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Foundation of Curriculum



Individual Need

Learning Theory

• What is Philosophy? • Love of Wisdom • Every society is held together by a common faith which serves its members as a guide for living the good life • Curriculum align with philosophy because both are concerned with the question-What can man become? • Three philosophical categories ontology (the nature of reality), epistemology (the nature of knowledge) and axiology (the nature of value) • Asas ataupun tapak • Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan


10/6/2011 Learning Theories • • • • Behaviourisme Humanisme Cognitive Socialisme Individual Need Individual Needs • Intelligence-problem solving skills and ability to adapt to and learn from experience. Interest in intelligence often focuses on individual differences and assessement • Multiple intelligences • Personality refers to distinctive thoughts. difficult child and slow to warm up child 2 . • Temperament style-easy child. extraversion. conscientiousness. agreeableness and neuroticism • Temperament-refers to a person’s behavioral style and characteristic way of responding. Individual Needs • Big five personality factors-openness. emotions and behaviors that characterize the way an individual adapts to the world.

Jary (1991) Component of Culture • • • • Symbols Language Values Norms 3 . D." As such. Culture Diana Kendall: Culture: the knowledge. beliefs and institutions of a population that are passed down from generation to generation. & J. • -Jary. language. Culture has been called "the way of life for an entire society. norms of behavior such as law and morality. ways of life. it includes codes of manners. customs. language. and systems of belief as well as the arts and gastronomy.10/6/2011 Society and Culture • A society is a collection of individuals who have organized themselves into a distinct group • That group must perceive themselves as “having things in common” which enable them to “belong” • “having things in common” are the stuff of which culture is made. dress. arts. values. and material objects that are passed from person to person and from one generation to the next in a human group or society. rituals. • Culture . Wikipedia: • Culture can be defined as all the behaviors. religion.

Most importantly. it establishes a context of boundaries and correctness that dictates what is and is not permissible within that society's framework. so that the individual can become an accepted member of the society and find their suitable role.10/6/2011 Enculturation • Enculturation is the process whereby an established culture teaches an individual by repetition its accepted norms and values. 4 .