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Framing Crime: Cultural Criminology and the Image, Keith Hayward and Mike Presdee In a world in which media

images of crime and deviance proliferate, where every facet of offending is reflected in a ‘vast hall of mirrors’, Framing Crime: Cultural Criminology and the Image makes sense of the increasingly blurred line between the real and the virtual. Fifty Key Thinkers in Criminology, Keith Hayward, Shadd Maruna and Jayne Mooney Bringing the history of criminological thought alive through a collection of fascinating life stories, this book covers a range of historical and contemporary thinkers from around the world, offering a stimulating combination of biographical fact with historical and cultural context. Cultural Criminology: An Invitation : Jeff Ferrell, Keith Hayward, Jock Young "This is not just a book on the present state and possible prospects of our understanding of crime and criminals. The impact of this book may well stretch far beyond the realm of criminology proper and mark a watershed in the progress of social study as such." Zygmunt Bauman, Emeritus Professor, University of Leeds, UK. Cultural Criminology draws together the work of the three leading international figures in the field today. The use of vignettes, case studies and visual material throughout the text brings the subject to life. Cultural Criminology is indispensible to students, lecturers and researchers in criminology, sociology, cultural studies and media studies. City Limits: Crime, Consumer Culture and the Urban Experience: Keith Hayward Criminology has always enjoyed a highly productive relationship with the city, generating many important empirical and theoretical studies. But all too often the human experience, social diversity and the inherently pluralistic fabric of city life are transformed into the discourse of demographics, statistics and rationality. This book examines the crime-city nexus in a way that makes sense of criminology’s past and contemporary engagements, including both administrative criminology and the work of Jack Katz and Mike Davis. Drawing on a range of disciplinary frameworks – social theory, urban studies, architectural theory and research into urban consumerism practices – the author argues that consumption is central to understanding the city and urban crime. This book will be of interest to students and academics of criminology, social theory, urban studies and cultural studies. The Vertigo of Late Modernity: Jock Young The Vertigo of Late Modernity is a seminal new work by Jock Young, author of the bestselling and highly influential book, "The Exclusive Society." In his new work, Young

including dog fighting. hate and humiliation. Ferrell investigated the million-dollar mansions. and develops a theory of 'vertigo' to characterise a late modern world filled with inequality and division. and. tunnel and tree dwellers. began an eight-month odyssey of essentially living off of the street. recycling. middle class suburbs. with a place to live but no real income. industrial and commercial strips. where he found countless discarded treasures. This major new work engages with some of the most important issues facing society today. . where one person's garbage often becomes another's bounty. Richly illustrated throughout. working-class neighborhoods. Throughout this engaging narrative. oppositional forms of popular and personal pleasure. and the large downtown area. cruelty. The text argues that an overly organised economic world has provoked a widespread desire for extreme. terrorism or riots . He points toward a transformative politics which tackle problems of economic injustice and build and cherish a society of genuine diversity. Cultural Criminology and the Carnival of Crime: Mike Presdee This fascinating and timely publication examines the criminalization of cultural practices in contemporary Britain. full of a colorful cast of characters. Existing as a dumpster diver and trash picker. Ferrell adopted a way of life that was both field research and free-form survival. By examining a range of criminalized cultural activities. Ferrell makes a persuasive argument about the dangers of over-consumption. from the mansion living suburbanites to the junk haulers themselves. the book reworks the notion of the senseless' act and explores the performance of actual crime and violence as cultural commodities to be consumed as entertainment by a society anxious for new and more exciting experiences. The book engages with the ways in which modern society attempts to explain deviant behaviour . Empire of Scrounge: Jeff Ferrell In December of 2001 Jeff Ferrell quit his job as a tenured professor. which has come to permeate daily life.describes the sources of late modern vertigo as twofold: insecurities of status and of economic position. and second-hand terms of motivations and desires separate and distinct from those of the 'normal'. Young critiques the process of othering whether of a liberal or conservative variety. He explores the notion of an underclass and its detachment from the class structure. hurt and humiliation in popular culture the popularisation and criminalisation of sadomasochism and dance music culture. "Empire of Scrounge" tells the story of this unusual journey into the often illicit worlds of scrounging. moved back to his hometown of Fort Worth. Perhaps nowhere else do the fault lines of inequality get reflected so clearly than at the curbside trash can.whether it be crime. from unopened presents and new clothes to scrap metal and even food. rave subcultures and joy-riding. With landfills overflowing. Cultural Criminology and the Carnival of Crime attempts to make sense of the current increase in violence. Riding around on his scrounged BMX bicycle. Amongst the exciting issues Mike Presdee addresses are: joyriding street crime antisocial behaviour in private via the internet hate. This desire has resulted in a cathartic 'second life' of illicit pleasures often deemed criminal by those in power. Texas. "Empire of Scrounge" is both a personal journey and a larger tale about the changing values of American society.

often heard in leipungphamba or any gathering centring on the topic of the present state of our State. We have not succeeded in reaching the core since we are lost in the maze of layers. what we throw away says more about us than what we keep. And the reader must decide for her/himself where the line between art and crime stands. unearthing other people's discards proved to be unquestionably illuminating. injection or whatever which can cure or at least pacify the pace of this acerbic illness. while picking through the city's trash was often dirty and unpleasant work. Ksh. Moreover. syrup. After all. In the end. it is a terrain of 'probables' and which is why I am going to take along others in my attempt to understand the root cause of the disease that we are infected with. (If Egyptian Pharao Tutankhamun's mummy is still studied. AFSPA is excluded from our scheme of analysis since our case is much older and wider than the kid called .and yet the urge to consume seems limitless. Nevertheless. A serious social disease indeed! I wish I had the capsule.. Such are the words of the frustrated and powerless majority of this land. there is always the hope for winching up possibility from the debris of impossibilities. Social Science and Humanities do not and cannot have a final answer to a social phenomenon or individual thought process and behaviour since society/individual is a riddle which throws up surprises the moment we think that we have touched the rubicon. This line signifies the height of frustration expressed by the dethroned minister in the latest production of Sanaleipak Nachom Artiste Association's Luchingba. let us try and apply our analytical skill in dissecting and studying the diseased body aposteriori.. Proverbial Step-Mother Complex . Crimes of Style: Jeff Ferrell Crimes of Style is a journey into the underground Denver Graffiti scene.or is it? The question of vandalism or art remains an underlying question throughout Ferrell's book. At the most we may end our life studying at least one or two layers.. then ours is a comparatively easier sample) I am going to propose one methodology and throw the house open for discussion and debate (we should be courageous enough for self-critiquing if we seriously wish to revive the lost mani). Jeff Ferrell's participant observations of local taggers and writers gives a fascinating insight into a sometimes beautiful and sometimes offensive subculture of vandalism. when he was ill-treated and insulted by the minister in power. They are fields requiring constant engagement and which is why its study did not stop at Plato or Socrates or Marx or Durkheim. Imokanta Singh * 'Matangsida ikhutsida bomb amatangdi painingkhredako' (if I had a bomb in my hand at this moment!). So.Vicious Circle of Frustration and Subjugation By's highly disposable culture produces more trash than ever before .

Young bride is treated as stranger who is added to the family as 'serving' not 'served' (I am not universalising the victim status of young brides. The characters of a step-mother can be and is ingrained in other samples also like mother-in-law. 'she is very unlikely of a step-mother'. jealousy or any word known for villainy. However. This position is bestowed on her because she is the wife of the head of the family and the head is under her control.e. mother-in-law cannot tolerate the idea of parting her son with the new woman in his life. This behaviour is rooted in the deep structure of power and status. the victim has the latent desire to be the victimiser. There are also numerous living examples in this land where polygyny is a custom and modern law has been very bland. there is impression that one has to be wicked if she is a step-mother. She is the quintessential symbol of pettiness. victimisation. Blood line becomes the prime criterion for love and affection in such bonding i. The case is more often found in the relationship between mother-in-law and daughter-in-law. older wives of brothers will try to tighten the noose of the family. For the sake of methodology. However. One basic question still harps on at this moment. I am not proposing that all step-mothers are of the same mould. I have picked up step-mother as the symbol and point of reference. sisters-in-law. brother's sister.) The opposite is true in the case of step-mother.) Step-Mother Complex We are all well aware of the step-mother (mama poktabi or mama atombi) of Kunjamala (some say it should be Kujangambi) of the Moirang Kangleirol. she is not 'serving' but 'served' inspite of her being a new member. Here. only one's own sons or daughters come within the circle not the sons or daughters of the dead or divorced or estranged wife of her husband. cruelty. Domination and subjugation interplay to unleash the authoritarian ambience in the family. Step-mother has to own her husband and his children. if not what the society will say of her. father-in-law. brother's brother or anybody. wife and sisters of a man (I may be excused for saying that the sore relationship is prevalent mainly amongst the female members of our society. Shock and awe . Step-mother or mother-in-law or older wives of brothers have to assert their authority over the step sons or daughters or daughter-in-law or new bride.AFSPA. Our folklore is replete with such characters. There are authoritative ones too who can be victimiser.) Such relationships are structured on the binary oppositions where one party is victim and the other victimiser. Are only the step-mothers the owners of villainy? The answer is NO. The concept of ownership is central in such relationship. Our case have been in existence since time 'immemorial' or is as old as the human existence (I am weakened to follow the face-saving exercise in using these platitudes which are used by 'history-less' people or when we are not sure of something's origin. exploitation.

Such victimising tendency may be found anywhere where there is scarce resource of power. enemies. Those who are sincere are reduced to being powerless and 'good for nothing' creatures. This is more relevant in our society where the culture of violence has corroded the social fabric. singjang. Once the frustrated man is graduated to the position of power all the unfulfilled desires start germinating and growing with untamed tentacles. subordinate staffs etc. here.) This expression symbolises the sheer frustration of a powerless. clerks. One is considered to be powerful if he is able to deliver goods when and where it is not allowed. adversaries. you see what I could do!' (This is because commandos are the symbol of unlimited and uncontrolled power and threat especially in this part of the globe. subjugated. peons etc. The opposite may be said for those who are in the helm of power and overwhelmed by it. In fact courage of a person is almost bland in the absence of any assisting tool but it surfaces with the ownership of one. when one does not actually have it. This desire gets materialised when s/he achieves the position from the vantage point of which s/he can spew the latent force to his/her rivals. The moment we gain the status we tend to exercise the power of subjugation.). non state actors (Naharols) and even amongst 'common' people. Defining criterion for being powerful. common people. Gun becomes the source of power. thangjou. We may. Frustration and Subjugation Let me rephrase the first sentence of this essay as 'If I were a commando. here. be it heijrang. The absence creates a void in his/her 'inner world'. the one who was the subject of his frustration when he was the member of the powerless lots. is repressed in the 'Unconscious'. military and police personnel. civil society organisations. Now is the time for testing the new found fangs which can bite. He thinks that it is an achievement and takes pride in doing the undoable. This is the prologue of the vicious circle of frustration and subjugation.tactics also applies. He might say that the desire to exercise power. remember Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic approach. What gives him the highest pleasure is the delivery of frustration to his victims. legally. ta or guns of any kind. It may be found amongst the public servants (elected representatives starting from the Panchayat members upwards). I am of the view that most of us carry this step-mother complex since we are power hungry species. government servants (bureaucrats. when s/he needs it the most. thangsang. is 'deviance from the rules and regulations'. . victimised and traumatised person in our society. Then this void is filled up with the unfulfilled desires which beget frustration. customarily or otherwise. as the first victim. Slowly this one time victim turns into a victimiser and becomes the member of the subjugating gang gradually executing his villainy amongst the population.

Khwairamband Incident and Step-Mother Complex Cdos and Naharols are in news so frequently. bestow their reluctant respect to them (without eye contacts). If we follow this line of argument. as compared to the Naharols. lest they become the target of their haughtiness. the interesting reality is the collateral/spill over power enjoyed by the foot soldiers or khongban chenbas who are near and dear ones of the main protagonists. The 'step-ness' of the two remain covert as long as they are appeased.Using the power bestowed on the main protagonists illegitimately has become a sort of 'legitimate' practice. mostly for wrong reasons (there are good ones also. This is because they have the privilege of being visible in the public space and also invisible (the examples are galore) whereas the Naharols are confined to the 'invisible' world as they lead an enigmatic existence surfacing only when demanded in the 'dark'. In reality such khongbanchenbas are more 'step' than the main protagonists. Anybody could have taken the place of those victims since the step-mother does have very little sympathy for the step-sons and step-daughters. It is something like 'Kei leiba mafamda napifaobada Sajina nollukchei' (literally. Then the Act of villainy is performed when the protagonist essays the role of victimiser and the client is reduced to a mere log. Cdos. So that incident was clearly a case of unleashing of the repressed desires of subjugation and manifestation of step-mother . but I am talking of bad ones here). there is little regard for the age old value systems e. 'affection' and intelligent manoeuvring by the client. If I had been one I would have probably been amongst the protagonists of that incident. In this race for who is the real custodian of the step-mother complex. The real theatre of 'step-ness' surfaces the moment the client crosses the line drawn by the two parties. respect for the elders and love for the weak. Sometimes. have qualified to be the quintessential heirs of 'step-mother complex' in our society. praised and coaxed with the price. The old man walking on the street or resting at home also took the unlikely role of a step son of such stepmatriarchs and step-patriarchs. Rampancy of such practices amongst the main protagonists is understandable. However. then it is not a surprise to come across such incident as the one of Khwairamband.g. This way the main protagonists become the step-mothers and the foot soldiers the step-brothers of the powerless lots. the prices of buying and selling are initiated and even decided at this level before they reach the bosses. in general. unfortunately. It is not an exaggeration that most of them consider themselves as the 'power in themselves' and the people on the streets. though latently. the deer have to bow to the grasses grown around the place where the tigers reside). in case of Cdos. This means these protagonists become step-mother for the whole of our society. They are mostly the first barricade by negotiating with whom people can approach the power protagonists. out of fear. and also it may be equally true that anyone of us could have been those protagonists since they are present in most of us.

starting from local elected representative (who gobbles up more than he can digest during his five year tenure and then gets defeated in the next election) to Hitler. In order to maintain or usher in good system we require and also should work for the predominant presence of Mirels. Standing at the opposite pole of Mirel is the Mimacha. that is too ambitious). notwithstanding. Mimacha is everything which is not part of Mirel. Possible way Out! A cure can be found of an illness when the disease is regarded as a 'disease' and a binary opposite of healthiness. Conspicuous consumption is his first nature and others should be shown what he is upto. mature. Where the abnormality is emulated the normality shies away as 'abnormality'. For him there is no segregating line between what is personal and what is not but believes that everybody's business is his business. Where the disease is no longer construed as disease. He is the one who has not been exposed to the power before and is overwhelmed by the power the moment he gets hold of it. First one may be called 'Mirel' and the second one 'Mimacha'. Where excessive power-mongering. self-centred and very myopic. He believes in the maxim 'respect cannot and should not be commanded (fear can be) but earned'. violence. Mirel may be the one who is enlightened (not the Buddha type. For this we need to segregate the whole of humanity broadly into two categories for a methodological analysis. all with his haughty demeanour. altruistic and hypermetropic. the ambiguity rules the roost. He is greedy. He knows where to draw the line between what is personal and what is not. The above painted monochrome picture. Here we are not trying to slain all the step-mothers (Lalita Pawars) in us but trying to give teeth to the good mothers (Nirupa Roys). In other way.complex. He is not overwhelmed by the power he has been entrusted with. wealth etc. Examples are galore. Warmth is his first nature (or culture!). disease becomes the healthiness. Such is the world we have been thrown into. body language. Instead of plying the peace wagon the frustrated lots start seeing the step-mothers in power as the ideal/reference point to be emulated. He abstains from the vanity of words. crime becomes the social norm. He wants to make hay when the sun shines and that includes amassing the hays of other people also. When there is no space for differentiation between the two. villain worship are the rule of law one may be too ideal to hope for peace and mutual respect. For him power is just a normal ingredient to run the system and not an extraordinary motor to deride the system. It may be reminded before I . one should be always in search for hope to place the peace and violence in their designated camps. when the crime is no longer considered as deviance. I am not saying absence of Mimacha here since it sounds utopian. owing to the majority of the deviants.

net . * Dr. Imokanta Singh contributes regularly to e-pao. Ksh.sign off with style that the theatre played out in the external world is the reflection and 'reflexivity' of the rehearsals initiated and performed in the inner worlds. 2010. The writer can be reached at kimokanta(at)yahoo(dot)com This article was webcasted on May 23. .