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Mirroring  and  Social  Cogni.on:                                            An  Introduc.

on    
COGS171   FALL  Quarter  2011   J.  A.  Pineda  

Social  Cogni.on  
 

Social  cogni.on  refers  to  the  mental  processes  by  which   we  make  sense  of  our  social  world(s).   Accoun.ng  for  these  complex  dynamics  requires  an   understanding  of  the  cogni.ve  structures  and  processes   that  shape  the  individual’s  understanding  of  the  social   situa.on   A  core  assump.on  of  how  humans  understand  and  infer   the  inten.ons  and  beliefs  of  others  is  the  existence  of  a   func.onal  self-­‐other  dis.nc.on.      

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Classic  Explana.on  
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Theory-­‐Theory  
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argument  from  analogy     disembodied  knowledge     visual  hypothesis  

A  Different  Perspec.ve  
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Simula.on  Theory  
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Direct-­‐matching  hypothesis     Embodied  knowledge  
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Map  visual  informa.on  onto   motor  representa.ons  of  the   same  ac.on  

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Mirroring  systems      
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Bridges  between  percep.on  and   ac.on  that  allow  for  simula.on    
Mirror  neurons   EEG  Mu  rhythms  

Ideomotor  ac.on  

on     Mirror  neurons   EEG  Mu  rhythms   Ideomotor  ac.on  onto   motor  representa.on     Mirroring  systems             Bridges  between  percep.on  and   ac.on  Theory       Direct-­‐matching  hypothesis     Embodied  knowledge     Map  visual  informa.on  that  allow  for  simula.A  Different  Perspec.ons  of  the   same  ac.on   .ve     Simula.

oning   Classical  (Pavlovian)   Condi.Bandura’s  (early)  Social  Learning  Theory     Emphasized  the  means   by  which  we  acquire   behavior  or  Learning…         Operant  Condi.onal  learning  or   Imita-on   Albert Bandura .oning   But  especially.  via   observa.

ng  tac.ve   period     Many  predators.Imita.on    “ The  capability  to  acquire  new  skills  by  observa.cs  by  observing   and  imita.ng  their  mother   .on.  including  cats  and  coyotes.ng  behavioral  repertoire”    “Learning  by  observing  and  mimicking  the  behavior  of   others”   This  form  of  learning  is  not  limited  to  a  sensi.  based   on  the  imitator’s  exis.  seem  to   learn  some  of  their  basic  hun.

on  (cont)   In  his  "Bobo  doll"  studies.Imita.   He  observed  three  different  groups  of  children:   •  One  group  of  children  saw  a  child  praised  for  aggressive  behavior   (rewarded)   •  A  second  group  saw  the  child  told  to  go  sit  down  in  a  corner  and  was   not  allowed  to  play  with  the  toys  (punished)   •   A  third  group  saw  a  film  with  the  child  simply  walking  out  of  the   room  (no  consequence)   .  Bandura  showed  that  children  (ages  3   to  6)  would  change  their  behavior  by  simply  watching  others.

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on  (cont)   Bandura  also  demonstrated  that  viewing  aggression  by  cartoon   characters  produces  more  aggressive  behavior  than  viewing  live  or   filmed  aggressive  behavior  by  adults.   .Imita.  they  showed  that  having  children  view  prosocial   behavior  can  reduce  displays  of  aggressive  behavior.     Furthermore.

Learning  Aggressiveness   .

ng  behavior  he  has   seen  on  TV   Does  imita.Imita.on  via  Television       This  14-­‐month-­‐old  boy  is   imita.on  require  a   theory  of  mind  or  does  it   create  it?   .

Is  Imita.on  is  learned  by  2yrs     Meltzoff  &  Moore  1977.on  innate?       Piaget.  1983     Newborns  can  imitate   facial  and  manual  gestures     .  1951     imita.

ons  of  Neonatal  Imita.  1977.ve  Intermodal  Matching  (AIM)     (Meltzoff  &  Moore.  1968)   Ac.on  “results  from  a   coincidental  matching  of  interes.  1997)   .muli  with  infants’   behavioral  expressions  of   interest”  (p.on         Innate  Releasing  Mechanisms       A  reflex  mechanism  that  evolved   specifically  for  neonatal  imita.ng   visual  s.on  of   specific  gestures   Coincidence         Neonatal  imita.Interpreta.

on  (Meltzoff  &  Moore.  2005)                                                                                                  Imita-on   Intrinsic  connec.                                                                                                              ↓                                                                    First-­‐person  experience   Infants  experience  the  regular  rela.on  between  observed  and  executed  acts.Emergence  of  understanding  other  minds                                                          (Meltzoff.                                                                                                              ↓                                                                Understanding  Other  Minds   Others  who  act  "like  me"  have  internal  states  "like  me.  1997).onship  between  their  own  acts  and   underlying  mental  states."   .  as  manifest  by   newborn  imita.

 Imita.on.  and  Prior  Experience   .TV.

  empathy.  mind  reading   .macy’  between  self  and   others  during  social  rela.vity.ons     an  intersubjec.on  among   children     Facilitates  an  embodied   ‘in.Why  do  we  imitate?           It  is  rewarding     dopamine  release?   To  learn  about  the  world     Is  it  the  same  for  infants   and  adults?   A  prelude  and  the  facilitator  of   verbal  communica.

 1947.on  or  imita.liza.on  of  the  observed   movements  of  another..  Ford.   hypnosis.Echopraxia         The  involuntary  repe.     Echopraxia  as  a  released  behavior  (Dromard.on  behaviors  (Lhermile  et  al.on  observed  in  pa.ent  has  difficulty   resis.ents  with   U.   Stengel.  1986):    a   frontal  lobe  disorder  in  which  the  pa.  fa..     .ng  the  impulse  to  operate  or  manipulate  objects   which  are  in  their  visual  field  and  within  reach.  1905.gue   Compulsive  imita.  1989)     Observed  in  Au.sm.  Tourele’s  syndrome.  ‘idiocy’.

on-­‐based   learning  system   Specialized  neurons   .ve  alen.What  is  the  basis  for  this  social  learning?           Selec.on   Motor  primi.ves   Classifica.

on             Classic  motor  system:  specialized  for  the  prepara.Neural  Systems     At  least  two  neural  systems  have  been  proposed  to   manage  self/other  dis.on     .nc.on  and   execu.on  of  motor  ac.on  and  ac.     Mirroring  system:             primarily  involved  in  capturing  and  understanding  the  ac.ons   of  non-­‐self  or  others.       Evolved  to  share  many  of  the  same  circuits  involved  in  motor   control.ons  that  are  self  realized  and   voluntary.on  that  allows  for   simula.     Bridge  between  percep.

me  an  individual  observes  another  individual  performing  an   ac.ons  of  motor  ac.vated  in  the   observer’s  cor.on.Mirroring  System     Mirroring  or  ‘shared  circuit  systems’  are  assumed  to  be   involved  in         Resona.   .ons  of  others         Shared  representa.ng  the  ac.onal  cornerstone  for  higher  order  social  processes       Each  .cal  motor  system.ng   Simula.ons  may  form  a   founda.  a  set  of  neurons  that  encode  that  ac.on  is  ac.ng     Imita.

ons   performed  by  “biological”  agents   Rizzolatti and Sinigaglia.on  done  by   another  monkey  or  an   experimenter     Found  in:       area  F5  (homolog  of  Broca’s   area). 2010   Ac-vated  by:       .on  and  when  it   observes  a  similar  ac.ons  (reaching.Mirror  Neurons  in  Parietal-­‐Frontal  Circuit     Discharge  both  when  the  monkey   performs  an  ac.  holding)   Observa.  10-­‐20%   inferior  parietal  cortex  (PF/7b)   Goal  directed  ac. Nature Reviews Neurosci.on  of  similar  ac.   grasping.

1996.. 3:131-141 . Brain Res..Mirror  Neuron  Ac.vity Rizzolatti et al. Cogn.

USA. .  regardless  of   whether  this  involved  opening   or  closing  of  the  hand   Umiltà. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci.ons. et al.What  do  mirror  neurons  encode  during           movement?     F5  neurons  discharged  during   the  same  phase  of  grasping  in   both  condi. M. 2008. A.

Neuron.on?     Grasping Mimicking Umiltà et al.What  do  mirror  neurons  encode  during   observa. 2001 .

Percep. 2X) Perception Action .on  Mapping  Selec.vity   Congruent (effector dependent) Logically-Related (effector independent.on-­‐to-­‐Ac.

Encoding  goal  in  an  observer-­‐centered  spa.al   framework   .

 the  parieto-­‐frontal  mechanism  is  the  only   one  that  allows  an  individual  to  understand  the  ac.        Rizzolar  and  Sinigaglia.on   of  others  ‘from  the  inside’  and  gives  the  observer  a   first-­‐person  grasp  of  the  motor  goals  and  inten.ons  performed  by  others?       Allow  the  observer  to  understand  directly  the  goal  of   the  ac.ons  of   other  individuals.ons  of  others  without  needing  inferen.  2010   .al   processing   …although  there  are  several  mechanisms  through   which  one  can  understand  the  behaviour  of  other   individuals.Why  does  the  motor  system  encode  the  goal  of   ac.

Differences  Between  Monkey/Humans         Monkeys  imitate  the  goal  and  not  the  individual   movements.ve  during  the  observa.     In  humans.   yet  monkeys  (at  least)  are  rolen  imitators   (monkeys  aren’t  chimps)      maybe  necessary  element  but  not  sufficient   .on  of  individual   movements     Mirror  neurons  seem  tailor-­‐made  for  imita.  the  mirroring  system  also  becomes   ac.on.

2006.The  Mirror  Neuron  System Sensorimotor cortex Inferior parietal lobule Inferior frontal gyrus Superior temporal sulcus Iacoboni and Dapretto. 4. 47 . Nature Reviews. 2008. Beh & Brain Functions.7:942-951 Pineda.

on  learning     Understanding  ac.on   Mimicry   Simula.on   Imita.Func.ons   Empathy   Theory  of  Mind   Language .ons       Understanding  inten.onal  Significance                     Response  facilita.

on  and  ac.on  of  the  same   areas  during    ac.ons  of   visual  and  motor  neurons.on   observa.va.on  execu.Controversy:  Do  human  MNs  exist?     Some  have  argued  that   the  ac.on  and  the   motor  neurons  during   ac.on.on  via  fMRI  is  not   sufficient  to  prove  the   existence  of  the  mirror   mechanism  in  humans     Motor  areas  have  dis.   .nct.on   execu.   segregated  popula.on   observa.   the  visual  neurons   discharging  during  ac.

    True  only  when   informa.on  of  that  motor   act.on  of  a  motor   act  is  followed  by  the   execu.Repe.on–Suppression  Technique     If  mirror  neurons  exist  in   humans.  and  vice  versa..on  repeatedly   reaches  a  neuron  through   the  same  or  largely   common  pathways   .  they  should   ‘adapt’  when  the   observa.

 language?   .on?   Are  they  born  or  made?   Is  the  system  broken  in  pa.  empathy.Other  Controversies/Ques.ons             Do  MNs  reflect  understanding?   Do  they  reflect  inten.ents   with  social  deficits?   Are  they  the  basis  for  theory  of   mind.

ng  what  we  know   Dance videos Ballet Capoeira Subjects Ballet dancers Capoeira dancers Expert Non-expert Non-expert Expert .ons  you  can  do  or  can’t  do…   Imita.Watching  ac.

Cerebral Cortex (2005) .Expert  vs  non-­‐expert   Mirror neuron areas Experts  show  more   mirror  system  brain   ac..vity  than  non-­‐experts   Calvo-Merino et al.

Other  Problems     Mirroring  systems  present  at  least  three  problems           Correspondence   Development   Control  problem   .

Problems  (cont)     Correspondence       How  does  the  observer  agent  know  what  the  observed   agent’s  resonance  ac.on  palern  is?    How  does  the  matching  of  motor  ac.on  palerns   occur?   .va.va.

on   Mirror  neurons:    fire  when  an  animal  perceives  another  agent   performing  a  type  of  ac.on  and  when  the  animal   performs  the  afforded  ac.  and  also  when  the  animal   performs  that  type  of  ac.on.on.  avoiding  the   correspondence  problem  and  the  need  for  transla.on   between  input  and  output  codes   What  are  the  neural  mechanisms  possible  for  common   coding?       Canonical  neurons:    fire  when  an  animal  perceives  an  object   that  affords  a  certain  type  of  ac.Correspondence  Problem     Common  coding  facilitates  imita.on  itself     .

ons?       Are  mirror  neurons  innate  and  therefore  gene.cally   programmed?     To  what  extent  is  learning  necessary?   .Problems  (cont)     Developmentally           How  does  a  mirroring  system  arise?       How  do  humans  acquire  the  ability  to  simulate  through   mapping  observed  onto  executed  ac.

cally  through  observa.on?     Or.Problems  (cont)     Control       How  to  efficiently  control  a  mirroring  system  when  it  is   turned  on  automa.me?” .  as  others  have  stated  the  problem  more  succinctly:   “Why  don’t  we  imitate  all  the  .

vity?   Thomas Nagel. The Philosophical Review 83 (1974).What  Is  It  Like  To  Be…?   Can  aspects  of  subjec.ve  experience  be   reduced  to  brain  ac. .

ons  and  the  root  of  empathy?   Sounds  and  other  senses?     Rela.onal  Feature  of   the  Brain?   “Understanding  others  as  inten.ons               What’s  the  role  of  experience?     Context?       Alen.on?   .on?   Emo.ons  with  the  world”     Beyond  understanding  ac.onal  nature  of   our  interac.Mirroring:    A  Fundamental  Organiza.onal  agents  may  be  grounded  in  the  rela.on?     Aberrant  imita.on  learning:    addic.onship  to  Language?     Problems  in  “mirroring”       Consequences  of  mirroring  dysfunc.