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A materials project by Chris Lefteri No.

3 September 2008 For more information and to receive further copies of Ingredients, please visit moreingredients.com

The Ingredients
p. 2 Introduction Chris Lefteri on the creative use of materials in design p. 4 Unsung heroes Amazing materials that you are probably unaware of p. 14 Fabric Fact or Fiction Jenny Leary’s research and work with magnetic textiles p. 18 100%Materials highlights Some of the most exciting new additions from this year’s show p. 26 Music of the Spheres The role of sound and music in product design p. 30 Surface nishes Three common surface treatments available to designers p. 32 Light impact New materials and manufacturing processes in Nike shoes p. 33 Skateboard materials Skateboarding is all about materials p. 34 Material Experience Exploring the unique properties of Santoprene™ TPV p. 38 Above & Below Rubbish materials and materials that leave no rubbish p. 44 Rediscovered process Simon Hasan has unearthed an old leather process p. 46 New forms of silicone New silicone-based materials from Dow Corning p. 50 ‘Weird materials’ Picking up the thread were we left it in Ingredients No. 2 p. 54 Future materials Sarah Dennis on some of the most promising new materials p. 56 ‘-ums’ An informal look at metals that end with –um p. 72 The secret life of materials Close-ups that reveal the incredible surface of materials p. 80 Deeper surfaces Innovative surface nishes from Ciba p. 84 Household ingredients Biodegradable plastics made with kitchen staples p. 88 Inheritable Futures Nick Gant on the Inheritable Futures Lab and sustainability p. 92 The Paper and Stick Film The origami art of Ron Resch p. 94 Material about materials We talk to ASM International about their design initiative /Mtrl p. 96 Material movies Some of the best material clips on the web p. 97 Materials that changed the world Eight leading designers and researchers

Credits
Text by Chris Lefteri Design Ltd, unless otherwise stated Contributors Chris Lefteri, Gemma Roper, Daniel Liden and Deborah Rey-Burns Design and art direction Chris Lefteri and Daniel Liden Photography by Gianni Diliberto, unless otherwise stated www.giannidiliberto.com Sustainability partner, 100%Detail Forbo Flooring www.forbo ooring.com 100%Design 18-21 September 2008 www.100percentdesign.co.uk

Introduction
Words by Chris Lefteri Welcome to the third outing of Ingredients. Since the last edition one year ago, the wheels of this growing business of materials and design continues to evolve – more databases, more collections and more businesses and organisations realising that materials can be a far greater tool to be used within design. What also seems to be happening is that as more information becomes available we are entering a second phase of this area. If the rst phase was an explosion of resources available to help designers innovate then the second phase is much more about systems and new strategies for these resources to be implemented. Part of this development involves more collaboration between designers, suppliers and manufacturers, and part of it involves a deeper understanding of what materials are capable of and nding new ways to look at their properties. Interpretation and meaning of material properties are two themes that have pre-occupied me for a long time, but seem even more relevant now. For example the plastics industry has for some time been trying to justify itself due to growing pressure to nd alternatives to non-petroleum based material resources. Not that I play the role of defending or justifying any particular industry, but it seems that we are not going to stop consuming on the monstrous scale that we are currently doing and plastics through their ability to be moulded into an in nite variety of shapes at relatively low cost has been largely responsible for this. But plastic materials have also been largely responsible for massive advancements in medicine, technology and culture and today it needs to take on new meaning as a material that has a role to play in reducing weight in transportation, material usage and energy use. This summer I spent one month at Art Centre College of Design in Pasadena as a Visionary in Residence. My time at Art Centre was focused around the Color, Materials and Trends Exploration Lab, a space within Art Centre that, among other things, is the hub for learning, experimentation and hosting brainstorming sessions for external organisations. It was a unique experience within a unique place, a place where innovation is a uid, intuitive process fostered by some great people with great vision. There were no xed agen4 — INGREDIENTS NO. 3

das, no list of outcomes – just time to explore what this changing pattern of information with regards to materials is going to mean for design. How on one level design education needs to change to respond to this emerging set of new tools, and on another level how both the materials and the design community needs to look for new ways to implement new strategies to enhance the design process. One of the common threads that came out of the many workshops was the interpretation of materials through associated meaning, how for example attributes of materials that are normally perceived as being negative can be given new signi cance by turning that attribute into a positive role. One of the best example of this kind of misinterpretation is how the plastics industry is looking within it itself to shape memory polymers to increase the stiffness of the plastic used in water bottle packaging to reduce the amount of plastic needed to mould the product. With all the information that is becoming available on new materials, the door that allows to misinterpretation needs to remain open for designers to nd uses for all the ‘stuff’ that is out there, both old and new, that exploit the materials world in truly original ways. An accomplished designer in his own right, Chris Lefteri is an internationally recognized authority on materials and their application in design. His achievements in this area have created a bridge between manufacturers, the chemical industry and the design community. He has published eight books on design and material innovation, which can be found on the shelves of many design studios around the world. He has also delivered material workshops and curated exhibitions on materials and design at conferences, universities and museums across Europe, North America and Asia, and he has worked with a number of international clients including Exxon Mobil Chemical, Dupont, Land Rover and Jaguar cars, Philips and LG Electronics. He is the designer and curator of 100% Materials in London and he is also a regular contributor to international design magazines, including DAMn and ID.
INGREDIENTS NO. 3 — 5

Unsung heroes
Do you know what’s in your pocket? Photography by Gianni Diliberto Thanks to Mikkel and Mr Moky, and to Jessie at LG for the ‘Secret Phone’

As soon as a technology matures and starts working properly, we tend to lose interest in it. Most of the objects that we carry around with us on a daily basis have lost their initial magic, which seems more than a little arrogant as many of them were probably considered the stuff of science ction just a few years ago. The very term ‘technology’ has taken on a meaning where it refers to a distinctly separate class of products, vastly more

advanced than everything else. Used in this way, Bran Ferren, the American tech guru whose clients range from Walt Disney to NASA, de nes technology as ‘stuff that doesn’t work yet’, which is probably an appropriate description of that product that everybody is talking about right now. This article, on the other hand, is about taking a step back and taking a closer look at the stuff that actually works. You would be surprised if you were to empty

your pockets and examine the plethora of materials and technologies that emerge from their hiding place. These materials have become invisible to us because we are used to them quietly getting on with the tasks that they were assigned to, but they are nevertheless little marvels in their own right. The following pages contain some of the best examples that we could nd – some more established and others currently emerging.
INGREDIENTS NO. 3 — 7

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Pill towel www.compressedtowel.com This tiny, pill-shaped piece of fabric expands into a towel that measures roughly 28cm by 22cm when you add a little water. Made with organic cellulose bre, the towels are biodegradable and safe to dispose of. Recycled cosmetics packaging www.csi-cosmolab.com Recycled plastics are typically unsuitable for some applications, including cosmetics packaging. This manufacturer however, has found a way to cost effectively clean and reprocess post-consumer polypropylene so that it’s safe to use with cosmetics.

Ultra-Fresh www.ultra-fresh.com/tra Ultra-Fresh is an additive that can be mixed in with textiles and a range of polymers, offering antimicrobial surfaces and odour control. It is capable of handling bacteria, odours and even dust mites, making it perfect for bathrooms, bedrooms and kitchens, as well as sporting articles, workwear and socks.

public transport and the streets.Tempered glass www. which is great news for city dwellers constantly moving between air-conditioned interiors.comfortemp. This means that it adapts to the temperature of the environment to absorb and store heat and then release it when it gets colder.descente. PDAs and other wireless devices that use the radio spectrum to communicate. Ask to have your suit pockets lined with this material to protect your data from prying eyes.com Although it may intuitively sound like a bad idea. Shieldron www. extex. In fact. tempered glass is actually strong enough to use in a mobile phone. Comfortemp www.com This soft and exible textile is a so-called phase change material.net On the face of it. its excellent scratch resistance and its tendency to break into blunt chunks rather than sharp shards makes toughened glass a great choice for this type of applications. this textile looks very similar to other weatherproof and breathable textiles. but on closer inspection Airdrive’s properties are derived from a powder made with dried and ground up eggshells – according to the manufacturer eight eggs are needed to produce a pair of trousers. .schott. It provides a constant and comfortable temperature for the wearer. which means that it can jam mobile phones. Airdrive www.com This conductive textile has electromagnetic interference shielding properties.

the additive is based on organic and non-hazardous raw materials.wentus.pepperl-fuchs.Lip Volume www. repugnant taste to prevent animals from chewing on cables and other plastic products.com Most commuters are probably unaware that Oyster card electronic tickets are based on something so exotic as wireless electricity. Wenterra® is an excellent alternative made with renewable vegetable starches. Lip Volume lipstick uses a concoction of various nut oils. fossil fuel-based variety would be a huge step towards a more sustainable world. paraf n and a host of other ingredients to bolster up your lips. .net ‘The most effective way to plump your lips without surgery’.lip-volume. Compatible with most plastic materials. which doesn’t harm the animals.com This additive was developed to give off a strong. Wenterra www.aversiontech. RodRepel www. RFID technology www. Biodegradable and safe to put in the compost. RFID (Radio Frequency IDenti cation) tags can be attached to or embedded within a large range of products to store and transmit data.de The sheer amount of plastic waste created by plastic bags is staggering – some sources estimate that bags account for roughly 90% percent of the plastic waste found at sea – so a shift away from the conventional. citric acid. Incredibly thin and unobtrusive.

This makes it ideal for waterproo ng products such as sporting shoes. this machine-washable textile can also be stitched into furniture and other soft furnishings.com This waterproo ng process uses plasma vapour deposition. Besides garments.co. which works by heating up chemicals to a point where they vaporize and form a thin but durable plastic skin. including seams and joints. capable of registering X.uk This electrically conductive textile is made with a ve layer fabric laminate.rolatube.p2ilabs. as it covers all the parts of the shoe. further improving its sealing properties. coiled up state. RolaTube www. Ion-Mask www.Waterproof zip fastener www.com This ingenious waterproof zip uses moulded rails that lock together rather than teeth Since the fastener is made from one piece of plastic.ykkfasteners. it can be heatsealed rather than stitched to a wide range of textiles and other materials.eleksen. . Elektex www. similar to a touchpad on a computer. Bike riders use thin strips to secure trouser legs from getting caught up in the chain. Y and Z positioning. opening up for a wide range of applications. but unroll it and it turns into a rigid tube capable of supporting its own weight over several meters.com RolaTube™ may look unassuming in its compact.

but it did react to a bar magnet. It turns out that refrigerator ‘magnets’ are made of ferrite powder ceramics which don’t have a strong magnetic eld when rst formed. That was the goal. I set out to experiment. Although we can’t sense it. and very very creepy. 16 — INGREDIENTS NO. . but isn’t strong enough to withstand a curious swipe. our planet is encapsulated in a protective magnetic eld which shields our atmosphere from the solar wind. and as soon as something like bre softness was achieved. 3 Stripes form automatically out of loose powder. the soft ferromagnetic velvet pile was not sensitive enough to be in uenced by Earth’s magnetic eld. the magnetosphere. Holding a magnet near its surface caused the spindly bres to turn and reach towards the magnet’s pole. would display magnetic orientation. Magnetisation can occur to varying degrees. It was bizarre. What would happen if the magnetic conditions changed dramatically. Thus. they would follow its path if it moved. there was the task of collecting materials and cross pollinating them through textile processes. revealing a pattern in the magnetic nature of this substrate. when researching potential disaster scenarios for a brief. this surface. Attraction between the materials prevents the powder from falling off the surface. the distinction between a ‘magnet’ and something like a lump of iron is arti cial and misleading. In the end.Fabric Fact or Fiction Exploring the shape of magnetic materials Words and photography by Jenny Leary Early last year. I tried to make a fabric with steel ‘fur’. On the other hand. Convinced that there were more possibilities for magnetic materials in textiles. and it has been an incubator for life. anyway. like grass showing the direction of wind overhead. in order to predict how these materials might behave. Based on the idea of thousands of soft compass needles. Seeing how this pattern resembles certain forms of printmaking marks inspired a series of photorealistic images called ‘ferrographs’. I had to consult scienti c sources. the term ‘magnet’ suggests that the magnetic eld is an inherent property of something. The nature of magnetism started to emerge through these twin efforts. The research became twofold – on one hand. Ours is the only lucky planet with this eld. I came across one that was almost as enchanting as it was terrifying: the prospect of a massive magnetic storm. it became clear that simple objects like refrigerator magnets weren’t doing justice to this complex phenomenon. something else like mechanical resistance would get in the way. Fabrication turned out to bring a series of technical challenges. and how would we sense it? For the next few months. as can demagnetisation. This property is applied at a later stage – often only when the object reaches its nal destination. To begin with.

enormous amounts of data can be stored on credit cards and computers. With rising prospects such as magnetocaloric cooling and magnetic levitation. we will soon see low energy refrigeration and transport. Out of the investigation came several new surfaces. The drawing is done on a magnetic slate and transferred to a liquid polymer as it dries. Even the term ‘magnetic material’ is hard to de ne. they play an essential role in bringing us closer to understanding what our world is made of. it seems that the area of decorative materials has been overlooked. INGREDIENTS NO.com Or visit her web site www. There are even hints of a magnetic invisibility cloak emerging from recent research. Apart from fridge magnets. email jenny on jenny@ferrofabric. Beyond that. our hands-on experience with magnetism is essentially nonexistent. and limited ourselves to thinking of magnetic attraction applying only to iron. and diamagnetic to classify magnetic character. and the history behind it explains our unawareness. we would have accepted theories about cof ns suspended in caves and lovers united by magnetic charms. For more information. Magnetism appears to have much more depth than we generally believe. De Magnete marked a turning point. it was important to train people to focus on observed reality. but a group of Dutch scientists made that possible by lming a strawberry levitating inside of a solenoid. These days. William Gilbert’s 1600 treatise. Another is an interactive tiling system. Although these applications are useful. 400 years ago. which encourages material understanding through tactile engagement. paramagnetic. the technological landscape is lled with evidence of magnetism’s many facets. We learned to ask for evidence. the magnetic compass is evidence of information beyond our senses. As Einstein always remembered. Magnetism’s mythically pervasive powers were ridiculed and forgotten. With magnetic resonance imaging. Diamagnetism is a property that causes movement away from magnetic poles.ferrofabric. They are not meant to mystify – just to capture curiosity. She recently completed the MA in Design for Textile Futures course at Central St Martins College of Art. The newly discovered effects are fascinating – why don’t we celebrate them? To appreciate the material nature of something like magnetic memory is quite challenging when it occurs on the scale of a computer chip. Physicists use more speci c words like ferromagnetic. I passed the ‘raw’ materials through some traditional textile fabrication processes. One looks at the use of softly spun steel yarn for ‘magnetic embroidery’. It seems that as the scienti c method was developing. Semi-translucent materials containing images visually tie into Medieval artifact such as architectural stained glass and ornament. 3 — 19 Jenny Leary is interested in how to express our changing relationship to materials. and all materials exhibit it! It requires an enormous eld strength for us to see it. where she began a long-term interest in magnetism. With magnetic memory. After running some experiments with magnetic materials. the potential seemed promising. doctors can view any plane in the body. Novel materials like these certainly have potential in interior and product design. Other surfaces show that magnetic patterns can be hidden in materials. Perhaps this is the reason we underestimate its diversity.Portrait of a harpy in ferrite powder suspended on a window. and putting aside the question of application.com . Keeping an eye out for uncanny qualities.

For more information.100percentdetail.uk . See the exhibition in London’s Earls Court Exhibition Centre between 18-21 September 2008.co.100%Materials 2008 The highlights from the 2008 edition Photography by Gianni Diliberto Over the next pages we feature some of the most exciting new additions to this year’s 100% Materials feature at 100% Design. visit www.

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I kept coming across how sound can be used to create a speci c state of mind. resonates with the frequencies of the brainwaves of a person that is in a relaxed and focused state of mind. INGREDIENTS NO. There are differences and similarities of the inner and the outer worlds of a person. and even to reach ecstasy. I wanted to explore how music and sound affects the body and mind.Strike the rim of the bowl with the wooden handle of the spoon and move it around the edge to generate a clear. piercing tone. along with the rituals surrounding the art. You can feel the vibrations of the sound in your hand Music of the Spheres Sound and music in science and culture. how instruments. and a whistling water vessel. but some see it as a way of reaching a higher consciousness. Alchemy is one example – it is mostly referred to as a pseudo-science focussing on transforming lead into gold. With these objects. In my research. 3 — 29 . religious and superstitious practices might have a different relevance today when science has given new possibilities to research the effects of these rituals. Against this background. linked and cross-pollinated with recent studies in neuroscience and brought into a contemporary context through dining. I speci cally focused on the objects used in the practices and any physical and cultural effects that I could trace back to the users. for relaxation and meditation. In the experimentation and transformation of materials. It is the outcome of my self-initiated nal year project at BA Product Design at Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design and it includes a singing bowl and glasses. the alchemist is meant not only to change what is front of him. scientists have been able to show that the frequencies of the sound of a shaman’s drum. The inspiration came from objects used in spiritual practice. This ties in with research into the brain and psyche of today. and how objects can be used to change inner thoughts and feelings. It all started when I set out to investigate if spiritual. but also what’s inside. and how it can be used to enhance product design Words by Camilla Sundwall Photography by Gianni Diliberto Music of the Spheres is a range of kitchenware that I designed with the aim to create a dining experience that fully engages with your senses. songs and rhythms are traditionally used to get in contact with spirits.

Antique singing bowls are said to use seven different metals. This creates an eerie whistling sound. but after a while you can feel the vibrations of the sound in your hand as it builds up to ll the whole room. or Pyrex.com . 3 Pour some water into the glasses and hear the water vessel whistle. thoughts. The singing bowl is made of a 3mm thick brass sheet. 30 — INGREDIENTS NO. It takes a bit of practice. long-lasting tone. Brass is widely used for instruments and bells because of its ability to produce a clear. To make it sing. shapes and materials are all combined to fully engage the user. if a person is given a pill that is believed to be a painkiller. where sound. This means that it is now proven that the placebo effect is actually causing a real effect. strike the rim of the bowl with the wooden handle of the spoon and move it around the edge to conjure up a clear. contact Camilla info@camillasundwall. The spherical body is split into two compartments of equal size. which also happens to produce an excellent tone. For example. So simply believing in the pill is enough for the mind to create an actual physical reaction in your body. The glasses are made of borosilicate glass. spun into a hemisphere. rub the edge of the glass in a circular motion with your nger Camilla Sundwall recently graduated from Central St Martins College of Art with a BA in Product Design. and singing bowls are traditionally made of various metal alloys. almost as if a trapped genie is escaping the bottle. My range of kitchenware instruments was designed to make sounds based on the interaction of the user. For me. To make the glasses sing. movements. he or she will start to develop the body’s own substance that act as painkillers. of the connection between mind and matter. this translated into a design project where using the objects to becomes a means to achieve a particular effect for the user. For more information. but the particular process of making them is now lost. piercing tone.as neuroscientists and psychoanalysts are discovering and recognising that thoughts and feelings affect the physical body to a much further extent than previously recognized. which is a very durable and heat resistant material. I wanted to design a product that not only has a physical effect on the body. which leads to air being forced out of the vessel as the water level adjusts itself to ll both sides of the partition. The water vessel will whistle when you tilt it back after pouring. but a product with an effect that will change depending on the user’s intentions. My aim for this range of products was to create a holistic sensorial experience. These bowls create an amazingly rich and harmonious sound with many overtones. Different materials have different acoustic qualities due to their molecular structures. the material qualities and the shape of the objects. The drinking glasses work on the same principle as the bowl – the vibrations in the glass walls create a ringing sound when you rub the edge of the glass with your nger. Hopefully it can lead to further exploration of the relationship between the material and the immaterial worlds.

followed by hard chromium plating. which is much thicker and hardwearing and often used on industrial equipment to reduce friction and wear. the parts are placed in chrome solution Chrome plating www.com Anodizing is an electrochemical nishing technique that forms a protective coating of aluminium oxide on aluminium surfaces.lbplating.com Flocking is a technique that was traditionally used for decorative purposes. 3 — 33 . 3 01 The parts are cleaned in a solvent bath 02 Then put in an electrolytic solution 03 Finished parts coated with aluminium oxide Anodizing www. Raw aluminium that is left exposed will corrode and oxidise which is unsightly.qualplast. the solution temperature and the length of time that the component is immersed in the solution. It is then electrically charged and immersed into the chromium solution which is also charged.000 bres per square inch. INGREDIENTS NO.lbplating. This thin layer is heat-sealed and chemically bonded to the aluminium so will not ake or peel. even surface. In terms of aesthetics. The thickness and hardness of the coating is determined by the strength of the electrical current. handles and mirrors. The length and type of bre used determines the type of nish produced. using an electrostatic charge. A current is passed through the aluminium components which converts the aluminium surface to form aluminium oxide. but anodizing protects the raw aluminium. The components to be anodized are rst thoroughly cleaned before being immersed in a sulphur solution. Chrome plating is often used in the automotive industry for detailing such as bumpers. which make it ideal for a wide variety of applications. 01 The parts are cleaned in an acid bath 02 Then dipped in nickel and cleaned again 03 Finally. Chrome plating involves electrically charging the substrate and a bath of chromium solution to make the coating stick to the substrate in a process called electroplating. the most common being the thin decorative bright chrome that can be used on a wide range of equipment. but it also has many other advantages such as sound and heat insulation. Flocking involves applying precision cut lengths of bres to an adhesive coated surface. The product must be thoroughly cleaned and buffed in order to create a smooth. 32 — INGREDIENTS NO. almost re ective appearance. These charges cause an attraction between the object and the solution which produces an even layer over the entire surface of the object. it has an extremely shiny. with up to 150. There are typically two types of chrome coatings.com Chrome plating is a technique commonly used for coating objects which require particular resistance to corrosion and wear. transforming it into a hard and durable weather-resistant surface. It create a seamless fabric-like coating.Surface nishes A closer look at three of the more common surface treatments available to designers 01 The part is coated with a thick adhesive 02 Then sprayed with ocking bres 03 Fibres are bonded with an electric charge Flocking www. Bathroom xtures is another big area of applications where parts need to withstand moist conditions and chrome is particularly effective due to its excellent resistance to corrosion.

giving it a distinct. I remember religiously watching 80s skate lm Thrashin’ where the protagonist is offered a sponsorship by a man who claims that his particular brand of skateboard wheels ‘are made with the only material that will survive a nuclear attack’. with kids effortlessly rolling down endless roads in the eternal California sunshine. Nike have for some time run a scheme to recycle expired shoes and shred them into a cushioning material for sports courts. local councils do their best to keep skaters out of public spaces. In an interview with Apple. but “a park to skate in”.Lunar Racer Skateboard materials Words by Daniel Liden Admittedly. the Southbank Centre. The Considered Lava Dome expands on this theme by taking the issue of unmaking products as seriously as the use of sustainable materials for its construction. skateboards were the reason that I learnt the meaning of concave and convex. Skateboarding de nitely belongs in the streets – just look at London’s high altar of brutalist architecture. 3 — 35 Light impact Material innovation in Nike shoes Photography by Gianni Diliberto The sports business is one of the most dynamic industries for exploiting new materials and technologies. with one camp promptly declaring that this cutting edge composite material would ‘fall apart in no time’. a new material sandwich has been designed to create this ultra-lightweight running shoes. especially in northern Europe. reinterpreted as one big skatepark. quickly learning to appreciate the value of smooth. just like the kids do. American pro skater Rob Dyrdek explains. but skatepark design did not evolve with it”. which you cut to release the various parts. which use permanent chemical adhesives for construction the show is stitched together. steps and handrails. used as much to create heroes for the brand story as they are to enhance performance. “we don’t go to some training facility because there is no such thing. stripy look. Ohio. so lightweight that when we picked up the box in the store recently it felt empty. Skateboard wheels are great examples of the incredible versatility of polyurethane. with footpaths and raised platforms.” Recognizing that “skateboarding has evolved into a pure urban phenomenon. has been turned into a visual reference point for the main story for consumers. the material of choice. I used to have a Powell Peralta Lance Mountain board with black sheets of carbon bre sandwiched between the veneers. hard variety that make your teeth clack when you hit an uneven surface. You also become a connoisseur of the various plastic materials that are used in skateboard wheels – from soft and bouncy OJII wheels to the compact. The material hero in these shoes is Vectran a brand of bres that are a quarter of the diameter of a human hair and weight for weight ve times stronger than steel. 3 . Dyrdek insists that it is not a skatepark. Years before I knew anything about Aalto or the Eameses and experiments with moulded ply. This simple stitching and tag detail. In other places. It created quite a schism between my friends. Considered Lava Dome 34 — INGREDIENTS NO. INGREDIENTS NO. mixed with lawns and picturesque greenery. but I love it passionately nevertheless. I have never been great at skateboarding. On the face of it. Skateboarding is all about materials – scrape your hands and knees on a bit of particularly worn and gravelly asphalt and you’ll know what I mean. Skaters develop an intuitive feeling for various substrates. The reality is a little different though. it’s just another successful American lifestyle export. These bres are sandwiched in between a TPU mesh to create a shoe upper that is as thin and translucent as a second skin. The Considered Lava Dome shoe uses materials design to create a completely different story. Dyrdek set up the ‘Skate Plaza’ in Kettering. freshly paved tarmac. Here are two stories from Nike that look at materials and sports shoe construction from very opposing perspectives. It looks just like any other nicely landscaped town square. Unlike virtually all other forms of shoe construction. In the Nike Flywire technology used in the Lunar Racer shoe. I’m 31 and everyday I run from the cops.

Material Experience How do you communicate technical material data to non-technical people? Photography by Gianni Diliberto Mention ‘soft-touch’ to an industrial designer and what comes to mind is a warm velvety tactile sensation.8% Many materials lose their springiness after a while. Sealing Force Retention – 72. with a coef cient of friction which approximates the value of 0. extruded and blow moulded just like any other modern plastic material and it has virtually replaced cast thermoset rubber.com 36 — INGREDIENTS NO.exxonmobilchemical.santoprene. but not Santoprene TPV it relaxes very little over time. TPEs are also much more durable than rubber. thermoformed. An extension of materialexperience. This opens up for a fantastic range of applications – TPEs are used in everything from seals in the construction and automotive industries.com or www.and shock resistance. retaining 72.18 W/mK’. Santoprene TPV is equally grippy. . ExxonMobil’s web site speci cally developed for designers. For more information about Santoprene TPV for designers.8% of its sealing property. In other words.ops with good traction. 3 Coef cient of friction – 0. be a little more speci c and the material that is most likely being referred to is Santoprene™ brand TPV from ExxonMobil Chemical. This is all very impressive. This is not to mention that it is possible to create some really diverse tactile experiences with this warm material – it is available in grades that feel stiff right through to extremely exible. but it is dif cult for designers to accurately specify the kind of properties they are looking for in a material. everyday examples to decipher the technical jargon that is often impenetrable to anyone without a degree in chemistry or physics. or TPEs. a well-known range of thermoplastic elastomers. you know the value of a pair of ip. chemical. especially when it comes to extremely versatile materials such as TPEs. to tool handles and dog chews.op. this article tries to explain the unique properties of Santoprene TPV by using simple.com. Santoprene TPV can be injection moulded. grip. TPEs are super-materials that combine the exibility and elasticity of rubber with the strength and processability of thermoplastic materials. The material can be coloured to almost any tone and it is available in various levels of translucency. with a good working temperature range.materialexperience. which seems archaic in comparison. please visit www. There are so many references that are completely lost to designers in technical terms such as ‘Shore hardness 55A’ or ‘Thermal conductivity 0.com For more general information.418 If you have ever walked on the slippery surface next to a swimming pool. please visit – www.418 of the ip.

Thermal conductivity – 0. or the number of times that a material can be bent before it breaks. try bending a paper clip – it snaps after about four bends only. is measured in cycles.Translucency – 4% of haze A haze meter reading gives a de nitive value of the transparency of a material. which happens to be 4% of haze. feel the palm of your hand. Grip – 55 Shore A hardness Shore hardness is one way to measure grip. Flex fatigue – 4 cycles Flex fatigue. which is remarkably similar to the thermal conductivity Santoprene TPV. is a very near perfect analogy for translucent ExxonMobil TPE. This is an area where Santoprene TPV excels. The warm transparency of a gummi bear.581 W/m*K The cryptic formula above describes the warm feel of the skin of a peach. For a reference of the warm and reassuring surface of Santoprene TPV. which is approximately 55 Shore A hardness. but to give you an example from the other end of the scale. .

to othbrushes and ra zors. Flupis www.Flupis are made with recycled newsprint that is steamed to give it some volume. Pa that it is not used is suitable for ring that sh skin conside e ere you would us any application wh Leather from leather. an exhibition commissioned by Design Singapore to be a part of the Singapore Design Festival.Above & Below Photography by Gianni Diliberto ‘Above & Below’ was a part of ‘Utter Rubbish’. It uses no binders and it can be composted or burnt without any adverse effect on the environment.co m Recycline. all of which can be recycled ag ain after use. but if yo common materia waste from the skin that goes to all the ing is actually surpris shing industry.recycline. To date. The exhibition looked at a selection of the ever-growing number of environmentally responsible materials that are available to designers and architects. perch and wo salm hues.atlanticleath t nitely not the mos Fish leather is de u think about l. including metallic in many colours.zerzog. so here is an enormous opportunity for designers to be creative and explore new possibilities. Over the next pages we feature an excerpt from the exhibition catalogue. although it is one of the worst materials from an environmental perspective. It is encouraging then to see that there are alternatives . Preser ve ww w. it rticularly so more.de Atlantic leather er. Some of these materials are based on new technologies that haven’t found many applications yet. an Am erican company. any other type of lf sh are available on. with examples of materials that make ingenious use of rubbish and by-products. the Preser ve™ range includes re usable and dishw ashersafe tableware.is ww w. often with a witty can-do attitude that is utterly inspiring. to those that leave no rubbish behind. It was called ‘Above & Below’ because we chose to focus on the whole range of materials made from rubbish. . with more produc ts to come. Expanded polystyrene is probably the most common material used for loose ll packaging. teamed up with a yoghurt factory to collect and recycle empty yo ghurt pots into a range of plastic products.

de Until recently. something that Excel Ind ustries Limited has realised by turning recycled and shredded newspapers into a highly efcient material for loft ins ulation. it is suitable for high-traf c retail spaces and other public environments. The standard version is speckled. but not anymore . actually derived from renewable starc with grass (not glass!) bres for extra an exstrength.uk g .com This striking material is made with a blend of recycled tires.expanko. post-industrial waste and virgin rubber.com Biodegradable Arti cial Snow www.this excellent product made from potato.ict. but it can also be speci ed in custom colours.Warmcel www. it is alternative to traditional plastic macellent ucts. The pioneering efforts of this co mpany is further underlined by the fact tha t they operate their own newspaper co llection scheme to source the raw material.excel bre. but it is may look like polystyre hes.fraunhofer. terials for disposable foodservice prod Reztec www. Extremely hard wearing. set-designers and decorators everywhere were stuck with polyethylene for arti cial snow.or cornstarch will completely dissolve in water without any danger to the environment. So whether you are trying to lm that romantic winter scene in sunny California. 100% biodegradable. .co.greenpac. Newsprint is actually an excellent insulator. or just want some Christmas decoration. PPM www. this biodegradable material lets you do it with a clean conscience.it The look of this material is deceivin ne foam.

Packaging rd has main application here. yet to some fairly complex structures.com Packaging is one of the most exciting areas in terms of the development of eco-friendly material s and FrogWrap™ is a good example. and elephants produce some 50kg of the stuff each day. Kirei www.nl The wood in this strong and lightweight sheet material is sourced from a range of species. This process gives Kirei board its unique stripy look. even who . with no danger to the envir onment. According to the manufacturer it is also stronger and more resistant to punctures than traditional bubblew rap materials.uk Dung is of course just a polite word for ‘poo’.mutr. As it turns out. BeeBoard www.besin. It is very rigid enough to use it to build weight. elephants are poor digesters.com e This incredible sheet material is mad ely from recycled paper and it can entir lowbe recycled again after use.stewardhoutproducten. so over 50% of what they eat comes out the other end. furniture le of ce interiors. It is suitable for furniture and interiors. Not st as easy to work mention that it is almo is the with as a sheet of paper. waterbased glue. The nicely chewed up bres are then washed and boiled for ve hours. but BeeBoa and also been used for signage. The green part of this protective pa ckaging material is made with polyla ctic acid derived from fermented corn starch and it dissolves entirely in water.frogpackagin g.Elephant dung paper www. before the material is attened out into paper sheets. FrogWrap ww w.co. or hidden away as a structural material inside walls and ceilings. shredded and put together again using a formaldehyde-free.

3 INGREDIENTS NO. The contemporary reverence for leather is rejected in favour of a more brutal approach. as the moulds are disassembled following each production The self-supporting Twist stool only contains a ring frame in the seat. and craft. For designer Simon Hasan the use of leather bottles. 46 — INGREDIENTS NO. Not just the new inventions but also new ways of using old materials. blackjacks and bombards in the 16th & 17th centuries was the starting point for an on-going investigation of process. Hand stitching and brogueing are combined with industrial patent nishes. to explore how traditional techniques can be freed from the staid world of bespoke leathergoods. which sees the material boiled and stretched to achieve compelling forms and rigidity. and ‘Twist’ stool. form. left. These products demonstrate how leather. before boiling. which is necessary to handform the leather over. right 02) Simon Hasan’s leather vase collection Each of his vases are unique. 3 — 47 .Rediscovered process Simon Hasan’s research into leather manufacturing led to the rediscovery of an old process Photography by Simon Hasan 01 02 At Ingredients we believe that the de nition of new materials can have many meanings. can again be used for industrial applications. The structural integrity comes from the processed material itself. once the industrial material of its age. aiming to imbue his designs with a richness and texture which he feels to be lacking in much of contemporary design. 01) ‘Bambi’ stool.

In 1943. Silicone-based soft skin adhesive relies on the material’s natural ability to gently cling to a surface.New forms of silicone Reinventing a classic material Photography by Gianni Diliberto It’s easy to get silicon and silicone mixed up with each other and they are in fact closely related – the chemical element silicon is a crucial ingredient in the plastic material silicone. shoes and automotive interiors. equally suitable for classic leather applications such as furniture. The adhesive properties of the material can be ne-tuned for a variety of applications beyond the medical sector. Soft skin adhesive Sticky bandages are annoying – they tend to get stuck in the wound and the adhesive often leaves a trace of unsightly residue. electronics and toys. hydrogen. oxygen and silicon.dowcorning. extending all the way from -100°C up to +250°C. please visit – www. The plaster is easy to reposition and it can even be washed and used again without losing its stickiness.and UV-resistant. 3 — 49 . scientists at Corning Glass and Dow Chemical started producing silicone rubber made from carbon.com/design Silicone leather Leather has a long history and it will probably never be completely replaced by another material. For more information about Dow Corning and their range of silicone materials. The material has a long list of impressive properties – it is incredibly exible and tactile. Silicone is always being developed into new forms and over the next pages we present four recent examples from Dow Corning. for example outdoor furniture and winter boots. including prostheses and orthopaedic cushions. Silicone is also chemically inert. the same company that started making silicone in the 1940s. as well as the surface nish. The level of stretch and tack can be controlled. but silicone leather is an incredibly exible alternative. 48 — INGREDIENTS NO. and its appearance can vary from watery translucent tones to completely opaque colours. Extensively used in the construction and automotive industries. INGREDIENTS NO. silicone is also often used in cookware. Textures and colours can be customised to suit the end use and silicone leather inherently water. Its working temperature range is phenomenal. but also more demanding applications. without the need for harsh solvents or harmful treatments. ranging from matte to semi-gloss. 3 which coupled with its exibility makes it suitable for a wide range of medical applications.

INGREDIENTS NO. The process is compatible with recycled and virgin bres and the material offers excellent strength. keeping its shape in applications where it is likely to get wet. making it perfectly safe to wash and iron. formaldehyde. but often seen as preferable to plastic packaging anyway. screen-printing silicone can be speci ed in a wide range of custom colours. 3 — 51 . 50 — INGREDIENTS NO. PVC or solvents. Semi-gloss or matte in appearance. including CDs and DVDs. but this versatile printing process is also used in mass production to print onto a wide variety of surfaces. durability and water resistance. 3 Silicone-enhanced packaging Waxed and plastic coated paper is very dif cult if not impossible to recycle.Screen-printing silicone A staple in the creative toolbox. Siliconeenhanced packaging offers the best of both worlds – it is a recyclable and repulpable composite material made of silicone-coated paper bres. Screen-printing silicone offers many advantages over traditional inks – this soft. glass. ceramics. metals and wood. low-tack material can be stretched up to an amazing 850% of its original size and it easily withstands high temperatures. The material does not contain toxic substances. t-shirts and yers. screen-printing is often used by artists to produce small batches of posters.

co. 3 Solvon bre This synthetic yarn is water-soluble. just watch out that you don’t use too much or it won’t set properly. but it melts at 62°C. If you pinch the eecy outside. Glow stones This particular type of quartz is permanently electrically charged – strike the stones together at speed and enough voltage is obtained to cause them to glow eerily in the dark. Indium Indium is a very soft. INGREDIENTS NO. indium and tin is a model maker’s dream – it looks just like silver.it is even possible to indent with your nger nail. It melts at 70°C and it is compatible with colorants and other additives.mutr. which makes it possible to cast the material in any mould that can take this relatively low temperature. it’s possible to pull out strands of silk bre up to an amazing one thousand metres long. malleable metal with the consistency of a soap bar . but it has the unique property that it shrinks by 50% before it dissolves. such as fragrances. Gel wax This material feels just like jelly. making it useful in a wide variety of application where a mechanical pulling force is needed. 52 — INGREDIENTS NO.uk Field’s metal This metal alloy of bismouth. including lters and medical bandages. please visit – www. we presented some of the ‘weird’ materials that are available from Middlesex University Teaching Resources (MUTR). for more information and the full range. Strands of solvon can be added to textiles.More ‘Weird materials’ Photography by Gianni Diliberto In the second issue of Ingredients. so shake these cocoons and you will hear the dried up silk worm rattle inside. Silk cocoons This is the real deal – silk cannot be produced arti cially. Over the next pages we show some more examples from their amazing range of materials. but it has an almost ice-like clarity – it seems to disappear when cast inside a glass container. 3 — 53 .

plastics and low temperature metals such as Field’s metal. bamboo is the fastest growing wood species on the planet. the microcapsules absorbs the heat. including clothing. polymorph and gel wax. 3 Bamboo bre A true super-material. seaweed-based material can be used to make exible precision moulds capable of taking plaster. paper. which cause the capsules to release stored heat. including wood. 54 — INGREDIENTS NO. It consists of microscopic plastic capsules embedded in paraf n wax. Micronal This material adapts to the temperature of the environment. The timber literally has hundreds of uses. . Bamboo textiles are durable and suitable for a wide range of applications. Suits made with this material reduce friction in the water and give athletes better buoyancy – swimmers who wore this type of suit claimed 18 of the 19 world records that have been beaten since the start of 2008. The process is then reversed as the temperature falls and the wax solidi es. When the temperature goes up. but it is not well known that it is also a source of soft and shiny bres similar to cashmere and silk. Food-grade colouring Food colouring is often overlooked as a non-toxic colour additive for model makers.Speedo FS textile This material was modelled on the rough surface of sharkskin. These pigments add intense hues to a range of materials. which feels a little bit like touching sandpaper. Chromatic alginate This non-toxic.

squarespace.org 05) Gina concept car © BMW AG 06) Food-based plastic © Cheryl Bauer cheryl. RCA graduate Cheryl Lyn Bauer has collaborated with a professor at London’s Imperial College to invent a new plastic made from everyday cooking ingredients such as corn our. which is both durable and biodegradable. Equally inspired by sustainability.kategoldsworthy. a byproduct of the fermentation process that have a similar structure to cotton. biomimicry and nanotechnology are formulating materials of a new genre. At the cutting edge of resourceful design. Technology has enabled designers to rethink materials. One such innovator is Kate Goldsworthy who through her PhD research project.com 03) Paper pulp lamp © David Gardener Photo Claire Pepper www. such as shoddy felt underlay.co. a process that generates no waste. please visit www. New technologies are also enabling designers to re-think materials and processes.uk 03 04 01 02 05 06 Sarah Dennis is the materials associate editor for WGSN. The role of the designer has become both in uential and responsible. breathable plasters that absorb smells. In his in uential book ‘Cradle-to-Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things’. sustainable and adaptable future.co. In uenced by nature’s nest. The recent emergence of a self-healing rubber developed by ESPCI. Goldsworthy ‘resurfaces’ them with delicate patterns using lasers and heat processes. as the cradle-to-cradle impact of a product needs to be realised even before it is designed. 3 — 57 . offering up new solutions through a process underpinned by aesthetics and the environment. the answer lies in reusing what we already have. where the longevity of the original product is extended and enhanced through reas bly or value-added embellishment. and concept products such as the BMW shape-shifting car and Nokia Morph phone are examples of where such material innovations will become real products in our self-sustaining. adapting and hopefully sustainable future.com 07) Self-healing rubber © ESPCI www. and then further recycled into a re-resistant building matter. The husks are used as a non-toxic substitute for polystyrene as packaging material. materials are taking a huge responsibility in the drive for a smart.bioalloy. food and material innovation. where the moulded recycled paper structure is both packaging and product. and explore new ways of manipulating existing ones. disassembled or even biodegradable.com 08 07 crisis and amounts to around three million tonnes a year in Europe alone. yet the growing relationship with science has revealed a whole new area of innovation and sustainability. Using local and low-cost alternatives to conventional materials help lessen the environmental footprint of a product.theboneproject. aims to ‘upgrade’ low-quality materials using new technologies. the leading global online service providing creative intelligence to the style industries.freedomofcreation. Michael Braungart discusses ways of ‘upcycling’ rice husks. WGSN is the only online service with 10 years experience of providing macro-trend analysis and trend forecasting. Working with blended materials that are dif cult to recycle. which has had to be incinerated since the BSE 56 — INGREDIENTS NO. design and technology mean that materials are playing a greater role in the decisionmaking for product design in our modern world. whether that is a self-cleaning paint.wgsn. INGREDIENTS NO. salt and oil. David Gardener’s ‘Paper Pulp Lamp’ is a simple example of this. As well as exploring bone as a sustainable alternative to ivory.davidgardener.com 02) Mobius © FOC www. For more information.espci. and disposable casings for electronics.fr 08) Boneengineer © Andrew Ross www. Ross is exploiting its chemical properties to develop metal-neutralising packaging to bury used batteries. Words by Sarah Dennis Driven by technological innovations and ecological concerns. cooked or become self-suf cient. Micro’b’ is an ongoing project between artist Donna Franklin and scientist Gary Cass that explores the idea of growing seamless biosynthetic material from cellulose micro brils. or embedded technologies that harvest energy. A sustainable design approach to using waste is through upcycling. recent graduate Andrew Ross is researching innovative ways of using waste animal bone. 3 01) Laser cut felt © Kate Goldsworthy www. As the materials industry strives for resourceful and innovative solutions. while designing for end use can determine whether the material needs to be robust or easily disposable. Other designers are working with the concept of zero waste.Future Materials Advances in innovation. while design and research company Freedom of Creation (FOC) has pioneered the use of rapid prototyping within product design. a material that poses a huge waste disposal problem in Asia due to its incombustible nature.uk 04) Micro’be’ Fermented fashion © Donna Franklin and Gary Cass www. where materials can be grown.bauer@gmail.

meandering through common aluminium and into less familiar materials such as barium and gallium. It follows a trail through metals.uk INGREDIENTS NO. Just like the article about ‘–enes’ in the last issue of Ingredients. It’s a trail that unearths alternative and less familiar uses for these metals. please visit – www.ac. occupying about three quarters of the elements. we like to present not just the new. while others are connected with our bodies in our foods and medicines. as well as with students. Firmly established in the periodic table. metals are familiar territory to most people. The UK Centre for Materials Education (UKCME) is a great place to nd out more about a wide range of materials. including the ‘-ums’. but also old and perhaps forgotten materials. engaging collaboratively with academics and departments.materials.‘-ums’ A rough guide to metals that end with ‘–um’ Photography by Gianni Diliberto Always preoccupied with stories that bring new life to materials. adoption and sharing of effective practices that contribute to the enhancement of discipline-speci c learning experiences. In undertaking its work. this article is an informal look at a group of materials. It supports and promotes high quality education in Materials and related disciplines. It is a national Subject Centre of the Higher Education Academy. professional bodies and subject associations. 3 — 59 . For more information about UKCME. employers and industry. UKCME encourages and coordinates the development. UKCME draws on a variety of approaches. some of which have remarkable mechanical and physical properties.

It also expands as it solidi es. making its containment quite dangerous! Perhaps its most remarkable use is in the production of LEDs where it is able to convert electricity into light. 3 . 60 — INGREDIENTS NO.Gallium Gallium is one of just a few metals that are liquid at near room temperature. When sprayed into the air. gallium has a beautiful silvery appearance. while it is brittle and fractures in a similar way to glass in solid form. it forms ne particles of titanium dioxide that are used to produce smoke screens and socalled ‘skywriting’ from aircrafts. so it comes as no surprise that titanium has excellent resistance to corrosion. If you were to pick up this metal it would melt in your hand. It has been found in meteorites and it is believed to be present in the sun as well.Titanium This incredible metal has the highest strength-to-weight ratio of any metal – titanium is as strong as most steels at only half the weight. used in a huge range of products from paper to toothpaste. Its performance in high temperature thermometers is unmatched because it has the highest liquid range of any metal. accounting for its use in the aerospace. In its pure from. Previous page . automotive and marine industries. Nearly all of the titanium ore extracted is made into white pigment.

Lithium This soft metal is silver-white in colour and highly reactive. providing twice the voltage of an ordinary zinc carbon battery or alkaline cell. from hyperactivity to depression. helping to treat all kinds of illnesses. it is soft enough to be cut with a knife and yet it has the highest level of heat resistance of any solid material. Lightweight and with high electrochemical potential. One unusual application of lithium is its role in medicine. INGREDIENTS NO. Lithium corrodes quickly in air to form a black tarnish. which is why it is stored in oil. It affects the ow of sodium through nerve and muscle cells in the body. lithium is mainly used in batteries. 3 — 63 . In a bizarre contrast.

a town near to where it was found. It is an unpredictable material . Although it can be used to enhance bone growth. One striking feature of Strontium is the crimson colour ame it produces when lit. taking its name from Stronian.in powder form it will ignite spontaneously in air. hailing as the most important chemical to produce colours in reworks. 3 . 64 — INGREDIENTS NO. its moderate level of radioactivity makes it unsuitable for ingestion. It is for this reason that strontium salts are used in pyrotechnics and ares.Strontium Naturally occurring in the earths crust. strontium was rst discovered in Scotland. The human body will absorb strontium as if it were calcium because the two elements are chemically similar.

at fourteenth place among the most common elements. nuts and seaweed where it doesn’t pose a health risk. Barium can be found in some soil. It is used to produce sparklers. with barium nitrate responsible for the green colour you can see in reworks. It is not found in nature in its pure form because of its reactivity with air. It is surprisingly abundant in the earth’s crust. so it is stored under kerosene to remain pure.Barium Barium is a soft and heavy earth metal that is metallic silver in appearance. INGREDIENTS NO. uorescent lamps and vacuum tubes. 3 — 67 . but exceedingly high doses can be fatal.

Aluminium In little over a century. this relatively new addition to the family of metals has become one of the world’s most widely used metals. When ground into a powder form. Incredibly. the most remarkable property of this metal is that it can be 100% recycled. aluminium is the optimal metal for all kinds of transportation applications. low weight and resistance to corrosion. nearly 3 quarters of all aluminium ever made remains in use today! 68 — INGREDIENTS NO. aluminium is one of the few metals that retain a shiny appearance. However. including ocean liners. aircrafts and even spaceships. With its winning combination of strength. 3 . which is why it is commonly found in paints and plastics to produce a metallic effect. second only to steel.

It is a highly ammable metal. INGREDIENTS NO. it is dif cult to ignite in mass or bulk. The material produces a brilliant white light when it’s burning (a demonstration you may remember from science lessons at school) and in the early days of photography magnesium was used to produce a ash.Magnesium The lightest of the structural metals. It is for this reason that magnesium makes an ideal re-starter for camping and survival kits where simply the sparks from a int can be used to ignite it. but while it is easy to ignite when powdered or cut into small strips. 3 — 71 . magnesium weighs in at a quarter of the weight of steel and two thirds of that of aluminium.

You will recognise the highly re ective surface of chromium on most car components including bumpers. 3 . Its anti-corrosion properties are due to its ability to prevent the diffusion of oxygen into coated surfaces. have been found without any signs of rust! 72 — INGREDIENTS NO. which is why it is used as a protective and decorative coating for a huge variety of metal products.Chromium Chromium is a hard.000 years. swords and bolts coated in chromium which date back 2. grey metal with a high melting point. door handles and wing mirrors. It can be polished to an incredible shine and it has outstanding resistance to corrosion. In fact.

com Scale is always important when specifying materials. The scales disrupt turbulence over the skin. In most cases photos of material samples are presented at arms length. across a city like Barcelona and the material selection for a building like Torre Agbar is a backdrop for the city. 74 — INGREDIENTS NO. These painstakingly coloured scanning electron micrographs. captured landscapes of discarded electronic products that were taken from a scale that stripped them of all glamour and seduction.eyeofscience.The secret life of materials Photography by Eye of Science/ Science Photo Library www. but look at something from across a room and its surface appears very differently. featured in another edition of Ingredients. boats and even swimsuits. reveal the incredible landscapes of material surfaces that are invisible to the naked eye. We’ve taken the theme of scale again and looked at some common materials but this time under a microscope. or SEMs. Shark skin These sharply pointed scales are also known as dermal teeth or denticles. see page 52.de www. They give the shark’s skin the feel of sandpaper. This design has been investigated by engineers for use on the surfaces of aircraft.sciencephoto. considerably reducing the drag on the shark as it swims. 3 . Look at a material from across a street and it becomes something else again. adding to the story of material functionality and giving a new dimension to their understanding. The images of Chris Jordan.

even when only low densities of the material are present. The absorbers and re ectors prevent the conduction of heat. Neopor is manufactured by BASF. 3 — 77 .Neopor Neopor consists of expanded polystyrene particles and integrated infrared absorbers and re ectors. INGREDIENTS NO.

marketed under the name Isitect. It can be used to insulate buildings. is produced using plastic polymers and nanoscale frameworks. Isitect is manufactured by BASF. 3 . 78 — INGREDIENTS NO. aeroplanes and refrigerators and is less bulky than traditional insulating materials. cars.Nanofoam This material.

3 — 81 .Waterproof cotton The white beads in the image are nanoparticles of a water-repellent polymer. stuck to the fabric INGREDIENTS NO.

com is a website dedicated to introducing Ciba to the design community. Ciba® XYMARA™ Electra The use of surface and printing is probably most advanced and widespread in packaging. Amongst the many applications for this product. the face that an object or being presents to the world. acoustics and texture? A surface is by de nition an exterior. which could open up a whole new territory for furniture. or create an illusion that gradually changes into something else. which have been printed onto various woods. This is a design and technology resource developed to provide designers. inks and plastics applications. discovery. 3 as trivial. 3 — 83 . Can perceptions change with proximity or lighting conditions. Inject some drama and air into everyday life. XYMARA. INGREDIENTS NO. Imagine having to navigate through a world without surfaces as rst point of reference. These can be printed onto different substrates including paper while still maintaining their performance once the paper is folded or rolled. open a door to the past. Not restricted to effects pigments Ciba also have a range of printable conductive inks. converters.xymara.com Ciba® XYMARA Nordic™ Sparkling Effects Think of ice crystals and you will get a feeling for the XYMARA Nordic™ family of sparkling nishes. but it would be a mistake to dismiss them 82 — INGREDIENTS NO. Surfaces are also about messages – of contrasts. we selected four surface effects that caught our eye. ink and masterbatch producers with global and regional colour trend forecasts and information as design tools for coatings. For this article. Ciba have a range of XYMARA Nordic™ samples . Amongst the reviews of design events and other design resources there is the Effect Explorer which provides an innovative feature that offers the ability to test and visualise various effects within the Colour Trend Vision programme. A surface is a projection screen for emotions and the state of things in general. For more information and to see the whole range of Xymara effects. Potential applications could involve simplifying the use of RFID technology by printing the tags directly onto packaging and incorporating them as a design feature as part of the graphics and branding. new experiences and scenarios. and paint. Sure there are negative connotations – surfaces are connected with shallowness and the notion that beauty is skin-deep. interaction and unexpected turns that have an impact on all the senses. please visit – www.Deeper surfaces Photography by Gianni Diliberto Surfaces provide an opportunity to create a personality. These can be combined with transparent coloured pigments to give bright poppy effects or produce silky deep shade effects.

These range from dark chrome and silver to strong vibrant golds each with a soft pearlised sheen. . Ciba® XYMARA™ METASHEEN® Metallic Pigments TThe METASHEEN® effect pigment from Ciba is a vacuummetalised pigment that offers a range of brilliant metallic effects.or solvent-borne systems. in both in water. These can be used for a wide variety of applications. new experiences and scenarios. from automotive to cosmetic packaging. This seductive transparent orange Cosmoray™ pigment is available in a variety of red hot shades of shimmering sparkling metallics that range from deep orange to tangerine.Ciba® IRGAZIN® DPP Cosmoray™ Orange Surface effects provide an opportunity for designers to create a personality.

3 — 87 . just go to the kitchen at home and knock up a new one. This is the future of plastics for Cheryl Bauer.Household ingredients Biodegradable plastics cooked up with kitchen staples Photography by Cheryl Bauer 01 02 You’ve just received your new mobile phone and in a calamity of events the fascia breaks. Coming from an engineering background. 01) Some of the ingredients that Cheryl use to produce her ‘Blanc’ material 02) ‘Blanc’ plastic fruit packaging Today’s plastics are high volume and machine made. It also reinforces the forecast that future products will not be designed by designers. but made and customised at home to your needs and requirements. which she acquired in New York.. The project then evolved through exploring different cooking ingredients and applying her background in engineering. The only reliance on fossil fuels is the transport of sugar to your local store. as all the forming and curing is done at room temperature. In her experimental project ‘Blanc’ at the Royal College of Art. yet quite brittle to create a more durable material matrix. Cheryl Bauer has created a recipe for plastic that is no longer the domain of big industry and manufacturers. Cheryl tackles the prevailing necessity for new technologies and materials to have cradle-to-cradle credentials whilst still satisfying our insatiable desire for new products. 3 INGREDIENTS NO. not to mention no need for petroleum in the ingredients list like today’s plastics. whilst ‘Blanc’ is home made and lo. Not to worry. After witnessing the sugar crystals that are grown to make rock candy. 86 — INGREDIENTS NO. where all you need is the ingredients in your cupboard. she set about to improve on their crystalline structure that is inherently beautiful. and the ease with which it can be made tackles issues like transport.

The IF:Lab will also be presenting a six point framework that uses the action words Frame. The New Scientist. academics and researchers they have consulted to. igloos are said to be pretty harmless to the Natural World. disposal. So why ask the question? Well Nick Gant and Jonathan Chapman. groups.A Customizable bio-plastic phone whose form and aesthetic evolves and mutates in response to speci c patterns of use 01 02 03 professionals that the show attracts. Whilst individuals and small practices of self professed ‘eco-designers’ might rightfully brag about their 95% sustainable products. signi cant and effective. meander through modeled ‘worlds’ which feature elements that subvert the utopian vernacular of model railways to question stereotypical perceptions and understanding of sustainability. amorphous music player that responds to different physical interactions with user and responds with appropriate music selections 03) ‘Narrative Mobile Phone’ . Distil. Model trains carrying exemplar products and examples of innovative sustainable design as their cargo. to gather and share information via interactive exhibits and products.Inheritable Futures Can anything be 100% sustainable? Words by Nick Gant While we still have ice caps. recycling etc. Expand. which is a central feature of the annual 100% Design exhibition held at Earls Court in London during the London Design Festival. Ineos. Email Nick n. companies. Nick Gant is co-director of the Inheritable Futures Laboratory at the University of Brighton. By connecting expertise from distinctive corners of the sustainable design eld. yet when faced with the everyday demands of commercially driven product design. Everything has an impact of some sort. This event is in its third year and utilises the unique platform and audience of industry 88 — INGREDIENTS NO.brighton. new insights emerge that facilitate conceptual understanding. 3 01) Products on display within the ‘Village Green’ style event space at 100% Sustainable? 2007 02) ‘Consciousness MP3’ a soft-shelled. By opening up the practice of sustainable design in this way and by providing inclusive means to engage with the subject the IF:Lab aims to progress the opportunities that exist for positive change and progressive gain that exist in all areas of practice. use leading questions like this to expose the unhelpful polemic debate that often surrounds the sustainability debate which often only serves to preclude or even demonize key industries and stakeholders and shuts down the widening opportunities that exist within the eld of sustainable design. Lighten. award winning spatial and product design. paving the way for positive social.ac. and seminars that aim to generate new practical strategies will take place within a miniaturised model environment that is the event space. and design journals globally. INGREDIENTS NO. As a creative. sustainable design research group they have developed a dialogue between academia and industry that promotes greater connectivity and which deliberately questions current sustainable design thinking to ensure an expanding and inclusive debate. serve to acknowledge the fact that improvements in sustainable practice within the scale of global industry will be incremental but might nonetheless be proportionately positive. conferences.uk or visit the Inheritable Futures Laboratory web site www. In 2008 the 100% Sustainable? event uses the theme of ‘Models of Sustainable Design’ and daily events that present new research and technology. production. challenging visitors to question and make their own minds up about what they see. The event also promotes debate by creating interesting environments in which to run seminars and open discussions that has seen key thinkers and industrial representatives in the eld present new and challenging technologies.ac. it becomes dif cult to imagine how anything manufactured can be truly benign in environmental terms. Lucite International. sponsors and partners as broad as chemical industry giants such as ICI. The House of Lords and the Science and Natural History Museums and their work has featured in international press including CNN International. a seemingly lesser ve percent shift towards sustainability made by a global manufacturing giant might actually offer a greater positive change and effect on impact reduction. materials. economic and environmental development in a wasteful age of looming ecological crisis. 3 — 89 . acclaimed books and a wide range of thought provoking and practical projects the IF:Lab have opened up the sustainable design debate and helped to bring previously disconnected parties together to develop new inclusive methodologies that progress sustainability in practice. The UN. shipping. clients. use. Through exhibitions.a. experience and understand as sustainable design. strategic framework for sustainable design. whether through resource extraction. As practitioners. mounting environmental legislation and limited sustainable design progress. Terms like ‘Ecologies of Scale’ and ‘Degrees of Sustainability’ that IF:Lab have developed and promoted. retailing. for example. who co-direct the University of Brighton’s Inheritable Futures Laboratory (IF:Lab). and collaborated with.uk/ arts/if_laboratory Root and Value to de ne a usable. or Eastman.gant@brighton. institutions such as The BBC. products and methodologies in cutting edge sustainable design practice. An example of one of their industry focused projects is the ‘100% Sustainable? Event’.

com. so you can imagine the positive impact on the environment if these abundant greenhouse gases were to be collected and recycled. pointed out as among the main culprits behind the environmental concerns of our time. but this material is suitable for all applications that require environmental protection. This article presents a range of materials that begin to rede ne plastics in an environmental context.Sustainable Plastics New solutions for an old problem Photography by Gianni Diliberto Plastic materials are often. giving the material similar preservative properties. Looking closer at this multifaceted group of materials.novomer.com Natural dyes such as chlorophyll and ribo avin are inherently resistant to the deteriorating effects of oxygen and UV light. www.br Solanyl® is a biodegradable polymer that is made entirely of waste from the potato industry. but Solanyl® is also an excellent substitute in sporting consumables (such as the golf tees featured here) and pet care products.com Nothing short of alchemy. None of the material families contain such diversity.ivv. hoping that it will be a source of inspiration and an invitation to think about plastics as part of the solution towards more sustainable design. plastics that are syrupy like honey to plastics that are harder than steel. It can be injectionmoulded using standard equipment and it is compatible with colour and fragrance additives. and rightfully. 01 01 Bio-reactive resin www. It has huge potential in food-. ceramics and wood.biopolymers. cosmetics. Researchers have found a way to incorporate these dyes into plastic resins.de.fraunhofer. 02 Solanylwww. 02 03 . 03 Novomer www.and pharmaceuticals packaging. it’s easy to understand why – plastics are a continually evolving predatory organism that is always encroaching on territories that used to belong to traditional materials. Novomer is a plastic material made with greenhouse gases such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The use of renewable and biodegradable materials in agriculture applications and packaging would have an enormous bene cial impact on the environment. for example. But this is only half the truth – plastics as a group of materials are a lot more complex than they are given credit for. from plastics that are made with petro chemicals to those that are made with agricultural waste. such as metals. or shape memory plastics that seem more like the stuff of science ction than anything else.3m. CO and CO2 are generally agreed to be the main catalyst behind global warming.

droptec. Droptec® could be used for so much more. including higher exural strength and temperature resistance.com This incredible additive makes it possible to control and increase the rate of degradation of a wide range of common plastic lms.epi-global.crg-industries.werzalit. 06 04 07 04 S2 www. it will simply degrade with organic garbage in the land ll. Potentially a signi cant part of the solution of the problem with the world’s ever-growing land lls. including injection moulding. it makes good use of discarded materials. 07 Veri ex™ www. but it will always ‘remember’ and return to its original shape when heated up. This can turn the material into an incredible solution for automated disassembly.and agricultural products. This amazing additive can reduce those gures to an in nitely more acceptable one to ve years.de This composite of wood particles and polypropylene has many advantages over pure polypropylene. Bio-Batch can be incorporated into just about any plastic product you can think of.beggandco. The unique appearance is a feature in its own right. making recycling so much easier. as it can be used to make screws and fasteners that unscrew themselves when heated up. 05 08 .com Common plastic materials such as polyethylene and polypropylene require anywhere between 80 and 450 years to degrade. including polyethylene and polypropylene. Used for applications such as packaging.06 TDPA™ www.com Veri ex™ is a shape memory alloy – it can be bent and deformed. such as furniture and decorative interior features. but S2 also does a good job in invisible structural parts in furniture. Bio-Batch is compatible with most commodity plastics. and the degradation process does not start until the material is discarded. including polypropylene and polyethylene. Although developed for a single application. clearly visible in the unique surface pattern. S2 is available in many colours and it is easy to process with common plastic manufacturing techniques.de Droptec® is an industrial drainage material made from a range of recycled plastic foams. 05 Droptec® www. healthcare. for example. 08 Novomer www. Hardwearing and tough.

Assembled here are still images from that lm to give you an idea of this material innovation. Design Annual in Frankfurt. please visit www.ronresch. Resch designed new patterns and observed how the patterns rotate and elevate when pushed in certain directions.com 94 — INGREDIENTS NO. scribe the lines of the shape Fold the creases and begin rotating and pushing the paper into a three-dimensional form using an inwards and upwards direction. Folding instructions 01 Using a pencil. made during the 1960s. The 50 minute presentation consisted mainly of a lm. He explains that the starting point was the discovery that paper tends to fold in particular directions. Ron Resch became interested in paper folding while he was working on an assignment at the University of Iowa. but will give you an idea of the folding technique. 04 Now draw this triangular shape onto a large sheet of paper and repeat across the entire page. ‘The Ron Resch Paper and Stick Film’. pushing the paper in inwards and upwards until the at triangular shapes become three-dimensional forms For more information about Ron Resch and his work. there was a presentation from American computer graphics visionary. creating some incredibly intricate and beautiful shapes from a at sheet of paper. aligning each edge of the triangle with another 05 06 Score the line with a biro as before Begin folding along the lines as before. mathematician and innovator Ron Resch where he presented his research into ‘self-supporting structural units’. where particular patterns and creases start to emerge. This forms the basis of a much larger work. copy the white triangular shape in the blue frame onto a sheet of paper and cut around the outside edge 02 03 Using an empty biro pen and ruler. He and the lm stole the show. 3 — 95 .The Paper and Stick Film The origami art of Ron Resch Film stills courtesy of Ron Resch Portrait courtesy of Eric Gjerde Last year at one of our favourite trade fairs. 3 INGREDIENTS NO.

So you look for a prototype shop or a manufacturing facility for help. Usually. 13-14 W Hotel 04) Miami Beach FL Dec. engineers. affordability and recyclability. What makes that expertise valuable to designers? Engineers understand the materials and processes that make manufacturing a product possible. I think the key to our site is that you can nd the aesthetic properties.mtrl. You can also use our ‘Process Finder’ feature to understand the advantages of each.asminternational. ceramics. 3 ASM/Mtrl regularly organise material workshops for designers. we will offer features like a Buyers Guide with complete supplier listings. You can select by families of materials . from students to experienced professionals. plastics. It’s the rst place to go for inspiration as well as information. It’s about knowledge: the professional experience of 38. industries and specialties. or properties. But they only have a solution within their area of familiarity. You can search for a speci c material and nd out what you need to know…from the unique personality of a particular material to its properties. for her perspective. I think that everyone who is active in design. We can provide unbiased options regarding materials. Because of our relationship with ASM. sensorial experiences and brand values.org INGREDIENTS NO. manufacturability. a designer’s knowledge in these areas is very limited. the engineering properties and the environmental properties that give shape and texture to great design.metals. 18-19 Experience Music Project at Seattle Center 02) Boston MA Oct. knowledge and insight to help designers understand and apply materials so that they can achieve their design goals. whereas designers usually think about materials in terms of ‘personality’.Material about materials We talked to ASM International. What kind of designers are you targeting with your website? At rst. That’s where ASM expertise can help. What makes /Mtrl unique? /Mtrl is about more than information. availability. materials have properties. 15-16 Doubletree Ocean Point Resort Can you explain how you navigate through the materials? It’s easy. That’s where you’ll nd fantastic new processes like friction stir welding – a relatively new process for the aerospace industry that’s now being used for innovative applications in other industries. one of the most valuable areas on our website at Mtrl. So Mtrl. Here are some of the upcoming dates and venues 01) Seattle WA Sept. offering a selection of potential solutions based on their ‘abilities’ to meet a design challenge: capability. 96 — INGREDIENTS NO.com or www. while speci c areas will be available for a nominal charge. For example. /Mtrl can leverage all of that talent.000 materials scientists and engineers that comprise the ASM membership. 3 — 97 . we want to reach out to industrial designers and eventually branch out to architects and the building industry. will nd value in our site. Designers really like materials that look cool and that customers are attracted to. Corporate customers will also be able to obtain enterprise-wide access for a very reasonable fee. please visit www. But the reality is. director for the /Mtrl initiative.com is called ‘Of Material Interest’. Entries will be cross-referenced and linked to resources so that designers can quickly nd the most appropriate materials and providers in the supply chain. their new design-oriented initiative To engineers and research scientists. Any new features on the near-term horizon? As we continue to upgrade and grow the site. 16-17 Institute for Human Centered Design at Adaptive Environments 03) Los Angeles CA Nov. about /Mtrl. with information linked to materials producers and suppliers. one of the world’s largest materials information organisations. Bridging the gap between the two worlds. For more information about /Mtrl and ASM. aesthetics. you need an understanding of materials and processes to achieve the full promise of a bold new design.com is where you can investigate all of the best options quickly and easily. Mtrl. glasses. What are some of the things that /Mtrl will show a designer that they couldn’t nd anywhere else? We’re the place to nd ideas and solutions from other designers.com will be a marketplace as well as an information resource? Exactly. we talked with Laura Marshall. Will there be a charge for accessing the site? A lot of the information and knowledge will be available free.

we are very much driven by fast-changing technology of choosing materials.youtube. This revolutionary solution opens up new design. New applications for the material are being developed all the time and it is expected to rank alongside wonder products from previous generations. it acts as a kind of shape-changing material that helps to orchestrate and lubricate life itself. Cheaw Hwei Low. Materials Associate Editor. King’s College.com/ watch?v=cEC9G8JUKW8 Proving that all materials are.youtube. Head of the Materials Research Group. engage and enjoy colour.uiuc. Director of Design. As a result I now have a research programme to design self-healing materials. It can be adapted to suit the current situation. Non-conductive vacuum metal coating (NCVM) does not interfere with wireless data transmission and it lays the foundation of great change in the mobile communications business. it’s the fabric of planets and comets. Nokia NCVM With the demands and limitations of mass volume manufacturing.youtube. in fact. WGSN Aerogel Made from 99.youtube.com/watch? v=nq3ZjY0Uf-g&feature=related This liquid shows some weird properties when it is shaken Thixotropic liquid II www. which can be heated up to conform to the exact contours of your teeth as it cools down. they are designed to not to change their mechanical properties in ight.com/ watch?v=f2XQ97XHjVw You can run across this pool lled with liquid Sarah Dennis. snow akes and glaciers. for example.autonomic. Chris Bangle. or will change. Fashion Designer. Philips Singapore LED Lighting The material that will transform the way we experience. Fabrican www. Helen Storey. plastics have phenomenal possibilities.com/ watch?v=vdkYuLsT7Sc Stretch this foam and it gets fatter! 98 — INGREDIENTS NO. this is an incredible tool for fashion designers Biodegradable fashion www. magnetic Materials that changed the world We asked eight leading designers and researchers what they think are the materials that changed. Designer Plastic Although I love and work with all materials. Head of Colour and Materials Design. Science Writer Water From my personal viewpoint.html Cells lled with resin seep out to repair in case of breakage Shape memory textile www. Artist.youtube.com/ watch?v=JOlRI_Hm1Po A manufacturing process that can ‘print’ buildings Thixotropic liquid I www. the driver’s requirements and can also enhance the car’s functional range. Nicola Ralston. This turns out to be very dif cult to achieve at engine temperatures of more than 850 degrees.youtube.Material movies Some of the best material clips from the web Conductive plastics www. and looks to a future of ultra-lightweight products that maintain strength and volume.com/ watch?v=ItUuqoQdk9E Conductive plastics are perfect ‘arti cial muscles’ Levitating strawberry www. and opportunities.com/watch?v=_ oGQz-eSIOQ Heat upp this textile and it ‘remembers’ its original shape d3o www. production and functionality potential.fabricanltd. To avoid catastrophe.8% air.com Quite literally ‘fabric in a can’. As ice. Philip Ball. Scientist Lycra The material that changed my world was Lycra.edu/ selfhealpolymer.showstudio.youtube.youtube. Senior Design Director. 3 . And that’s because water is itself such a multifaceted thing. In living cells. For example.com/ watch?v=9VDeJ7rLUYU This material goes stiff on impact to absorb the energy Contour crafting www. London Nickel Superalloys These sophisticated metal alloys are used in jet engines. aerogel is the lightest and lowest density solid material known to exist. there is a mouthpiece for athletes made with a smart plastic. writing a book about water in 2000 has opened many doors to unexpected places. Karim Rashid.com/projects/ wonderland/movie Helen Storey’s poetic take on water-soluble plastics in fashion Auxetic materials www. Try being a classical ballet dancer from the age of four and being split into two on a regular basis by material with zero stretch in any direction. It is about time we consider light as a material! Self-healing plastic www. the world Mark Miodownik. BMW Group Super-strong textiles The innovation of a exible outer skin breaks new ground in automotive engineering.