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Chapter 52: Population Ecology

I. Earth s fluctuating populations A. Earth s problems are the amount of humans and the rapid growth 1. Used much of the environment, taking away from other species 2. Populations stay the same, but there is some small growth 3. Evolution is the focal point B. Population ecology 1. How populations influence their environment 2. Density and distribution II. Dynamic biological processes influence population density, dispersion, and demography A. Density and dispersion 1. Density a. Number of individuals in an area or unit b. Per unit 2. Dispersion a. Pattern and spacing with populations within an area 3. Density: A dynamic perspective a. Many methods are used to test density b. Example 1. Count oak trees in 10X100m areas 2. Gather average density 3. Estimate population size c. Mark-rapture method 1. Method that is used to count wildlife

Defending a space so others do not come d. Show interactions and environment associations 2. When no attractions are present 2. Territoriality a. Within populations 2. Species grow together in an area that promotes them 2. Population ecologists closely study local density 1. Immigration and emmigration 1. Chemical factors are homogeneous B. Clumped 1. Studying stats and characteristics and how they change a. Random 1. Individuals that move to areas in large amounts 2. Uniform 1. Marked animals have same chance at being trapped d. Mark animals and release them 3. Specific to age . Patterns of dispersion a. Social interactions contribute to population density b. Individuals that leave areas 4. Can also be mating behavior c. Due to interactions with the population 2. Summaries of the survival pattern of a population 1.2. Demography 1. Life tables a.

Tables vary a. Summary of reproductive rates 2. Survivorship curves a. Find the number of people that die in a group b. Type 3 curves a. Flat. Constant death rate 4. Cohort 1. Reproductive table 1. then get flat b. A group from birth until death 2.b. Low death rates to high death rates 2. Life history traits are products of natural selection A. Find out the number of people that survive 3. Three types of curves 1. High death rates to low death rates 3. Everything that affects the reproduction schedule of an organism . Shows the amount of people in a cohort alive b. Reproductive rates a. Depending on the species III. Type 2 curves a. Type 1 a. then drops b. Building a life table a. Drops at the beginning. Life history 1. Visual way to show data for a life table 1. Same age 3.

unlimited environment A. Offspring survive well in semelparity reproduction in unpredictable environments b. Iteroparity is better in a dependable environment C. Big-bang reproduction/semelparity a. Also called one-shot pattern 2. Differences in the patterns a. Iteroparity/repeated reproduction a. Change in population can be calculated verbally . How often reproduction is happening and amount of offspring produced B. Trade-off happens in survival and reproduction a. Natural selection does not make reproductive factors become bigger 2. The exponential model describes population growth in an idealized. A population can grow rapidly. Life history diversity 1. Tade-offs and life histories 1. Per capita rate of increase 1. but will become smaller again over time B. Shown in studies of organisms 3. Those whose offspring has high death rates will have a large amount of small offspring IV.2. Using the same pattern for reproduction for several years 3. Migration to places for reproduction to occur one time b. Selectivity leads to the trade-off between number and size of offspring a. Charles Darwin saw the potential growth in populations 1.

B number of births 2. Resources are not unlimited 1. Exponential growth 1. then the death rate will rise .a. If enough energy is not taken in. Logistic growth model includes the concept of carrying capacity A. Zero population growth a. each person gets less resources a. D number of deaths 2. The maximum rate of increase for a species 3. Happens when death and birth rates are the same b. Population continues to grow. Carrying capacity 1. Geometric population growth b. The full amount that a population can maintain 2. Population in which the members have tons of food and can freely reproduce 2. Exponential population growth a. If organisms can t reproduce then the birth rate will drop a. N is change in population c. Number of offspring produced per unit time by a member of the population 3. Shows populations exposed to a new setting V. Change in size with time= births during time deaths during time b. Per capita death rate a. R=0 C. Intristic rate of increase a. Constant increase will be shown as a j-shaped curve a. T is the time interval 1.

The logistic growth model 1. High densities 1. Same for reproduction 3. Assumptions do not apply to every population a.b. Beginning point for studying the growth of populations a. When N is the same as K the population has growth C. Allee effect 1. The logistic model and life histories 1. Predicts different growth for either low or high density a. Model that shows increase or decrease in birth and death rates 2. Another assumption is the impact of each individual on the population a. but add a factor that reduces the rate of increase a. Helps to think about constructing more complicated models D. The logistic model and real populations 1. Making a model is similar to an exponential growth model. Model often shows adjustment happen smoothly b. It may be more difficult for one to survive if the population is small 2. Logistic population growth a. Realistically there is an amount of before the negative effects are seen 2. Assume that everyone has the same negative effect on rates b. Increases and decreases make a lower rate of increase B. Limited resources and slow growth ceased . This model is not ideal for many populations b.

Territoriality . Life history characteristics allow for maximum reproduction in low density c. Death rate rises while density rises B. Population change and population density 1. Characteristics that are sensitive to low density b. competition becomes fierce b. selection is in favor of characteristics that allow survival and reproduction with hardly anything 3. Populations are regulated by a complex interaction of biotic and abiotic influences A. Same species in different populations have K and R selected traits VI. Low density. Large amount of resources and fast growth can occur 2. rapid reproduction is favored a. Density dependent a. Immigration and emigration off-set each other then birth gets higher than death rates 2. Overcrowded population. Competition for resources a. A death or birth rate that doesn t change with density 3. High density. Density dependent a. K-selection/density dependent selection 1.b. R-selection/ density independent selection 1. For example plants will stop producing lots of seeds 2. Density-dependent population regulation 1. Low densities 1. Result is less reproduction 1.

Contribution to density-dependent regulation b. Cause of density dependent death 1. Ethanol is a by-product of yeast 1.a. death rates rise and birth rates decline C. Health a. Compete for territory b. Dugness crab is a population constantly increasing . More food is captured as the population increases b. Diseases can be density dependent if it depends on a certain amount in a population b. Wine has less than 13% of alcohol because that is the most that yeast cells can handle 6. If a species is preferred. Invertebrates limit density 1. Stability and fluctuation a. Intrinsic factors a. Animals are affected by pathogens when in high density 4. Severe winters on grazers and browsers in polar regions shows how harsh winters are b. Influences survival of organisms 1. more of them are caught and eaten 5. Predation a. Due to this. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors are regulated in population size b. Surplus shows that territoriality limits growth 3. Population dynamics 1. Interactions between biotic and abiotic factors and their affect on the size of a population 2. Toxic wastes a.

The global human population 1.1. Developed areas have a rate that is at a plateau d. Limited food resources and over predation 3. Metapopulations and immigration a. Predator-prey interactions c. Shows the importance of immigration and emigration D. Boom and bust cycles show regularity 2. Population cycles 1. Delaying reproduction causes growth to go towards 0 1. Dynamics of populations result from interactions of biotic and abiotic factors 3. Regional patterns of population change a. Transition in Sweden took 150 years c. If there are low death and birth rates 2. Age structure . Why do hare numbers rise and fall in 10 year cycles? 3 hypotheses a. Group of linked populations b. Demographic transition 1. Human population growth has slowed after centuries of exponential increase A. Food shortage during winter b. Result of cannibalism c. No growth=high birth rate high death rate 2. No growth=low birth rate low death rate b. When prey starts to run short. Moving from the first to the second state 2. Two configurations for stable rates 1. Metapopulation 1. predators go after each other VII.

Resource base for each country . A predicted amount of time the baby will live c.a. Calculating ecological footprint sues six things (a). pasture. clothes. Ecological capacity 1. Estimates of carrying capacity a. Land for crops. Number of baby deaths for every 1.000 live births b. the population will continue to grow until 2050 c. Global carrying capacity 1. The number of people for each age b. Life expectancy at birth 1. Ecological footprint a. Because of immigration.4 billion in 1679. Show social conditions 3. Infant mortality and life expectancy a. etc c. food. 13. Need for transportation. forest. Humans have used many natural resources b. ocean. and since then guess from less than 1 billion to I trillion have been made 2. Infant mortality 1. builtup land. Several factors such as AIDS and infectious disease are reducing the life expectancy B. and fossil energy land d. The amount of land that each county uses to make their supplies 1.