f t h e q u e s t i o n l i e s e l s e w h e r e , - t h e Du m a
i n s t i l l s i n t h e p e o p l e d i s t r u s t a n d c o n t e m p t t o w a r d s t h e M i n -
i s t e r s . Th e Du m a b r i n g s f o r t h a n d s h o w s t o t h e p e o p l e a l l t h e
d a r k s i d e s o f t h e Go v e r n m e n t a n d o f t h e Ts a r
. Th e Du m a h a s
a r i s e n b e t w e e n t h e Ts a r a n d t h e p e o p l e
. I t i g n o r e s t h e g o o d
a c t i o n s o f t h e Ts a r a n d e m p h a s i s e s t h e b a d
. S a s h a , y o u o f t e n
s e e t h e Em p e r o r a n d y o u s p e a k w i t h h i m f r e e l y , - t e l l , h i m t h a t
t h i n g s c a n n o t r e m a i n a s t h e y a r e . Th e Du m a s h o u l d b e m a d e
r e s p o n s i b l e , i t s h o u l d b e i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n g o v e r n m e n t
a n d n o t i n c r i t i c i s m . I t s p o w e r s s h o u l d b e e n l a r g e d a n d n o t
c u r t a i l e d
. Th e e n t i r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e v e r y t h i n g s h o u l d b e
p l a c e d o n t h e Du m a
. Th e Ts a r s h o u l d r e m a i n o n l y a Ts a r . . . .
Th e o n l y o t h e r i s s u e w o u l d b e f o r h i m t o t a k e e v e r y t h i n g u p o n
h i m s e l f , t o b r e a k w i t h t h e n o b l e c l a s s e s , t o g o w i t h t h e p e o p l e
a n d p e r s o n a l l y m a k e t h e m a g i f t o f t h e l a n d . "
S a b l i n w a t c h e d t h e Em p e r o r
. Ag r e a t c h a n g e w a s n o t i c e a b l e
[
34 1 ]
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
i n h i m
. H e b e c a m e m o o d y a n d i r r i t a b l e
. S o m e t i m e s h e d r a n k
v o d k a b e f o r e d i n n e r a n d s u p p e r a s i f t r y i n g t o f o r g e t s o m e -
t h i n g a n d t o d i s p e l g l o o m y t h o u g h t s
. H e d i d n o t b e c o m e d r u n k ,
h i s e y e s d i d n o t s h i n e , b u t w e r e s i m p l y f i x e d w i t h d e e p s a d -
n e s s i n t h e m u p o n s o m e t h i n g t h a t h e s a w i n t h e d i s t a n c e
. S a b -
l i n ' s f e e l i n g s o f l o v e f o r t h e Em p e r o r r e m a i n e d u n a l t e r e d
. H e
w a n t e d t o p e n e t r a t e i n t o t h e r e a s o n o f t h e Em p e r o r ' s s a d n e s s
b u t h e d i d n o t k n o w h o w t o d o i t
. Th e Em p e r o r ' s p o s i t i o n w a s
b e c o m i n g e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t b e c a u s e t h e M i n i s t e r s p l a c e d a l l t h e
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y u p o n h i s s h o u l d e r s
. M i l i t a r y e x e c u t i o n s , c a p i t a l
p u n i s h m e n t a n d p r o c l a m a t i o n s o f a s t a t e o f s i e g e w e r e d o n e i n
t h e Em p e r o r ' s n a m e .
C l e m e n c i e s a n d f a v o u r s w e r e g i v e n b y
t h e Du m a w h i c h o b t a i n e d t h e m f r o m t h e Em p e r o r b y a r r o g a n t
s p e e c h e s . I t a l w a y s a s k e d f o r m o r e t h a n w a s n e e d e d a n d w h e n
t h e l a w s w e r e i s s u e d t h e i m p r e s s i o n w a s c r e a t e d t h a t t h e Ts a r
h a d c u t d o w n t h e r i g h t s o f t h e p e o p l e , - t h a t t h e Ts a r h a d g i v e n
o n e t h i n g w h e n t h e Du m a h a d a s k e d f o r a n o t h e r .
Th e Ts a r
s a w a n d u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h e m e n w h o m h e h a d a p p o i n t e d t o
h e l p h i m , o n w h o m h e h a d s h o w e r e d f a v o u r s a n d d i s t i n c t i o n s
n o w t r a n s f o r m e d h i m i n t o a n o b j e c t o f a p o l i t i c a l g a m e
. Th e s e
m e n w e r e b e t r a y i n g h i m .
Th e Em p e r o r ' s f a m i l y l i f e w a s a l s o w o r r y i n g h i m
. Th e Em -
p r e s s w a s i l l a n d o f t e n d i d n o t a p p e a r a t t h e t a b l e f o r m e a l s .
N e w p e r s o n s s u r r o u n d e d h e r a n d t h e y h a d p r e s s e d S a b l i n a s i d e .
Th e Em p r e s s h a d g i v e n u p h e r d r e a m s o f p o w e r a n d l i v e d o n l y
f o r h e r f a m i l y a n d h e r s o n , b u t s h e h a d s t r a n g e m y s t i c a l i d e a s
a n d a c q u a i n t a n c e s . An n a V i r o u b o v a , t h e a b n o r m a l w i f e o f a n
a b n o r m a l h u s b a n d b e c a m e h e r i n t i m a t e f r i e n d .
Th e y p r a y e d
t o g e t h e r , t o g e t h e r t h e y r e a c h e d e c s t a s y a n d s e a r c h e d f o r n e w
s a i n t s a n d f o r s i g n s o f t h e w i l l o f Go d
. Th e Em p r e s s s t a y e d
f o r h o u r s o n h e r k n e e s , a n d b r u i s e s c o v e r e d h e r s k i n
. H a p p y
p e o p l e d i d n o t p r a y t h u s . S h e w a s u n h a p p y .
S a b l i n s u f f e r e d g r e a t l y i n s e e i n g t h e s o r r o w t h a t r e i g n e d i n
t h e I m p e r i a l f a m i l y
. Of t e n h e h a d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r w a t c h i n g
t h e Em p e r o r a n d t h e M i n i s t e r s w h e n o n d u t y a t t h e p a l a c e .
Ro d z i a n k o , t h e t a l l s t o u t P r e s i d e n t o f t h e Du m a a l s o c a m e t h e r e
o f t e n
. An d a l l o f t h e m f e l t c o n t e m p t f o r t h e Em p e r o r . Th e y
[34 2 ]
TOREDFLAG
l a i d r e p o r t s b e f o r e h i m , t h e y t r i e d t o p e r s u a d e h i m t o d o c e r -
t a i n t h i n g s ; b u t t h e i r g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e w a s u n f r i e n d l y
. Th e y
p l a c e d t h e i r o w n p e r s o n a l i t i e s h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e Em p e r o r
.
Th e Em p e r o r f e l t t h i s .
H e g r e w t i r e d o f t h i s s t r i f e w h i c h
w o r r i e d h i m a n d m a d e h i m s l a c k i n h i s w o r k
. H e p r e f e r r e d t o
r e c e i v e o n l y t h o s e p e r s o n s w h o w o u l d b r i n g h i m g o o d n e w s
.
H e l i k e d S u h o m l i n o f f * b e c a u s e t h e c l e v e r o l d Ge n e r a l s p o k e
c a l m l y a n d s i m p l y a n d a l w a y s p r e s e n t e d h i s r e p o r t s f r o m a n
a g r e e a b l e p o i n t o f v i e w .
H e d i s l i k e d Ro d z i a n k o b e c a u s e t h e
P r e s i d e n t o f t h e Du m a a l w a y s a r g u e d a n d p r e s s e d h i s p o i n t s ,
c o n t r a d i c t i n g t h e Em p e r o r .
Th e o l d m e r r y s p i r i t h a d d i s a p p e a r e d f r o m t h e C o u r t
. Th e
p a l a c e b a l l s w e r e n o l o n g e r h e l d a f t e r t h e J a p a n e s e w a r
. Th e
b r i l l i a n t p a r a d e s o f t h e Gu a r d s w h i c h u s u a l l y h a p p e n e d o n t h e
" Fi e l d o f M a r s " i n Ap r i l s e e m e d o u t o f p l a c e n o w
. Th e c r o w d s
w e r e i n c i t e d a g a i n s t t h e Ar m y a n d e x c e s s e s w e r e t o b e f e a r e d
.
Th e Ts a r r e v i e w e d h i s Gu a r d s b y r e g i m e n t s b e f o r e t h e Ts a r -
s k o i e S e l o p a l a c e o n t h e d a y s o f t h e r e g i m e n t a l h o l i d a y s
. H e
d i n e d i n t h e c i r c l e o f o f f i c e r s t r y i n g t o f o r g e t t h e r e a l i t y a n d t o
c r e a t e a n i l l u s i o n o f f i d e l i t y a m o n g t h e t r o o p s
. H e t r i e d t o f o r -
g e t t h e t r o u b l e s t h a t h a d a r i s e n i n 19 0 5i n h i s o w n P r e o b r a j e n -
s k y r e g i m e n t .
S a b l i n s a w t h a t t h e c o u n t r y w a s f a l l i n g t o p i e c e s a f t e r t h e
i n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e Du m a
. N o t Ru s s i a n p e o p l e b u t p a r t i e s c o m -
p o s e d i t .
Th e Ar m y w a s s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e p e o p l e a n d t h e
p e o p l e h a t e d t h e Ar m y
. Th e M i n i s t e r s w e n t n e i t h e r w i t h t h e
Du m a n o r w i t h t h e Ts a r
. Th e Ts a r w a s l e f t i n s o l i t u d e
.
P i e c e a f t e r p i e c e w a s b e i n g t o r n a w a y f r o m S a b l i n ' s h e a r t
.
H i s f a i t h i n t h e p e o p l e h a d b e e n d e s t r o y e d , - b e c a u s e S a b l i n
c o u l d - n o t b e l i e v e i n a p e o p l e w h o s e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s w e n t a g a i n s t
Ru s s i a a n d t h e Ts a r , h i s f a i t h i n t h e Ar m y h a d w a v e r e d , a n d
o n l y t h e Ts a r r e m a i n e d
. Th e b e l o v e d Ts a r w h o m h e p i t i e d
!
B u t o n e c a n n o t p i t y a g o d .
Th e Ts a r w a s l o s i n g h i s d i v i n e
a s p e c t a n d t h a t w a s t e r r i b l e
!
S a b l i n s p e n t m o r e a n d m o r e t i m e i n t h e c i r c l e o f h i s f a m i l y
.
* W a r M i n i s t e r d u r i n g t h e y e a r s w h i c h p r e c e d e d t h e Gr e a t W a r
.
[ 34 3
1
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
H i s c h i l d r e n w e r e g r o w i n g u p
; V e r a C o n s t a n t i n o v n a w a s u n -
c h a n g i n g l y b e a u t i f u l a n d l o v e d h i m a s s h e d i d b e f o r e
. S h e w a s
a d m i t t e d t o t h e i n t i m a t e c i r c l e o f t h e Em p r e s s , s h e t r i e d t o
s o o t h h e r s u f f e r i n g s a n d S a b l i n l o v e d h e r a l l t h e m o r e f o r t h a t
.
" I h a v e s o m e t h i n g t o l i v e f o r y e t , " h e t h o u g h t , - " t h e Ts a r a n d
t h e f a m i l y . . . . "
" Le t t h e i n s a n e V i c t o r g r o w u p t h e r e i n t h e d i s t a n c e
. I s h a l l
g o a g a i n s t m y s o n s h o u l d h e r i s e a g a i n s t t h e Ts a r
. I s h e m y
s o n a f t e r a l l ? I h a v e n ' t b r o u g h t h i m u p
. Th e h e a r t w h i c h g i v e s
t h e s o u l i s m o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e s e e d o u t o f w h i c h t h e b o d y
a r i s e s
. "
XXV I I
S AB LI N
w a s a l o n e i n h i s f l a t o n a s p r i n g e v e n i n g . H i s s o n w a s
a t t h e C a d e t C o r p s , Ta n i a a t h e r s c h o o l . V e r a C o n s t a n t i n o v n a
h a d l e f t f o r Ts a r s k o i e S e l o i n t h e m o r n i n g a n d h a d n o t y e t r e -
t u r n e d
. Th e c l a t t e r o f h o o f s a n d t h e r u m b l e o f w h e e l s o n t h e
s t r e e t p a v e m e n t s f r e e d f r o m t h e s n o w a n d i c e c a m e f r o m o u t -
s i d e . Ob l e n i s s i m o f f , w h o w a s a m e m b e r o f t h e f o u r t h Du m a ,
w a s v e r y p r o u d o f t h e f a c t a n d o f t e n d e l i v e r e d s m o o t h s p e e c h e s
f u l l o f l i b e r a l i s m b u t e n t i r e l y d e v o i d o f c o m m o n s e n s e , h a d
c o m e t o s e e h i s n e p h e w , a n d t a l k e d a t l e n g t h
.
N o w Ob l e n i s s i m o f f w a s g o n e
. De a d s i l e n c e f i l l e d t h e f l a t , o n l y
o v e r h e a d s o m e s o l i t a r y p e r s o n p o u r e d o u t h i s s o u l i n a n o c t u r n e
.
I t s p o k e o f a t o r t u r e d s e l f s e e k i n g r e s t i n m e l o d y a n d i n p r a y e r
.
S a b l i n ' s g a z e w a n d e r e d i n h i s t h o u g h t s o v e r t h e w h o l e o f t h e
c o u n t r y .
H e s a w t h e l i t t l e s m o k y h o u s e s o f t h e p e a s a n t s , t h e
l a n d o f d i f f e r e n t o w n e r s s c a t t e r e d i n s t r i p s b e t w e e n t h e p o s s e s -
s i o n s o f o t h e r s , d i r t a n d d e j e c t i o n , h u n g e r a n d p o v e r t y . H e s a w
t h e V o l g a s t e p p e s s c o r c h e d b y t h e s u n a n d h e a r d p r a y e r s f o r
r a i n
; h e s a w t h e w h i t e c l e a n h o u s e s o f t h e Uk r a i n i a n s . ;
Th e
s a m e s h o u t r o s e i n a g r o a n e v e r y w h e r e - l a n d
S a b l i n k n e w t h a t i t w a s n o t o n l y t h e l a n d t h a t t h e Ru s s i a n
p e o p l e n e e d e d
. I t w a s n e c e s s a r y t o a l t e r t h e p r e s e n t s y s t e m b y
w h i c h e a c h p e a s a n t h a d h i s l a n d s c a t t e r e d i n s m a l l s t r i p s o v e r a
v a s t a r e a ; p r o p e r i r r i g a t i o n h a d t o b e i n t r o d u c e d i n m a n y p l a c e s
;
c u l t u r e a n d e d u c a t i o n w e r e n e c e s s a r y
; b u t f i r s t o f a l l t h e y n e e d e d
[ 34 4 1
TOREDFLAG
l a n d . Th e Ru s s i a n m u j i k s s o u g h t f o r t r u t h a n d d i d n o t s e e i t
i n t h e p r e s e n t s t a t e o f t h i n g s w h e n o n e m a n g r o a n e d o n h a l f
a d e s i a t i n o f l a n d w h i l e a n o t h e r p o s s e s s e d a w h o l e p r o v i n c e a n d
n e v e r v i s i t e d i t . Th e p e o p l e h a d a l w a y s h o p e d f o r a r e d i s t r i b u -
t i o n o f t h e l a n d . Th e y h a d h o p e d f o r i t e v e n b e f o r e t h e l i b e r a -
t i o n o f t h e s e r f s . I t w a s t h e Ts a r w h o h a d t o g i v e t h e m t h e
l a n d a n d n o t t h e Du m a o r t h e r e v o l u t i o n , n o t s t r i k e s , m u r d e r e r s
o f o f f i c i a l s a n d t h e b u r n i n g o f m a n o r - h o u s e s . Th e Ts a r o u g h t
t o l e a v e t h e e d u c a t e d c l a s s e s a n d g o w i t h t h e p e o p l e .
B u t a l l t h e s e l a n d s h a d b e e n g r a n t e d t o t h e n o b l e s a s g i f t s
f o r t r u e s e r v i c e b y t h e p r e v i o u s Em p e r o r s . Ea c h e s t a t e h a d
b e e n p r e s e n t e d t o g e t h e r w i t h " g r a m o t a s " s i g n e d b y t h e Ts a r s o f
M o s c o w a n d t h e Em p e r o r s o f a l l Th e Ru s s i a s . C o u l d t h e Ts a r ,
t h e g r a n d s o n a n d d e s c e n d a n t o f t h e s e Ts a r s , b r e a k t h e i r w o r d
a n d s i g n a t u r e a n d t a k e a w a y t h e l a n d f r o m t h e n o b l e s w h e n
t h e y h a d c o m m i t t e d n o f a u l t ?
N o , h e c o u l d n e v e r d o i t
Th e n o c t u r n e f l o w e d q u i e t l y o v e r h e a d , t r i c k l i n g f a i n t e r a n d
f a i n t e r t i l l i t s u d d e n l y p o u r e d o u t m i g h t y a n d r i n g i n g a g a i n , t h e
m u s i c s p e a k i n g o f p o w e r a n d c a l l i n g t o b a t t l e a n d t o g r e a t d e e d s
.
Th e n o b l e s s h o u l d l o v e t h e Em p e r o r , t h e y s h o u l d s u p p o r t h i m
a t a t i m e w h e n t h e Th r o n e w a s s h a k i n g . Th e Ru s s i a n S t a t e h a d
a l w a y s b a s e d i t s e l f u p o n t h e n o b l e s a n d t h e y s h o u l d s u p p o r t i t
n o w . Al l t h e s e m i l l i o n a i r e s , p r o p r i e t o r s o f t e n s o f t h o u s a n d o f
a c r e s o f l a n d , s h o u l d c o m e t o t h e Em p e r o r a n d t e l l h i m : " Ta k e
o u r l a n d s a n d u s e t h e m a s y o u t h i n k b e s t !" V i l l a g e s a n d
s t a n i t z a s w o u l d t h u s r e c e i v e t h e a d d i t i o n a l l a n d t h e y n e e d e d b y
a n I m p e r i a l e d i c t a n d b y t h e w i l l o f t h e Ts a r . Ex p e r i m e n t a l
f a r m s a n d s c h o o l s o f a g r i c u l t u r e w o u l d b e i n s t i t u t e d i n t h e
m a n o r - h o u s e s . Th e y o u n g m e n o f n o b l e f a m i l i e s w o u l d l i v e
a n d w o r k t h e r e a n d w o u l d t e a c h t h e p e a s a n t s p a t r i o t i s m a n d
s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r e i n s t e a d o f s o c i a l i s m a n d h a t r e d f o r t h e
Ts a r a n d f o r Ru s s i a a s t h e p r e s e n t g e n e r a t i o n o f t h e e d u c a t e d
c l a s s e s w a s d o i n g , w h i c h i n s t i g a t e d m u r d e r s a n d p o g r o m s . Le t
t h e o l d c o a t o f a r m s , - a g o l d e n s w o r d o n a b l u e f i e l d , - s t a y
o v e r t h e d o o r s o f t h e m a n o r - h o u s e o f t h e S a b l i n s a n d a n i n -
s c r i p t i o n b e p l a c e d b e n e a t h : " Th e I m p e r i a l S c h o o l o f Ag r i c u l -
[ 34 5 ]
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
t u r e f o u n d e d b y t h e S a b l i n s
. " Le t K o l i a a n d Ta n i a l i v e t h e r e
s u r r o u n d e d b y a c r o w d o f p e a s a n t c h i l d r e n a n d t e a c h t h e m h o w
t o m a k e Ru s s i a p r o s p e r o u s a n d h a p p y
! . . .
W o u l d t h e n o b l e s r e f u s e i f t h e Em p e r o r a d d r e s s e d t h e m w i t h
a r e q u e s t t o r e n o u n c e t h e i r h e r e d i t a r y r i g h t s t o t h e l a n d a n d t o
g o t h u s w i t h t h e p e a s a n t s ?
Th e p i a n i s t s t r u c k a m i g h t y c h o r d a n d a b r u p t l y c e a s e d p l a y
i n g t h e n o c t u r n e , w h i c h h a d r i s e n t o t h e p o w e r o f a s t o r m , a n d
s t a r t e d a g a i n i n a s w e e t w e e p i n g m e l o d y w h i c h s p o k e o f s o r r o w
a n d o f p r a y e r .
Ol d Ru s s i a h a d b e e n c o m p o s e d o f t h e Ts a r , t h e n o b l e s , t h e
m e r c h a n t s , t h e c l e r g y , p r o f e s s i o n a l c l a s s e s , p e a s a n t s a n d o f f i c i a l s
.
Th e " b o u r g e o i s " a n d " p r o l e t a r i a n s " h a d a p p e a r e d n o w
.
P e a s a n t s a n d w o r k m e n s t i l l r e m a i n e d w h i l e a l l t h e r e s t w e r e
d i v i d e d i n t o p a r t i e s :
M o n a r c h i s t s , Oc t o b e r P a r t y , N a t i o n a l i s t s ,
C o n s t i t u t i o n a l i s t s , S o c i a l i s t s - d e m o c r a t s ,
S o c i a l i s t s - r e v o l u t i o n -
a r i e s , La b o u r P a r t y , An a r c h i s t s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t s , C o m m u n i s t s ,
- p e r h a p s t h e r e w e r e e v e n m o r e I
Th e o l d c l a s s e s h a d w o r k e d f o r Ru s s i a a n d t h e Ts a r
. S t r i f e
h a d s o m e t i m e s a r i s e n b e t w e e n t h e m , b u t t h e y w e r e a l l u n a n i -
m o u s w h e n t h e m a t t e r t o u c h e d Ru s s i a , a n d Ru s s i a h a d t h e n b e e n
s t r o n g a n d i n v i n c i b l e . B u t n o w t h e n o b l e c l a s s w a s i n d e c a y
.
Th e n o b l e s h a d h e l p e d t o f o r m a l l t h e s e n e w p a r t i e s a n d t o o k a n
a c t i v e p a r t i n t h e i r w o r k
. Li t t l e b y l i t t l e t h e y h a d t a k e n t h e
f o r m o f t h e h o r r i b l e , u n p a t r i o t i c a n d s u p e r f i c i a l l y e d u c a t e d " i n -
t e l l i g e n t z i a , " w h o w e r e n o w r u i n i n g Ru s s i a i n t h e i r p a r t y
s t r i f e , Ru s s i a c o u l d n o t e x i s t w i t h t h e m
. S u c h n o b l e s w e r e n o
l o n g e r n e e d e d , l e t t h e m p e r i s h a n d g i v e t h e i r l a n d t o t h e p e o p l e .
Th e c l e r g y w a s i n p o v e r t y , h a d l o s t i t s a c t i v e s p i r i t a n d f a i t h
a n d h a d n o i n f l u e n c e o n t h e p e o p l e . Al l i t s i n t e r e s t s w e r e c o n -
c e n t r a t e d u p o n p e t t y f i g h t i n g f o r e x i s t e n c e a n d b r e a d . Ac l e r g y
w i t h o u t s p i r i t i s n o l o n g e r a c l e r g y
. I t w a s n e c e s s a r y t o m a k e
r a d i c a l c h a n g e s i n t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n a n d p e r s o n n e l o f t h e c l e r g y
a n d t o m a k e e a c h p r i e s t m a t e r i a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t o f h i s c o n g r e -
g a t i o n . Tw o t y p e s o f p r i e s t s w e r e p o s s i b l e - e i t h e r a w e l l - f e d
m a n w h o s e m a t e r i a l n e e d s w e r e s u p p l i e d , a m a n o f t h e t y p e o f
C a t h o l i c o r P r o t e s t a n t p r i e s t s , a m a n w h o c o u l d h e l p h i s c o n -
[ 34 6 ]
TOREDFLAG
g r e g a t i o n b y v a s t s c i e n t i f i c a n d p r a c t i c a l k n o w l e d g e w h i c h h e
h a d a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h p r o p e r t r a i n i n g , o r , - a h e r m i t , a n a g e d
m a n w h o n e e d e d n o t h i n g . B u t n o t t h e p r e s e n t t y p e o f p r i e s t ,
w h o h a d t o b e p a i d f o r e a c h o f f i c e a n d w h o r e f u s e d t o p e r f o r m
t h e w e d d i n g o r f u n e r a l c e r e m o n i e s w i t h o u t p a y m e n t . Y e s , - -
t h e r e a l c l e r g y e x i s t e d n o l o n g e r .
S a b l i n ' s h e a d s a n k l o w e r a n d l o w e r . W h e r e c o u l d t h e Ts a r
f i n d s u p p o r t ? Tw o o f t h e m a i n p i l l a r s w e r e i n d e c a y a n d m i g h t
c o l l a p s e a t a n y m o m e n t a n d f a l l i n t o d u s t . I n d e p e n d e n t w o r k -
m e n h a d b e e n r e p l a c e d b y e m p l o y e r s a n d e m p l o y e e s . Ap o w e r -
f u l a r m y o f f a m i s h i n g , d i s c o n t e n t e d m e n h a d b e e n c r e a t e d i n -
s i d e t h e S t a t e
. P e r h a p s i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n b e t t e r f o r Ru s s i a
i f t h e w h o l e o f t h i s a r m y h a d b e e n d i s b a n d e d a n d s e n t b a c k t o
t h e i r n a t i v e v i l l a g e s , i f t h e f a c t o r i e s h a d b e e n r e p l a c e d b y m a n -
u a l w o r k a n d a r t i c l e s o f l u x u r y i m p o r t e d f r o m a b r o a d .
Th e p e a s a n t s a n d t h e o f f i c i a l s r e m a i n e d
. I t w a s e v i d e n t t h a t
t h e p e a s a n t s w o u l d f o l l o w t h o s e a n d w o r k f o r t h o s e w h o w o u l d
g i v e t h e m t h e l a n d . Th e y h a d b e c o m e a c c u s t o m e d t o t h e Ts a r ,
t h e y p r a i s e d h i m i n t h e i r s o n g s a n d t h e i r l e g e n d s .
Th e o f f i c i a l s . . . .
S a b l i n s i g h e d h e a v i l y .
" M e a c u l p a , " h e w h i s p e r e d , " m e a
m a x i m a c u l p a . "
De v o t i o n t o p r e c e d e n c e a n d s e l f i s h a m b i t i o n
h a d a l w a y s b e e n a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
. f e a t u r e o f t h e o f f i c i a l s , b u t
t h e y h a d n e v e r a t t a i n e d s u c h p r o p o r t i o n s a s n o w
. Th e o f f i c i a l s
w e r e c o r r u p t t o t h e l i m i t
. S t o l i p i n a l o n e h a d r i s e n h i g h a b o v e
t h e r e s t a n d h a d p e r i s h e d , m u r d e r e d b y a n u n k n o w n h a n d
. Th e
" o p r i c h n i k i " o f I v a n t h e Te r r i b l e , t h e S e c r e t Of f i c e a n d t h e r e -
n o w n e d Th i r d S e c t i o n i n l a t e r d a y s h a d d o n e m u c h i n j u s t i c e
a n d s e t t l e d m a n y p e r s o n a l q u a r r e l s , b u t t h e y h a d b e e n c a r e f u l
t o g u a r d t h e p r e s t i g e o f t h e Ts a r s . Th e p r e s e n t " Oc h r a n a " a n d
t h e s w a r m o f o f f i c i a l s w h i c h s u r r o u n d e d t h e Th r o n e t h o u g h t
l i t t l e a b o u t t h e Ts a r ' s i n t e r e s t s . Ol d Ru s s i a w a s i n a s t a t e o f
d e c a y . I t w a s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s t r u c t n e w p i l l a r s w h i c h w o u l d
s u p p o r t t h e m a g n i f i c e n t b u i l d i n g o f t h e Ru s s i a n Em p i r e . W i d e
r e f o r m s h a d t o b e i n t r o d u c e d w i t h o u t d e l a y . Th e Du m a c o u l d
n o t a n d s h o u l d n o t g i v e t h e m - i t w a s i t s e l f c o r r u p t , b e i n g c o m -
p o s e d o f p a r t i e s a n d n o t o f Ru s s i a n p e o p l e , a n d c o u l d h a v e n o
[34 7 ]
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h e m .
Th e Ts a r s h o u l d g i v e t h e s e r e f o r m s
.
Th e Ts a r s h o u l d i s s u e e d i c t a f t e r e d i c t , u k a z e a f t e r u k a z e , a l t e r
e v e r y t h i n g , t i l l t h e Ru s s i a n f i e l d i n a n e w m a n n e r , f i n d t h e n e c e s -
s a r y m e n a n d p l a c e t h e m i n p o w e r .
Th e Ts a r ! Ev e r y t h i n g
s h o u l d c o m e f r o m t h e Ts a r a n d b e d o n e i n h i s n a m e !
Th e m u s i c c e a s e d o v e r h e a d i n a p o w e r f u l f l o w i n g c h o r d
.
S a b l i n r o s e a n d l o o k e d a t h i s w a t c h . I t w a s f o u r o ' c l o c k i n t h e
m o r n i n g .
" I w i l l g o t o t h e Ts a r , " h e t h o u g h t
. " I w i l l g o a n d t e l l h i m
e v e r y t h i n g . I t i s m y d u t y
! H e w i l l l i s t e n t o m e a n d w i l l u n -
d e r s t a n d t h a t w h a t I s a y i s p r o m p t e d b y m y l i m i t l e s s l o v e f o r
h i m !"
XXV I I I
TH E
Em p e r o r h a d o n l y f i n i s h e d h i s w o r k a t s i x o ' c l o c k a n d
p a s s e d t o h i s s t u d y
. " W a i t j u s t a m o m e n t , Y o u r H o n o u r , " s a i d
a s t o u t r e s p e c t a b l e l o o k i n g v a l e t d e c h a m b r e o f H i s M a j e s t y
. " I
w i l l a n n o u n c e y o u . "
S o m e t i m e s t h e Em p e r o r i n v i t e d S a b l i n i n t h e s e e v e n i n g h o u r s
a n d t a l k e d t o h i m
.
S o m e t i m e s h i s d a u g h t e r s , t h e Gr a n d
Du c h e s s e s , j o i n e d t h e m a n d t h e Em p e r o r r e a d t o t h e m i n En g -
l i s h
. Ev e r y t h i n g w a s q u i e t t h e n i n t h e s t u d y o f t h e Ts a r s k o i e
S e l o p a l a c e .
W o r r i e s a n d e a r t h l y c a r e s v a n i s h e d , t h e Em -
p e r o r ' s e y e s h a d n o t s u c h a s a d l o o k a s u s u a l , a n d h e b e c a m e
m o r e a c c e s s i b l e f o r s i m p l e c o n v e r s a t i o n .
S a b l i n r e m a i n e d a l o n e i n t h e l i b r a r y
. Th e w a l l s w e r e l i n e d
b y l a r g e b o o k c a s e s w i t h g l a s s d o o r s , a n d a r o u n d t a b l e l i t t e r e d
w i t h n e w s p a p e r s a n d i l l u s t r a t e d m a g a z i n e s s t o o d i n t h e c e n t r e
o f t h e r o o m .
Th e " N o v o i e V r e m i a " a n d " Ru s s k y I n v a l i d , "
p r i n t e d o n v e l l u m p a p e r w e r e p u t o n o n e s i d e
. Th e Em p e r o r
r e a d t h e m i n t h e m o r n i n g .
Am a h o g a n y d o o r w i t h a b r o n z e h a n d l e l e d t o t h e Em p e r o r ' s
s t u d y
. Ev e r y t h i n g w a s q u i e t t h e r e .
S a b l i n h a d a l r e a d y b e e n
s t a n d i n g m o t i o n l e s s n e a r t h e t a b l e f o r m o r e t h a n h a l f a n h o u r
.
Ab r o n z e c l o c k w h i c h w a s b e f o r e h i m h a d s t r u c k s i x a n d t h e n
h a l f p a s t .
Th e d o o r s l e a d i n g t o t h e p r e s e n c e c h a m b e r w e r e s u d d e n l y
[34 8 ]
TOREDFLAG ,
t h r o w n o p e n a n d t h e Ad j u t a n t Ge n e r a l o n d u t y p r e c e d e d b y t h e
v a l e t d e c h a m b r e e n t e r e d t h e l i b r a r y . Am a n o f s t r a n g e a p -
p e a r a n c e f o l l o w e d t h e m . H e w a s t a l l , t h i n , h a d b l a c k h a i r
t r i m m e d i n m o u j i k f a s h i o n , a b l a c k m o u s t a c h e a n d a l o n g s h i n -
i n g b l a c k b e a r d w h i c h d e s c e n d e d i n w a v e s f r o m h i s e x t r e m e l y
p a l e f a c e
. H e w o r e a l o n g w h i t e s i l k s h i r t e m b r o i d e r e d o n t h e
c o l l a r a n d b o r d e r s , l o n g d a r k v e l v e t t r o u s e r s a n d s o f t p e a s a n t
" o p o r k i " w h i c h m a d e h i s s t e p s n o i s e l e s s
. B u t t h e e y e s o f t h e
m a n w e r e h i s m o s t r e m a r k a b l e f e a t u r e . H u g e , a l m o s t e n t i r e l y
w h i t e , s h a d e d b y b l a c k e y e l a s h e s a n d t h i c k e y e b r o w s , t h e y s h o n e
w i t h a n i n t e r n a l f i r e f r o m u n d e r d a r k s u n k e n e y e l i d s . S a b l i n
i n v o l u n t a r i l y l o w e r e d h i s g a z e u n d e r t h e s h a r p a n d a t t e n t i v e
l o o k o f t h i s m a n w h i c h s e e m e d t o p e n e t r a t e i n t o h i s s o u l a n d t o
r e a d a l l t h a t w a s t h e r e a n d i n h i s t h o u g h t s .
H a d t h a t m a n e n t e r e d a l o n e w i t h o u t t h e Ad j u t a n t Ge n e r a l ,
S a b l i n w o u l d h a v e s t o p p e d h i m a n d c a l l e d o u t t h e Gu a r d , s o u n -
u s u a l a n d o u t o f p l a c e w a s h i s a p p e a r a n c e i n t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s
o f t h e p a l a c e .
Th e Ad j u t a n t Ge n e r a l s e e m e d c o n f u s e d o n f i n d i n g S a b l i n i n
t h e l i b r a r y
. S a b l i n s t o o d a t a t t e n t i o n l o o k i n g a t t h e Ad j u t a n t
Ge n e r a l , b u t t h e s t r a n g e m a n s t o p p e d b e f o r e h i m a n d p i e r c e d
h i m b y t h e g a z e o f h i s u n c a n n y e y e s .
" Do n ' t l o o k a t h i m b u t a t m e , m y d e a r . Gr e a t p r o f i t i t s h a l l
b r i n g y o u . Le a n u p o n m e . "
S a b l i n i n v o l u n t a r i l y l o o k e d a t t h e s p e a k e r
. H i s f a c e w a s
s e p a r a t e d i n t o t w o p a r t s b y a l o n g , s t r i k i n g l y w h i t e n o s e . H i s
b l a c k b e a r d a n d d a r k h a i r g l i s t e n e d b r i g h t l y a n d t h e g r e a t h o r r i -
b l e e y e s g a z e d k e e n l y f r o m u n d e r t h i c k e y e b r o w s
. Th e y s e e m e d
t o s e e w h a t n o o n e e l s e s a w , b u t n o t h o u g h t w a s r e f l e c t e d i n
t h e m . Th e r e w a s s o m e t h i n g d e m o n i a c a l i n t h e l u s t f u l b u t
p o w e r f u l g a z e .
" Y o u t h i n k o f g r e a t t h i n g s ! O- h o ! I s h a l l c u t i t o v e r a g a i n
a t m y w i l l . B o w l o w t o Gr i s h a . . . . H e c a n t e a c h y o u . . . .
Ge t m e t o m e e t y o u r y o u n g w i f e , t h a t ' l l b e b e t t e r s t i l l . . .
Ou g h , s h e ' s g o o d ! . . . I l i k e . . . . W h i - i - t e ! . . . "
An d h e t u r n e d a w a y f r o m S a b l i n , s n i f f e d , a l u s t f u l s m i l e a p -
p e a r i n g o n h i s t h i c k b r i g h t r e d l i p s a n d w a l k e d t o w a r d s t h e
[
34 9 1
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
d o o r w h i c h w a s o p e n e d f o r h i m b y t h e v a l e t d e c h a m b r e . H e
b o l d l y e n t e r e d t h e Em p e r o r ' s s t u d y .
Th e Ad j u t a n t Ge n e r a l s i l e n t l y s h o o k h a n d s w i t h S a b l i n a n d
l e f t t h e l i b r a r y .
" W h o w a s t h i s ? " S a b l i n a s k e d .
As m i l e o f c o n t e m p t f l i c k e r e d o v e r t h e f a c e o f t h e v a l e t d e
c h a m b r e - a t l e a s t S a b l i n t h o u g h t s o - b u t i t i m m e d i a t e l y r e -
s u m e d i t s u s u a l c a l m a n d i m p a s s i o n a t e e x p r e s s i o n .
" Gr i g o r y Ef i m o v i t c h Ra s p u t i n
. Th e l i g h t e r o f t h e Ts a r ' s
i k o n l a m p s , " h e s a i d .
" Th e r e w i l l b e n o f u r t h e r r e c e p t i o n t o -
d a y
. H i s I m p e r i a l M a j e s t y i s o c c u p i e d
. I t i s u s e l e s s f o r Y o u r
H o n o u r t o w a i t .
I c o u l d r e p o r t i f t h e r e i s a n y t h i n g t h a t y o u
w i s h m e t o . "
Th e p a s s i o n a t e s p e e c h h e h a d p r e p a r e d v a n i s h e d f r o m S a b -
l i n ' s h e a d
. Th e p a l e f a c e w i t h t h e l o n g b l a c k b e a r d w a s h a u n t -
i n g h i m , t h e w h i t e e y e s b u r n t h i m t h r o u g h a n d t h r o u g h a n d t h e
l u s t f u l s t r a n g e w o r d s r a n g i n h i s e a r s .
S a b l i n s h r u g g e d h i s s h o u l d e r s a n d w a l k e d o u t o f t h e l i b r a r y .
Ap a i n f u l f o r e b o d i n g o f s o m e t h i n g i n e v i t a b l e a n d h o r r i b l e s w e p t
o v e r h i s s o u l a n d f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e h i s l o v e f o r t h e Ts a r w a s
s e r i o u s l y s t r a i n e d .
XXI X
TH E
Em p e r o r r e v i e w e d a t Ts a r s k o i e S e l o t h e u n i t s o f h i s Gu a r d
o n t h e i r r e g i m e n t a l h o l i d a y s a n d r e c e i v e d t h e o f f i c e r s a t h i s t a b l e
.
An i n s o l e n t i d e a c a m e t o o n e o f t h e r e g i m e n t s w h i c h w a s m o s t
f a v o u r e d b y t h e Ts a r
. Th e o f f i c e r s d e c i d e d t o i n v i t e t h e Em -
p e r o r t o t h e i r r e g i m e n t a l M e s s a n d r e t u r n h i s h o s p i t a l i t y b y
s h o w i n g h i m w h a t t h e e t i q u e t t e o r d i n a r i l y p r e v e n t e d h i m f r o m
s e e i n g a n d h e a r i n g - t h e Tz i g a n e s , a g a y Ru s s i a n c h o i r f r o m t h e
K r e s t o v s k y i s l a n d ,
Go u l e s k o ' s
Ro u m a n i a n o r c h e s t r a a n d
s i n g e r s a n d d a n c e r s f r o m t h e " V i l l a Ro d e
. " Th e y w a n t e d t o
t a k e h i m a w a y f o r a m o m e n t f r o m t h e u s u a l s t i f f s u r r o u n d i n g s
o f t h e p a l a c e , I m p e r i a l h u n t s , p a r a d e s , m a n o e u v r e s , b a l l s a n d
r e c e p t i o n s a n d b r i n g h i m i n t o t h e i n t i m a c y o f a n o f f i c e r s ' m e r r y
m a k i n g .
On l y t h e i r o w n i n t i m a t e c i r c l e w o u l d b e p r e s e n t , a l l "
o f f i c e r s o f t h e r e g i m e n t w h i c h t h e Em p e r o r l i k e d a n d e v e r y o n e
[ 350 ;
TOREDFLAG
o f w h o m h e k n e w p e r s o n a l l y . Th e i d e a w a s a b o l d o n e . . . .
B u t i t w a s p r o p o s e d d u r i n g t h e d a y s w h e n t h e Em p e r o r w a s
g r o w i n g w e a r y o f h i s p o w e r a n d w h e n h e s o u g h t m o m e n t a r y
o b l i v i o n o f h i s p a l a c e a n d f a m i l y l i f e , w h i c h w e r e b e c o m i n g
m o r e a n d m o r e d i f f i c u l t . An d t h e Em p e r o r a c c e p t e d t h e i n v i -
t a t i o n .
An o t h e r r e g i m e n t f o l l o w e d t h e e x a m p l e o f t h e f i r s t
. I t w a s
i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h e Em p e r o r t o r e f u s e n o w a n d i t b e c a m e a c u s -
t o m f o r t h e r e g i m e n t s t o r e c e i v e t h e Em p e r o r a t t h e i r M e s s
.
Th e s e r e c e p t i o n s c o s t f a b u l o u s s u m s o f m o n e y .
Th e y e a r ' s
s a l a r y o f a j u n i o r o f f i c e r w e n t i n o n e d a y . Fo r m a n y o f f i c e r s
o f t h e m o r e m o d e s t r e g i m e n t s s u c h a r e c e p t i o n m e a n t a f a m i l y
t r a g e d y , t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f p u r c h a s i n g n e w c l o t h i n g f o r t h e i r
w i v e s , t e a r s a n d g r o a n s
. B u t n o o n e c o u l d c o m p l a i n o r p r o t e s t .
Th e Ts a r ' s c l e m e n c y w a s t o o g r e a t a n d t o o g r e a t w a s t h e h o n o u r
o f h a v i n g t h e Ts a r a s t h e i r g u e s t . B u t l i t t l e b y l i t t l e t h e g o d d e -
s c e n d e d f r o m t h e c l o u d s a n d m e n s a w n o l o n g e r a g o d b u t a n
o r d i n a r y m o r t a l .
Th e s p i r i t o f c r i t i c i s m h a d p e n e t r a t e d d e e p
i n t o Ru s s i a n s o c i e t y a n d m e n b e g a n c r i t i c i s i n g t h e Em p e r o r
w h e n t h e y s a w h i m i n t h e i r o w n m i d s t .
B u t n o o n e c o u l d t e l l t h a t t o t h e Ts a r . H e s a w s i n c e r e m e r r i -
m e n t , h e f o r g o t h i s w o r r i e s a m o n g t h e y o u n g o f f i c e r s o f t h e r e g i -
m e n t a n d r e s t e d t h e r e f r o m h i s h e a v y m o r a l s u f f e r i n g s . B u t
t h e g o d c e a s e d t o b e a g o d , a n d g o s s i p a n d c a l u m n i e s w h i c h m e n
w h i s p e r e d a r o u n d a n d w h i c h c o u l d n o t r e a c h t h e p a l a c e , n o w
e a s i l y p e n e t r a t e d t h e b a r r a c k s .
S a b l i n ' s r e g i m e n t w a s w a i t i n g f o r t h e Em p e r o r . H e w a s e x -
p e c t e d a t s e v e n o ' c l o c k f o r s u p p e r a t t h e M e s s .
S o l d i e r s i n p a r a d e u n i f o r m s l i n e d t h e s t a i r c a s e , w h i c h w a s
c o v e r e d b y a r e d c a r p e t a n d d e c o r a t e d b y e v e r g r e e n s
. P o l i c e
a n d a g e n t s o f t h e " Oc h r a n a " p a t r o l l e d t h e s t r e e t o u t s i d e
.
C u r t a i n s w e r e d r a w n i n t h e M e s s w h i c h w a s b r i g h t l y i l l u m i -
n a t e d i n s i d e . Th e t a b l e f o r t h e " z a k o u s k a s " w a s c o v e r e d w i t h
h e a v y d i s h e s o f h a m a n d s t u r g e o n a n d w i t h c r y s t a l v a s e s w i t h
f r e s h c a v i a r . Th e o f f i c e r s w e r e l i n e d u p a c c o r d i n g t o r a n k i n
, t h e l a r g e h a l l . Th e b a n d w a s p l a c e d i n t h e a d j o i n i n g b i l l i a r d
r o o m . Th e o f f i c e r o n d u t y w a i t e d d o w n s t a i r s . Ex a c t l y a t s e v e n
f 351]
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
o ' c l o c k t h e Em p e r o r ' s l a r g e m o t o r c a r , w h i c h w a s d r i v e n b y a n
o f f i c e r d e v o t e d t o h i m , w a s s i g h t e d a t t h e e n d o f t h e s t r e e t
. Th e
m o t o r c a r s t o p p e d b e f o r e t h e M e s s a r o u n d w h i c h a c r o w d o f
o n l o o k e r s h a d a s s e m b l e d
. Th e y t o o k o f f t h e i r c a p s a n d h a t s a n d
r a i s e d a t h i n a n d d i s o r d e r l y c h e e r
. Th e Em p e r o r w e n t u p t o
t h e M e s s w h e r e h e s h o o k h a n d s w i t h a l l t h e o f f i c e r s w h i l e t h e
r e g i m e n t a l m a r c h r a n g t h r o u g h t h e h a l l
. Th e Em p e r o r p a s s e d
r o u n d a m o n g t h e o f f i c e r s , s t o p p e d n e a r a w i n d o w a n d l i t a
c i g a r e t t e .
Th e m e n o f t h e b a n d h a d f i n i s h e d p l a y i n g a n d
c r o w d e d c u r i o u s l y a t t h e d o o r s . Fo r t h e f i r s t t i m e t h e y s a w t h e
Em p e r o r n o t f r o m t h e r a n k s b u t i n t h e f a m i l i a r s u r r o u n d i n g s o f
t h e M e s s . Ev e r y t h i n g w a s q u i e t i n t h e h a l l
. Th e o f f i c e r s f e l t
r e s t r a i n t i n t h e Em p e r o r ' s p r e s e n c e a n d t h e Em p e r o r d i d n o t
s e e m t o b e q u i t e a t e a s e
. H e s i l e n t l y l o o k e d a t t h e m w i t h h i s
s h i n i n g k i n d e y e s . S a b l i n b r o k e
. t h e i c e b y a p p r o a c h i n g t h e
Em p e r o r a n d b e g i n n i n g t o t a l k t o h i m s i m p l y
. Th e Em p e r o r
s m i l e d a n d s a i d
" S m o k e , S a b l i n . . . .
S m o k e , g e n t l e m e n . . . : '
S a b l i n l i t a t h i n c i g a r e t t e a n d s m i l i n g l y b e g a n t o
. s p e a k a b o u t
h i s v i s i t t o t h e c a m p b a r r a c k s i i i t h e w i n t e r a n d o f a n o l d w a t c h -
m a n w h o w a s g u a r d i n g t h e m . *
Th e Em p e r o r l o o k e d a t h i m a n d s m i l e d , b u t
. t h e s m i l e i m m e d i -
a t e l y v a n i s h e d f r o m h i s f a c e a n d . h i s e y e s t o o k o n
. t h e - s a d e x -
p r e s s i o n w h i c h t h e y w o r e c o n s t a n t l y d u r i n g t h e f e w p a s t y e a r s
.
Th e C o m m a n d e r o f t h e r e g i m e n t a p p r o a c h e d t h e m a n d - i n v i t e d
t h e m t o p r o c e e d t o t h e d i n i n g h a l l
.
At t h e t a b l e t h e C o m m a n d e r o f t h e r e g i m e n t s a t o n t h e Em -
p e r o r ' s r i g h t h a n d ;
t h e P r i n c e Re p n i n o n t h e l e f t . S t e p o c h k a ,
Gr i t z e n k o a n d S a b l i n o p p o s i t e . Th e Em p e r o r s e e m e d t o b e i n
a m e l a n c h o l y m o o d . Ab s e n t m i n d e d l y h e d r a n k a g l a s s o f r a r e s t
m a d e i r a a n d l i s t e n e d n o t
s o m u c h t o w h a t t h e C o m m a n d e r o f
t h e r e g i m e n t s a i d a s t o t h e g e n e r a l h u m o f v o i c e s r o u n d t h e
t a b l e a n d t q t h e m u s i c o f t h e b a n d . Th e M e x i c a n s o n g " La
P a l o m a " w a s b e i n g p l a y e d , a n d a l l w a t c h e d t h e Em p e r o r , a s i t
w a s s a i d t o b e o n e o f h i s f a v o u r i t e s
. Th e c o u r s e s w e r e s e r v e d
* Th e c a m p s w e r e o c c u p i e d b y t h e t r o o p s o n l y i n t h e s u m m e r .
[352 ]
TOREDFLAG
q u i c k l y a n d s k i l f u l l y . W a i t e r s f r o m t h e b e s t P e t e r s b u r g r e s -
t a u r a n t h a d b e e n c a l l e d i n t o h e l p t h e M e s s o r d e r l i e s . As t o u t
m a i t r e d ' h o t e l , c l e a n s h a v e n a n d i m p o r t a n t l o o k i n g , d i r e c t e d t h e
o p e r a t i o n s . W i n e w a s d r u n k i n m o d e r a t i o n . B u t t h e l i e u -
t e n a n t s l e d b y Ro t b e k m a n a g e d t o b e c o m e f l u s h e d a n d n o i s y
w h e n t h e m o m e n t f o r t h e t o a s t s a r r i v e d . Th e t o a s t s w e r e o f f i -
c i a l a n d s h o r t
" To t h e S o v e r e i g n Le a d e r o f t h e Ru s s i a n Ar m y !" t h e t o a s t
w a s d r o w n e d b y a w i l d h u r r a h a n d t h e N a t i o n a l An t h e m r e -
p e a t e d t h r i c e . Th e s e c o n d : " To t h e r e g i m e n t a n d o f f i c e r s o f
t h e r e g i m e n t !" w a s l o s t i n t h e t u n e o f t h e m a r c h .
Af t e r s u p p e r a l l p a s s e d i n t o a s m a l l c o s y d r a w i n g r o o m w h e r e
c o f f e e w a s s e r v e d
. Th e Em p e r o r d i d n o t s i t d o w n , a n d c a l l e d
S a b l i n t o h i s s i d e .
" H o w i s y o u r w i f e ? " h e a s k e d
. " I h a v e n ' t s e e n h e r f o r a
l o n g t i m e b u t I k n o w t h a t s h e o f t e n v i s i t s t h e Em p r e s s
. "
H i s f a c e g r e w s a d . Th e Em p e r o r w a s s i l e n t f o r a m o m e n t
a n d t h e n s a i d
" Ev e r y t h i n g i s s o w e a r i s o m e , S a b l i n . ` La P a l o m a ' w a s
p l a y e d d u r i n g s u p p e r . Ab o u t t w e n t y y e a r s a g o I m a d e t h e m i s -
t a k e o f s a y i n g i n m y h u s s a r r e g i m e n t t h a t I l i k e d t h i s s o n g a n d
` La P a l o m a ' h a s e v e r s i n c e m e t m e w h e r e v e r I a r r i v e d . . .
S o m e t i m e s I t h i n k o f H a m l e t ' s w o r d s a b o u t t h e c l o u d . . . . Do
y o u r e m e m b e r t h e m ? "
H e a p p r o a c h e d t h e t a b l e , p u t d o w n h i s c u p a n d a d d r e s s e d t h e
C o m m a n d e r o f t h e r e g i m e n t :
" H a v e y o u f i n i s h e d f o r m i n g t h e m a c h i n e g u n s e c t i o n ? "
" Q u i t e . W e a r e g o i n g t o b e g i n t h e s h o o t i n g e x e r c i s e s a t t h e
c a m p . "
" Lo n g a g o I c o n s i d e r e d i t n e c e s s a r y t o s u p p l y t h e c a v a l r y
w i t h m a c h i n e g u n s , b u t t h e b u d g e t c a u s e d s o m u c h t r o u b l e . I
q u i t e u n d e r s t a n d t h a t i t i s a n n o y i n g t o a p p r o p r i a t e m o n e y f o r
w a r p u r p o s e s . "
" Y o u r M a j e s t y , " s a i d Gr i t z e n k o a p p r o a c h i n g t h e Em p e r o r , "
m a y I v e n t u r e t o i n v i t e y o u t o l i s t e n t o o u r n e w r e p e r t o i r e i n
t h e h a l l
. "
" H e r e i s a m a n w h o d o e s n o t s e e m t o g r o w o l d , " t h e Em -
!353]
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
p e r o r s a i d , t a k i n g Gr i t z e n k o ' s e l b o w , - " y o u a r e o f t h e s a m e a g e
a s m y s e l f , I b e l i e v e ? "
" Tw o y e a r s o l d e r , Y o u r M a j e s t y . "
" An d h o w s m a r t y o u l o o k !"
" N o , r e a l l y , Y o u r M a j e s t y , I h a v e l o s t a l l m y h a i r . M y h e a d
i s l i k e t h a t o f a c a t h o l i c p r i e s t . "
Al l p a s s e d t o t h e h a l l . As t a g e h a d b e e n e r e c t e d t h e r e a n d
a r m c h a i r s a n d s o f a s w e r e p l a c e d b e f o r e i t i n p i c t u r e s q u e d i s -
o r d e r
. Th e Em p e r o r s a t d o w n i n a n a r m c h a i r .
ARu s s i a n " c h a n s o n e t t e " s i n g e r f l u t t e r e d o u t o n t h e s t a g e .
S h e h a d b a r e l e g s w i t h l i t t l e s h o e s a n d a s h o r t b a l l e t s k i r t .
H e r e x t r e m e l y l o w c u t d r e s s u n c o v e r e d h e r b r e a s t . S h e b e g a n
t o s i n g n e w s u g g e s t i v e l i t t l e s o n g s t h a t w e r e i n f a s h i o n a t t h a t
t i m e .
Th e Em p e r o r l i s t e n e d s m i l i n g
. S e a t e d b e h i n d h i m t h e l i e u -
t e n a n t s w e r e l a u g h i n g a n d Ro t b e k w i n k e d a t t h e s i n g e r
.
Th e b a n d s m e n a n d s o l d i e r s c r o w d e d a t t h e d o o r s .
S a b l i n r o s e a n d w e n t s a d l y a w a y f r o m t h e h a l l . I t s e e m e d
t o h i m t h a t h e r e , i n t h e i r v e r y r e g i m e n t , t h e I m p e r i a l d i g n i t y
w a s b e i n g o f f e n d e d .
XXX
TH E b a n d s m e n w e r e s m o k i n g a n d d r i n k i n g b e e r i n t h e b i l l i a r d
r o o m . B o t t l e s a n d r y e b r e a d c o v e r e d t h e t a b l e . S o m e o f t h e
s o l d i e r s s a t , o t h e r s s t o o d
. Th e b a c k s o f a l l w e r e t u r n e d t o
S a b l i n a n d e v i d e n t l y n o n e o f t h e m e x p e c t e d t h a t a n o f f i c e r
w o u l d e n t e r a t t h a t m o m e n t
.
" I s a w , b r o t h e r s , h o w t h e Em p e r o r l i t h i s c i g a r e t t e , " s a i d a
t a l l , d a r k b a n d s m a n , w h o p l a y e d o n t h e t r o m b o n e , - " q u i t e s i m -
p l y , q u i t e l i k e a n o r d i n a r y m a n . Th e C . O. t o l d h i m s o m e t h i n g
a n d h e l a u g h e d
. Q u e e r ! ATs a r , a n d h o w s i m p l e . I s h a l l t e l l
t h i s a t t h e v i l l a g e w h e n I c o m e h o m e , b u t w i l l a n y o n e b e l i e v e
m e ? "
" H o w h e l o o k e d a t t h e Fr e n c h g i r l . I s w e a r , b r o t h e r s , t h a t
h e r l e g s w e r e q u i t e b a r e . W h a t a s h a m e !" s a i d a n a l t o p l a y e r .
" S h e o u g h t t o b e s h o t f o r i t , t h e c a r r i o n , " s a i d a n o t h e r
. " Ap -
p e a r s b e f o r e t h e Ts a r i n s u c h a s t a t e
! Oh , m y Go d , w h a t w i l l
[ 354 ]
TOREDFLAG
h a p p e n n e x t ! S h a m e ! I n t h e v i l l a g e t h e y ' l l c a l l m e a l i a r a n d
t h r a s h m e j u s t f o r t e l l i n g a b o u t i t !"
S a b l i n r e t i r e d b e h i n d t h e c u r t a i n a n d l i s t e n e d
. H i s h e a r t w a s
b e a t i n g , t e a r s r o s e t o h i s e y e s a n d h e f e l t a d e s i r e t o w e e p .
Ac o r n e t i s t , a n i r a s c i b l e , c h o l e r i c a n d u n h e a l t h y l o o k i n g y o u t h ,
w h o h a d b e e n a p u p i l a t t h e c o n s e r v a t o r y , s a i d a m o n g t h e c r o w d
o f t h e b a n d s m e n
" Th e Ts a r i t s a p a s s e s h e r t i m e w i t h Gr e g o r y Ra s p u t i n , w e l l
t h e Ts a r h a s t o f i n d c o n s o l a t i o n
. H e c a n h a v e a w i d e c h o i c e . "
" To w a r d s w h a t a r e t h e o f f i c e r s l e a d i n g t h e Ts a r ? To t h i n k
o f i t , - i s i t g o o d ? " s a i d t h e t r o m b o n i s t .
" Fo o l !"
" Y o u ' r e a n o t h e r . Ar e y o u a n N . C . O. t o b a r k a s y o u d o ? "
" I a m a n a r t i s t a n d y o u - b o o - b o o - b o o a n d n o t h i n g m o r e !"
t h e b a r i t o n e t u r n e d a g a i n t o h i s n e i g h b o u r a n d c o n t i n u e d : " I
k n o w t h i s M a r y - K a t e , s h e ' s a s i m p l e Fi n n i s h g i r l , h e r t e m -
p e r a m e n t a l o n e b r i n g s h e r f o r w a r d . "
" Th e Em p e r o r s e e m e d t o l i k e h e r , " s a i d a b a n d s m a n s m i l i n g .
" I s h o u l d t h i n k s o . Ra s p u t i n h a s m a d e h i m u n d e r s t a n d t h e
v a l u e o f t h i n g s . "
" H o w d i d t h i s m a n g e t i n t o s u c h p o w e r , " s a i d t h e b a n d s m a n ,
- " t h e y s a y h e ' s a s i m p l e m o u j i k ? "
" Ab i g . .
. " , s a i d t h e , b a r i t o n e , a n d a l l l a u g h e d g r u f f l y .
S a b l i n f e l t a d e s i r e t o r u s h i n t o t h e r o o m a n d b e a t t h i s m a d
c r o w d w i t h a n y t h i n g h e c o u l d l a y h a n d s u p o n . W i t h b i l l i a r d
s t i c k s , b a l l s , b o t t l e s , o n l y t o s e e b l o o d o n t h e i r f a c e s a n d t e r r o r
i n t h e i r b a s e e y e s . B u t h e r e s t r a i n e d h i m s e l f . AM I t w a s n ' t
t h e i r f a u l t t h a t d i v i n i t y h a d b e e n s h o w n t o t h e i r u n i n i t i a t e d g a z e
.
Al l t h i s w a s e q u i v a l e n t t o p r o p a g a n d a c o n d u c t e d b y t h e o f f i c e r s ,
b y t h e v e r y m e n w h o o u g h t t o s a v e a n d p r o t e c t t h e Em p e r o r .
To d a y a t t h e i r r e g i m e n t , y e s t e r d a y a t t h e S h a r p s h o o t e r s , a t t h e
P r e o b r a j e n s k y r e g i m e n t l a s t w e e k a n d a t t h e H u s s a r s s o m e t i m e
b e f o r e . W h a t c o u l d t h e m e n u n d e r s t a n d i n a l l t h i s ? Th e y s a w
c o r r u p t g i r l s w i t h b a r e l e g s , t h e y s a w t h e i m p r o p e r t a n g o a n d
c a k e - w a l k , t h e y h e a r d t h e p r o v o k i n g m u s i c o f t h e Ru m a n i a n s ,
t h e w o r d s o f t h e s u g g e s t i v e s o n g s a n d s a w t h e Ts a r a m i d t h e s e
s u r r o u n d i n g s .
[ 355 ]
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
Th e Ts a r - m e a n t a g o d f o r t h e m !
C o u l d o n e d a n c e o r s i n g
a " c h a n s o n e t t e " b e f o r e a n a l t a r ?
S a b l i n r e m e m b e r e d a c a s e d u r i n g t h e r e v o l u t i o n o f 19 0 5w h e n
a c r o w d o f y o u n g s t e r s b u r s t i n t o t h e K a z a n c a t h e d r a l d u r i n g
t h e s e r v i c e . On e o f t h e m l i t a c i g a r e t t e f r o m t h e f l a m e o f a n
i k o n l a m p w h i l e h i s c o m p a n i o n s l a u g h e d m e r r i l y .
W a s t h e r e n o t s o m e t h i n g s i m i l a r h e r e ? I n t h a t i n s t a n c e s o -
c i a l i s t s h a d a c t e d , t h e e n e m i e s o f Go d a n d o f Ts a r , a n d h e r e -
w e ! w e !
H o r r o r o v e r w h e l m e d S a b l i n , h e c l a s p e d h i s h e a d i n h i s h a n d s
a n d l e f t t h e M e s s . Un r e s t r a i n e d l a u g h t e r a n d t h e s o u n d s o f a
t o o f r o l i c s o m e Fr e n c h s o n g s u n g b y t h r e e m e r r y v o i c e s c a m e
f r o m t h e h a l l w h i l e h e w a s p u t t i n g o n h i s o v e r c o a t d o w n s t a i r s .
Ap a l e s p r i n g n i g h t w a s o u t s i d e
. Th e Em p e r o r ' s m o t o r c a r
w a i t e d n e a r t h e e n t r a n c e . As t o u t o f f i c e r s a t m o t i o n l e s s a t t h e
w h e e l , h i s s a d g a z e f i x e d i n t o s p a c e . S a b l i n c a m e u p t o h i m a n d
g r a s p e d h i s h a n d . Th e o f f i c e r l o o k e d a t h i m a n d s e e i n g t e a r s
i n h i s e y e s , r o s e f r o m h i s s e a t , e m b r a c e d S a b l i n a n d k i s s e d h i m
w a r m l y
. Th e y u n d e r s t o o d e a c h o t h e r .
XXXI
REP N I N
t o o k o v e r t h e c o m m a n d o f t h e r e g i m e n t i n t h e s p r i n g ,
S a b l i n w a s p r o m o t e d t o t h e r a n k o f c o l o n e l f o r Ea s t e r , S t e -
p o c h k a r e c e i v e d a n a r m y r e g i m e n t , Ro t b e k w a s a p p o i n t e d C o m -
m a n d e r o f t h e s e c o n d s q u a d r o n a n d M a t z n e f f l e f t t h e s e r v i c e .
S a b l i n w a s i n c h a r g e o f t h e r e g i m e n t a l Q u a r t e r m a s t e r s d e p a r t -
m e n t
. " N o w i s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c r e a t i v e w o r k !" h e t h o u g h t ,
a n d s e t t l e d d o w n t o c a l c u l a t e w h a t h a d t o b e d o n e . H e t r a v e l l e d
c o n s t a n t l y f r o m t h e c a m p t o P e t e r s b u r g a n d b a c k . V e r a C o n -
s t a n t i n o v n a i n t e n d e d t o l e a v e w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n f o r t h e c o u n t r y
b u t f o r s o m e r e a s o n p o s t p o n e d t h e d e p a r t u r e . K o l i a w a s a t
t h e c a m p w i t h t h e C a d e t C o r p s , Ta n i a w a s f i n i s h i n g h e r s c h o o l .
S h e o f t e n v i s i t e d Ts a r s k o i e S e l o a n d b e c a m e V i r o b u f f ' s c o n s t a n t
g u e s t . S a b l i n d i d n o t l i k e t h i s o r d e r o f t h i n g s b u t h e w a s t o o
b u s y w i t h h i s r e g i m e n t a l w o r k t o i n t e r f e r e
. H e h a d t o c a r r y
o n a c o n s t a n t s t r i f e w i t h t h e C o m m a n d e r o f t h e r e g i m e n t
.
I n t h e s p r i n g S a b l i n h a d r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r f r o m a C o s s a c k
[ 356 ]
TOREDFLAG
C o l o n e l , P a v e l N i c o l a i e v i t c h K a r p o f f , w h o c o m m a n d e d a r e g i -
m e n t o n t h e Au s t r i a n f r o n t i e r . H e h a d b e c o m e a c q u a i n t e d w i t h
K a r p o f f d u r i n g p a t r o l s e r v i c e i n t h e N o v g o r o d s k y g o v e r n m e n t
i n 19 0 5
. K a r p o f f d i d n o t b e l o n g t o S a b l i n ' s c i r c l e o f s o c i e t y
a n d t h e y h a d n e v e r m e t s i n c e
. H e w a s o f a g o o d o l d f a m i l y ,
p o s s e s s e d a c o a t o f a r m s b u t d i d n o t s e r v e i n t h e Gu a r d s
. Th e i r
d e e p l o v e f o r Ru s s i a a n d f o r t h e Em p e r o r h a d f o r m e d t h e i r
f r i e n d s h i p d u r i n g t h e p a t r o l s e r v i c e a n d t h e y e x c h a n g e d l e t t e r s
f r o m t i m e t o t i m e .
" Ar e y o u t h i n k i n g a b o u t t h e w a r ? " K a r p o f f w r o t e . " Al l m y
t h o u g h t s a r e c e n t r e d o n i t . I d r i l l m y r e g i m e n t , p r e p a r e i t f o r
t e r r i b l e b a t t l e s a n d h o p e t h a t t h e s h a m e o f t h e J a p a n e s e w a r
w o n ' t b e r e p e a t e d
. Th e n - ' w e d i d n o t k n o w , ' b u t w e h a v e n ' t
g o t t h a t e x c u s e n o w . W e d o k n o w . On l y a b l i n d m a n c a n ' t
s e e t h a t En g l a n d a n d Ge r m a n y w i l l h a v e t o f i g h t e a c h o t h e r .
En g l a n d w i l l p e r i s h i f s h e d o e s n ' t d e s t r o y Ge r m a n y n o w . H e r e
o n t h e f r o n t i e r I f e e l t h e p u l s a t i o n o f m i l i t a r y l i f e . Ge r m a n y
d o e s n ' t w a n t w a r f o r t h e m o m e n t , s h e l e t t h e o p p o r t u n i t y s l i p
p a s t h e r i n 19 11w h e n w e h a d n o m a c h i n e g u n s a n d h e a v y
a r t i l l e r y a n d w h e n Fr a n c e h a d n o t f i n i s h e d h e r p r o g r a m o f
a r m a m e n t . Ge r m a n y w o u l d h a v e m a n a g e d t h e n . B u t i t i s t o o
l a t e n o w , a n d w e s h a l l c o n q u e r . I w a n t w a r , b u t a t t h e s a m e
t i m e I f e a r i t a n d a l l m y h o p e s a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d o n t h e Em -
p e r o r ' s l o v e f o r p e a c e . I a m w o r r i e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t t h e b i g
m e n a m o n g t h e l o c a l J e w s w a n t t h e w a r . Th i s m e a n s t h a t i t
w i l l b e p r o f i t a b l e f o r t h e m a n d i t c a n n o t b e g o o d f o r Ru s s i a i f
i t i s p r o f i t a b l e f o r t h e J e w s . Y o u m u s t a l s o p r e p a r e y o u r s e l f ,
Al e x a n d e r N i c o l a i e v i t c h , b e c a u s e t h e t e n d e n c i e s o f p u b l i c o p i n -
i o n a f t e r 19 0 5a r e s u c h t h a t t h e Gu a r d s w i l l h a v e t o b e s e n t t o
t h e f r o n t .
" B u t n o t h i n g m a y h a p p e n y e t
. Th e c o n t r a c t o r s M a n d e l t o r t
a n d Ra b i n o v i t c h h a v e v i s i t e d m e t h i s m o r n i n g t o s i g n a c o n -
t r a c t . Th e y s a y t h a t t h e J e w s w o n ' t a l l o w t h e w a r . H e r e i n
P o l a n d w e a l l b e l i e v e i n
t h e a l m i g h t y p o w e r o f t h e J e w s , m a y
Go d p a r d o n u s .
" I h a v e s e n t m y s o n t o t h e m i l i t a r y c o l l e g e t h i s s p r i n g . H e
i s a g o o d b o y , t h r e e y e a r s t h e s e n i o r o f y o u r s o n , a n d a d i l i g e n t
f 357 ]
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
s c h o l a r
. Tr y t o s e e h i m a t t h e c o l l e g e . H e i s a h a n d s o m e f e l -
l o w a n d a g o o d C o s s a c k
. H e w i l l b e p r o u d o f y o u r a t t e n t i o n . "
Th i s l e t t e r m a d e S a b l i n t h i n k . Y e s , d i s t a n t t h u n d e r w a s a l -
r e a d y h e a r d , t h o u g h i t w a s h a r d t o b e l i e v e i n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f
a w o r l d w a r
.
B u t h e r e i n s p e c t e d t h e w h o l e o f t h e Q u a r t e r -
m a s t e r s a n d M o b i l i s a t i o n s t o r e s . Th e r e w e r e n o w a r m c a p s ,
n o f u r o v e r c o a t s , t h e h o r s e s h o e s w e r e n o t f i t t e d , t h e b a g g a g e
t r a i n w a s i n d i s o r d e r a n d h a d n e v e r e v e n b e e n r o l l e d o u t f r o m
t h e s h e d s , a s p e a s a n t c a r t s h a d b e e n g e n e r a l l y u s e d . Th e h o s p i -
t a l a m b u l a n c e s w e r e o f a c l u m s y o l d - f a s h i o n e d p a t t e r n
. Re p -
n i n i n s i s t e d o n u s i n g t h e r e g i m e n t a l f u n d s f o r n e w p a r a d e h e l -
m e t s a n d c u i r a s s e s , S a b l i n d e m a n d e d t h e p u r c h a s e o f h o s p i t a l
a m b u l a n c e s , r e p a i r s o f t h e b a g g a g e t r a i n , o r d e r s f o r f u r o v e r -
c o a t s a n d t h e r e i n s p e c t i o n o f a l l t h e m o b i l i s a t i o n a p p l i a n c e s .
Th i s e n g e n d e r e d h e a t e d d i s p u t e s . S a b l i n c o n s u l t e d c o n -
t r a c t o r s , t r a v e l l e d t o Fi n l a n d t o o r d e r w a g o n s , s e n t t o K o z l o f f
f o r h o r s e s f o r t h e b a g g a g e t r a i n . Th e j o y o f c r e a t i v e w o r k
g r i p p e d h i m . Th e b l a c k t h o u g h t s a b o u t t h e p e o p l e , t h e Ts a r ,
t h e Du m a a n d h i s s o n V i c t o r n o w v a n i s h e d . H e e s t i m a t e d ,
m a d e c a l c u l a t i o n s , a n d d e c i d e d n o t t o d e s i r e t o o m u c h b u t t o d o
h i s l i t t l e w o r k a s e a r n e s t l y a n d a s w e l l a s h e c o u l d .
H e h a d b e e n f o r t h r e e d a y s a t h i s P e t e r s b u r g f l a t , w h i c h w a s
h a l f c l o s e d u p f o r t h e s u m m e r . V e r a C o n s t a n t i n o v n a w a s s e l -
d o m a t h o m e . H e t h o u g h t s h e l o o k e d q u e e r . H e r e y e s s h o n e
s t r a n g e l y , h e r l a u g h w a s n e r v o u s a n d s h e w a s c o n s t a n t l y
w r a p p e d i n a n Or e n b u r g s h a w l , a s i f s h e h a d f e v e r .
" Ar e y o u i l l , V e r a ? " h e s a i d .
" N o , w h y ? " s h e a s k e d n e r v o u s l y . " Do y o u n o t i c e a n y t h i n g ? "
" Y o u s e e m u n w e l l . "
S h e l a u g h e d h y s t e r i c a l l y .
" I a m i n t h e p o w e r o f a d e m o n , Al e x a n d e r , " s h e s a i d , p u t o n
h e r c o a t a n d l e f t t h e f l a t
. S h e r e t u r n e d l a t e i n t h e e v e n i n g a n d
o p e n e d t h e d o o r o f S a b l i n ' s s t u d y w h e r e h e w a s w o r k i n g w i t h
t h e c h i e f c l e r k .
" Ar e y o u b u s y ? " s h e a s k e d .
S a b l i n c a m e o u t t o h e r
. H e r f a c e w a s b u r n i n g .
" S a v e m e . . . " s h e s a i d
. " P r a y f o r m e
. I c a n n o t p r a y . "
1358 1
TOREDFLAG
" V e r a , w h a t i s t h e m a t t e r w i t h y o u ? "
" Ah ! N o t h i n g . . . n o t h i n g . .
. . Go d m a y p e r h a p s p a r d o n
m e . "
" V e r a , i t i s n ' t g o o d f o r y o u t o g o t o t h e s e m e e t i n g s
. Fa i t h
i s g o o d , b u t m y s t i c i s m i s n ' t f a i t h . "
" Fo r g i v e m e , Al e x a n d e r , a n d i f y o u h e a r a n y t h i n g , - f o r g i v e
m e
. I a m t i r e d . W i l l y o u s o o n h a v e f i n i s h e d ? I w i l l g o t o
b e d . "
S h e m a d e t h e s i g n o f t h e c r o s s o v e r h i m a n d w e n t a w a y .
S a b l i n w e n t t o h i s w i f e ' s b e d r o o m a f t e r h e f i n i s h e d h i s w o r k
w i t h t h e c h i e f c l e r k
. V e r a C o n s t a n t i n o v n a w a s s l e e p i n g . H e r
f a c e w a s p a l e a n d d a r k s h a d o w s s u r r o u n d e d h e r e y e s
. S h e w a s
r e s t l e s s i n h e r s l e e p , h e r e y e b r o w s k n i t t e d s t e r n l y a t t i m e s a n d
d e e p s i g h s e s c a p e d f r o m h e r b r e a s t .
XXXI I
LI LAC S w e r e b l o s s o m i n g a n d P e t e r s b u r g w a s b e c o m i n g d e s e r t e d
.
V e r y m a n y o f i t s i n h a b i t a n t s h a d l e f t f o r t h e c o u n t r y " d a t c h a s
. "
S a b l i n r e t u r n e d f r o m t h e c a m p i n t h e a f t e r n o o n a n d h a d a c o n -
f e r e n c e w i t h t h e c o n t r a c t o r s u n t i l t h e e v e n i n g
. H i s w i f e w a s
n o t a t h o m e w h e n h e a r r i v e d a t h i s f l a t a t s e v e n o ' c l o c k
. S h e
h a d l e f t f o r Ts a r s k o i e S e l o a n d S a b l i n w e n t t o w o r k i n h i s
s t u d y
. H o u r s p a s s e d , b u t V e r a C o n s t a n t i n o v n a d i d n o t r e t u r n .
At l a s t s h e a r r i v e d a b o u t t h r e e o ' c l o c k a t n i g h t i n a m o t o r c a r
a n d w e n t s t r a i g h t t o h e r b e d r o o m w h e r e s h e l o c k e d h e r s e l f i n .
S a b l i n d e c i d e d t o t a l k t o h e r s e r i o u s l y
. H e n e v e r f o r a m o -
m e n t t h o u g h t t h a t h i s w i f e c o u l d h a v e f a l l e n i n l o v e w i t h s o m e -
o n e e l s e a n d b e e n u n f a i t h f u l t o h i m , b u t h e r b e h a v i o u r s e e m e d
s t r a n g e . H e k n o c k e d a t t h e d o o r o f t h e b e d r o o m .
" On e m o m e n t , " V e r a C o n s t a n t i n o v n a s a i d i n a d u l l v o i c e .
H e e n t e r e d .
S h e w a s h a l f d r e s s e d a n d w a s s i t t i n g w i t h l o o s e h a i r b e f o r e
t h e m i r r o r . S h e r o s e a s h e c a m e i n a n d t e r r i b l e s u f f e r i n g w a s
r e f l e c t e d i n h e r b e a u t i f u l b l u e e y e s
. S a b l i n s e t t l e d d o w n i n a n
a r m c h a i r a n d w a n t e d t o m a k e h e r s i t o n h i s k n e e s b u t s h e
s l i p p e d a w a y , p u t o n a d a r k n i g h t g o w n a n d b e g a n t o a r r a n g e
h e r h a i r h u r r i e d l y
.
[ 359 1
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
" M y d e a r , d a r l i n g V e r a , " S a b l i n b e g a n i n a k i n d q u i e t v o i c e ,
" I h a v e b e e n n o t i c i n g f o r s o m e t i m e a l r e a d y t h a t y o u h a v e s o m e
t r o u b l e . B e f r a n k w i t h m e . . . . I f y o u l o v e a n y o n e , t e l l m e
.
. . . Th a t c a n a l w a y s h a p p e n . W e w i l l t h i n k o v e r t o g e t h e r
w h a t c a n b e d o n e . . . . "
" I h a v e a l w a y s l o v e d y o u a n d y o u a l o n e , " V e r a C o n s t a n t i -
n o v n a s a i d s a d l y
.
" Th e n w h a t i s t h e m a t t e r w i t h y o u ? W h a t d e m o n d i d y o u
m e n t i o n ? "
V e r a C o n s t a n t i n o v n a s t a r t e d a n d l o o k e d a t S a b l i n w i t h a
f r i g h t e n e d e x p r e s s i o n .
" Al e x a n d e r , " s h e s a i d s a d l y , - " l e a v e m e a l o n e i f y o u c a n - I
s u f f e r , s u f f e r t e r r i b l y n o w . . . .
P e r h a p s I s h a l l t e l l y o u e v e r y -
t h i n g t o m o r r o w
. "
" Al l r i g h t , " s a i d S a b l i n
.
" M a y Go d h e l p y o u . Un t i l t o -
m o r r o w , d e a r . I w i l l b e a r a n y t h i n g , i f y o u w i l l o n l y b e h a p p y
o n c e m o r e . "
B u t t h e n e x t d a y s h e s a i d n o t h i n g . S h e f e i g n e d t o b e a n i -
m a t e d , s a i d t h a t i t h a d a l l b e e n n o n s e n s e a n d t h a t s h e w o u l d
t e l l e v e r y t h i n g s h o u l d i t b e n e c e s s a r y . S h e i n s i s t e d u p o n s e e i n g
h e r c h i l d r e n a n d t o o k Ta n i a f r o m h e r s c h o o l . K o l i a c a m e m o r e
f r e q u e n t l y o n l e a v e f r o m t h e c a m p . At t i m e s S a b l i n t h o u g h t
t h a t s h e w a s b e c o m i n g h e r o l d s e l f a g a i n , b u t d a y s p a s s e d a n d
h e c o u l d a g a i n n o t i c e t h a t h e r e y e s w e r e f i x e d o n o n e s p o t , t h a t
s h e d i d n o t l i s t e n t o w h a t h e s a i d a n d s t a r t e d w h e n h e a p -
p r o a c h e d h e r
.
S h e s e e m e d t o h a v e h e r o w n s e c r e t t h o u g h t s ,
h e r o w n g r i e f , a n d w a s u n w i l l i n g t o s h a r e t h e m w i t h h i m .
I t h a p p e n e d o n a J u l y e v e n i n g . S a b l i n h a d j u s t r e t u r n e d
f r o m t h e c a m p w h e n s h e e n t e r e d h i s s t u d y a n d s a i d :
" Al e x a n d e r , I s e e t h a t y o u a r e a l s o s u f f e r i n g , b u t y o u m u s t
p r e p a r e y o u r s e l f f o r t h e w o r s t . P r a y . . . . P r a y m y d e a r b o y
a n d s a v e o u r c h i l d r e n . . . . To m o r r o w y o u s h a l l k n o w e v e r y -
t h i n g . . . . "
S h e m a d e t h e s i g n o f t h e c r o s s o v e r h i m s e v e r a l t i m e s a n d
l o o k e d f i x e d l y a t h i m w i t h e y e s b r i m m i n g w i t h t e a r s . S h e
s e e m e d a b n o r m a l a n d n o t h i n g c o u l d b e r e a d i n h e r s t r a n g e e y e s .
H e r p u r e c l e a n s o u l w a s n o l o n g e r r e f l e c t e d i n t h e m . H e r u s h e d
[ 36 0
TOREDFLAG
t o w a r d s h e r b u t s h e s l i p p e d a w a y . " To m o r r o w , " s h e s a i d a n d
w e n t t o t h e r o o m s o f t h e c h i l d r e n .
S a b l i n d i d n o t s l e e p t h a t n i g h t . S e v e r a l t i m e s h e a p p r o a c h e d
t h e d o o r o f h i s w i f e ' s b e d r o o m . a n d l i s t e n e d . Al l w a s q u i e t
t h e r e . " S h e i s a s l e e p , p r o b a b l y , " h e t h o u g h t . " S l e e p , s l e e p ,
m y d a r l i n g , a n d r e m e m b e r t h a t I s h a l l f o r g i v e y o u , w h a t e v e r i t
m a y b e . " Th e t h o u g h t s u d d e n l y c a m e t o h i m t h a t p e r h a p s i t
w o u l d b e s h e w h o w o u l d h a v e t o f o r g i v e h i m . W h a t i f s h e
h a d l e a r n e d e v e r y t h i n g a b o u t Lu b o v i n a n d M a r o u s i a ? W h a t i f
Lu b o v i n s t i l l s o u g h t r e v e n g e a n d h a d w r i t t e n t o h e r a n d h a d
e n c l o s e d h i s l e t t e r s t o M a r o u s i a ? W h a t i f s h e k n e w e v e r y t h i n g
a b o u t V i c t o r ! S a b l i n b e g a n t o t h i n k o f w o r d s o f e x c u s e b u t
c o u l d f i n d n o n e . Th e n i g h t p a s s e d i n f e v e r i s h a n x i e t y . V e r a
C o n s t a n t i n o v n a d i d n o t a p p e a r a t b r e a k f a s t i n t h e m o r n i n g a n d
h e g r e w a n x i o u s .
" Fa t h e r , g o t o s e e m o t h e r , " s a i d Ta n i a . " S h e h a s b e e n s o
s t r a n g e l a t e l y . I t h i n k t h a t s h e i s i l l . Y e s t e r d a y s h e m a d e t h e
s i g n o f t h e c r o s s s o l o n g o v e r u s , a s i f s h e w a s s a y i n g f a r e w e l l
f o r e v e r . Go t o h e r , s h e h a s s o m e t h i n g o n h e r m i n d . "
S a b l i n w e n t . H e k n o c k e d a t t h e b e d r o o m d o o r - t h e r e w a s
n o a n s w e r . H e l i s t e n e d - a l l w a s q u i e t i n s i d e . Th e c o l d o f
d e a t h s e e m e d t o c o m e f r o m t h e d o o r . H e t r i e d t h e h a n d l e , -
t h e d o o r w a s l o c k e d . Th e a n x i e t y o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n c r e a s e d
.
" Fa t h e r , s o m e t h i n g m u s t h a v e h a p p e n e d , " Ta n i a w a s r e -
p e a t i n g p e r s i s t e n t l y , - " m o t h e r b e h a v e d s o q u e e r l y y e s t e r d a y
. "
Al o c k s m i t h w a s s e n t f o r a n d t h e h e a v y d o o r s w e r e o p e n e d
w h e n h e a r r i v e d . V e r a C o n s t a n t i n o v n a l a y o n h e r b e d
. S h e
w a s c l a d i n h e r b e s t d r e s s , h e r h a i r w a s c a r e f u l l y a r r a n g e d a n d
h e r f a c e h a d a b l u i s h t i n t .
S h e w a s d e a d . Ap h i a l o f p o i s o n s t o o d o n a s t a n d n e a r t h e
b e d a n d a b a n a l n o t e " N o o n e i s t o b e b l a m e d f o r m y d e a t h "
l a y b y a l a r g e s e a l e d e n v e l o p e w h i c h b o r e t h e i n s c r i p t i o n : " To
Al e x a n d e r , m y h u s b a n d . To b e r e a d a f t e r m y f u n e r a l . "
Th i s c h a r m i n g , c h e e r f u l c r e a t u r e , a l w a y s h a p p y a n d w e l l -
b a l a n c e d , h a d e v i d e n t l y f o r s o m e t i m e b e e n c o n s c i o u s l y p r e p a r -
i n g h e r s e l f f o r d e a t h . W h a t c o l d h o r r o r m u s t h a v e p e n e t r a t e d
[ 36 11
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
h e r s o u l a n d f r o z g n i t s o t h a t s h e c o u l d h a v e d e c i d e d t o t a k e t h i s
t e r r i b l e s t e p ?
Al l t h r e e , S a b l i n a n d t h e c h i l d r e n , s t o o d a l o n g t i m e s i l e n t l y
l o o k i n g a t t h e r i g i d f e a t u r e s
. Th e w e e p i n g o f K o l i a a n d Ta n i a
b r o u g h t S a b l i n o u t o f h i s s t a t e o f d u m b g r i e f
. H e k n e e l e d , c o v -
e r e d w i t h k i s s e s t h e d e a r f a c e , r o s e a n d l e f t t h e r o o m , t a k i n g t h e
c h i l d r e n w i t h h i m .
XXXI I I
V ERA C ON S TAN TI N OV N A
w a s b u r i e d . H e r m o t h e r t o o k t h e
c h i l d r e n w i t h h e r ; a n d f r o m t h e c e m e t e r y S a b l i n r e t u r n e d t o h i s
e m p t y f l a t t o w a r d s s e v e n o ' c l o c k i n t h e e v e n i n g . I t w a s f i l l e d
w i t h t h e s c e n t o f f l o w e r s , f i r b r a n c h e s a n d t h e p e c u l i a r s m e l l o f
v a r n i s h e d w o o d , c a m p h o r a n d i n c e n s e w h i c h r e m a i n s a f t e r t h e
f u n e r a l p r e p a r a t i o n s . Th e f l a t w o r e i t s s u m m e r a s p e c t .
Th e
m i r r o r s a n d t h e p a i n t i n g s w e r e w r a p p e d i n m u s l i n a n d t h e f u r -
n i t u r e w a s c o v e r e d . H i s s t e p s e c h o e d s a d l y t h r o u g h t h e d r a w -
i n g r o o m a n d t h e c o r r i d o r .
S a b l i n p a s s e d t o h i s s t u d y . Al l t h e p a i n t i n g s a n d t h e l a r g e
p o r t r a i t o f . V e r a C o n s t a n t i n o v n a i n h e r w e d d i n g d r e s s w e r e
a l s o w r a p p e d i n c o v e r s . Ev e r y t h i n g w a s c l e a r e d a w a y f r o m h i s
w r i t i n g t a b l e . S a b l i n h a d b e e n p r e p a r i n g h i m s e l f t o m o v e t o
h i s c a m p q u a r t e r s . H e t o o k o f f t h e m u s l i n f r o m V e r a C o n -
s t a n t i n o v n a ' s p o r t r a i t , l i t a l l t h e l a m p s a n d g a z e d a t i t f o r a l o n g
t i m e . S h e s t o o d b e f o r e h i m i n h e r f u l l h e i g h t a s i f a l i v e
. H e r
i n n o c e n t b l u e e y e s l o o k e d a t h i m f r o m u n d e r d a r k e y e l a s h e s a n d
h e r l i p s s e e m e d t o s a y s o m e t h i n g .
S a b l i n c l o s e d t h e c u r t a i n s a n d s e t t l e d c o m f o r t a b l y i n a n a r m
c h a i r s o t h a t h e c o u l d s e e t h e p o r t r a i t
. I f V e r a C o n s t a n t i n o v n a ' s
g h o s t h a d c o m e t o h i m t h e n h e w o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n a f r a i d b u t
w o u l d h a v e e v e n w e l c o m e d h e r a p p a r i t i o n
. On l y n o w a s h e
p r e p a r e d h i m s e l f t o o p e n t h e e n v e l o p e w i t h h e r l a s t l e t t e r h e
r e a l i s e d h o w d e e p l y a n d p a s s i o n a t e l y h e h a d l o v e d h e r w i t h
e v e r y a t o m o f h i s s p i r i t
. Th e y h a d l i v e d f o r s e v e n t e e n y e a r s
t o g e t h e r , h e a r t t o h e a r t , a n d h e h a d n e v e r o n c e h a d a n i n t r i g u e
o r o f f e n d e d h e r a n d s h e h a d b e e n f a i t h f u l t o h i m .
" H a v e n ' t y o u , V e r a ? " h e s a i d a n d l o o k e d a t t h e p o r t r a i t
.
[36 2 ]
TOREDFLAG
Th e y o u n g f a c e w a s s m i l i n g
. Th e l i g h t w a s r e f l e c t e d f r o m
t h e p a i n t a n d o n e c o u l d s e e t h a t i t w a s a p o r t r a i t a n d n o t a l i v i n g
p e r s o n
. S a b l i n p u t o u t a l l t h e l a m p s e x c e p t a s m a l l s h a d e d o n e
o n h i s t a b l e .
I t w a s b e t t e r l i k e t h a t . I n h e r w h i t e d r e s s s h e
s e e m e d l i k e a m y s t e r i o u s p h a n t o m i n t h e g l o o m o f t h e s t u d y .
Th e e v e n i n g s h a d o w s p l a y e d o n h e r f a c e a n d i t s e e m e d a l i v e
.
S a b l i n n e r v o u s l y t o r e o p e n t h e e n v e l o p e a n d s e v e r a l s m a l l
s h e e t s o f p a p e r c o v e r e d b y f i n e h a n d w r i t i n g f e l l o u t o f i t
. H e
a r r a n g e d t h e m i n o r d e r o f t h e i r d a t e s a n d b e g a n t o r e a d
.
" W i l l y o u f o r g i v e m e ? I k n o w t h a t
y o u w o n ' t , b u t I h o p e
s t i l l
. Li f e i s t o o g o o d , I l o v e y o u a n d t h e c h i l d r e n t o o m u c h
a n d i t i s h a r d t o l e a v e i t .
C o n c e a l e v e r y t h i n g , f o r g e t t h a t i t
h a s h a p p e n e d a n d l i e , l i e f o r t h e r e s t o f m y d a y s t o y o u a n d
t h e c h i l d r e n s o t h a t y o u s h o u l d k n o w n o t h i n g , I t r y t o d o i t b u t
I f e e l t h a t I c a n n o t l i e
. I t h o u g h t o f t e l l i n g y o u a l l s o t h a t y o u
w o u l d u n d e r s t a n d a n d f o r g i v e
. B u t y o u w o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d a n d
y o u w o n ' t f o r g i v e , y o u w i l l a l w a y s r e m e m b e r i t i n y o u r s o u l
.
Y o u m a y n o t r e p r o a c h m e a n d n e v e r g i v e o u t y o u r f e e l i n g s b y
w o r d s , b u t s t i l l I s h a l l a l w a y s s e e t h a t y o u h a v e n o t f o r g o t t e n
w h a t h a s b e e n a l t h o u g h y o u h a v e f o r g i v e n m e
. . . . B u t w h a t
h a v e y o u t o f o r g i v e m e f o r a f t e r a l l ?
" W h a t h a s t a k e n p l a c e ?
I f e a r t h a t e v e n n o w I w o n ' t b e
a b l e t o t e l l e v e r y t h i n g , t o t e l l w h a t i s m o s t i m p o r t a n t
. Al l o f
i t i s t o o s t r a n g e a n d
. . . v i l e .
" Do y o u b e l i e v e i n d e m o n s ? I d i d n o t b e f o r e , b u t I d o n o w
.
I t c o u l d h a v e o n l y b e e n a d e m o n i c a l p o w e r a n d n o t h i n g e l s e
.
" I s h a l l t r y t o t e l l e v e r y t h i n g i n t h e o r d e r a s i t h a p p e n e d , b u t
s h a l l I m a n a g e i t ?
" . . . M a y . Y e s t e r d a y A. F
. * t o l d m e t h a t h e , Ra s p u t i n ,
w a n t e d t o m a k e m y a c q u a i n t a n c e
. I a n s w e r e d t h a t I h a d n ' t t h e
s l i g h t e s t d e s i r e t o s e e h i m a s t o o m a n y b a d t h i n g s w e r e s a i d
a b o u t h i m a n d a s i t w a s n ' t s a f e f o r a w o m a n t o m e e t h i m
.
" I t i s n ' t t r u e !" A. F
. b u r s t o u t . " H e i s a s a i n t
. Ac h o s e n
* Al e x a n d r a Fe o d o r o v n a , t h e Ts a r i t z a .
[ 36 3]
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
p h i a l f u l l o f b l e s s i n g .
Y o u s h o u l d b e h a p p y t h a t h e h a s n o -
t i c e d y o u . "
" I a n s w e r e d n o t h i n g a n d c h a n g e d t h e t o p i c o f t h e c o n v e r s a -
t i o n .
" Th a t e v e n i n g w e p l a y e d p o k e r a t t h e h o u s e o f V
. * a t Ts a r -
s k o i e S e l o . V
. j o k e d a t m y e x p e n s e a n d t h e n s a i d s e r i o u s l y :
` S a l v a t i o n l i e s i n a b a s e m e n t . Y o u
a r e p o s s e s s e d b y t h e d e m o n
o f p r i d e , y o u k n o w .
Dr i v e h i m a w a y b y a b a s i n g y o u r s e l f .
P r i n c e s s L
. v i s i t e d t h e Ru s s i a n b a t h s w i t h h i m , w a s h e d h i s f e e t
t h e r e a n d e x p e r i e n c e d h e a v e n l y h a p p i n e s s
. Th e s a m e h a p -
p e n e d w i t h G
. H e h a s c h o s e n y o u a n d t h i s m e a n s t h a t y o u a r e
b l e s s e d . '
" I c a l l e d h i m a c o r r u p t d i r t y m o u j i k . A. F
. d i d n o t l i k e t h i s ,
s h e s a i d n o t h i n g b u t I c o u l d s e e t h a t s h e w a s d i s p l e a s e d . V .
s a i d :
` Y o u r e p e a t t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e ' s t r e e t . On e m u s t k n o w i n
o r d e r t o j u d g e
. '
" I t r i e d t o a l t e r t h e u n p l e a s a n t i m p r e s s i o n I h a d p r o d u c e d
a n d a s k e d A. F
. t o e x c u s e m e . I s a i d t h a t I w o u l d m e e t h i m
b u t o n l y w h e n m a n y p e r s o n s w e r e p r e s e n t .
" ' C e r t a i n l y , ' s a i d A
. F. a n d k i s s e d m e .
" . . . J u n e . Y o u
a r r i v e d f r o m t h e c a m p i n t h e m o r n i n g
w h i l e I w a s s t i l l i n b e d . W h a t h a p p i n e s s y o u b r o u g h t m e . Y o u
r e m e m b e r ? W e l u n c h e d t o g e t h e r
. I w a s f u l l o f l o v e f o r y o u .
Y o u l e f t a f t e r l u n c h a n d I r e m a i n e d a l o n e t h i n k i n g o f y o u . A
f o o t m a n a r r i v e d w i t h a n o t e f r o m V . S h e w r o t e t h a t s h e w o u l d
c a l l o n m e a t s i x a n d t a k e m e t o s e e h i m . . . .
" S h a l l I c o n t i n u e t o w r i t e ? I t i s s o d i f f i c u l t . . . I t h o u g h t
I w o u l d l e a v e i t , b u t i t w o u l d b e m o r e d i f f i c u l t s t i l l t o s p e a k .
Y o u m u s t k n o w i t . Y o u m u s t k n o w t h a t i t w a s n o t m y f a u l t .
I l o v e d y o u m o r e t h a n e v e r a n d I t h o u g h t t h a t n o t h i n g c o u l d
h a p p e n .
" 0 , Go d !Th e a b o m i n a t i o n o f i t a l l !
" V . a r r i v e d i n h e r c a r r i a g e . Th e a i r w a s f i l l e d w i t h t h e f r a -
g r a n c e o f l i l a c s , a n d w o m e n a n d c h i l d r e n s o l d b u n c h e s o f w h i t e
* An n a V i r o b u v a , o n e o f Ra s p u t i n ' s g r e a t e s t a d m i r e r s .
[ 36 4 1
TOREDFLAG
a n d b l u e l i l a c s i n t h e s t r e e t s
. W e a r r i v e d a t h i s f l a t . I h e a r d
m a n y w o m e n ' s v o i c e s f r o m t h e h a l l a n d t h i s r e a s s u r e d m e
. I
e n t e r e d c a l m l y a f t e r V
. W e w e r e e v i d e n t l y e x p e c t e d a s p l a c e s
w e r e l e f t f o r u s
: - n e x t t o h i m f o r m e a n d a t t h e o t h e r e n d o f
t h e t a b l e f o r V .
" S t o u t o l d O. w a s s i t t i n g a t h i s o t h e r s i d e
. Ap a l e l y m p h a t i c
y o u n g g i r l I d i d n o t k n o w s a t n e x t
. S h e h a d l a r g e e x a l t e d e y e s
s u r r o u n d e d b y b l u e s h a d o w s a n d s h e l o o k e d a t m e w i t h h a t r e d
.
I a l s o s a w L. , P r i n c e s s P
. w i t h h e r d a u g h t e r w h o h a s o n l y j u s t
f i n i s h e d h e r s c h o o l , N . a n d J . , - a l l w e r e i n e v e n i n g d r e s s e s
. I n
a l l t h e r e w e r e t e n l a d i e s a n d y o u n g g i r l s . V
. a n d m y s e l f c o m -
p l e t e d t h e n u m b e r t o t w e l v e
. Th e y w e r e a l l s i t t i n g ' r o u n d a
l a r g e t a b l e c o v e r e d b y a w h i t e c l o t h a n d l i t t e r e d w i t h e x p e n s i v e
" z a k o u s k a s , " c a k e s , s w e e t s , b i s c u i t s , f r u i t s , b o t t l e s o f w i n e a n d
a s a m o v a r . L
. w a s p o u r i n g o u t t e a . H e s a t a t t h e h e a d o f t h e
t a b l e a n d d i d n o t r i s e a s w e c a m e i n
. H i s d r e s s w a s v e r y o d d .
Al o n g p a l e l i l a c s h i r t , b l a c k t r o u s e r s a n d s l i p p e r s p u t , - a s i t
s e e m e d t o m e , - o n b a r e f e e t
. H i s t h i c k s h i n i n g h a i r w a s p a r t e d
i n t h e m i d d l e a n d h i s l o n g b l a c k b e a r d h a d a g l o s s y t i n t . B u t
m o s t r e m a r k a b l e w e r e h i s e y e s
. H u g e , w h i t e , t i r e d b u t b u r n i n g
a t t h e s a m e t i m e , t h e y s e e m e d t o p i e r c e t h r o u g h e v e r y t h i n g .
" H e s t r e t c h e d o u t t o m e h i s l a r g e h a i r y h a n d a n d s a i d
: ` C o m e ,
c o m e , m y d o v e . W h i - i - i t e . I l i k e i t . '
" Th e a t t e n t i o n o f a l l t h e l a d i e s w a s t u r n e d u p o n m e a n d I
h e a r d e x c l a m a t i o n s
" ' H e h a s n o t i c e d h e r ! Lu c k y w o m a n
! H e h a s d e e m e d h e r
w o r t h y ! Ou r f a t h e r ! . . .
Go d ' s b l e s s i n g r e s t s u p o n h e r !'
" I w a s c o n f u s e d a n d s a t d o w n
. H e p o u r e d o u t s o m e w i n e f o r
m e a n d o f f e r e d c a k e s a n d s w e e t s
. I t o u c h e d n o t h i n g .
" ' Y o u t h i n k s o m e p o w d e r i s a d d e d t o i t ? ' h e s a i d
. ` I d o n ' t
d o t h a t . Do a s y o u l i k e . Do n ' t e a t i f y o u ' r e d i s d a i n f u l
. S e e
h o w t h e o t h e r s b e h a v e . '
" H e b r o k e a p i e c e f r o m a c a k e o n h i s p l a t e a n d s t r e t c h e d h i s
a r m t o w a r d s t h e p a l e y o u n g g i r l w h o o p e n e d h e r m o u t h o b e d i -
e n t l y .
" M a r i a l o v e s m e . Do y o u w a n t t o g o t o t h e b a t h s a g a i n ,
M a r i a ? . . . An d y o u a r e p r o u d !
B u t i t ' l l b e a l l r i g h t . I s e e
[ 36 5 1
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
y o u l o v e y o u r h u s b a n d . Y o u h a v e s e e n h i m t o d a y . B u t t h a t
d o e s n o t m a t t e r , I ' m n o t d i s d a i n f u l . I l i k e y o u , y o u r e s e m b l e
Al e x a n d r a s o . . . .
" Th e l a d i e s l o o k e d a t m e w i t h e n v y
" 0
. t o l d m e
" ' Y o u m u s t b e h a p p y , V e r a C o n s t a n t i n o v n a
. I t i s t h e f i r s t
t i m e t h a t o u r f a t h e r h a s p a i d s u c h a t t e n t i o n t o a n y o n e f r o m t h e
v e r y s t a r t
. Y o u m u s t b e a c h o s e n p h i a l
. Th e b l e s s i n g r e s t s
u p o n y o u . '
" I t h o u g h t t h e y w e r e a l l m a d . I u n d e r s t o o d n o t h i n g a n d c o n -
t i n u e d t o s i t n o t k n o w i n g w h a t t o d o
. Th e n I s u d d e n l y f e l t h i s
t h a t h u g e w h i t e e y e s w e r e f i x e d u p o n m e
.
" I h a v e h e a r d i t e x p l a i n e d b y h y p n o t i s m
. N o , I c o u l d h a v e
r e s i s t e d t h a t a n d I d i d n o t f a l l a s l e e p t h e n
. I f e l t e v e r y t h i n g t o
t h e v e r y s l i g h t e s t d e t a i l , a n d i n t h i s l i e s a l l t h e h o r r o r o f w h a t
h a p p e n e d
.
" I t w a s a d e m o n w h o o v e r p o w e r e d m e , a n d I f e l t t h a t m y
w i l l w a s b e i n g t a k e n a w a y f r o m m e
. I f e l t d i z z y , s a w e v e r y -
t h i n g t h r o u g h a m i s t a n d c o u l d h a r d l y h e a r w h a t w a s s a i d . H e
w a s l o o k i n g a t m e f i x e d l y a n d w h e n I t u r n e d m y f a c e t o w a r d s
h i m I s a w o n l y h i s h u g e e y e s w h i c h s h o n e w i t h a h o r r i b l e f i r e
.
H e w a s d i s g u s t i n g b u t a t t h a t m o m e n t I f e l t t h a t I w o u l d d o
a n y t h i n g h e w o u l d o r d e r
.
" H e r o u g h l y s e i z e d m y h a n d a n d s a i d : ' C o m e P
" I r o s e a n d f o l l o w e d h i m o b e d i e n t l y , h e l e d m e b y t h e h a n d
.
Al l w e r e l o o k i n g a t m e w i t h a d m i r i n g e n v i o u s e y e s
. V . t o l d
m e : ` Y o u h a p p y w o m a n !'
" W e e n t e r e d t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g s m a l l r o o m w h e r e s t o o d a
r a t h e r d i r t y l o o k i n g s o f a
. Th e d o o r t o t h e d i n i n g r o o m w a s
l e f t o p e n .
Al l s a t q u i e t l y t h e r e a n d s e e m e d t o l i s t e n t o w h a t
w o u l d h a p p e n
. I u n d e r s t o o d n o t h i n g .
" Al e x a n d e r !I s t h i s u n f a i t h f u l n e s s ? I t i s a v i o l e n c e l i k e t o
m u r d e r , i t i s h o r r i b l e .
" H e l e d m e b a c k t o t h e d i n i n g r o o m w h e r e I w a s m e t b y a
[ 36 6 ]
TOREDFLAG
c h o r u s o f e x a l t e d v o i c e s . P r i n c e s s O. k i s s e d m y h a n d , V
. d i d
t h e s a m e . Th e l y m p h a t i c g i r l w a s a l m o s t f a i n t i n g .
" ' Y o u a r e s a c r e d !' t h e y s c r e a m e d a l l a r o u n d , ` s a c r e d , p u r e ,
h a p p y !'
" H e d r a n k w i n e s m i l i n g .
" I d o n ' t r e m e m b e r h o w I r e t u r n e d h o m e . Y o u w e r e w o r k -
i n g i n t h e s t u d y . I f l u n g m y s e l f o n m y b e d a n d w e n t t o s l e e p
a f t e r h a v i n g t a k e n t h e d e c i s i o n t o t e l l y o u e v e r y t h i n g a n d t o
d e m a n d v e n g e a n c e .
" I h a v e t o k e e p s i l e n t . A. F. b e l i e v e s t h a t A. N
. , * h e r s o n ,
w i l l l i v e a n d b e i n g o o d h e a l t h a s l o n g a s h e l i v e s . I k n o w -
y o u w i l l k i l l h i m . Y o u w i l l t h u s k i l l A
. N . a n d t h e w h o l e
d y n a s t y . Th i s i s t h e b e l i e f o f A . F.
" I b e l i e v e i t t o o , b e c a u s e h e i s a t e r r i b l e d e m o n .
" . . .
J u l y .
I h a v e d e c i d e d t o p u t a n e n d t o m y s u f f e r i n g s .
Y o u w i l l n o t f o r g i v e m e w h i l e I l i v e , p e r h a p s y o u w i l l f o r g i v e
m e w h e n I a m d e a d .
" . . . J u l y
.
Li v e , l i v e a t a n y p r i c e . As y o u r s e r v a n t , y o u r
s l a v e , b u t o n l y t o l i v e .
" Go t o t h e m o n a s t e r y a n d k n o w t h a t y o u h a v e f o r g i v e n .
" Th e s u n s h i n e s b r i g h t l y , n a t u r e i s f u l l o f j o y .
I w e n t f o r
a d r i v e t o t h e i s l a n d s . H o w b e a u t i f u l t h e N e v a i s , t h e l i m e t r e e s
a n d t h e f r a g r a n c e o f t h e i r f l o w e r s , t h e f r e s h b r e e z e , t h e b l u e
s k y . Oh ! I w a n t t o l i v e , l i v e !
" . . . J u l y . H e c a l l s m e
. I h a v e n ' t t h e s t r e n g t h t o r e s i s t .
" I w i l l n o t g o t o h i m , Go d b e m y j u d g e .
" Fo r g i v e m e . . . . Oh , Go d
!H o w I l o v e y o u Al e x a n d e r ,
o u r c h i l d r e n a n d l i f e !
" I k n o w t h a t y o u w i l l n o t f o r g i v e m e a l i v e , f o r g i v e m e a t
l e a s t w h e n I a m d e a d .

Al e x e i N i c o l a i e v i t c h , t h e Ts a r e v i t c h
.
[36 7
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
" C h r i s t b e w i t h y o u . B e h a p p y .
" Fo r g i v e m e "
XXXI V
TH E
h a n d w r i t i n g o f t h e l a s t s h e e t w a s s h a k y .
S a b l i n r a i s e d h i s e y e s a n d l o o k e d a t t h e p o r t r a i t o f V e r a C o r p
s t a n t i n o v n a . S h e s e e m e d t o a s k
: " H a v e y o u f o r g i v e n ? "
" I h a v e , " h e s a i d
. " I h a v e f o r g i v e n y o u , m y d e a r , m y p o o r
u n f o r t u n a t e V e r a . I h a v e f o r g i v e n y o u . "
Y e s , w h e n s h e w a s d e a d .
B u t h a d s h e b e e n a l i v e ?
Fo r s o m e t i m e S a b l i n c o u l d n o t c o l l e c t h i s t h o u g h t s . S u c h
t h i n g s c o u l d b e w a s h e d a w a y o n l y b y b l o o d , a n d c o u l d t h e y b e
w a s h e d a w a y e v e n t h e n ? H e w o u l d , a n d k i l l h i m . H e w o u l d
g o a n d d e m a n d j u s t i c e . B u t f r o m w h o m ? Fr o m t h e Em p e r o r
a n d t h e Em p r e s s ?
S a b l i n k n e w t h a t t h i s d e m o n , t h i s u n c a n n y c r e a t u r e , w h o
p o s s e s s e d s u c h s t r a n g e m a g n e t i c p o w e r , h a d e n t e r e d t h e l i f e
o f t h e I m p e r i a l f a m i l y . I t h a d b e e n i m p o s s i b l e t o k i l l h i m .
M a n y h a d t r i e d i t . Ad a g g e r h a d b e e n s t u c k i n t o h i s s t o m a c h
b u t h e r e c o v e r e d ; h e h a d b e e n s h o t a t a n d h i s w o u n d s h e a l e d ;
e a c h a t t e m p t o n l y s e e m e d t o i n c r e a s e h i s p o w e r . H e h a d b e e n
s e n t a w a y f r o m t h e C o u r t a n d i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w e d s t r a n g e
u n e x p l a i n a b l e i l l n e s s e s o f t h e Ts a r e v i t c h , w h i c h v a n i s h e d o n
h i s r e t u r n . Th e Gr a n d Du c h e s s e s h a t e d a n d f e a r e d h i m , h e w a s
h a t e d b y t h e Em p e r o r , b u t a l l f e a r e d h i s t e r r i b l e p o w e r .
A
h o r r i b l e p o w e r h a d e n t e r e d t h e l i f e o f t h e I m p e r i a l f a m i l y a n d
w a s d r a w i n g t o w a r d s d e s t r u c t i o n t h e Ro m a n o f f s a n d w i t h t h e m
t h e w h o l e o f Ru s s i a .
ATs a r e v i t c h h a d a t l a s t b e e n b o r n b u t h e s u f f e r e d
-
f r o m a
m y s t e r i o u s i l l n e s s
. M e d i c i n e w a s p o w e r l e s s a g a i n s t
i t . . . .
An d h e , t h a t s t r a n g e l u s t f u l m o u j i k m a n a g e d t o i n f l u e n c e i t b y
h i s u n c a n n y i n n e r p o w e r . W h e n c e d i d i t c o m e ? H e a s s e r t e d
t h a t i t c a m e f r o m Go d .
B u t h o w c o u l d Go d b e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e t r a g e d y o f V e r a !
Go d a n d c o r r u p t i o n , Go d a n d c r i m e
! V e r a w a s r i g h t
! H e w a s
a t e r r i b l e d e m o n w h o h a d a p p e a r e d o n t h e e a r t h . . . .
M a n y
[ 36 8 ]
TOREDFLAG
s t r a n g e m y s t e r i o u s c a s e s h a d b e e n k n o w n i n t h e p a s t
. Th e y
h a d n o t b e e n e x p l a i n e d a l t h o u g h h i s t o r y h a d r e c o r d e d t h e m
.
W e d i d n o t b e l i e v e t h e m . An d n o w i t h a p p e n e d b e f o r e o u r e y e s
a n d w e w e r e s i l e n t a n d t r e m b l e d .
N o , h e , S a b l i n , w o u l d n o t b e s i l e n t . Un a v e n g e d i n s u l t s
w o u l d n o t h a u n t h i m f o r t h e r e s t o f h i s l i f e
. Lu b o v i n , K o r j i -
k o f f , w h o h a d t a k e n p o s s e s s i o n o f h i s s o n , a n d n o w t h i s m y s t e r i -
o u s m a n !
On c e m o r e t e r r i b l e p h a n t o m s b e g a n t o a p p e a r a s t h e y h a d
d o n e i n t h e f a c t o r y o f f i c e . B u t t h e y h a d b e e n d i s t a n t t h e n
.
N o w t h e w h o l e f l a t w a s s p e a k i n g o f t h e m , r e m i n d i n g o f t h e
d e a d b y t h e m i x e d s m e l l o f c a m p h o r , f l o w e r s a n d f i r t r e e s .
Ev e r y o n e h a s a c r o s s t o b e a r a n d e v e r y o n e m u s t b e a r i t . Th e
b r i l l i a n t C o l o n e l S a b l i n a l s o h a s o n e . H i s ' f e a t u r e s a r e - u n -
c h a n g i n g l y h a n d s o m e , h i s w e l l c a r e d f o r m o u s t a c h e l i e s s m o o t h l y
o v e r h i s t h i n l i p s , n o t a s i n g l e g r e y h a i r i s t o b e n o t i c e d o n h i s
h e a d . H e r e m a i n s s t i l l y o u n g a n d h a n d s o m e , l i k e Do r i a n Gr e y
i n t h e b o o k o f Os c a r W i l d e , w h i l e h i s p o r t r a i t i s g r o w i n g o l d
a n d d e m o l i s h e d . H i s s o u l w a s g r o w i n g o l d a n d w a s b e i n g t o r n
t o p i e c e s
.
Li t t l e b y , l i t t l e h e ' w a s l o s i n g e v e r y t h i n g i n w h i c h h e b e l i e v e d
a n d t h a t h e l o v e d .
H e l o s t h i s f a i t h i n t h e Ru s s i a n p e o p l e a n d n o l o n g e r l o v e d
t h e m w h e n h e h a d b e c o m e ' c o n v i n c e d t h a t a m o n g t h e m n o s t r o n g
m e n o f m i g h t y c r e a t i v e p o w e r s w e r e t o b e f o u n d . Ru s s i a w i t h -
o u t g e n i u s e s , Ru s s i a w i t h o u t l e a d e r s , a p p e a r e d t o h i m l i k e a
g r e y a n d c o l d d e s e r t .
N o w b y o n e b l o w h i s f a m i l y a n d t h e Ts a r h a d b e e n d e s t r o y e d
i n h i s h e a r t .
H o w c o u l d t h a t b e ? H o w c o u l d Go d a l l o w t h i s t o h a p p e n i f
H e e x i s t s ?
S a b l i n r a i s e d h i s e y e s t o t h e i k o n a n d t h o u g h t : " Th e r e i s n o
Go d !" An d i f t h e r e i s n o Go d , t h e n t h e r e c a n b e n o i m m o r -
t a l i t y o f t h e s o u l a n d a s a r e s u l t o f t h i s n o p u n i s h m e n t
. I f t h e r e
i s n o p u n i s h m e n t t h e n t h e r e i s n o c r i m e . Th e e n e m i e s o f C h r i s -
t i a n i t y , t h e s e r v a n t s o f t h e m y s t e r i o u s i n t e r n a t i o n a l , K o r j i k o f f
w h o w a s c o r r u p t i n g h i s s o n , - a l l o f t h e m w e r e r i g h t . Th e r e
[36 9 ]
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
w a s n o b o r d e r b e t w e e n l i f e a n d d e a t h , h a p p i n e s s a n d m i s f o r -
t u n e , g o o d a n d e v i l . I n r e a l i t y t h e r e i s n o t h i n g i n i t , i t h a s b e e n
i n v e n t e d . Ev e r y t h i n g c a m e f r o m Go d , f r o m C h r i s t i a n i t y , a n d
i f t h e r e w a s n o Go d a n d n o C h r i s t i a n i t y , t h e n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f
t h e b o d y s h o u l d r e p l a c e t h o s e o f t h e s o u l . Go o d i s t h a t w h i c h
p l e a s e s t h e b o d y .
I t i s s t u p i d t o w o r r y a b o u t a n y o n e ' s d e a t h .
V e r a C o n s t a n t i n o v n a i s d e a d
; w i t h h e r h a v e v a n i s h e d t h e c o m -
f o r t a n d c a l m w h i c h s h e h a d g i v e n , - w e l l , t a k e a n o t h e r t h e n , s o
t h a t y o u r b o d y s h a l l b e p l e a s e d . Lo v e i s a p r e j u d i c e , a t o r -
m e n t o f t h e c o n s c i e n c e , - j u s t n o n s e n s e .
H e f e l t c o l d a l l o v e r . Th e r e w a s n o l i f e i f t h e r e w a s n o Go d .
On l y d e a t h , p o w e r f u l a n d a l l a b s o r b i n g . W h a t w a s l i f e t h e n ?
W h e n c e d i d i t c o m e ? W h e n c e c a m e t h e t o r m e n t s o f c r e a t i v e
w o r k , t h e c r e a t i v e w o r k i t s e l f a n d t h e h a p p i n e s s i t u l t i m a t e l y
b r o u g h t . W h o w a s r i g h t : t h e p r o f e s s o r i n t h e B a t o u m r o s e g a r -
d e n o r K o r j i k o f f i n S w i t z e r l a n d ?
Go d o r t h e d e v i l ?
B u t i f t h e r e w a s a d e v i l t h e n t h e r e w a s a Go d . I f t h e r e w a s
s o m e t h i n g d a r k t h e n t h e r e m u s t b e s o m e t h i n g b r i g h t . I f t h e
d a r k p o w e r w a s p u s h i n g t h e h a n d t o w a r d s s u i c i d e , t h e n t h e
b r i g h t o n e w o u l d s t o p t h i s h a n d .
Oh !B u t t h a t w o u l d n e v e r h a p p e n !Th e d a r k p o w e r s h a v e
a l r e a d y b e e n i n f l u e n c i n g y o u f o r a l o n g t i m e , a n d d i d t h e b r i g h t
p o w e r s h e l p ?
Th e y d i d , h e t h o u g h t . Th e m a n o e u v r e s c a m e
a f t e r t h e s e p a r a t i o n f r o m K i t t y , t h e s e a t r i p w i t h V e r a C o n -
s t a n t i n o v n a a f t e r t h e s e p a r a t i o n f r o m M a r o u s i a a n d Lu b o v i n ' s
i n s u l t . M a r o u s i a ' s d e a t h h a d b e e n o b l i t e r a t e d b y t h e b e a u t i f u l
a u t u m n a t t h e " W h i t e H o u s e , " h i s c o u r t i n g a n d t h e c o m p a n y
o f h i s b r i d e . Th e r e h a d b e e n m o m e n t s w h e n d e a t h t r i e d t o l u r e
h i m i n t o i t s d a r k e m b r a c e , b u t a l w a y s l i f e , j o y f u l a n d e n c h a n t -
i n g , s u c c e e d e d t h e s e m o m e n t s . Th e h a p p i n e s s o f e x i s t e n c e
c a m e w i t h i t . Fr o m w h o m d i d i t a l l c o m e ?
Th e s o u l s a i d t h a t i t c a m e f r o m Go d . Go d e x i s t e d , Go d h a s
s a v e d y o u a n d h e w i l l d o s o a g a i n .
B u t c o l d r e a s o n s a i d - c o i n c i d e n c e ! On l y c o i n c i d e n c e
. B u t
n o w t h e r e w o u l d n o t e v e n b e c o i n c i d e n c e . Ev e r y t h i n g h a d
p e r i s h e d a n d h a d v a n i s h e d . Ru s s i a s t o o d d i r t y a n d b e f o u l e d
[37 0 ]
TOREDFLAG
s i n c e t h e Du m a h a d a p p e a r e d w i t h i t s s p e e c h e s a n d q u e s t i o n s
.
On l y d i r t s e e m e d t o f i l l t h e c o u n t r y . S t r i k e s , d e m o n s t r a t i o n s ,
e x e c u t i o n s , m u r d e r s o f p o l i c e m e n a n d s o l d i e r s i n t h e s t r e e t s
.
Th e a n i m a l i n s t i n c t s h a d b e e n a r o u s e d i n t h e p e o p l e a n d s h o n e
i n t h e " i l l u m i n a t i o n s " o f t h e l a n d o w n e r ' s m a n o r s
. Ev e r y t h i n g
h a d f a l l e n i n t o d u s t a n d b e g a n t o b r e a k l i k e t h e d e c o r a t i o n s o f
a p l a y i n a t r a v e l l i n g s h o w . Du s t a n d f a d e d p a i n t , t h e g r e y
b e a m w o r k o f t h e t h e a t r e a n d t h e t o r n c a n v a s c o u l d n o w b e
s e e n t h r o u g h t h e m .
H e h a d h o p e d t h a t t h e Ts a r w o u l d h e l p . B u t Ra s p u t i n h a d
a r i s e n a t t h e Ts a r ' s s i d e . Th e Ts a r c e a s e d t o b e a Ts a r a n d
t h e s o l d i e r s d a r e d t o b l a m e h i m . As l a v e d o m i n a t e d h i s m a s t e r
a n d t h e l e g e n d a b o u t t h e g r e a t s o v e r e i g n i n w h i c h h e h a d b e -
l i e v e d a l l h i s l i f e v a n i s h e d .
H i s f a m i l y h a d e x i s t e d
. I t s e e m e d t o b e m o u l d e d o u t o f s t e e l .
Th e c o l d V e r a C o n s t a n t i n o v n a , b r o u g h t u p i n a g o o d f a m i l y
a n d a t t h e b e s t s c h o o l , s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d a n d h o n e s t , s e e m e d t o
t h i n k o n l y o f h e r c h i l d r e n .
B u t t h e d e v i l t o u c h e d h e r a n d a l l
h e r p u r i t y a n d h o n e s t y c o l l a p s e d l i k e a h o u s e o f c a r d s b u i l t u p
b y a c h i l d .
H e l o o k e d a t t h e p o r t r a i t . Th e l i g h t c o m i n g f r o m t h e w i n -
d o w n o w f e l l u p o n i t . Th e n i g h t h a d p a s s e d a w a y , i t w a s
m o r n i n g o u t s i d e a n d t h e p o r t r a i t s e e m e d t o s a y : " I t i s n o t t r u e !"
S h e h a d p a i d b y d e a t h f o r h e r s i n , s h e h a d e x p i a t e d h e r m i s -
f o r t u n e b y d e a t h a t t h e t i m e w h e n s h e l o n g e d t o l i v e . W a s t h a t
n o t a g r e a t d e e d ? B u t w h a t i f a l l t h i s w a s a p u n i s h m e n t f o r h i s
s i n s ? W h a t h a d h e d o n e w i t h K i t t y , M a r o u s i a a n d o t h e r s ?
H a d h e e v e r r e p e n t e d ?
Th e n i g h t h a d p a s s e d , b u t S a b l i n d i d n o t g o t o b e d a n d d i d
n o t f e e l w e a r y
. Ad i f f i c u l t a n d e x c i t i n g s t r u g g l e w a s g o i n g o n
i n h i m a n d n o w h e k n e w f o r c e r t a i n w h e r e i t w o u l d b r i n g h i m
.
H e n o l o n g e r c l u t c h e d a t l i f e n o w a n d d i d n o t t h i n k t h a t i t w a s
p o s s i b l e t o c o n t i n u e t o l i v e
. H e h a d l i v e d q u i t e w i t h i n h i m s e l f
t h e s e t h r e e d a y s f o l l o w i n g t h e d e a t h o f V e r a C o n s t a n t i n o v n a
.
H e h a d n o t r e a d t h e n e w s p a p e r s , h a d s t a y e d a t h o m e t h e w h o l e
t i m e , h a d m e t n o o n e a n d h a d t a l k e d t o n o o n e .
Da y h a d c o m e l o n g a g o , t h e s e r v a n t b r o u g h t i n t h e c o f f e e a n d
[ 37 1 ]
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
d i d n o t s e e m s u r p r i s e d t h a t S a b l i n w a s s t i l l s i t t i n g i n t h e a r m
c h a i r a n d t h a t h i s b e d w a s u n t o u c h e d
. Th e n o i s e o f t h e s t r e e t
c a m e f r o m o u t s i d e a n d t h e r a y s o f t h e s u n p e n e t r a t e d t h r o u g h
t h e c u r t a i n s .
S a b l i n h a d d e c i d e d o n h i s f a t e l o n g a g o . B u t t h e p o r t r a i t
h e l d h i m b a c k
. Th e s m i l e o f y o u t h f u l h a p p i n e s s f r o z e n o n t h e
f a c e s u r r o u n d e d b y o r a n g e b l o s s o m s w o u l d n o t b e i n h a r m o n y
w i t h a p o o l o f b l o o d a n d t h e s h a t t e r e d s k u l l o f a s u i c i d e s i t t i n g
i n t h e a r m c h a i r
. S a b l i n s t i l l i m p l o r e d Go d a n d h o p e d f o r a
m i r a c l e a s h e h a d d o n e i n t h e f a c t o r y ' s o f f i c e . H e h a d t o l d h i m -
s e l f t h a t t h e r e w a s n o Go d a n d y e t c l u n g t o H i m
. An d i m -
p l o r e d a n d w a i t e d f o r H i m .
" W e l l , " h e s a i d , d e c i d i n g a t l a s t a n d t a k i n g a c o m f o r t a b l e a t -
t i t u d e i n t h e a r m c h a i r s o t h a t h i s h a n d w o u l d n o t w a v e r a n d
t h e l a s t f e e l i n g o f t h e b o d y w o u l d b e t h a t o f c o s i n e s s , - " i f
t h e r e i s a Go d , h e w i l l g i v e m e a s i g n , h e w i l l h o l d b a c k m y
h a n d a n d w i l l t e l l m e w h a t I h a v e t o d o n o w t h a t m y l i f e i s
s h a t t e r e d a n d n o t h i n g i s l e f t .
" I w i l l a p p r o a c h t h e w i n d o w f o r t h e l a s t t i m e , I w i l l f l i n g
i t o p e n , I w i l l l o o k a t t h e b l u e s k y , a t t h e b r i g h t s u n a n d I w i l l
r e a d t h e a n s w e r i n i t s r a y s
. I f t h e r e i s a Go d I s h a l l s e e . . . . "
H e l a u g h e d a t t h e i d e a
. " W h a t s h a l l I s e e ? An g e l s , t h e
f a c e o f t h e M a d o n n a , t h e a l l s e e i n g e y e i n a t r i a n g l e , t h e f a c e
o f V e r a C o n s t a n t i n o v n a ? C h i l d ! . . .
Or i s i t t h a t I w a n t t o
l i v e ? Th a t I c l i n g t o l i f e ? Th a t I w a n t a d e l a y ? "
" N o , I s i m p l y w a n t t o l o o k a t t h e s u n f o r t h e l a s t t i m e ,
s h a l l n e v e r s e e i t a g a i n . "
S a b l i n r o s e , r e s o l u t e l y w a l k e d u p t o t h e w i n d o w , r a i s e d t h e
c u r t a i n , f l u n g o p e n b o t h h a l v e s a n d l e a n e d o n t h e w i n d o w s i l .
H e r e m a i n e d f r o z e n i n t h i s a t t i t u d e , s o s t a r t l e d w a s h e b y w h a t
h e s a w
. H e l i s t e n e d , l o o k e d a n d s u d d e n l y m a d e t h e s i g n o f t h e
c r o s s i n a f r e e g e s t u r e
. H e u n d e r s t o o d t h a t Go d e x i s t e d - t h e
m i r a c l e w a s a c c o m p l i s h e d .
XXXV
TH E s u m m e r s u n w a s b r i g h t l y i l l u m i n a t i n g t h e h o u s e s o f t h e
s t r e e t a n d s h o n e o n t h e g l a s s o f t h e w i n d o w s . Th e s k y w a s
[ 37 2 1
TOREDFLAG
o f a p a l e b l u e a n d c o v e r e d b y t h i n f l u f f y c l o u d s . Ac r o w d o f
p e o p l e s t o o d n e a r t h e N e v s k y . Go l d e n c h u r c h b a n n e r s a n d a
p o r t r a i t o f t h e Em p e r o r i n a g i l d e d f r a m e s p a r k l e d o v e r i t .
An d s u d d e n l y t h e N a t i o n a l An t h e m r o s e i n p o w e r f u l c h o r d s ,
s t o p p e d f o r a m o m e n t a s i f t h e c r o w d w e r e a d j u s t i n g t h e i r
v o i c e s , a n d t h e n f l o w e d o n , b e a u t i f u l , m i g h t y a n d Ru s s i a n , g r a s p -
i n g a t o n e ' s h e a r t . Th e c r o w d m o v e d d o w n t h e s t r e e t . Th e
An t h e m w a s f i n i s h e d a n d c h e e r s f i l l e d t h e a i r . An d a g a i n r o s e
t h e s i n g i n g o f t h e p r a y e r : " Go d s a v e o u r p e o p l e . "
Go d , t h e Ts a r a n d t h e p e o p l e h a d r i s e n f r o m t h e d e a d . Th e y
h a d j o i n e d t o g e t h e r a n d w e n t f o r t h s p a r k l i n g w i t h t h e g o l d o f
t h e i k o n s a n d t h e p o r t r a i t o f t h e S o v e r e i g n M a s t e r , p r a y i n g a n d
w i s h i n g f o r t h e v i c t o r y a n d g l o r y o f t h e Ru s s i a n Ts a r
. Ru s s i a
h a d a r i s e n .
W h a t h a d h a p p e n e d ? H e s e i z e d a n e w s p a p e r w h i c h h a d
b e e n b r o u g h t i n b y t h e s e r v a n t . Th e I m p e r i a l e d i c t w a s p r i n t e d
o n t h e f i r s t p a g e . Ge r m a n y h a d d e c l a r e d w a r o n Ru s s i a .
H e r e i t w a s ! N o w t h a t h a d h a p p e n e d f o r w h i c h t h e n a t i o n s
o f Eu r o p e h a d b e e n w a i t i n g i n h o r r o r . W a r h a d b r o k e n o u t
a f t e r t h i r t y - s i x y e a r s o f p e a c e . At t h a t t e r r i b l e h o u r o f i t s
b e g i n n i n g t h e Ts a r h a d f o r g i v e n t h e p e o p l e f o r a l l m i s t a k e s ;
t h e p e o p l e h a d f o r g i v e n t h e Ts a r f o r h i s w e a k n e s s , i n d e c i s i o n
a n d f a i l u r e s . Th e H o d i n s k y f i e l d , t h e J a p a n e s e w a r , - a l l w a s
f o r g o t t e n , t h e u n s u c c e s s f u l Du m a s , t h e b a d l a w s w h i c h s a t i s f i e d
n o o n e - a l l w a s f o r g i v e n . Ra s p u t i n w o u l d b e s e n t a w a y t o d a y
a n d t o m o r r o w t h e r e w o u l d b e n o p a r t i e s b u t o n l y Ru s s i a !
Go d s a v e t h e Ts a r !
Ev e r y t h i n g p e r s o n a l s e e m e d s o t r i v i a l a n d s m a l l . Ru s s i a
a r o s e b e f o r e h i m , b e a u t i f u l , g r e a t , m i g h t y a n d i n v i n c i b l e !
" Gi v e v i c t o r y t o o u r o r t h o d o x Em p e r o r N i c o l a i Al e x a n d r o -
v i t c h o v e r t h e f o e s . . . " t h e c r o w d s a n g t h e w o r d s o f t h e
p r a y e r a n d t h e y a p p e a r e d i n a n e w d e e p l i g h t w h i c h S a b l i n h a d
n o t n o t i c e d b e f o r e .
H e p u t o n h i s c a p a n d l e f t t h e f l a t .
" H u r r a h !" - r o s e a l l a r o u n d a s s o o n a s h e a p p e a r e d a t t h e
d o o r . " Lo n g l i v e t h e Ar m y !"
S t r o n g h o r n y h a n d s s e i z e d h i m a n d r a i s e d h i m u p i n t o t h e
s

[37 3]
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
a i r .
Da r k , t a n n e d f a c e s o f w o r k m e n l o o k e d a t h i m w i t h a d -
m i r a t i o n .
" Lo n g l i v e t h e Ar m y !"
H e n o w w e n t t h r o u g h t h e c r o w d a r m - i n - a r m w i t h a m o u j i k
a n d a s t u d e n t a n d t h e a i r w a s f i l l e d b y t h e s i n g i n g o f t h e p r a y e r
f o r v i c t o r y .
Th e p e o p l e w e r e w i t h h i m , t h e p e o p l e w e r e r e a d y f o r a n y -
t h i n g . Ru s s i a w a s l i v i n g .
S o l e m n p e a l s o f c h u r c h b e l l s c a m e f r o m S t . I s a a c s C a t h e d r a l
.
Th e y b o o m e d s m o o t h l y , i n t e r r u p t e d b y t h e l i g h t e r t o n e s o f t h e
s m a l l b e l l s a n d t h e d e e p b o o m i n g o f t h e g r e a t o n e .
Th e c l e r g y i n g o l d e n v e s t m e n t s s t o o d o n t h e t o p o f t h e l o n g
s t e p s a n d w a i t e d f o r t h e p e o p l e . Th e h a r m o n i o u s s i n g i n g o f
t h e c h u r c h c h o i r c a m e f r o m t h e c h u r c h a n d b l e n d e d t o g e t h e r
w i t h t h e m i g h t y r o a r o f t h e c r o w d .
" S a v e Y o u r p e o p l e , o u r Lo r d , " m o u j i k s s a i d w h o s t o o d n e a r
S a b l i n .
" M a y C h r i s t s a v e a n d h e l p y o u , o u r b e l o v e d o f f i c e r s
o f t h e Ts a r . "
Th e r e w e r e n o d i v i s i o n s i n t o n o b l e s a n d p e o p l e , b u t t h e r e w a s
o n e n a t i o n w i t h i t s Ar m y , Of f i c e r s a n d Ts a r . Th e r e w e r e n o
" m u r d e r e r s a n d h a n g m e n " a n y l o n g e r , a n d t h e c r o w d m i g h t i l y
s a n g " Go d s a v e t h e Ts a r . "
Ge r m a n y h a d d e c l a r e d w a r o n Ru s s i a a n d Ru s s i a r o s e b e f o r e
t h e a p p r o a c h i n g d a n g e r , t h e d e m o n s o f d e s t r u c t i o n v a n i s h e d
a n d h i d i n t h e i r c e l l a r s , a n d t h e p e o p l e , f r e e f r o m a l l b o n d s ,
m a r c h e d f o r w a r d m a j e s t i c a l l y s o l e m n , u n i t e d a n d p o w e r f u l ,
t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r S o v e r e i g n a n o i n t e d b y Go d .
" Re i g n f o r o u r g l o r y l
Re i g n f o r t h e t e r r o r o f o u r f o e s !
Ou r Or t h o d o x Ts a r !" t h e s o l e m n p r a y i n g t o n e s o f t h e N a t i o n a l
An t h e m r o s e t o w a r d s t h e s k y a n d t h e s k y r e p l i e d b y t h e d e e p
p e a l s o f t h e b e l l s
.
Ev e r y t h i n g n o w r e c e i v e d m e a n i n g a n d i m p o r t a n c e . Th e
w h o l e o f S a b l i n ' s l i f e p a s s e d i n a m o m e n t b e f o r e h i s m e n t a l .
g a z e . H e r e m e m b e r e d t h e r e v e l r y a t Gr i t z e n k o ' s f l a t a n d t h e
b l o w o n t h e f a c e o f t h e o r d e r l y , - K i t t y , M a r o u s i a , t h e d i s c u s -
s i o n a t t h e h o u s e o f t h e M a r t o f f s w i t h t h e y o u n g p e o p l e w h o
t r i e d t o p r o v e t h a t w a r s h a d n o w b e c o m e i m p o s s i b l e a n d t h a t t h e
[ 37 4 ]
TOREDFLAG
a r m y w a s u s e l e s s , t h e m a n o e u v r e s , t h e d r i l l , - a l l h a d r e c e i v e d
a n e w m e a n i n g n o w .
" Lo n g l i v e t h e Ar m y !" r o a r e d t h e c r o w d
. Fr o m t h e s t e p s
a d e a c o n p r o n o u n c e d t h e b l e s s i n g o f " M a n y y e a r s !"
" To t h e C h r i s t - l o v i n g v i c t o r i o u s Ar m y , m a n y y e a r s !"
" H u r r a h , H u r r a h !Lo n g l i v e t h e Ar m y !"
" M a n y y e a r s ! M a n y y e a r s !"
Th e h o u r o f p a y m e n t h a d c o m e .
C o u l d S a b l i n l e a v e l i f e n o w b e c a u s e o f t h e d i s h o n o u r o f h i s
w i f e b y Ra s p u t i n ? C o u l d h e s h r i n k n o w f r o m p a y i n g f o r t h e
l o v e o f K i t t y , f o r M a r o u s i a ' s d e a t h , f o r t h e m e r r y l i f e h e h a d
l e d , f o r t h e h a p p i n e s s o f w e a r i n g t h e r e g i m e n t a l u n i f o r m a n d
f o r a l l t h e b l e s s i n g s o f t h i s w o r l d w h i c h h a d b e e n g i v e n t o h i m
b y t h e p e o p l e a n d t h e Ts a r ? C o u l d h e l e a v e h i s p o s t n o w ,
w h e n t h e Ts a r ' s p o r t r a i t d o m i n a t e d t h e c r o w d a n d w h e n t h e
N a t i o n a l An t h e m f l o w e d o u t r e p e a t e d b y t h o u s a n d s o f v o i c e s
" Go d s a v e t h e Ts a r !"
Gr e a t Ru s s i a h a d r i s e n a n u h a d t u r n e d t o t h e Ts a r i n t h e
h o u r o f d a n g e r . Th e b l o c k o f i c e m e l t e d i n S a b l i n ' s h e a r t . H e
j o i n e d h i s p o w e r f u l v o i c e t o t h e v o i c e s o f t h e c r o w d a n d s a n g
w i t h f u l l f a i t h , a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a n d d u t y
t o h i s c o u n t r y : " Go d s a v e t h e Ts a r !"
[
37 51
P ARTI I I
I
K o RJ r x o r r a h a d p r o v i d e d Lu b o v i n w i t h a s e c o n d c l a s s t i c k e t a s
f a r a s V e r j b o l o v o , a p a s s p o r t , a n d a d o c u m e n t c e r t i f y i n g t h a t
h e w a s a w o r k m a n g o i n g o n a s p e c i a l m i s s i o n o n b e h a l f o f t h e
s t e e l - w o r k s t o b u y c e r t a i n s t e e l d r i l l s i n B e r l i n . H e s a t h u d d l e d
u p i n a c o r n e r o f t h e c o m p a r t m e n t , h i s h e a d c o n c e a l e d b y h i s
o v e r c o a t , w h i c h h u n g o n a h o o k , a n d t r i e d t o s l e e p , b u t u n s u c -
c e s s f u l l y . H e p i c t u r e d t o h i m s e l f S a b l i n l y i n g d e a d a n d M a r -
o u s i a d i s h e v e l l e d a n d h a l f - c l a d
. H i s c o n s c i e n c e s m o t e h i m .
" H a d h e a c t e d a s h e o u g h t t o h a v e ? " h e t h o u g h t . " Ev e n Fe d o r
Fe d o r o v i t c h d i d n o t s e e m t o a p p r o v e m y a c t i o n
. I p l a y e d t h e
p a r t o f a b o u r g e o i s a n d n o t o f a p r o l e t a r i a n . Af t e r a l l , t h e l a s s
h a d o n l y g o n e i n f o r a l o v e - a f f a i r
. K o r j i k o f f , f o r i n s t a n c e ,
t a k e s a m u c h h i g h e r v i e w o f t h e m a t t e r
. ` I ' l l m a r r y h e r , ' h e
s a y s . Ev i d e n t l y I a m u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f b o u r g e o i s m o r a l
.
W h e r e o n e a r t h h a v e I g o t t h a t f r o m ? P r o b a b l y f r o m f a t h e r ,
w h o a l w a y s w i s h e d t o l i v e a s t h e u p p e r c l a s s d o e s
. W h a t i s
M a r o u s i a g o i n g t o d o n o w ? H a d s h e s u f f i c i e n t p r e s e n c e o f
m i n d t o l e a v e t h e h o u s e s t r a i g h t a w a y ? Th e y a r e s u r e t o f i n d
h e r . Th e y ' l l a c c u s e h e r a n d d r a g h e r t o t h e c o r o n e r a n d f r o m
o n e c o u r t t o t h e o t h e r . W h a t a s h a m e f o r t h e p o o r g i r l . W h a t
a s c a n d a l . W h a t a b l o w f o r f a t h e r !"
H e s h u d d e r e d w h e n t h e d o o r o p e n e d a n d h a s t e n e d t o c o v e r
h i s h e a d w i t h t h e f o l d s o f h i s o v e r c o a t , l o o k i n g t h r o u g h t h e s l i t s
t o a s c e r t a i n w h e t h e r t h e y h a d n o t c o m e t o f e t c h h i m . " Th e y ' l l
c a l l Lu b o v i n , " h e t h o u g h t , - " b u t I a m n o t Lu b o v i n . I ' m S t a n i s -
l a f f Le s t c h i n s k y , a l o c k - s m i t h o n a s p e c i a l m i s s i o n t o B e r l i n .
C o n s e q u e n t l y - n o f e a r !" I t s e e m e d t o h i m a t t h e s a m e t i m e a s
t h o u g h s o m e o n e w e r e o n t h e p o i n t o f a s k i n g : " I s Lu b o v i n
h e r e , " a n d w a s a f r a i d o f e x c l a i m i n g i n v o l u n t a r i l y : " I ' m Lu b o -
v i n
. "
" Th e n w e a r e l i k e l y t o b e l a t e ? "
[37 9 ]
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
Th e c u s t o m - h o u s e r e v i s i o n t o o k p l a c e i n a l a r g e , l i g h t , b u t
c o l d b a r r a c k , w i t h a n i r o n - b a r r e d , l o w p a r t i t i o n d i v i d i n g i t
l e n g t h w a y s
. Th e s o u n d o f l u g g a g e b e i n g d a s h e d o n t o t h e f l o o r
a n d t h e t i n k l e o f k e y s a n d l o c k s f i l l e d t h e p l a c e
. Al a d y i n a f i t
o f h y s t e r i c a l l a u g h t e r w a s b e i n g a d d r e s s e d b y a n o f f i c i a l i n a
b l a c k o v e r c o a t w i t h g r e e n f a c i n g s
:
" I t c a n ' t b e h e l p e d , m a d a m , y o u ' l l h a v e t o s t r i p
. Y o u n e e d n ' t
m i n d , h o w e v e r
; w e h a v e s p e c i a l f e m a l e a t t e n d a n t s a n d a s e p -
a r a t e r o o m f o r t h a t p u r p o s e . "
Lu b o v i n , w h o h a d n o l u g g a g e , s a t i n a c o r n e r
. Ev e r y n o w
a n d t h e n a b i g g e n d a r m e w o u l d a p p e a r i n t h e d o o r l e a d i n g i n t o
t h e p a s s p o r t - o f f i c e , s h o u t i n g w i t h a s t e n t o r i o u s v o i c e t h e n a m e s
o f t h o s e w h o s e p a s s p o r t s h a d a l r e a d y b e e n v i s e d
.
" Ge n e r a l S t a r t z e f f . "
As m a l l , g r e y - h a i r e d i n d i v i d u a l i n p l a i n c l o t h e s r o s e f r o m t h e
b e n c h n e x t t o w h e r e Lu b o v i n w a s s i t t i n g a n d t h e g e n d a r m e i n -
s t a n t l y r a n u p t o h i m a n d d e l i v e r e d h i m h i s p a s s p o r t
. " H e r e
y o u a r e , Y o u r Ex c e l l e n c y
. H a s y o u r l u g g a g e b e e n l o o k e d a t ?
I s t h a t i t ? Do n ' t y o u t r o u b l e
: i t w i l l b e b r o u g h t t o y o u r c a r
. "
" Le s t c h i n s k y !"
t h e g e n d a r m e s h o u t e d .
" S t a n i s l a f f Le s t c h i n s k y
!"
Lu b o v i n s h u d d e r e d a n d h a s t e n e d t o w a r d s t h e g e n d a r m e
. H i s
k n e e s t r e m b l e d
. H e f e l t a s t h o u g h h e w e r e i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f
I v a n K a r p o v i t c h
. Th e g e n d a r m e - s e r g e a n t w a s o f t h e s a m e
b u l k y s t a t u r e , h a d a r u d d y f a c e w i t h a r e d m o u s t a c h e a n d s t e r n
g o g g l e e y e s
. Th e f i s t i n w h i c h h e h e l d t h e p a s s p o r t w a s l i k e -
w i s e r e d a n d h a i r y a n d r e m i n d e d Lu b o v i n o f I v a n K a r p o v i t c h ' s
f i s t a n d i t s e e m e d t o h i m a s t h o u g h h e h e a r d t h e l a t t e r ' s o m i n o u s
w o r d s : " I s e e r i g h t t h r o u g h y o u t o t h e a n t i p o d e s , Lu b o v i n
. "
" W h y d o n ' t y o u a n s w e r , w h e n y o u ' r e c a l l e d , " t h e g e n d a r m e
e x c l a i m e d , s t e r n l y b u t p o l i t e l y , " y o u k e e p t h e o t h e r p a s s e n g e r s
w a i t i n g - S t a n i s l a f f Le s t c h i n s k y , f r o m t h e Go v e r n m e n t o f
K o v n o ? "
" Y e s , p r o s h e p a n i e . "
" Al o c k - s m i t h ? "
* P o l i s h f o r " P l e a s e , Y o u r H o n o u r . "
[38 0 ]
TOREDFLAG
" Y e s , p r o s h e p a n i e . "
" H e r e ' s y o u r p a s s p o r t . Y o u c a n c o n t i n u e y o u r j o u r n e y . "
" Ds e n k u i e p a n i e . " *
Lu b o v i n l o o k e d t e n d e r l y a t t h e g e n d a r m e s e r g e a n t . H e f e l t
f u l l o f g r a t i t u d e t o w a r d s h i m a n d r e a d y t o k i s s h i s r e d , f a t ,
h a i r y h a n d
. Th e s e r g e a n t t u r n e d a w a y f r o m h i m .
" M r s . Tv e r d o k h l i e b o v a !"
h e a g a i n s h o u t e d a n d t h e y o u n g
l a d y , w h o h a d s l e p t o n t h e u p p e r b e r t h o p p o s i t e Lu b o v i n , c a m e
u p t o t h e s e r g e a n t .
" M r . K e p s t e n Ra f a l o v i t c h " - t h e s e r g e a n t w e n t o n
.
Lu b o v i n w e n t t o h i s c a r .
" I f t h e y ' d o n l y h u r r y u p , " h e t h o u g h t , " o n c e o v e r t h e f r o n t i e r
I a m s a v e d . "
I I
Al u
i v ED
o n t h e Ge r m a n b o r d e r Lu b o v i n b o u g h t e v e r y t h i n g h e
f e l t i n c l i n e d f o r a t t h e s t a t i o n , h a d s o m e c o f f e e a n d f o r t h e f i r s t
t i m e s i n c e h e l e f t P e t e r s b u r g f e l t e n t i r e l y a t h i s e a s e . H e c a l l e d
e v e r y o n e " c a m a r a d e " a n d s e e m e d h a p p y , s m i l n g f o o l i s h l y a n d
s u r p r i s e d a t t h e w a r m w e a t h e r
. H e f e t c h e d f r o m t h e l i n i n g o f
h i s o v e r c o a t t h e p a p e r s r e c e i v e d f r o m K o r j i k o f f a n d p r o c e e d e d
t o s t u d y t h e m .
Ev e r y w h e r e , w h e r e h e h a d t o c h a n g e t r a i n s , Lu b o v i n v i s i t e d ,
a t t h e a d d r e s s g i v e n h i m , t h e " t o v a r i s t c h " t m e m b e r o f t h e
r e v o l u t i o n a r y f a c t i o n a n d w a s p r o v i d e d b y t h e l a t t e r w i t h a n o t e
f o r w a r d i n g h i m t o t h e f o l l o w i n g " t o v a r i s t c h . " Lu b o v i n n o t i c e d
t h a t a l l t h e " t o v a r i s t c h i , " m e m b e r s o f t h e f a c t i o n , w e r e J e w s
.
Th e y w e r e e x c e s s i v e l y p o l i t e a n d k i n d t o h i m , d i d a l l t h e y c o u l d
t o h e l p a n d d i r e c t h i m . An Au s t r i a n " t o v a r i s t c h " a c c o m p a n i e d
h i m t o t h e S w i s s f r o n t i e r a n d s a w h i m i n t o t h e t r a i n b o u n d f o r
B e r n e . H e g a v e h i m f u l l p a r t i c u l a r s a s t o w h a t s t a t i o n h e h a d t o
l e a v e t h e c a r a t a n d e v e n m a d e d r a w i n g s o f h i s f o o t i t i n e r a r y
.
At Re i c h e n b a c h , Lu b o v i n l e f t t h e t r a i n . M o u n t a i n s r o s e a t
* P o l i s h f o r " Th a n k s , Y o u r H o n o u r . "
f Ru s s i a n e x p r e s s i o n f o r c o m p a n i o n , c o m r a d e a n d p a l - w h i c h h a s
a c q u i r e d t h e m e a n i n g o f e q u a l i t y a n d i s s p e c i a l l y u s e d b y t h e s o c i a l i s t s .
[38 1]
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
t h e b a c k o f t h e s t a t i o n . As i l v e r f o r e s t o f f i r - t r e e s , c o v e r e d w i t h
s n o w , u n f o l d e d a l o n g a d e e p v a l l e y , h e r e a n d t h e r e t u r n i n g t o
r i g h t a n d l e f t , a n d f o r m i n g , i n t h e s p a c e s b e t w e e n , i s l a n d s o f
s n o w b r i g h t l y l i t b y t h e s u n
. Th e a i r w a s s t i l l a n d t r a n s p a r e n t ,
a n d t h e h o r i z o n q u i t e p u r e , w i t h o u t a
v e s t i g e o f c l o u d s . Th o u g h
t h e t e m p e r a t u r e w a s l o w a n d t h e b r e a t h t u r n e d i n t o s t e a m , y o u
h a r d l y f e l t t h e c o l d . Lu b o v i n l o o k e d a b o u t , l o s t i n a d m i r a t i o n
.
B e f o r e h i m s p r e a d t h e K i e n t a l v a l l e y w i t h i t s l a k e c o v e r e d w i t h
b r i g h t i c e , w h i c h r e f l e c t e d , l i k e a m i r r o r , a m u l t i t u d e o f s k a t e r s
.
B e y o n d . , t h e m o u n t a i n s f o r m e d a d a r k b a c k g r o u n d a n d f u r t h e r
y e t a r a n g e o f s n o w y p e a k s r o s e m a j e s t i c a l l y
. At f i r s t Lu b o v i n
m i s t o o k t h e m f o r c l o u d s a n d w a s a m a z e d w h e n h e d i s c o v e r e d
t h a t t h e y w e r e s n o w c o v e r e d m o u n t a i n s . " To t h i n k t h a t a t
h o m e I b e l i e v e d t h e Du d e r h o f f a n d K i r c h h o f f h i l l s t o b e m o u n -
t a i n s ! W h y , t h e y a r e m e r e p y g m i e s a s c o m p a r e d t o t h e s e !"
Th e s u r r o u n d i n g s n o w , c r o s s e d b y n a r r o w t r a c k s l e f t b y s n o w -
s h o e s , s l e d g e s a n d b o b - s l e i g h s , w a s w h i t e a n d p u r e . Th e t r e e s ,
o n w h i c h t h e m o r n i n g s u n s h o n e g a i l y a n d b r i g h t l y , t h r e w a
b l u i s h s h a d o w u p o n i t .
Lu b o v i n h a d b e e n t o l d t h a t t h i s p l a c e w a s a v i l l a g e a n d y e t
t w o t h r e e - s t o r i e d s t o n e h o u s e s , b u i l t w i t h t a s t e , s t o o d o n e i t h e r
s i d e o f t h e s t r e e t , w h i c h w a s o v e r h u n g b y a n a r c h w a y o f w h i t e
l a c e w o r k , f o r m e d b y t h e s n o w - c l a d b r a n c h e s o f h u g e o a k - t r e e s .
Fl a k e s o f h o a r - f r o s t d r o p p e d q u i e t l y o n t o t h e p a v e m e n t , w h e r e
t h e y l a y s h i n i n g i n t h e s u n .
Al o w , c l u m s y c h u r c h - t o w e r , w i t h c l o c k d i a l s o n a l l f o u r s i d e s
a n d a p i l l a r - g a l l e r y s u p p o r t i n g a n a r r o w s e x a g o n s t e e p l e t o p p e d
b y a c r o s s , p r o t r u d e d h a l f - w a y i n t o t h e s t r e e t . At t h i s p o i n t
Lu b o v i n , f o l l o w i n g t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o f t h e Au s t r i a n " t o v a r i s t c h , "
t u r n e d t o t h e l e f t , t a k i n g a n a r r o w p a t h u p - h i l l . B o i s t e r o u s
c h i l d r e n o n b o b - s l e i g h s w e r e s p e e d i n g t o w a r d s h i m , w a v i n g t h e i r
c a p s . Ap e a s a n t - w o m a n c a m e a l o n g , w h o m h e s t o p p e d t o a s k
h i s w a y t o S o m m e r f e l d ; s h e s h o o k h e r h e a d . Th e n a g a i n h e
s a w a b l a c k - b e a r d e d u n f r i e n d l y - l o o k i n g i n d i v i d u a l , a c c o m p a n i e d
b y a t h i n , g r a c e f u l a n d g o o d - l o o k i n g y o u n g g i r l w i t h s h o r t f l a x e n
h a i r . Lu b o v i n , d e s p a i r i n g o f b e i n g u n d e r s t o o d , d e c i d e d n o t t o
[ 38 2 ]
TOREDFLAG
a d d r e s s h i m s e l f t o t h e m , w h e n s u d d e n l y a v o i c e f r o m t h e t h i c k e t
e x c l a i m e d i n Ru s s i a n
" Lo o k , t o v a r i s t c h i , a t t h o s e g o a t s
. "
" Y o u ' v e e v i d e n t l y s c a r e d t h e m , " r e j o i n e d t h e b l a c k - b e a r d e d
m a n .
Lu b o v i n w a l k e d u p t o h i m a n d , r a i s i n g h i s h a t , s a i d
" ' To v a r i s t c h , ' d o y o u h a p p e n t o h a i l f r o m S o m m e r f e l d ? "
" Q u i t e s o , " t h e o t h e r a n s w e r e d e y e i n g h i m s u s p i c i o u s l y f r o m
h e a d t o f o o t
.
" Do y o u k n o w ` t o v a r i s t c h ' V a r n a k o f f ? "
" W h a t ' s t h a t t o y o u ? " t h e b l a c k - b e a r d r e j o i n e d .
Th e g i r l s t e p p e d a s i d e s c r u t i n i z i n g Lu b o v i n
. Th e m a n w i t h
t h e b l a c k b e a r d , t h o u g h o f s h o r t s t a t u r e , w a s w i d e - s h o u l d e r e d
a n d p o w e r f u l l y b u i l t . H i s p u t t y f a c e , w i t h s m a l l - p o x m a r k s
w a s a d o r n e d b y a b r o a d n o s e a n d a b l a c k m o u s t a c h e h a n g i n g
o v e r h i s c r i m s o n l i p s
. H e w a s c l a d i n a w a r m w a d d e d j a c k e t ,
w i t h a k n i t t e d w o o l e n c a p , w h i c h g a v e h i s b e a r d e d f a c e a c o m i -
c a l e x p r e s s i o n
. H e w o r e k n e e - b r e e c h e s a n d l o n g g r e y k n i t t e d
p u t t i e s .
" M y n a m e i s Lu b o v i n , o f f i c i a l l y S t a n i s l a f f Le s t c h i n s k y
. I ' v e
a l e t t e r f o r V a r n a k o f f f r o m ' t o v a r i s t c h ' Fe d o r K o r j i k o f f . "
" W e l l I ' m b l e s s e d ' t o v a r i t c h
. ' S u c h f r a n k n e s s a t f i r s t s i g h t !
N o w - h o w c o u l d y o u !"
Lu b o v i n f e l t d i s c o n c e r t e d
.
" C e r t a i n l y , m o s t i m p r u d e n t o n y o u r p a r t ` t o v a r i s t c h , '
" s a i d
t h e g i r l
. H e r v o i c e s o u n d e d b l u n t a n d p a l e a n d m a t c h e d h e r t h i n ,
p a l e , p r e t t y f a c e .
" Y o u s h o u l d f i r s t h a v e s n i f f e d a b o u t a n d f o u n d o u t w h o w e
a r e . H o w e v e r y o u n e e d n o t f e e l a n x i o u s
. Th i s h o l e i s a g o o d
h i d i n g - p l a c e
. N o t a s o u l h e r e , w h o c a r e s . An d n o w l e t m e i n -
t r o d u c e m y s e l f , V a s s i l i j V a r n a k o f f , " s a i d h e , s t r e t c h i n g h i s
h a n d .
" To v a r i s t c h Le n a Do l g o p o l o v a , " s a i d t h e y o u n g g i r l
.
J u s t t h e n a l a n k y y o u t h w i t h a s i c k l y , p a l e , c l e a n - s h a v e n f a c e ,
w h o h a p p e n e d t o b e t h e o w n e r o f t h e v o i c e f r o m t h e t h i c k e t ,
m a d e h i s a p p e a r a n c e
. H e w a s d r e s s e d i n t h e s a m e s t y l e a s
V a r n a k o f f .
[38 3]
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
" W h o ' s t h a t ? " h e i n q u i r e d .
" Af r i e n d o f ' t o v a r i s t c h ' Fe d o r f r o m P e t e r s b u r g , " Le n a a n -
s w e r e d .
" I s e e ; a n d I a m B e d l a m o f f . "
" W e l l , s u p p o s i n g w e w e n t o n , ` t o v a r i s t c h , ' "
s a i d V a r n a k o f f ,
a s h e l e d t h e w a y w i t h Lu b o v i n
. " W e ' l l t a l k m a t t e r s o v e r . "
B e d l a m o f f f o l l o w e d w i t h Le n a .
I I I
LUB OV I N
h a d e n d e d h i s n a r r a t i v e a n d t h e y a l l k e p t s i l e n t , p u f f i n g
a t t h e i r c i g a r e t t e s
. S o m e g l a s s e s , h a l f - f i l l e d w i t h w e a k , c o l d
t e a s t o o d o n t h e t a b l e a n d b i t s o f g r e y b r e a d l a y s c a t t e r e d a b o u t
.
Th e y e l l o w r a y s o f t h e s e t t i n g s u n s h o n e t h r o u g h t h e w i n d o w ,
w h i c h d i s c l o s e d a d i s t a n t p a n o r a m a c o n t i n u a l l y r e f l e c t i n g c h a n g -
i n g h u e s .
" W e l l , ` t o v a r i s t c h , '
" V a r n a k o f f b e g a n , - " s o p r a c t i c a l l y y o u
h a v e n o t h i n g t o d o w i t h p o l i t i c s
. "
Lu b o v i n k e p t s i l e n t
.
" Y o u c o m m i t t e d m a n s l a u g h t e r , " V a r n a k o f f c o n t i n u e d , " t o
a v e n g e y o u r s i s t e r ' s h o n o u r
. As i t h a p p e n s y o u v e r y p r o b a b l y
t h w a r t e d a v e r y i m p o r t a n t a n d u s e f u l s c h e m e w h i c h y o u r s i s t e r
h a d i n m i n d i n s a c r i f i c i n g h e r s e l f
. H o w e v e r I ' d l i k e t o k n o w
m o r e a b o u t y o u a n d t o g e t a n i n s i g h t i n t o y o u r p o l i t i c a l o p i n i o n s
.
Lo s t m e n l i k e y o u r s e l f a r e s o m e t i m e s u s e f u l f o r o u r p l a n s
.
' To v a r i s t c h ' Fe d o r r e c o m m e n d s y o u t o u s a n d w e s h a l l t h e r e -
f o r e d o o u r b e s t t o e m p l o y y o u
. "
Th r e e w e e k s l a t e r Lu b o v i n w a s i n t h e r o o m t h e y h a d f o u n d
f o r h i m , t a l k i n g t o B e d l a m o f f .
" Li s t e n , " s a i d B e d l a m o f f i n a l o w w h i s p e r
: " Th e d a y b e f o r e
y e s t e r d a y t h e e x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e d e c i d e d t o a c c e p t y o u i n t o
t h e f a c t i o n
. Th e r e w i l l v e r y l i k e l y s h o r t l y b e a d i v i s i o n o f o u r
f a c t i o n i n t o ' m e n s h e v i k s ' a n d ' b o l s h e v i k s
. ' W e h a v e m a d e u p
o u r m i n d s t o s i d e w i t h t h e l a t t e r . Th e y h a v e a c l e a r n o t i o n o f
t h i n g s . Y o u r o p i n i o n s a r e p e r h a p s m o r e l i k e t h o s e o f t h e m e n -
s h e v i k s : y o u s t i l l s e e m t o h a v e b o u r g e o i s i n s t i n c t s . I h a v e r e -
c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n s t o t a k e y o u i n h a n d . Ou r f a c t i o n i s v e r y
p o w e r f u l
. Y o u ' l l h e a r i t s c r e e d f r o m t h e l i p s o f o u r l e a d e r , b u t
[ 38 4 ]
TOREDFLAG
y o u m u s t g o w i t h m e t o o u r m e e t i n g t o l e a r n t h e o b j e c t o f o u r
o r g a n i s a t i o n s . W e h a v e i n v i e w t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h e e n t i r e w o r l d
o n n e w p r i n c i p l e s . W e h a v e n ' t s p e c i a l l y Ru s s i a i n v i e w , Ru s s i a
i s a d e t a i l a n d w e n e e d m e n e v e r y w h e r e . On c e y o u h a v e j o i n e d
u s a n d h a v e b e e n i n i t i a t e d i n t h e m y s t e r i e s o f o u r d o g m a - y o u
l o s e y o u r i n d i v i d u a l i t y a n d b e c o m e a b l i n d w e a p o n i n t h e h a n d s
o f t h e f a c t i o n . An d t h e r e ' s n o r e t u r n i n g a g a i n !Th e l e a d e r s ,
t o w h o m e v e r y t h i n g i s k n o w n , c a n d a r e a n y t h i n g . Ru m o u r i s
s p r e a d a b o u t t h a t o u r l e a d e r i s i n c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s e c r e t
P o l i c e , t o w h o m h e c o m m u n i c a t e s w h a t h e d e e m s f i t t o l e t t h e
I m p e r i a l P o l i c e k n o w . I t m a y b e . H o w e v e r , w e h a v e e n t i r e
f a i t h i n h i m . Th e m e n s h e v i k s a r e o u r w o r s t e n e m i e s a n d s h r i n k
b e f o r e n o t h i n g . W e h a v e b e g u n a f i g h t , f a r w o r s e , m a y b e ,
t h a n w a r i t s e l f . W e h a v e m e n a t o u r d i s p o s a l . Y e s . . . . I f
t h e y r e c e i v e o r d e r s t o d e s t r o y a n y o n e , t h e y m u s t d o i t w i t h o u t
w a v e r i n g - i f n o t t h e y p e r i s h t h e m s e l v e s . Y o u h a v e t u r n e d
p a l e , ' t o v a r i s t c h . ' Do n ' t f e a r - s u c h a t a s k w i l l n o t f a l l t o y o u r
l o t . W e h a v e s t u d i e d y o u . B u t b e a r i n m i n d t h a t i f y o u t o l d
t a l e s o u t o f s c h o o l o r i f , Go d f o r b i d , y o u c a m e i n t o o c l o s e c o n -
t a c t w i t h a n u n d e s i r a b l e e l e m e n t - y o u ' d b e l o s t - m e r c i l e s s l y
l o s t ! W e ' l l w a t c h y o u w o r k a n d d e c i d e w h a t y o u a r e c a p a b l e
o f d o i n g . B u t r e m e m b e r t h a t f r o m t h i s d a y y o u m u s t b e f a i t h -
f u l t o u s u n t i l y o u r d y i n g d a y . Th e d e v o t i o n t o t h e Ts a r , w h i c h
t h e o f f i c e r s t a u g h t y o u , i s n o t h i n g c o m p a r e d t o w h a t i s e x p e c t e d
o f y o u b y u s . Do y o u u n d e r s t a n d ? "
I n f a c t Lu b o v i n w a s a s s i g n e d t o v a r i o u s u n i m p o r t a n t w o r k
a n d s e n t o n e r r a n d s . H e h a d t o s e a l p r o p a g a n d a s h e e t s , a d d r e s s
e n v e l o p e s , c a r r y l e t t e r s t o t h e p o s t - o f f i c e a n d s o m e t i m e s f o r w a r d
t h e m t o t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g v i l l a g e s o n f o o t o r o n a b i c y c l e
. H e
s o o n n o t i c e d t h a t a l l t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e f a c t i o n l i v e d u n d e r s i m -
u l a t e d n a m e s . H e ' d c a r r y a p a r c e l t o a n a d d r e s s e e w i t h a Ru s -
s i a n C h r i s t i a n a n d f a m i l y n a m e a n d w o u l d b e m e t b y a t y p i c a l
J e w , a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e p a s s - w o r d . Th e h i g h e r t h e q u a l i f i c a -
t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , t h e m o r e l u x u r i o u s l y s e e m e d h e t o l i v e
a n d t h e g r e a t e r w a s t h e c e r t i t u d e t h a t h e ' d t u r n o u t t o b e a J e w
a n d t h i s g a v e Lu b o v i n f o o d f o r m e d i t a t i o n
.
H e l e d a h a r d , g l o o m y l i f e , c o n t i n u a l l y u n d e r o b s e r v a t i o n a n d
[ 38 5 ]
FROM DOUB LEEAGLE
i n p e r p e t u a l d r e a d , a n d h e w o u l d c e r t a i n l y h a v e p e r i s h e d h a d h e
n o t b e e n s u p p o r t e d b y Le n a a n d h a d n o t K o r j i k o f f u n e x p e c -
t e d l y a r r i v e d w i t h l i t t l e V i c t o r - M a r o u s i a ' s s o n .
I V
I T w a s a h o t s u m m e r w i t h i n t e r m i t t e n t t h u n d e r - s t o r m s , w h i c h
c o o l e d t h e s u l t r y a i r a t n i g h t , f i l l i n g i t w i t h t h e f r a g r a n t s c e n t
o f f r e s h g r a s s a n d f l o w e r s . Th e m o u n t a i n s s h o n e l i k e m o t h e r -
o f - p e a r l , g r a z i n g c o w s l o o k e d a t Lu b o v i n w i t h t h e i r l a r g e , i n -
e x p r e s s i v e e y e s . Ev e r y m o r n i n g Lu b o v i n , B e d l a m o f f , V a r n a -
k o f f a n d Le n a b a t h e d i n t h e l a k e .
On e e v e n i n g , a s Lu b o v i n , h o m e - s i c k a n d m e l a n c h o l y , w a s
p a s s i n g b y a h u g e s o l i t a r y f i r - t r e e g r o w i n g i n t h e m i d s t o f a
f i e l d , h e h e a r d a v o i c e c a l l i n g t o h i m f r o m u n d e r i t s b r a n c h e s .
W h e n h e a p p r o a c h e d h e n o t i c e d t w o b i c y c l e s l e a n i n g a g a i n s t t h e
t r u n k o f t h e t r e e , w h i l s t Le n a a n d a p u g - n o s e d , r e d - c h e e k e d g i r l ,
w i t h s l y g r e y e y e s l a y r e c l i n i n g u n d e r i t s s h a d e .
" Le t m e i n t r o d u c e y o u t o ' t o v a r i s t c h ' El s i e , ' t o v a r i s t c h ' V i c -
t o r , " Le n a e x c l a i m e d .
El s i e , a Ge r m a n f r o m t h e B a l t i c , s i m p l e - m i n d e d a n d h e a r t y ,
t u r n e d o u t t o b e t h e s i s t e r o f a c o m m u n i s t e x e c u t e d i n Ru s s i a .
" S h e ' s a f r i e n d o f m i n e , i s El s i e . An i c e , s i n g l e a n d s o l i t a r y
g i r l , h o m e - s i c k l i k e y o u r s e l f . Tr y y o u r b e s t t o c o n s o l e h e r , "
s a i d Le n a , l o o k i n g a t Lu b o v i n w i t h k i n d e y e s .
Le n a r o s e a n d p i c k e d u p h e r b i c y c l e w h i c h s h e l e d t o t h e r o a d .
Lu b o v i n s i l e n t l y w a t c h e d h e r s l e n d e r , g r a c e f u l f i g u r e , a s s h e
l i g h t l y r o d e d o w n t h e s l o p e . M e a n w h i l e El s i e l o o k e d Lu b o v i n
o v e r .
Th a t s a m e e v e n i n g Lu b o v i n s a t w i t h El s i e u n d e r t h a t f i r -
t r e e , p l a y i n g t h e g u i t a r a n d s i n g i n g Ru s s i a n s o n g s a n d d i t t i e s
a n d t h a t v e r y n i g h t h e v i s i t e d El s i e i n h e r s m a l l a t t i c , w h i c h
t h o u g h s u l t r y a n d s t u f f y , w a s c l e a n a n d n e a t . I n t h e m o r n i n g
h e w e n t h o m e t o f e t c h h i s t h i n g s a n d r e t u r n e d t o h e r a t t i c f o r
g o o d .
El s i e p r o c u r e d h i m t h a t l a z y , u n p r e t e n t i o u s h a p p i n e s s w h i c h
s u i t e d Lu b o v i n ' s c h a r a c t e r . S h e p r e p a r e d h i s c o f f e e , g a v e h i m
s i m p l e b u t g o o d f o o d , h e l p e d h i m i n h i s w o r k a n d l i s t e n e d f o r
[ 38 6 1
TOREDFLAG
h o u r s , g a z i n g a t h i m w i t h h e r l a r g e f o r g e t - m e - n o t e y e s a n d a n
u n d i s t u r b e d s m i l e , a s h e s a t s i n g i n g i n t h e e v e n i n g . S h e g r a d -
u a l l y g o t s t o u t , h e r v o i c e b e g a n t o c h a n g e a n d h e r h a i r g r e w
t h i n
. B u t s h e s e e m e d j u s t a s a t t r a c t i v e t o Lu b o v i n ' s e y e s .
H e b e c a m e t h e l a u g h i n g - s t o c k o f h i s " t o v a r i s t c h i " w h o c a l l e d
h i m " t o v a r i s t c h b o u r j o u i " * a n d El s i e - " h i s w i f e . "
Th i s v e g e t a t i v e , d r e a m y k i n d o f e x i s t e n c e w a s s o m e t i m e s
d a r k e n e d f o r Lu b o v i n b y t h e r e m i n i s c e n c e o f M a r o u s i a , w h o m
h e n o w k n e w t o b e d e a d , o f t h e i r s m a l l h o u s e o n t h e S c h l i i s s e l -
b u r g P r o s p e c t , s i n c e s o l d b y K o r j i k o f f , o f P e t e r s b u r g w i t h i t s
w h i t e n i g h t s a n d c o l d N e v a , a n d h e f e l t a y e a r n i n g f o r i t s n o r t h -
e r n c l i m e . Th e n h e ' d f a n c y h e h e a r d t h e C a t h e d r a l b e l l s r i n g -
i n g , a n d t h e c l i n k i n g o f h o r s e s ' h o o f s o n t h e p a v e m e n t a n d t h e
t r a m c a r b e l l s . At s u c h m o m e n t s h e l o o k e d w i t h h a t r e d a t t h e
s p l e n d i d m o u n t a i n s , w i t h t h e i r s p a r k l i n g g l a c i e r s , a t t h e d e e p
b l u e l a k e , w h i c h w i t h i t s m i r r o r s u r f a c e c o u l d h a v e b e e n t a k e n
f o r a f r a g m e n t o f s k y f a l l e n a m i d s t t h e g r e e n v a l l e y s . As s o o n
h o w e v e r a s El s i e w o u l d a p p e a r , f e e d i n g t h e h e n s , ( w h i c h
f o r m e d p a r t o f t h e i r h o u s e h o l d , b o u g h t o n t h e p r o c e e d s o f t h e
P e t e r s b u r g h o u s e s o l d b y K o r j i k o f f ) , Lu b o v i n w o u l d c a l m d o w n
a g a i n . Af t e r a l l , h i s f a t e w a s s e a l e d :
f o r h i m , a d e s e r t e r w h o
h a d i n s u l t e d h i s