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Analysis of Failure of Pavement

Section: (Super Highway N-5) Nooriabad - Hyderabad KM: 101- KM:148

Introduction:
The vehicular traffic on our road network has grown manifold and most of the traffic load has been absorbed by the National Highway N-5 which today carries almost 55% of all inter urban traffic of the country though its length is less than 1% of total road network of the country. N-5 also serves all kinds of local traffic since it passes through cities and towns including pedestrians, rickshaws and other transport. Mixed traffic and road side friction due to ribbon development along the N-5 prevents smooth flow of traffic and posses serious safety hazards. This has resulted in the high road transport cost presently being borne unnecessarily by the national economy. In the view of above, improvement of the National Highway N-5 is essential which in turn will cause substantial transport cost savings in the national exchanger. The Government of Pakistan through NHA, with the assistance of World Bank has taken up the rehabilitation of existing track N-5 under the improvement program NHIP (National Highway Improvement Program). In order to assess the existing condition of the NHA network, National Highway Improvement Program is started to address the increasing degradation of Pakistan's national highway system. This program is divided into three groups over a period of ten years. Group I is divide into two phases. As part of this program in Group-I 11 selected sections of N-5 and a 48 km section of Karachi- Hyderabad super Highway (M9) will be upgraded. The improvement of highways includes the rehabilitation and maintenance projects involve major reconstruction work, including the construction of additional carriageways, substantial earthworks, extensive drainage provision and intersection remodeling

Details of Project:
Name of Project: Funded by: Section: Length: National Highway Improvement Project launched under National Highway Improvement Program. World Bank. Nooriabad - Hyderabad (Super Highway) KM 101- KM 148 48 Km

more attention must be given to selecting high quality materials.Cost (In Million): Client: Contractor: Consultant: Date of Commencement: Date of Completion: 575 NHA Sultan Mehmood SMEC / Engineering Associates. 2004 30 April.  Types of Rutting There are two types of rutting. It is common phenomenon which everybody may have an opportunity to look at . Concern for increased rutting led to the rehabilitation of this section (Nooriabad – Karachi) so that free flow of traffic can be continued. Mixed Rutting 2. 2007 Failure of Pavement The failure in the particular section was the development of ruts in the pavement. Also. 24 October. the other causes of rutting will be explored later on. Objective The objective of this document is to analyze the type of pavement failure (Rutting) and find out the causes of this failure of the section. In this case. As a result of higher loads. axle loads or volume of traffic. the pavement settles into the subgrade ruts causing surface depressions in the wheel path. Sub grade Rutting. in designing the asphalt mixtures and in quality control during construction. Mixed Rutting occurs when the subgrade does not rut yet the pavement surface exhibits wheel path depressions as a result of compaction/mix design problems. Ruts are particularly evident after a rain when they are filled with water. Rutting Rutting is generally defined as “Surface depression in the wheel path. Subgrade Rutting occurs when the subgrade exhibits wheel path depressions due to loading. 1. This increase in rutting has been due to the increase in truck tire pressure. • Ruts are not only developed on highways or heavily trafficked roads as is gradullay thought.” Pavement uplift (shearing) may occur along the sides of the rut.

.our earthen inter village roads. Specific causes of rutting can be: • • • • • Defective Planning & designing of road. but they are actually a result of mechanical dislodging due to wear and not pavement deformation. Pavement with deeper ruts should be leveled and overlaid. insufficient compaction. insufficient amount of angular aggregate particles) Ruts caused by studded tire wear present the same problem as the ruts described here. etc). as a result of inadequate pavement structure). Problem Ruts filled with water can cause vehicle hydroplaning. excessively high asphalt content. there may be several causes of rutting in pavement. Low quality of materials (aggregates. Bitumen Grade . If it is not compacted enough initially. bitumen. subgrade rutting.. The bullock carts with steel rims mounted upon wooden tires have been developing deep ruts through decades.g. Slight ruts (< 1/3 inch deep) can generally be left untreated. The causes of this particular section (according to a reliable source) are: • • Temperature effect. Subgrade rutting (e.g. can be hazardous because ruts tend to pull a vehicle towards the rut path as it is steered across the rut. poor mix design or studded tire wear).g. HMA pavement may continue to densify under traffic loads. Possible Causes Permanent deformation in any of a pavement's layers or subgrade usually caused by consolidation or lateral movement of the materials due to traffic loading. Improper mix design or manufacture (e. excessive mineral filler. Insufficient compaction of HMA layers during construction. The ruts are needed to be analyzed and tested so as to know their proper and exact causes and improved later on. Repair A heavily rutted pavement should be investigated to determine the root cause of failure (e. Causes of Failure of N-5 As studied above.

axle load and traffic volume has serious effect on the development of rutting. All these causes are inter-related. The bitumen grade was changed to meet the temperature requirements of the surrounding. This 40-50 grade was introduced on trial basis. The axle load on this section used is 12.5 tons (standard in Pakistan). But the trucks and other heavy trawlers exceeded the given load which resulted in the pavement failure. the type of bitumen. The bitumen grade initially used in this section was 60-70 grade which was later on changed to 40-50 grade during the rehabilitation of project. Similarly. All these causes resulted in fair depth of rutting. .• • Type of Bitumen Axle Load and traffic volume.