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Paper No.


The MACE International Annual Conference and Corrosion Show


Debbie A. Baudoin Chevron USA.Production Co. 5750 Johnston S. t Lafayeae,LA 70503 David K. Barbin Texaco E & P Inc. 400 Poydras St. New Orleans, LA 70052
Jm Skogsberg i Chevron petroleum Ttchnology Co. 2202 Oil center Court Houston, TX 77073

Matuial selection for downhole completions in the oilfield is one ta is critical t the economic success of a project ht o on a long-term basis. In the p s , the selection of downhole tubulars has been routine and basic, with most operators at rm o selecting carbon steel as standard procedure. Today, a paradigm shift f o the use of traditional carbon steel t 13 percent chrome (13Cr) is taking place as we utilize tools of economics. corrosion cngineerbg, and field data. We also place special emphasis on case-by-case histories of materialpexformance for each well. Factors to be considered in the decision making process in selecting materials for sweet corrosive environments include: Field Data (Current and Historical) Corrosion Engineering Economics

This paper takes an objective look at the field expenawes, conditions, and economics involved in making a materials sehxtion. Of all elements considered, economics is the main driving force. This paper will focus on four case histories from the Gulf of Mexico and inland Louisiana with various t e m p a w e s , pressures, chloride content, C02 content, and production rates. These case histories, along with proven long term experience will help set the stage for further usage of 13Cr.
Key Words: C02 corrosion, decision making process, economics, field experience. flowchart, gas wells, 13Cr


For example. i Several hundred platforms are strategicallylocated throughout the Gulf of Mexico. production will occur in greater water depths. Decisions are being made on a casebycase basis utilizing the tools of economics. Approximately 1300producing platforms are located i waters from 10 feet to 10oO feet At present. and to pnsent the fhmework of previous experience which provides a basis for the guidelines used in evaluating them. many companies are exploring these arcas for new oil and gas reserves.eased significantly over the last decade. Historical Upon evaluation for a workover. corrosion engineering and historical field data Studies have demonstrated 13Cr is a viable option to traditional carbon steels that have failed before all intended reserves were produced. Several hundred ol and gas producing fields i exist in Louisiana inland waters and land locations. Gulf Of Mexico The Gulf of Mexico is replete with production platfoxms from virtually all major and independent ol compauies. FIELD DATA Current Many production related paramters and corrosion related data should be considered when performing the materials evaluation. Inland Louisiana The inland waters of Louisiana have produced o l and gas since the 1930's. corrosion related workovers and/or corrosion control programs implemented for wells in the subject producing field should be considered when performing the evaluation. The cases include wells with high chlorides.INTRODUCTION The use of 13Cr in the oilfield has inneased over the last several years.000 barrels of ol per i day. 27 . gas analyses. Today many compauies are reviewing their methods for tubular selection. and water analyses. These may include tubing caliper surveys. wells that failed with carbon steel and wells that are costly to inhibit with chemicals. n majors and independents are producing some 11 billion cubic feet of natural gas per day and over 700. and for some companies have served as i the foundation for their development and futuregrowth in the Gulf of Mexico. corrosion coupons. The intent of this paper is to present case histories from the Gulf of Mexico and inland waters of Louisiana. well and reservoir history should be considered. At present. the wellbore schematic and details are necessary for modeling the well for corrosivity. in an effort to capitalize on the ol and i gas rich reservoirs. In addition to monitoring tools. high bottom hole temperatwe. coatings. Typical data used for the evaluation is as follows: Reservoir Life Gas Rate condensate Rate Water Rate Bottom Hole Tcmpemhm Bottom Hole Pressure Wellhead Temperature Wellhead Pressure Separator Temperaturt Tubing Size Tubing Length co. available corrosion monitoring tools should be considered. Some companies have instituted stocking programs as their usage has accelerated.!conteat H2S Content chloride content In addition to the above parameters. It has been further determined 13Cr is an economical replacement for carbon steel when corrosion r inhibition. linings o downhole injection systems are necessary. The price and lead tim for delivery of 13Cr has decl.' ~ d d i t i o d reserves are Wig realizedwt the advent ofthrce dimensiona~ ih seismic technology and in the future.

Production parameters and corrosion related variables may not be available for analysis of a development well. . the appropriate API t materials class is specified in order to meet NACE corrosion inhibitor treatments and improved overboard water quality. Flow Velocity.From the above. Therefore. Protective iron carbonate scales may also be removed or im damaged’ The best case is fluid flowing in an annular pattern. In addition to corrosion resistance. (both tangible and intangible).The pH of the water at the tubing surface must be calculated taking into account water chemistry. However. For sour service.This method incurs a higher initial cost. water wet tubing with annular mist flow and high velocities approaching the API critical velocity will need corrosion control measures. Water pH with tunperature relate to the solubility (stability) of iron carbonate (ferrous carbonate) scale. As a first look.Erosion from sand must be considered as a separate process from corrosion and erosion corrosion. . . One method for doing this is using a PC-based model developed by a joint-industryhis program at the University of Southwestern~ o u i s i a n a ~ model calculates of the above and predicts a corrosion rate and a tubing service life. Predicting the approximate life of the tubing will require estimating corrosion rates. Minimalsupplementaryrequirements include r descaling of ID surfaces and disallowance of cold straightening. The erosional coastant in the MI RP-14E guidelinescan be a larger value. a portion of the fluid actually leaves the wall of the tubing and flows at the velocity of the gas phase.Different phases exist at various depths in the production tubing . and temperature. . and therefore it is important to determine the depth of water wetting. This computer model has been used for some of the case histories presented in this paper. . Otha advantages in using 13Cr include less corrosion monitoring.lost opportunity. H2S (if any). If the tubular is oil wet. which when formed on tbe tubing surface may reduce corrosion rates! T v ~ Flow. unless the flow dynamics of the well disturb the oil f l . increased chance of depleting the reservoir. using a constaut (C) of 100 for continuous service! Erosion.Velocity is a key parameter in the corrosiveness of the fluid At higher velocities. it is difficult to maintain the protective iron carbonate scale. ECONOMICS Materials selection for corrosive wells should be evduated on a case-bytase basis of economics. Under this condition. Water DH. h CORROSION ENGINEERING Essential elements of modeling a well to predict C02corrosion in gas wells include: Phase Behavior. Complimentary 12Cr surface wellheads and trees are purchased to API Specification 6A with quality assurance set a PSL levels of 2 or 3. The flow dynamics of the well must be establishedto determine if the flow p e a is annular or annular mist. The presence of liquid water as a free and separate phase is necessary for corrosion to occur. . The s tubing should be reusable if production related wdovers are require4whereas internally plastic coated tubing is not considered as reliable for reuse. corrosion im should not significantly reduce tubing life. tubing velocities should be compared to the critical velocity calculated according to API RP-14E. Chevron purchases 13Cr tubing to API Specification 5 a to the appropriate N-80 o L-80 (sour service) grade. and deferred production due to downtime must also be considered. The worst case is one in which there is annular mist flow for the entire tubing string. - Predicted Corrosion Rates. It is critical to determine if the production tubing will be water wet or oil wet.chemical costs. but its life i expedtd to exceed the reservoir life. data should be gathered from an existing well produced from the same or a similar reservoir. Manufacturer’smaterials specificationsare approved in 28 . other cost elements such as workover dollars. Factors such as the initial cost of the tubular must be considered. For the Gulf of Mexico. 13Cr can be a morc attractive alternative to carbon steel for high gas rate wells. C02. This information should help determine the potential corrosivity of t e fluids flowing in the wellbore. reduced maintenance/manpowa. T i will occur a lower velocities and will result in much hs t less disturbance of any film on the tubing. This fact results in acceleratedproduction in some cases. including protective iron carbonate scales. no d e f d production or cash flow due to corrosion. Economics of some commonly used corrosion mitigation methods are explored as follows: 13Cr Tubme. These droplets entrained in the gas can damage the oil or water flson the tubing surface.

Thest lmt should be used as rules-of-thumb. chemical inhibition may be appropriate for a well expected to produce for only a few Y . and the inability to treat the well due to decreasedreservoir pressure. resultingin a mist type flow pattun.This method incurs a higher initial cost than batch treatment The advantage of CXS systems is no lost cash flow due to shutting in the well. leaving W a d unrccovertd rcserves.Continuous Treatine Svstem fCTS). Please refer to Figures 1 and 2. 700 barrels of condensate per day (BCPD) and 60 barrels of water pea day (BWPD). This hs well produced 12 million cubic feet of gas pa day (MMCFD). Our defined rule-of-thumb ~ lmt include a maximum boaom hole temperature of 300°F. but there arc occasions whm the decision * is not as evident. However. 13Cr was selected for corrosion mitigation. Based on past field experieace. iis 10 ppm H$ concentrationto partial pressures of 1/2 psi to 1 1/2 psi.advance and therefore no supplementaryrequirements arc uscd. HydrocarbonsCondCIlsing in the tubing prior to water ( t a ratio high enough to keep the t bn ol wet) helps mitigate a uig i corrosion. As noted in Table 5. and one for workovgs. The prtdicted life of the reservoir is a key factor when evaluating various corrosion control options.OOO ppm to 150. A cost s o m e k ut overlooked is that associated with insign5cant ~cserves justify a worlcovef. the chemical and maintenance costs are quite high. These H2S limits arc for grade L-80tubing. Under downhole conditions. T i well was completed with 13Cr based an the results of the modeling and the axnomic is uneconomical to to workover a well t a has failed due to corrosion. The results show the e t r tubing to be w t r wet nie ae Predictions indicate serious corrosion rates in the entire tubing string and a corrosion fail= in 8 months to 1 year. This phenomenon is not occurring in this well. CASE HISTORIES Case1 Tht cost of mrrosion for a downhole failure can translate into millions of dollars. two flowcharts WQC developad to aid in this decision making process. one for new drills (both exploratoryand developmental). serious c m s i o n is likely to occur. and a significantlymore effective chemical inhibition heatmat However. the mechanicalrisk for this type of completion is much higher than for conventional completions.OOOppm chlodc in the produced water. other economic elements which arc difficult to assess a dollar figure m s also be considered. . Modeling for Case 1 indicates a vay corrosive environnrmt. If the tubing is water wet and subject to such high velocities. i Chemical Inhibition via Batch Treatin&. Water in tbe liquid phase will coexist with hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. The condensatewill be in the vapor phase throughout the entire tubing string. ht FLOW CHARTS It is sometimes easy to dctarmne the type of material to be run in a well. Based on concrete data and past experiences. a payout period between 1 and 2 years was realized. In some instances. As noted in Table 1. two phase flow (vapor and water) is present throughout the tubing string with 60 barrels of water. The company does not specify notch toughness reqUirrments beyoad those r e q d by M and does not use CA6NM nor F6NM in the Gulf of Mexico. depending on water pH. Another factor that must be ht consi&red is t a associated with the environmental and safety risks of a COHOS~OU related tubular failure. A caliper has been run since the well was completed. Other disadvantages of batch treating are the possibility of formation damage during trcatmnt. Also. showing no penetrations in the tubular. Based on the computer modeling d ecoIlomicevaluation. the anticipated production life of the well is 14 years.because documented field experienceusually involves only a few of the parameters iis which influence C O K O S ~ Oand seldom documents the interrelationshipbetween these parametas. eavironmcntal limits have been established for 13Cr production tubing. Table 1 illustrates t i point for hs Case Study bl. lost cash flow from shutting in the well for treatment is extremely high. anticipated tubing life less than reservoir life. For instance.This method incurs a lower initial cost than thc other altexnatives. 100. 29 . leaving the tubing water wet.

3 feet per second. Moore-Sams. Coupons were pulled on a monthly basis for t r e months with t he t corrosion rates of 0. case 4 This well was completed with 4 1/2 in. tubing. 4 1/2 in. The survey included 417 joints of pipe totaling 13. in which downtime was approximately 7 hours pet treatment. Also note corrosion inhibition for this well will have a longer film life due to the lower velocities and the iron carbonate formation. Considering that tbe life of the reservoir is only 3 to 4 years. (nfer to Table 3) a one year payout was realized when 13Cr was used. tubing.400 BCPD aud 1500B W D .29.41 MMCFPD. im The liquid fl is not turbulent. h case 3 This exploratory well was completed with L 0 carbon steel. The well o hs was completed with carbon steel and failed due t Co. An aggressivemonitoring program has been implemented for this well. Results indicate very severe corrosion. low carbon steel is sufficient for this application.and Elba Wells in the Tuscaloosa Trend are generally 18. The workover costs were $1.2 M M and the d e f d revenue costs wcre $3. Condensate is present in the i tubing from 9ooo feet to the surface.ooO psi C O Z p a r t i a l p ~ s s8% ~: H2S partial pressure: 20-30 ppm = 112 psi maximum Chlorides up to 100. ADDITIONAL EXPERIENCE LONGTERM PERSPECTIVE The company completed their first 13Cr well for the F l e River field of the Tuscaloosa Trend in the summer of as ht 1975. At the conditions 0 referred to in table 5 and the above production rates.000to 21.000 ppm Up to 200°F surface wellhead temperatures 0 30 .19 MPY respectively. Refer to Tables 2 and 5 for economics and production vitals.? corrosion. tubing was used The well was also modeled witb 3 1/2 in.5 MM. For production vitals refer to Table 5. As the tco~lmics point out. and low velocities are present in the lower portion of t e tubing. Therefore. The flow regime indicatesmist flow. tubing.19. The conditions were: Bottomholetemperature: 375”FmaximUm Bottom hole pressure: 14-16. internally plastic coated tubing. The well has produced a accelerated rates between 38 . The above information along with the monitoriug data f o the rm program implemented for this well will verify the accuracy of the decision making process. The predictedlife is ht rn t 28 years for a well with 4 1/2 in. ae It should be noted that this accelerated r t would not have been possible if 3 1/2 in. 1000 BCPD and 2 B W D . and velocities that exceed the erosional velocity.0.OOO to 150. Caliper survey results indicate no pitting in t e tubing. Roduction for the well is 30 MIvlCFD. The worst case prediction is 9 years for this well. It required downhole corrosion mitigation measures on 8 t a three week frequency. Other gas fields in Louisiana t a were eventually completed include Judge Digby.rather slow moving with a film velocity of 1.346 feet. Profit Island. The tubing is water wet in this portion of the h string. tubing was modeled for this case.18 BCPD and 20 BWD. The well produced a rates of 4 MMCF. providing comosion protection. Tbere were also difficulties when bringing this well back on production after corrosion inhibition treatmeats.350 feet of tnbmg with the packer a 13.000 feet deep. A caliper was run 6 months after the well began producing. It is also important to note t a an i o carbonate fiim can be maintained a this low velocity. T i well produced at rates of 36 MMCF. the upper portion of the tubing string is ol wet The flow regime is in annular flow. 13Cr was subsequently run in the well and has been calipend three times over two years.0. Roduction parameters and corrosion related variables can be found in Table 5. It failed after being on production for 26 months. The economic comparison is based on the subsequently drilled well in which 13Cr was run.case2 This case history demonstrates tremendous economic losses when using carbon steel rather than 13Cr. The survey indicated no penetrations in the 4 1/2 in.

c o 2 conten&and production rates. however field data and historical performance must be considmd in this decision making ~ O C C S S . While the CUlILtllt cases cover only C02 applications. i There have been no brittle h c t u r e s of wellhead equipment or production tubing. 31 .The surface equipment included 12Cr/13Cr trees with tubing hangers. Some of these wells have been acidized with mud acid (HCLJHF) and some have bee0 completed with clear brines. A paradigm shift from traditional carbon steel to 13Cr use is occurring more rapidly than ever before due to ecoMlmics. and Sumitomo. These wells were originally completed with low alloy steel production tubing that C O I T O ~ Cout in one to two years ~ because of CO. Not a sin& one o these gas wells. Bates for their contributions. A l t bn was purchased with the ID and OD surfaces descaled by l uig pickling and bead blasting. drilling deepa. proven historical performance. thae catainly is and always will be applications for traditional carbon steel tubulars. pressures. more corrosivewells and information sharing of successesusing 13Cr. some of which have exceeded API wall tolemuces. which have higher notch toughness. corrosion h m water mn o in the upper third of the tubing must be noted that 13Cr has over timebeen successful in production applications where 20-30 ppm H2S has been produced. Tubing stored in the open a r has pitted bemuse of salt water deposits from the humid Gulf Coast atmosphere. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to thank C. has ever been lost duc to corrosion leaks or f sUrfide stress emking. Some strings were replaced after 5 years to avoid the high cost of reinspcCting used tubing. Wireline work has not caused any tubing failures. NKK. CONCLUSIONS These cases cover various spectnuns of tempaatures. Joint specificationswere wriaen for each mill. There has been no abed pitting of 13Cr tubing exposed to clear brines. even those hardfaced with cobalt-based alloys.Braun and J. Wellheads and CS wert generally 12Cr (410 SS)and were not F6NM o CA6NM. This tubing was purchased through a coaperatve effort with Mannesmann. Pitting first appears at the sd cwMCtiom. but rarely leads to failure. ht Tubing strings have shown internal pitting. Copper coating the box of the connection and also applying molycoate to both the pin and box have prevented galling during make up of 13Cr tubing. This equipment was IC purchased without supplementary notch toughness requirements.B. R. Wireline tools can scratch tubing and remove protective corrosion flson both 13Cr and low alloy steel. r There has been no significant corrosion of low alloy steel grade P-110 liners. chlorides. As this paper demcmstraks. One well t a had been repeatedly shut in and acidized was lost due to intemal pitting corrosion. While t the main focus of this paper has been the use of 13Cr. d e l i v d i t y . These tubing strings have never been coated or protected from corrosion by using chanical inhibition! 0 t h important aspects of this experience were: There has becn SOM gas cutting of gates and seats. The liners were low alloy steel of grade P-110. The dual 13Cr tubing strings (420 Stainless steel) wem a proprietary grade of C-85 with hardness controlled to HRC 23. U e tubing must be 1009b full-body inspected by EMI for internal pitting. The 13Cr was installed to extend tubing life and avoid expensive workovers. lhis paper takesaa objective look a the economics and mnditions involved in making a mataials selection. includingZinc Bromide.D. Adams for his work with the USL Corrosion Modeling Program. This will im acceleratecorrosion. that has stayed on produdon. economics is the main driving force. hotter. This is consistent with industry experience.

APIRP14E. a l s TX 5. . Adams. M r h 1993 ac 32 . June 1994 2. . "Expert System for Predicting Tubing Life m Gas Condensate Wells". JD. 10 4.and A. API Recommended Practice for Design and Installation of Offshore Production Platform Piping Systems. Corrosion 88. 363 3. R. API Dla. D.REFERENCES 1.paper no. 273 6. J. Offshore Magazine. Stegmam. Corrosion 9 . COz Corrosion and Its prtvention by Chemical Inhibition in Oil and Gas Reduction. H. Hausla & D W. petrolarm Engineer IntematiOna. i a 0 paper no. S Smart. C. G.Hill. A rcVitw of Erosion Corrosion in Ol and G s production. paper no. D . J.Garber. Combes. 13Cr T u b Solve Cornion Roblrms m the Tuscaloosa Trend. . Corrosion 92.

000 33 .113 CHROME Tubing Cost Workover Cost Reolacement Tubma Cost I YR1 I YR2 I YR3 I $216.000 $216.000 Deferred Prod.000 $0 $216.000 $0 $216. Due to Downtime Conosion Inhibition Expen S8S 0 0 0 0 0 0 YEAR TOTAL CUMULATIVE COST Table 2 Case 2 Economics : $216.

Table 3 Case 3 Economics : 34 .

000 $10.001.000 $0 $ $294.600 I w I 10.000 1.400) ($9.001.OO0l 10.000 $294.171.000 $294.400) ($19.000 Mcfd ~ I VI YEAR TOTAL CUMULATIVE COST ($9.000 $7.699.570.000 $223.000 1. due to Downtime Corrosion Inhibition Expense I 30.472.600 I 30.600) 13 CHROME 3-1/2 Tublng 'I YR1 $223.200) ($38.000 $7.400) ($9.871. Due to > Tubing ID (-#) $10.400) ($9.000 Table 4: Case 4 Economics .000 1.000l bcpd 300 300 300 300 Accelerated Prod.000 YR2 Y R3 Y R4 Tubing Cost Workover Cost Replacement Tubing Cost Deferred Prod.000 $10.800) ($28.000 Y R2 Y R3 Y R4 4-1/2" Tubing Tubing Cost Workover Cost Replacement Tubing Cost Mcfd bcpd Deferred Prod.r BATCH YR1 $227.600 I 30. due to Downtime Corrosion Inhibition Expense I I I I I $0 $223.699.472.000 YEAR TOTAL CUMULATIVE COST $223.000 1.699.000 $7.000 $7.4001 ($9.000l lO.600 I 30.000 $10.000 $0 $223.000 $294.000l 10.

600feet 0 4 m9 .6 nil 7 Years 36 MMCFD 18 BCPD 20 BWPD 240% 6400 psi 180% 6100psi 180% 2.000 psi 120% 8OOO psi 1009 2.400 feet 0 8 mol96 .000feet 11 mol% . Content Ha Content Chloride Content 1 Years 4 12 MMCFD 700 BCPD 60 BWPD 259% 11.875 inch 17.958 inch 12.4 nil 4MMcFD 400 BCPD 1500 BWPD 3009 10.875 inch 14.Case1 case2 case3 5 Yas er case4 Reservoir L f ie G s Rate a CondensateRate Water Rate BHT BEFP Wellhead Temp wellherrdpressure Separator Temp T bn Sue uig T bn Length uig CO.875 in& 15.000mgfl nil 11.000 mgfl 3-4 Y a s er 3oMMcFD 1000 BCPD 20 BWPD 21m 4OOO psi 1 3000 psi 85°F 3.000feet 1 2 -1% .000psi 1709 7000 psi 160% 2. nil 20.000mg/l 40.200M $289M $510 M $213 M -$38.oOomgfl Table 5: Summary of Production and Corrosion Related Variables Case1 Economics (Cost) CubOD Stcd E C O ~ ~ C S.0 l 6 l m 127.X r (Cost) Table 6: Summary of Economics case2 $4880 M $216 M case3 case4 - $9.600 M $ 223M 36 .

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