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by Matthew D. Brown An Engineering Project Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ENGINEERING IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Approved: _________________________________________ Ernesto Gutierrez-Miravete, Project Adviser

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Hartford, Connecticut August, 2009

CONTENTS

Design and Analysis of a Spiral Bevel Gear ...................................................................... i LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................. v LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................... vi LIST OF SYMBOLS ....................................................................................................... vii ACKNOWLEDGMENT .................................................................................................. xi ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................... xii 1. Introduction.................................................................................................................. 1 2. Gear Theory and Design Methodology ....................................................................... 6 2.1 2.2 Material Selection .............................................................................................. 6 The Material Processing of a Gear ..................................................................... 8 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Heat Treatment ....................................................................................... 8 Surface Hardening Treatment (Case Hardening) ................................. 12 Tempering ............................................................................................ 13

Design of Gear Teeth ....................................................................................... 14 Loading ............................................................................................................ 17 Analytical Methodology................................................................................... 19 Gear Life Calculations ..................................................................................... 22 Selection of Design Factors ............................................................................. 23

3. Results and Discussion .............................................................................................. 28 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Fatigue Analysis ............................................................................................... 30 Static Analysis .................................................................................................. 38 Calculation of Hertz Stresses (Pitting Resistance) ........................................... 38 Calculation of Bending Stresses ...................................................................... 41 Gear Life Calculations ..................................................................................... 45

4. Conclusion ................................................................................................................. 46 5. References.................................................................................................................. 48

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6. Appendix A................................................................................................................ 49 7. Appendix B ................................................................................................................ 50 8. Appendix C ................................................................................................................ 51 9. Appendix D................................................................................................................ 52

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DISCLOSES INFORMATION WHICH IS PROPRIETARY. DISCLOSED. IS AN UNPUBLISHED WORK PROTECTED UNDER APPLICABLE COPYRIGHT LAWS. OR AN EMBODIMENT OF IT IN ANY MEDIA. IN WHOLE OR IN PART (INCLUDING REPRODUCTION AS A DERIVATIVE WORK). ANY ACT IN VIOLATION OF APPLICABLE LAW MAY RESULT IN CIVIL AND CRIMINAL PENALTIES. AND IS DELIVERED ON THE EXPRESS CONDITION THAT IT IS NOT TO BE USED.Proprietary Information Warning: THIS DOCUMENT. OR USED FOR MANUFACTURE FOR ANYONE OTHER THAN SIKORSKY AIRCRAFT CORPORATION WITHOUT ITS WRITTEN CONSENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. AND THAT NO RIGHT GRANTED TO DISCLOSE OR SO USE ANY INFORMATION CONTAINED THEREIN. iv . IS THE PROPERTY OF SIKORSKY AIRCRAFT CORPORATION. OR REPRODUCED.

................................................... 43 Table 10 ............Allowable stress values [8] ....Assumed values for θ and its effect on bending stress ............... 6 Table 2 ...............Results for calculating the load sharing ratio and geometry factor ............................ 32 Table 6 ............... 44 v ....... 23 Table 4 .. 29 Table 5 ..Common SAE steel designations and their nominal alloy contents [5] .............................................................Calculated gear tooth loads and bearing reaction loads ............. 37 Table 8 ..Typical heat treatments and associated steel grades [5] ........................................................................... 36 Table 7 ...............Calculated values at critical section A-A ..........................................................Calculated values at critical section B-B.........Overload factors [8] ...........................................LIST OF TABLES Table 1 ....... 41 Table 9 ................. 7 Table 3 .....................................Design properties of locking nut .............

.............Input assembly of intermediate gearbox .... 40 Figure 16 .................................. 17 Figure 9 ... 29 Figure 11 .......Bevel gear nomenclature in the axial plane [3] ...................................... 33 Figure 14 ..................... 10 Figure 6 ............................................Iterative procedure to calculate tooth form factor.................................................................. Kt = 1..Iterative procedure to calculate the load sharing ratio.......Size effect factor as a function of the volume ratio [10].............................................................................................Loads acting on gear ...... mean section A-A in Figure 7 [3] .........Bevel gear nomenclature..................... mN [10] ......................Spiral bevel gear mesh [3] ...........Phase diagram of carbon steel [1] .......Hardenability curves for several steels [1].Detailed location of loading ..... 1 Figure 2 ...............................................Location of critical sections ... 19 Figure 10 ............ 11 Figure 7 ................................................................... 3 Figure 3 .................... 42 vi ........Volume of stressed material for shaft subjected to rotating bending [10] .............................................. Ftu = 150 ksi....................... 9 Figure 5 ................................Constant-life fatigue diagram for heat-treated AISI 4340 alloy steel....................................... 32 Figure 13 ..............LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 ................................. Xn [10] ...........0 [10] .................................. 16 Figure 8 ..................................................................... (b) bainite and (c) martensite (x7500) [1] ......................Electron micrographs of (a) pearlite...Case hardenability of carburizing grades of steel [5] ....... 30 Figure 12 ........................ 34 Figure 15 .................... 7 Figure 4 .....

LIST OF SYMBOLS Symbol Mean cone distance A Ao Outer cone distance Ar a ao aog aop at bo bog bop C CP Ci Cm Co Cp Cv c Di Do d dg dp dog dop E F F' Fe Fen Fen' Fk Fr Area Mean addendum Larger end addendum Gear addendum Pinion addendum Thread pitch diameter Larger end dedendum Gear dedendum Pinion dedendum Clearance Circular pitch Inertia factor Load distribution factor Overload factor Elastic coefficient Dynamic factor Mean collar diameter of nut Inner diameter Outer diameter Pitch diameter Gear pitch diameter Pinion pitch diameter Gear outside diameter Pinion outside diameter Young's modulus Face width Net face width Effective face width Adjusted endurance limit Endurance limit at 10^8 cycles corrected for steady stress Projected length of s contained within the tooth bearing ellipse in the lengthwise direction Reliability factor vii Terms Units in in in2 in in in in in in in in in in (lbs/in2).5 in in in in in in in in lb/in2 in in in lb/in2 lb/in2 in - .

Fs Ftu f fa fb fc fs fsteady fv fvib HP hk ht I I.D. J K Kf Kfs Ki Km Ks Kt K* k l M M.S. mf mn mo mp N Nfi Ng Np ni

Size effect factor Ultimate tensile strength Distance from the midpoint of the tooth to the line of action Normal stress Bending stress Compressive stress Steady torsion Principle steady stress Vibratory stress Vibratory bending Horsepower Working depth Whole depth Geometry factor for compressive stress Maximum inner diameter Geometry factor for bending stress Torque coefficient of nut Actual stress concentration factor Surface finish factor Inertia factor for I Load distribution factor Size factor Theoretical stress concentration factor Correlation factor Total number of different stress levels Lead Bending moment Margin of safety Face contact ratio Load sharing ratio Modified contact ratio Transverse (profile) contact ratio Number of threads per inch Total number of cycles to failure at i-th stress level Number of teeth in gear Number of teeth in pinion Number of cycles at i-th stress level

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lb/in2 in lb/in2 lb/in2 lb/in2 lb/in2 lb/in2 lb/in2 lb/in2 hp in in in in/thd lb in thd/in -

O.D. P PITCH PN Pn p pn p3 R RPM Rbng Rbnp Rg Rng Rnp Rong Ronp Rp Rt Rx rf rt s T Tg Tp t tn to *tog V V.R. Vcr Wa Wr Wt Wtg

Minimum outer diameter Axial Load Diametral pitch Mean normal base pitch Mean normal circular pitch Large end transverse circular pitch Mean normal circular pitch Distance in mean normal section from beginning of action to point of load application Mean transverse pitch radius Revolutions per minute Mean normal base radius of gear Mean normal base radius of pinion Mean transverse pitch radius of gear Mean normal pitch radius of gear Mean normal pitch radius of pinion Mean normal outside radius of gear Mean normal outside radius of pinion Mean transverse pitch radius of pinion Mean transverse radius to point of load application Radius in mean normal section to point of load application on the tooth centerline Fillet radius Cutter edge radius Length of line of contact Torque Gear torque Pinion torque Stress in numbers of standard deviations from the mean One half the tooth thickness at the critical section of the gear tooth Large end circular tooth thickness Pinion circular thickness Volume of critically stressed material Volume ratio Volume ratio of critically stressed material Axial thrust Seperating load Tangential tooth load Gear tangential tooth load

ix

in lb in-1 in in in in in in rpm in in in in in in in in in in in in in lb in lb in lb in in in in in3 in3 lb lb lb lb

Wtp Xn Xo Xo" xo Yk Z Zn αg αp Γ ΓR Γo γ γo γR δg δp ΔFH' ΔFT' θ μ μf ν π ρ ρr ρo Σ Ф Фh Фn ψ Ψb

Pinion tangential tooth load Gear tooth strength ratio Gear pitch apex to crown Distance from mean section measured in the lengthwise direction along the tooth Pinion pitch apex to crown Tooth form factor Section modulus Length of action in mean normal section Gear addendum angle Pinion addendum angle Gear pitch angle Gear root angle Gear face angle of blank Pinion pitch angle Pinion face angle of blank Pinion root angle Gear dedendum angle Pinion dedendum angle Heel increment Toe increment Pressure flank angle Poisson's ratio Coefficient of friction Coefficient of variation Pi Profile radius of curvature at pitch circular in mean normal section Minimum fillet radius Relative radius of curvature Shaft angle Pressure angle Pressure angle at point of load application Angle at which the normal force makes with a line perpendicular to the tooth centerline Mean spiral angle Base spiral angle

lb in in in in3 in deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg in in in deg deg deg deg deg deg

x

Lastly.ACKNOWLEDGMENT First and foremost. He also wishes to thank all of his previous and current academic inspirations that have guided him to this point in his academic career. the author wishes to thank his family and friends who have supported him throughout his life. the author would like to thank his peers in the transmission department at Sikorsky Aircraft who were always willing to share their extensive knowledge of gear design and analysis. xi .

6 ksi which allows for proper resistance to pitting.48 and 3. resulting in a margin of safety equal to . Hertz stresses are investigated and calculated to be 180. Results are compared to the recommended allowable stresses as published by the American Gear Manufacturing Association. fatigue life calculations are performed to show that the gear has been designed with unlimited life for this specific application.87. Static analysis is conducted at the most critical section in accordance with Federal Aviation Administration requirements.ABSTRACT This investigation gives a detailed approach to spiral bevel gear design and analysis. Potential gear materials are described leading to the selection of SAE 9310 steel as the proper material for this application. Key design parameters are investigated in accord with industry standards and recommended practices for use in a medium class helicopter.35. finished with carburization and case hardening processes. Finally. xii . Further analysis is conducted on the gear teeth to ensure proper gear tooth geometry and proper loading techniques. Bending stresses are calculated equal to 31. Fatigue analysis is conducted at the two most critical sections of the gear shaft resulting in margins of safety equal to . A final gear design is proposed and analyzed to show that proper margins of safety have been included in the design.5 ksi which shows proper bending strength in the gear teeth to mitigate the risk of failure to a gear tooth.

an oblique surface is formed during gear mesh which allows contact to begin at one end of the tooth (toe) and smoothly progress to the other end of the tooth (heel). As a result. Throughout the mechanical industry. in comparison to straight or zerol bevel gears. Therefore. many types of gears exist with each type of gear possessing specific benefits for its intended applications. make them a prime candidate for use in the helicopter industry.1. Bevel gears are widely used because of their suitability towards transferring power between nonparallel shafts at almost any angle or speed. the ability of a spiral bevel gear to change the direction of the mechanical load.Spiral bevel gear mesh [3] 1 . This smooth transmission of power along the gear teeth helps to reduce noise and vibration that increases exponentially at higher speeds. coupled with their ability to aid in noise and vibration reduction. Spiral bevel gears. Heel Toe Heel Toe Figure 1 . allow force to be fully transmitted without slippage and depending on their configuration. The gear teeth. have additional overlapping tooth action which creates a smoother gear mesh. as shown below in Figure 1. torques. Introduction A gear is a mechanical device often used in transmission systems that allows rotational force to be transferred to another gear or device. Spiral bevel gears have curved and sloped gear teeth in relation to the surface of the pitch cone. and even in a different direction. or cogs. can transmit forces at different speeds.

When filled with oil. seals.2 pounds when filled with approximately . in the hopes of reducing both vibration and noise caused by the tail rotor. thereby producing a reduction ratio of 1 to . and manufacture of bevel gears. the pinion possessing 26 teeth and the gear possessing 29 teeth. liners. Most importantly are the anticipated loads and speeds which will affect the design of the gear. The new gear will have a reduced number of teeth. analysis. This oil film prevents scuffing and scoring of the gear teeth and helps reduce the friction and heat generation caused by the clash of the gear teeth. The intermediate gearbox weighs about 22. It is important to note that further design improvements of the intermediate gearbox in which this gear will operate are not being implemented. Ultimately. an outward force 2 . which lubricates the gears by splash lubrication – an oil pump or jet powered lubrication system is not necessary. Centrifugal forces. lubrication. and reduces the speed from 3491 RPM to 3130 RPM while operating at full speed. The spiral bevel gear designed and analyzed herein will be utilized on an upgrade program for an existing helicopter firmly established in the medium class commercial helicopter industry. and assembly processes. Additional concerns are the operating environment. this will result in a quieter helicopter that operates more smoothly than previous models. The bearings.The American Gear Manufacturing Association (AGMA) has developed standards for the design. just to name a few. The speed reduction is a result of the gear mesh between two spiral bevel gears. from 28 teeth to 26 teeth. in order to reduce the speed of the tail rotor. anticipated life of operation. but as the gears rotate out of mesh. The intermediate gearbox transmits torque between two drive shafts at an angle of 57 degrees. the gear mesh occurs above the oil line.260 gallons of oil. The slower tail rotor speed will allow the tail rotor blades to operate more efficiently.905. and transmission housings are not changing and therefore the general design envelope for the gear has not changed either. It will be modeled after a gear that has been operating in the intermediate gearbox of this helicopter for over 25 years and has logged over 5 million flight hours. they dip through the oil and lubricate the gear teeth prior to meshing. The first step in any general design employing gears is to first predict and understand all of the conditions under which the gears will operate.

As the gears rotate through the oil. the output loading including the normal output load. also play a big part in splash lubricating the gear mesh. An understanding of these load conditions allows for basic load calculations and the 3 . the following load conditions are considered: the power rating of the prime mover.Input assembly of intermediate gearbox The way in which a gear will be loaded is given the utmost attention during the design process. and inertia loads arising from acceleration or deceleration [3]. the centrifugal force flings the oil against the walls of the center transmission housing. Figure 2 . its overload potential and the uniformity of its output torque. Oil that collects in this reservoir then drips through a drain hole directly onto the gear mesh or through two drip ports to lubricate the outer bearing of both the input and output assemblies. Based on AGMA recommendations. in order to capture any of the oil flung during rotation.associated with rotation. The configuration of the input assembly of the intermediate gearbox can be seen in Figure 2 below. the possibility of stalling or severe loading at infrequent intervals. This housing was designed with a reservoir at the top of the housing. peak loads and their duration.

whichever is greater. The estimated flight spectrum is based on analytical tools proprietary to Sikorsky Aircraft and therefore will not be discussed here in detail. such as during normal helicopter operation. These loads are presented as torque values. in this application. recorded flight data from the flight test program in which the previous gear operated.selection of suitable safety factors in order to obtain protection for expected intermittent overloads. A wide ranging flight spectrum has been established that displays the changing speeds. These recommendations are based on not knowing the complete flight spectrum and therefore introduce a conservative approach into the design effort. is to be used for estimation of gear size [3]. For peak loads whose duration is less than ten million cycles. so in order to get an accurate understanding of the loads transmitted by the gear. The AGMA recommends that if the total duration exceeds ten million cycles during the total expected life of the gear. desired life expectancy. and torque values depending on the maneuver of the helicopter at any point in time. the full flight spectrum is known because of the long service history of this helicopter. Two data sets are presented in this appendix. The estimated loads for this application are shown in Appendix A in the column titled “New Design”. In applications where gears will experience peak loads. Fortunately. the torque values are converted to horsepower. a value equal to one half the value of the peak load or the highest sustained load. Appendix A shows the applicable flight spectrum in which this gear will operate. and safety. It does however estimate performance parameters of the helicopter and the loads that will occur in flight based on the overall design of the helicopter. 𝐻𝑃 = 𝑇 ∗ 𝑅𝑃𝑀 5252 Equation 1 4 . This can be done using the formula [7]. horsepower. and the estimated flight spectrum that is anticipated for the upgraded model of the helicopter. the value of the peak load is to be used for estimation of the size of the gear. the most important consideration is given to the allowable duration of peak loads.

5 . A brief review of the data shows that a maximum peak load of 346 horsepower is expected during Regime #58. limiting the design changes to only the necessities.where T is the applied torque and RPM is the operating speed of the gear shaft. which is a transient condition.03% of the life of the aircraft. allows the other components of the input assembly. is much lower than the peak load. A detailed review of the data shows that the estimated loads for the new gear application are much lower than the previous application such that if the previous load spectrum is used. or peak load. this value will also be used throughout the analysis to incorporate additional conservatism into the design of the gear. which occurs 30% of the time and induces only 34 horsepower. shown previously in Figure 2. Regime #10. because the previous gear application was designed for higher loads which included a normal operating condition of 240 horsepower. that occurs 20 times per 100 hundred flight hours. or . the design will be that much more conservative. Also. to still be used which is the ultimate goal of this redesign effort. The converted horsepower values are shown in column P of Appendix A. As a result. The normal operating condition however.

displays the seven potential steel grades which are recognized to be well suited towards carburization in bevel gear applications. Many years of gear industry experience has led the design community to rely on carburized. Table 1 . induction hardening. case-hardened steel for bevel gears. the desired loading and desired design life are integral in selecting the proper material and any additional treatment that may be required. Testing has been performed on these types of materials and allowable stresses have been derived as a result of these widely recognized test results. Additional treatments typically considered are through hardening and surface hardening. generated from AGMA recommendations of associated steel grades and their typical heat treatments. Table 1 below. nitriding. Gear Theory and Design Methodology 2. Specifically.1 Material Selection The specific application of a gear determines the necessary material properties and additional treatments that may be required. Therefore.2. spiral bevel gear materials are limited to only those which are easily carburized and case-hardened. Through hardened steels are used when medium wear resistance and load carrying capacity are desired whereas carburized and hardened gears are used when high wear resistance and high load carrying capacity are required [5]. which includes but is not limited to carburization.Typical heat treatments and associated steel grades [5] Heat Treatment Steel Grade 1020 4118 4320 Carburizing 4820 8620 8822 9310 18CrNiMo7-6 6 . and flame hardening.

Mo 0.25% Ni 1.12% Note: "xx" = (nominal percent carbon content x 100) Steels under consideration also must have sufficient case hardenability in order to obtain adequate hardness below the depth of the carburized case. Cr 0.Common SAE steel designations and their nominal alloy contents [5] Carbon Steels 10xx 15xx No intentional alloying Mn 1. Cr 0.5%. Figure 3 .1. Table 2 below shows the common steel designations and their nominal alloy contents.00 . Cr 1. Figure 3 below shows the case hardenability for the alloy steels shown in Table 1 and Table 2.Case hardenability of carburizing grades of steel [5] 7 .To better understand the steel grades above and their metallurgical compositions. Table 2 .2% Ni 3.75%. Mo 0.25% Ni 0.25%.25%. Mo 0. Mo 0.5%.35% Alloy Steels 41xx 43xx 86xx 93xx Cr 1%.75%.

a secondary metallurgical form will also be present. the layers of ferrite and cementite that make up the pearlite begin to merge into each other until the pearlite is thoroughly dissolved. The controlling section for the gear discussed throughout this paper has a diametral measurement equal to approximately seven inches. and therefore will be selected as the material from which this gear will be manufactured. the combination of ferrite and cementite will be fully converted to austenite.1 Heat Treatment Carbon steel exists in a mechanical mixture of two primary metallurgical phases.2. called bainite. measured at the location where the specified hardness is required [5]. and the chemical compound iron carbide in a form metallurgically known as cementite. The controlling section is defined as the section size of the gear which has the greatest effect in determining the rate of cooling during quenching.The horizontal axis of Figure 3 is the ruling section. also called the controlling section. Using this value eliminates SAE 41xx. and 88xx series steels from consideration because they will not case harden adequately at the diameter measured for the ruling section. This can be seen in the phase diagram of carbon steel. 86xx. which is called pearlite as a result of its mother-of-pearl appearance under magnification. 2.2 The Material Processing of a Gear 2. On occasion. shown below in Figure 4. When carbon steel of this nature is heated above its lower critical point. frequently in the range of 1. according to Figure 3. or two hundred millimeters. SAE 9310 will provide the most adequate case hardenability. forming what is known as austenite [6]. another mixture of carbide and ferrite.100 to 1.200 degrees Celsius. measured in millimeters (mm). 8 . a dilute alloy of the element iron in a form metallurgically known as ferrite. An important third microconstituent is a microcomposite consisting of cementite platelets embedded in ferrite. If the steel reaches its upper critical point.

termed the critical cooling rate.Phase diagram of carbon steel [1] Once the full transformation of pearlite to austenite has been accomplished. 9 . A slow rate of cooling will transform the austenite back to pearlite whereas a rapid rate of cooling. the carbon steel can be cooled to form various crystalline structures which will greatly alter the material properties of the steel. and martensite at a magnification of x7500. Figure 5 below illustrates the difference in size and shape of the microstructures of pearlite. thereby making it highly desirable in applications where high wear resistance and load carrying capacity are required. bainite. will cause the austenitized steel to form a new structure called martensite.Figure 4 . This microstructure is characterized by an angular needlelike structure and a very high hardness.

(b) bainite and (c) martensite (x7500) [1] More specifically. A typical hardenability curve is useful in determining how much martensite. hardenability measures the ability of the steel to harden as a result of quenching.Electron micrographs of (a) pearlite.Figure 5 . 10 . will replace pearlite and bainite during the cooling process. Figure 6 below displays a hardenability curve for several alloy steels. the relationship between a steels mechanical properties and the cooling rate that governs them is a qualitative measure of hardenability. for a given rate of cooling. Since hardness is directly related to the amount of martensite in the sample.

chromium. The 1050 and 4320 alloys show a shallow depth of hardness below the surface whereas the other four alloys exhibit a high hardness persisting to a much greater depth. steel regarded as highly hardenable will retain large values of hardness for relatively long distances. showing that it will retain a high hardness value throughout the specimen. Figure 6 shows that hardness decreases with increasing distance from the quench surface.Figure 6 . 11 . Therefore. The maximum attainable hardness of any steel is only realized when the cooling rate in quenching is rapid enough to ensure full transformation to martensite [6]. and molybdenum in the specific alloys. the selected material of SAE 9310 is almost that of a plateau.Hardenability curves for several steels [1] Using an industry standard. The disparity in curve shapes can best be attributed to the content of nickel. yielding a greater hardness [2]. The important feature of the figure above is the varying curve shapes displayed by the alloy steels. On the other hand. These alloying elements delay the austenite-topearlite and/or bainite reactions which permits more martensite to form for a particular cooling rate. the Jominy distance test.

Geometry and shape of a specimen can also affect the resulting microstructure after quenching. The relationship to cooling rate is often determined by ratio of surface area to the mass of the specimen.In addition to the hardenability characteristics discussed above. oil is the most suitable for heat treatment of most alloy steels as water is often too severe and results in cracking or warping of a specimen. but oil is by far the most effective quenching medium when attempting to form a fully martensitic structure. Water. Geometry also affects the rate at which heat energy is dissipated to the quenching medium. and therefore it is important to investigate the rate at which hardness drops off with distance into the interior of a specimen as a result of diminished martensite content [2].2. heating the steel to some temperature above its transformation point such that it becomes entirely austenitic in structure. and then quenching the steel at some rate faster than the critical rate in order to produce a martensitic structure. oil and air can be used to increase the rate of cooling.10 to . (2) the type and character of the quenching medium (time and temperature during austenitizing).2 Surface Hardening Treatment (Case Hardening) Low carbon steel. can be further hardened at its surface by impregnating a component’s outer surface with a sufficient 12 . the more rapid will be the cooling rate and. geometry. and (3) the size and shape of the specimen [2]. The larger this ratio. The resulting martensitic structure is mainly dependent on three factors (1) the composition of the alloy (austenite grain size and prior microstructure). typically containing . Air quenching often results in a pearlitic structure and is therefore ineffective in obtaining the desired martensitic structure.20 percent of carbon. This process is typically performed using two essential steps. 2. Because the cooling rate depends on the rate of heat extraction from the specimen. type and velocity of quenching medium all have an immediate effect on the resulting hardness. the cooling rate of a specimen can greatly affect the resulting hardness. factors such as size. consequently. oil and air. the ultimate goal of a heat treatment procedure is to convert weaker metallurgical grain structures such as pearlite and bainite to a stronger structure like martensite. water. the deeper the hardening effect [2]. Of the three most popular quenching mediums. In summary.

750 degrees Farenheit with the temperature adjusted to obtain specific case depths for the intended application. often becomes brittle and forms undesired internal strains. A standard case hardening procedure allows for the carburizing cycle to occur prior to quenching.2. which involves sealing both the steel and solid carbonaceous material in a gas-tight container. Temperatures typically range from 1. as it is only required where high hardness at the surface is necessary. for example gear teeth. During the carburizing process. Carburizing the entire part is typically not necessary. which involves heating the steel in a gas of controlled carbon content. The case depth. give the core the required physical properties. and pack carburizing. The term “case hardening” is ordinarily used to indicate the complete process of carburizing and hardening [6]. The brittleness and internal strains must be removed prior to machining so as to avoid fast fracture to the work piece. is dependent upon the carbon potential of the medium used and the time and temperature of the carburization treatment. carbon is diffused into the part’s surface to a controlled depth by heating the part in a carbonaceous medium. which involves heating the steel in molten barium cyanide or sodium cyanide.amount of carbon. spline teeth. The most commonly used mediums include liquid carburizing. This process. or resulting depth of carburization. Sections of the gear that are not to be carburized are usually covered with copper plating which prevents the carbon from diffusing into the surface of the specimen in areas where the copper plate is applied. is a solution to applications which require high hardness or strength primarily at the surface. In order to remove the brittleness and 13 . The carburized parts are later heat treated in order to obtain a hard outer case and. 2. termed carburization. but also core strength and toughness to withstand impact stress. at the same time. then heating this combination [6]. thereby reducing the need for reheating. gas carburizing. This paper will focus on carburizing because that treatment has been chosen to be best suited for this gear application.3 Tempering Steel that has been converted to a martensitic structure by sudden cooling in a quenching bath.550 to 1. and bearing journals. such as a heat treated steel.

internal strains. a gear designer must have significant experience in the appropriate industry and be able to make intelligent decisions based on the specific application. As a result. This design standard illustrates all aspects of bevel gear tooth design. many of the recommendations are based on spiral bevel gears meshing at a shaft angle of 90 degrees. which softens the gear and releases the preexisting strains. This process is called tempering and may include heating to even 750 to 1290 degrees Farenheit depending on how ductile the work piece needs to be before proper machining can take place. mounting methods. to refine crystal structure and grain orientation. all of which allow the gear to be more easily machined during later operations. whereas in this application. Recommended design practices are published in the AGMA standard 2005D03. Design Manual for Bevel Gear Teeth. or to relieve stress or hardness from a working surface.3 Design of Gear Teeth The process of designing gear teeth is somewhat arbitrary in that the specific application in which the gear will be used determines many of the key design parameters. It may also be used to alter toughness. the automotive industry typically uses cast iron gears in transmission applications whereas a cast iron gear would not be feasible in a helicopter transmission because of the high level of loading and occurrence of peak loads that have the potential to be significantly higher than the load at normal operating conditions. the work piece is heated to about 300 to 750 degrees Farenheit. For example. 14 . it also covers manufacturing considerations. which may or may not agree with the AGMA recommendations. lubrication. inspection methods. 2. the bevel gears mesh at a shaft angle of 57 degrees. In addition. starting from preliminary design values and progressing towards a finished design ready to be analyzed. it does not always properly differentiate design parameters that should be used for one industry versus another. and appropriate drawing formats. Not only does it give recommended practices for design. While this is certainly an invaluable tool published in order to provide one guideline for the design of bevel gears across all industries.

so close consideration is required to ensure the correct pressure angle is chosen for the intended application. While a lot of backlash is not desirable. Following this common practice for selection of spiral angle establishes a good face contact ratio which maximizes smoothness and quietness during gear mesh. the gear addressed throughout this paper is replacing a similar gear that operated in the fleet for many years. a lower pressure angle increases the transverse contact ratio. This helps to avoid the loss of backlash. seals. transmission housings. as a result of the larger fillet radii. pitch angles. As a result.Spiral angle and pressure angle are two design parameters that help determine the shape of a spiral bevel gear tooth. resulting in increased bending strength. which are the basis for calculating the necessary geometric 15 . and face width. while also increasing the risk of undercut which is a major concern. pitch diameter. These factors help to strengthen the gear teeth because the increased slot widths allow the use of larger fillet radii. In regards to the selection of a pressure angle. The main difference between the two gears is the number of teeth on the pinion which helps to achieve the proper gear reduction ratio to reduce the speed at the tail rotor. and other hardware. Lower pressure angles also help to reduce the axial and separating forces and increase the toplands and slot widths. defined as the clearance between mating components. deflection under load. Minimal changes were made to the values for diametral pitch. manufacturing errors. and differential expansion between the gears and housing. the design of this gear was simplified because not everything had to be developed from scratch. As previously mentioned. a benefit which results in increased bending strength. spiral bevel gears are designed such that the axial thrust load tends to move the pinion out of mesh. small amounts of backlash are required to allow for proper lubrication. Common design practices have determined that for spiral bevel gears. a pressure angle of twenty degrees and a spiral angle of thirty five degrees should be used. In addition. The contact stress is reduced however. Important geometric design parameters remained constant between the old gear and the new gear in order to be able to use the existing bearings.

Bevel gear nomenclature in the axial plane [3] 16 .design parameters shown in Appendix C. Figure 7 . These parameters are shown in Figure 7 and Figure 8 below.

The tangential loads are defined as [10].4 Loading Torque application to a spiral bevel gear mesh induces tangential. 17 . in addition to pressure angle. 𝑊𝑡𝑝 = 2𝑇𝑝 𝑑𝑝 − 𝐹 sin 𝛾 Equation 2 for the pinion and. these loads are assumed to act as point loads applied at the mid-point of the face width of the gear tooth.Bevel gear nomenclature. For simplicity. mean section A-A in Figure 7 [3] 2. and separating loads on the gear teeth.Figure 8 . The radial and separating loads are dependent upon the direction of rotation and hand of spiral. spiral angle and pitch angle. radial.

dp equal to the pitch diameter. and ψ is the mean spiral angle. with T equal to the torque. Figure 9 below displays the line of action through which the tangential. the axial thrust load for a driving member (pinion) is defined as [10]. axial and separating loads act. For a right hand of spiral rotating counter clockwise. 18 . The radial and separating loads are calculated as a percentage of the tangential loads calculated above. 𝑊𝑟 = 𝑊𝑡 tan 𝜙 cos 𝛾 − sin 𝜓 sin 𝛾 cos 𝜓 Equation 5 where Φ is the pressure angle. 𝑊𝑎 = 𝑊𝑡 tan 𝜙 sin 𝛾 + sin 𝜓 cos 𝛾 cos 𝜓 Equation 4 and the separating load is defined as. γ equal to the pitch angle of the pinion .𝑊𝑡𝑔 = 2𝑇𝑔 𝑑𝑝 − 𝐹 sin Γ Equation 3 for the gear. F equal to the face width. and Γ equal to the pitch angle of the gear.

Design for pitting resistance is primarily governed by a failure mode 19 . 2. A detailed view of the gear assembly was previously shown in Figure 2. RAA. This is not to say that other types of gear tooth deterioration such as scuffing. shown in the figure as Wap. labeled RBA.Loads acting on gear The loads in Figure 9 above. scoring. It is the responsibility of these bearing reaction loads to counteract the forces generated by the mesh of the gear teeth.5 Analytical Methodology Spiral bevel gear teeth are primarily designed for resistance to pitting and for their bending strength capacity. and RAH. and case crushing are of less importance. are reaction loads generated by the two tapered roller bearings that support the gear shaft. RAV. RBH. wear.Figure 9 . RBV. Wtp and Wrp. but proper design techniques established to employ designs for pitting resistance and bending strength will often result in gears that are not affected by additional types of tooth deterioration.

The third and final type of pitting is progressive pitting. micropitting appears as very small micro-pits. The formulas were developed based on Hertzian theory of the contact pressure between two curved surfaces and load sharing between adjacent gear teeth as well as load concentration that may result from uncertainties in the manufacturing process. also called frosting. Micropitting. 𝑓 = 𝐶𝑝 𝑐 𝑊𝑡 × 𝐶𝑜 1 𝐾𝑚 𝐶𝑣 𝐹 × 𝑑𝑝 𝐼 Equation 6 20 . causing a tooth breakage failure [8]. micropitting. Design for bending strength capacity is based on a failure mode of breakage in the gear teeth caused by bending fatigue. Typically. they are initial pitting. unseen by the naked eye. initial pitting redistributes the applied load by progressively removing high contact spots. the pitting stops. The contact stress is mainly a function of the square root of the applied tooth load. and progressive pitting. and once these high contact spots are removed. is typical in case hardened steels. It appears as a light gray matte finish on the tooth surface and can most often be attributed to improper surface finish or lubrication. It is a result of localized overstressed areas and is characterized by small pits which do not extend over the entire face width or profile depth of the affected tooth [8].of fatigue on the surface of the gear teeth under the influence of the contact stress between the mating gears [7]. The dedendum section of the drive gear (pinion). Pitting resistance is related to Hertzian contact (compressive) stresses between the two mating surfaces of gear teeth. and has the potential to cover the entire gear tooth. shown previously in Figure 8. Three primary types of pitting are widely recognized throughout the industry. is often the first to experience serious pitting damage and could potentially be the point of initiation of a bending fatigue crack. which creates large surface pits to start and progresses until a considerable portion of the tooth surface has developed pitting craters of various shapes and sizes. Unlike initial pitting. The basic equation for compressive stress in a bevel gear tooth is given by [10]. Initial pitting often occurs early in the life of the gear and is not deemed a serious cause for concern.

30 respectively. F is the face width. The elastic coefficient is defined as [10]. 21 . the values for E and µ are 3 x 107 psi and . and I is the geometry factor. Km is the load distribution factor. the non-uniform moment distribution of the load resulting from the inclined contact lines on the teeth of spiral bevel gears. Cv is the dynamic factor. Co is the overload factor. The basic equation for bending stress in a bevel gear is given by [10]. dp is the pitch diameter. F is the face width. This methodology accounts for various factors including: the compressive stresses at the tooth roots caused by the radial component of the tooth load. 𝑓𝑏 = 𝑊𝑡 𝑃𝐼𝑇𝐶𝐻 𝐹 𝐾𝑠 × 𝐾𝑚 𝐽 Equation 8 where Wt is the tangential tooth load previously discussed. including SAE 9310 the type used for this gear application. the diametral pitch should be taken at the outer end of the tooth and equal [10]. load sharing between adjacent contacting teeth. 𝐶𝑝 = 3 𝐸 4𝜋 (1 − 𝜇 2 ) Equation 7 where E is the Young’s modulus of the material and µ is Poisson’s ratio. Ks is the size factor.where Cp is the elastic coefficient. PITCH is the diametral pitch. stress concentration at the tooth root fillet. Bending strength capacity ratings in bevel gear teeth are developed using a simplified approach to cantilever beam theory. and J is the geometry factor. and lack of smoothness due to low contact ratio [8]. In this case. Calculating the bending strength rating will determine the acceptable load rating at which tooth root fillet fracture should not occur during the entirety of the life of the gear teeth under normal operation. Wt is the tangential tooth load. For almost all steels. Km is the load distribution factor.

loads in excess of the gear’s endurance limit will cause damage. shows that a total of five flight maneuvers cause horsepower loads greater than 240HP. Miner’s rule is based on the theory that the portion of useful fatigue life used up by a number of repeated stress cycles at a particular stress is proportional to the total number of cycles in the overall fatigue life of the part. Based on the methodology of Miner’s rule. Because of this.0 𝑁𝑓𝑖 Equation 10 where k is the total number of different stress levels. Miner’s rule assumes that the damage done by each stress repetition at a given stress level is equal. Summing the total percent time of each maneuver. Using this hypothesis. and Nfi is the total number of cycles to failure at the i-th stress level. it is shown that fatigue damage to the gear occurs during 1. and that the first stress cycle at a uniform stress level is as damaging as the last [8]. 𝑘 𝑖=1 𝑛𝑖 ≥ 1. A detailed review of the load spectrum. Miner’s rule is used to calculate the effects of cumulative fatigue damage under repeated and variable intensity loads.6 Gear Life Calculations Per the recommendations of the AGMA. the endurance limit of the gear.53% of the estimated flight spectrum. Each of these horsepower loads are then converted to stress cycles. ni is the number of cycles at the i-th stress level. presented in Appendix A.𝑃𝐼𝑇𝐶𝐻 = 𝑁𝑝 𝑑𝑝 Equation 9 where Np is the number of teeth on the pinion. then to damage accumulation using Miner’s rule. the order in which the individual stress cycles are applied is not significant. Both bending life damage and durability life damage are calculated to 22 . Failure is to be expected when [8]. 2.

makes allowance for heavily loaded gearing which requires less derating than lightly loaded gearing [8]. and braking (application of the rotor brake).5. operation through critical speeds. resulting in very accurate gearing. transmission error. 2. manufacturing effects. Table 3 below. overspeed conditions. dynamic response.ensure an adequate fatigue life for bending strength and pitting resistance. Typical causes of peak loads in helicopter applications can be attributed to wind gust loads. Table 3 .0 and 1. provides recommended values for the overload factor based on characterization of the momentary peak loads that may be experienced. For this application. at the same time. and resonance. system vibration. Details of this analysis are presented in Section 3. It is typically influenced by design effects. taken from AGMA 2003-B97. Cv. Co.Overload factors [8] 23 . a Cv value of 1.1 are used. accounts for momentary peak loads that are much higher than the normal operating conditions. used in calculation of the pitting resistance factor. typical values of Cv between 1. The overload factor.7 Selection of Design Factors The dynamic factor. In a broader sense. When gearing is manufactured using very strict processes and controls.0 will be used. the dynamic factor makes allowance for high-accuracy gearing which requires less derating than lowaccuracy gearing and. accounts for quality of gear teeth while operating at the specified speed and load conditions.

Misalignment will exist however. bearing clearances. it depends primarily on tooth size. Km. In addition to material properties. all peak loads and normal operating load conditions are known and accounted for. backlash. tooth contact and spacing. It modifies the rating formulas in order to capture the non-uniform distribution of the load along the length of the gear tooth. Because the gear being designed in this application is supported by dual taper roller bearings. Design experience leads to a choice of 1. it evaluates the relative radius of curvature of the mating tooth surfaces and the load sharing between adjacent pairs of teeth at the point on the tooth surfaces where the calculated contact pressure will reach its maximum value [8]. an overload factor equal to 1. is a reflection of non-uniformity of material properties and is a function of the strength of the material. evaluates the effects that the geometry of the gear tooth has on the stresses applied to the gear tooth. alignment of the gear in its mounting. As a result. and therefore all are considerations which affect the load distribution factor [8]. and geometric characteristics of the gear teeth. face width. The size factor can be quickly calculated using [10].As previously discussed in Section 1. and ratio of tooth size to diameter of the part.25 Equation 11 The geometry factor for resistance to pitting. Km. is a function of the rigidity of the mounting and reflects the degree of misalignment under load. the bearings. 𝐾𝑠 = 1 𝑃𝐼𝑇𝐶𝐻 . as a result of assembly tolerances. 24 . I. The geometry factor may be calculated from [10]. diameter of the part. and their mountings. The amount of non-uniformity of the load distribution is a function of gear tooth manufacturing accuracy. and manufacturing tolerances. the mounting of the gear is considered rigid which minimizes misalignment between the gear. The size factor. and shown in Appendix A. Therefore. More specifically.10 for the load distribution factor. there is no need to use an overload factor because the gear has already been designed with peak loads in mind. The load distribution factor.0 will be used. Ks.

𝐾𝑖 = 𝐶𝑖 = 2. Ao is the outer cone distance. ρo is the relative radius of curvature. The geometry factor for bending strength. Ki is the inertia factor. it is desired to have the line of action go through the mid-point of the tooth. and mn is the load sharing ratio. is also concerned with gear tooth geometry but gives more consideration to the shape of the tooth and the stress concentration due to the geometric shape of the root fillet. Calculation of the geometry factor includes an iterative process in order to minimize the distance from the mid-point of the tooth to the line of action because ultimately. Careful consideration is also given to the position at which the most damaging load is applied.0 𝑖𝑓 𝑚𝑜 < 2 𝑚𝑜 25 . the sharing of load between adjacent pairs of teeth. R is the mean transverse pitch radius.𝐼 = 𝐴 𝑠 𝜌𝑜 cos 𝜓 cos 𝜑 𝐴𝑜 𝐹 𝑑 𝐾𝑖 𝑚𝑛 Equation 12 where A is the mean cone distance. and Yk is the tooth form factor. 𝐽 = 𝐴 𝑅𝑡 𝐹𝑒 𝑌𝑘 𝐴𝑜 𝑅 𝐹 𝑚𝑛 × 𝐾𝑖 Equation 13 where Rt is the mean transverse radius of load application. the tooth thickness balance between the pinion and mating gear. Ki. Incorporation of these variables leads to the following definition for the geometry factor [10]. can be determined from [10]. Fe is the effective face width. J. Successful minimization of this distance will result in the smoothest stress distribution across the gear tooth. s is the length of line of contact. F is the actual face width. the effective face width due to lengthwise crowning of the teeth. The inertia factor used for both bending strength and pitting resistance. and the buttressing effect of an extended face width on one member of the pair [8].

Kfs is taken to be 1. not to be confused with the size factor. mn.0 for the correlation factor. the design standard is to use a reliability factor equal to 3σ. The load sharing ratio. defined as [10].33 for steel with an ultimate tensile strength equal to or greater than 200 ksi. Fs. machined in some other manner. mo. all of which have an effect on the endurance limit of the material.0 𝑖𝑓 𝑚𝑜 < 2 𝑚𝑛 = 𝑚𝑜3 𝑚𝑜3 + 2 𝑚𝑜2 − 4 3 𝑖𝑓 𝑚𝑜 > 2 Equation 16 The remaining design factors consist of the reliability factor. The size effect factor. is also dependent on the modified contact ratio. Ks. the value of Kfs is taken to be 1. Calculation of this value is based on a reduction to the mean endurance limit due to the nature of geometrically similar parts decreasing with increasing size of 26 . For transmission shafts made of steel. 𝑚𝑛 = 1. If the surface will be ground. and determines what proportion of the load is carried on the most heavily loaded tooth. Kfs. the surface finish factor. the correlation factor.0 𝑖𝑓 𝑚𝑜 > 2 Equation 14 where mo is the modified contact ratio. Calculation of these variables requires additional equations and is therefore limited to Appendix C.7 for the reliability factor. and 1. is not as simple however. K*. The surface finish factor.𝐾𝑖 = 𝐶𝑖 = 1. or 1. which equates to a value of . Fr. and the size effect factor. 𝑚𝑜 = 𝑚𝑝2 + 𝑚𝑓 2 Equation 15 where mp is the transverse contact ratio and mf is the face contact ratio. The load sharing ratio is determined by [10]. is determined based on the surface finish of the manufactured component and is used to apply conservatism to the manufacturing processes that will be used.25 for steel with an ultimate tensile strength equal to 136 ksi.0 but if the final component will not be ground and instead.

1 . −∞ = 𝑡 1 −𝑡 2 𝑒 2 𝑑𝑡 2𝜋 Equation 17 where t is equal to the stress in numbers of standard deviations from the mean. = 𝑉 . is shown in Section 3. Mathematically.R. 𝑅. the volume ratio for steel can be found using [10]. 5𝑉. is the volume ratio defined as the volume of the critically stressed area of the component equal to that of the standard R-R Moore specimen which is used to develop the allowable stresses upon which fatigue data is based.𝑅. Results and Discussion. The nature of this phenomenon is given by [10]. 𝐹𝑠 = (1 − 𝜈)𝑡 Equation 18 where ν is equal to the coefficient of variation for the material. 009 Equation 19 with V equal to the critically stressed volume. The step by step procedure for determining the size effect factor. 𝑉.the part. Numerous texts [6] give the value of this integral as [10]. 27 . This reduction is thought to be caused by the chain analogy which shows statistically that the mean strength of a number of identical units in series decreases as the number of units increase. and V. This is also known as the volume of stressed material of the component which is within one-third of the maximum stress of the component. Fs.

Results and Discussion It has been shown thus far that the design and analysis of a bevel gear is heavily dependent on mathematical equations. The second spreadsheet utilizes the Macro feature in excel to calculate the necessary terms. a broad scope of the analysis will be discussed to give the reader a general understanding of the work that was performed and the results. Also. Equation 4. To keep track of the variables and iterative procedures. The macro feature also launches a Visual Basic computer program which is used to perform the more complicated mathematical functions. Using Equation 2. and Equation 5. 28 . this section will not cover the calculation of every variable or equation as these can be seen in the attached appendices. The analysis begins with calculation of the gear loads generated by the spiral bevel mesh and reaction loads generated at the tapered roller bearings. the tangential load. one for the calculation of the spiral bevel data and stress values. The bearing reaction loads previously presented in Figure 9 are calculated through application of Newton’s Second Law by summing the forces in the axial plane and summing moments about points A and B. Wr. like if-then statements and Do loops. three Microsoft Excel spreadsheets were generated. Instead. and one for the gear life calculation. The details of the program will not be discussed. shown in Appendix D. axial thrust load. shown in Appendix C.3. Figure 10 below provides the necessary geometric relationships necessary to perform the moment summations. shown in Appendix B. are calculated. Wtp. only the results that have been generated. and separating load. both in the vertical and horizontal plane. one for the analysis of the gear shaft. Wa.

048 2.Calculated gear tooth loads and bearing reaction loads Wtp Wa Wr RAV RAH RAA RBV RBH 2.Detailed location of loading Solving all of the appropriate equations.586 1.343 446 lbs lbs lbs lbs lbs lbs lbs lbs 29 .629 1. Table 4 . details of which are shown in Appendix A.140 1. gives the following values for the gear tooth loads and bearing reaction loads.629 -705 2.Figure 10 .

The section modulus for the hollow cylindrical section can now be calculated given the critical dimensions. Figure 11 . The minimum outer diameter is 1. will be investigated first. those where the wall thickness is the smallest and the loading is the highest.780 inches. two critical sections have been identified and are shown below in Figure 11. which is primarily affected by the stress concentration occurring as a result of the adjacent radius.3. 30 . For this gear. which results in the thinnest wall thickness. The bending moment at critical section A-A is a vectoral combination of two planes and is calculated using the formula.Location of critical sections Critical section A-A. The dimensional limitations are defined by the minimum outer diameter and the maximum inner diameter.940 inches and the maximum inner diameter is 1.1 Fatigue Analysis Fatigue analysis is performed at the most critical sections of the gear.

In this case. vibratory bending can be calculated using the moment load and the section modulus as discussed above. from section A-A to the line of action through which the loads RBV and RBH act. The calculations are shown in detail in Appendix B and summarized in the table below. Once the moment load is determined. 𝑓𝑣𝑖𝑏 = 𝑀 𝑍 Equation 21 and is shown in the table below. Therefore. 𝑓 𝑎 = + 2 𝑓 𝑎 2 2 𝑓𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑦 + 𝑓 2 𝑠 Equation 23 where fa is the normal stress acting at section A-A. steady torsion is calculated using [10]. The principle steady stress is defined as [10]. 𝑓 = 𝑠 𝑇 2𝑍 Equation 22 Vibratory bending and steady torsion are then combined to calculate the principle steady stress acting at section A-A. the normal stress is equal to zero because there is no direct axial force acting in the plane. Next. also known as the moment arm. fsteady is equal to the steady torsion. 31 . Vibratory bending is defined as [10].𝑀 = ( 𝑅𝐵𝑉 ∗ 𝑋4 2 + (𝑅𝐵𝐻 ∗ 𝑋4 )2 Equation 20 where X4 is equal to the horizontal distance.

not 150.209 2.5 12.Calculated values at critical section A-A Z M 0. an equivalent vibratory stress can be found using Figure 12 below.0 [10] A steady stress value of 10.000 psi.000 psi for the ultimate tensile strength of 4340 steel.Constant-life fatigue diagram for heat-treated AISI 4340 alloy steel. A core hardness value of Rockwell hardness number C 30 – 45 for SAE 9310 steel results in an ultimate tensile strength. an adjusted endurance limit. of 136. results in a vibratory stress of 69.Table 5 . Fen’.000 psi. as calculated above. This figure is derived using a value of 150. Figure 12 .366 10. Therefore.366 in in-lbs psi psi psi 3 fvib fs fsteady Using this steady stress.705. Ftu. Ftu = 150 ksi. Kt = 1. is calculated by applying the reduction factor.945 10. 32 .366 psi. Similar data for SAE 9310 steel does not exist and therefore a reduction factor will be applied.000 psi when using Figure 12 above.

This further modification is performed using [10]. a value still needs to be determined for Kfs. the volume ratio of critically stressed material. where the minimum outer diameter is 1. Vcr.560 𝑝𝑠𝑖 150. 𝐹 ′ 𝐹 𝐹 𝐾 ∗ 𝑒𝑛 𝑠 𝑟 𝐹 = 𝑒𝑛 𝐾𝑓𝑠 Equation 25 Because the size effect factor was only briefly discuss in Section 2.7.000 = 62.000 × 𝑒𝑛 136.940 inches and the maximum inner diameter is 1.𝐹 ′ = 69. correlation factor. is calculated at section A-A. Figure 13 . surface finish factor.000 Equation 24 This value for the endurance limit is modified further to account for additional design parameters such as the size effect factor.780 inches. previously discussed in Section 2. To begin.Volume of stressed material for shaft subjected to rotating bending [10] 33 .7. and reliability factor. Using the recommendations provided by Figure 13 below.

which is . value equal to 24.and knowing that the design configuration can be described as a fillet where Di > . Next. Fs. Using Figure 14 below.10. Revisiting Equation 25. is calculated using Equation 19. 34 . and finding the calculated V.R.4 in3 along the horizontal axis. which gives a V. 𝑉 𝑟 = 𝑐 𝜋𝜌𝑟 𝐷𝑜 2 − 𝐷𝑖 2 2 Equation 26 where ρr is equal to the minimum size of the fillet radius.R. Kfs. the modified endurance limit is calculated to be. gives a size effect factor. equal to . can be derived from the volume ratio.22 in3. Figure 14 .. the volume ratio. where v equals . of 24.R.815.Size effect factor as a function of the volume ratio [10] Following the curve for steel. a size effect factor.R. the following equation is used to calculate Vcr [10].240 inches.4 in3. V.67*Do. Vcr is calculated to be . V. Therefore.

The maximum torque value to be applied to the nut is 125 ft-lbs which is equal to 1. section B-B.0 = 28.S.48. previously shown in Figure 11.. = 𝐹 𝑒𝑛 −1 𝐾𝑡 × 𝑓𝑏 Equation 28 Therefore. 815 .552 𝑝𝑠𝑖 1. The axial force is actually a pre-load force based on the torque applied to the nut. A very similar methodology is followed to investigate the second critical section identified. The positive margin of safety means that during normal operating conditions critical section A-A will not fail throughout the intended design life of 50. but this would result in a heavier gear. M.500 in-lbs. Certain design features of the locking nut must be known in order to calculate the torque coefficient of the nut. can be calculated using the formula [10].𝐹 = 𝑒𝑛 62. weight is a crucial factor. Obviously. Being that the margin of safety is already as high as .48. In helicopter applications. K. the margin of safety can be increased but a fine line exists between robustness of the design and weight. there is no need to implement additional factors since the component will not fail under normal conditions.000 hours. 35 . 𝑀. the fatigue margin of safety for section A-A is equal to . which is defined as [6].560 . the fatigue margin of safety. One of the ways the margin of safety could be increased is to increase the wall thickness of section A-A. 𝑆. The main difference in the analysis at section B-B is that an axial load has to be accounted for as a result of the axial loading from the locking nut that keeps the gear in place.25 Equation 27 Now that the endurance limit has been fully adjusted. 70 1.

𝐷. (at): coefficient of friction (μf): pressure flank angle (θ): mean collar dia.0625 1.1891. 𝑃 = 𝑇 𝐾𝑎𝑡 Equation 30 where T is the torque in inch-pounds and is 1.4 lbs. Of nut (c): 16 0. The axial stress. the axial preload.2 4 Equation 32 36 .500 in-lbs as previously stated. P.510 degrees in thd/in in/thd in Therefore. Substituting the known values. Table 6 . Next. 𝑓 = 𝑎 𝑃 𝐴𝑟 Equation 31 where Ar is equal to the cross-sectional area of section B-B and can be found using [10].Design properties of locking nut number of thds per inch (N): lead (l): thd pitch dia.16 7 1. 𝐷.2082 0. is equal to 6565.𝐾 = 𝑙 + 𝜋𝜇𝑓𝑎𝑡 sec θ 𝜇𝑓𝑐 + 2 𝜋𝑎𝑡 − 𝜇𝑓𝑙 sec 𝜃 2𝑎𝑡 Equation 29 where. defined as [10]. 𝐴𝑟 = 𝜋 𝑂.2 − 𝐼. the torque applied to the nut can be converted into an axial pre-load using the formula [10]. K is calculated to be .

896 in2 and an axial stress. 37 .86.131 9..Calculated values at critical section B-B Z M 0. is determined to be . and reliability factor as those used in the analysis performed on section A-A.67*Do. Fs. surface finish factor.S. Now that all of the design factors are known.087 68.327 psi.759 14. In this case.222 695 3.D. Table 7 .107 in in-lbs psi psi psi ksi psi 3 fvib fs fsteady fv Fen' Further reduction of the endurance limit is performed using the same values for the correlation factor. a different equation is used to calculate the volume of critically stressed material because Di ≤ .D. The proper equation is shown in Figure 13. value equal to 3.5 62.905 inches and the minimum allowable dimension for the outer diameter of 1. fs. value of 8. resulting in a modified endurance limit of 29. the table below was generated to show the calculated values for vibratory bending.400 inches. for critical section B-B. By again employing Figure 14.where O. The size effect factor needs to be recalculated however.34.R.911 psi. based on the maximum allowable dimension for the inner diameter of . fa. M. A step by step procedure of the analysis at section B-B is presented in Appendix B. and I. a size effect factor. This produces a cross-sectional area of . are the minimum outer diameter and the maximum inner diameter respectively. of 7. Equation 28 is then utilized to find the margin of safety.89 in3. The table also shows the result of using Figure 12 to convert the calculated steady stress to a vibratory stress and the resulting initial endurance limit. and principle steady stress at critical section B-B. which results in a M. and results in a V. fvib. Following the same methodology for section A-A that was previously discussed. further reduction of the endurance limit is performed using Equation 25.S. steady torsion.

vibratory bending. a static analysis is conducted on the gear shaft in order to account for any peak loads which may occur during operation. peak loads do occur and can be viewed in Appendix A. the design horsepower to which this gear has been designed is 240HP which is the value at which the fatigue analysis was conducted. defined as [10]. axial stress.5 𝑓 𝑎 𝑓𝑢𝑙𝑡 1 2 2 −1 +4 𝑓 𝑠 𝑓𝑢𝑙𝑡 Equation 33 is then calculated with fult equal to the ultimate tensile strength of SAE 9310 steel. 𝑆. A procedure similar to that used for the fatigue analysis is performed with the replacement of the higher torque value. focus shifts to conducting analysis on the gear teeth.3.3 Calculation of Hertz Stresses (Pitting Resistance) Once the design of the gear shaft has been verified through static and fatigue analysis. The static margin of safety. As previously discussed. The static analysis is conducted at the location of the shaft that experiences the highest loading.2 Static Analysis In addition to fatigue analysis. bending moment. which in this case occurs at section B-B due to the additional axial load caused by the locking nut. First.87. the axial preload. 590HP instead of 240HP. Federal aviation requirements published by the Federal Aviation Administration. which governs the design and operation of commercial aircraft throughout the United States of America. a value of 590HP will be used. 3. which is 136 ksi. and steady stress remain unchanged whereas the steady torsion increases to 23. As a result. Substituting the known values results in a static margin of safety equal to . For the static analysis conducted here.. establish design parameters that state that a static analysis must be conducted at twice the normal operating condition. which far exceeds the FAA requirement of twice the normal operating condition. calculation of the 38 . 𝑀.7 psi based on Equation 22. = 1.991. In this application. M. A fully detailed approach to the static analysis is shown in Appendix B.S.

the distance from the mid-point of the tooth to the line of action. face angles.Hertz stresses will be performed in order to gauge the ability of the gear teeth to resist pitting. large end addendum. AGMA 2005-D03. used directly in the calculation of the geometry factor. and a sample list of calculations is shown in Appendix A of that document. pitch diameter.5 and Section 2. is a complicated process that involves solving ten equations iteratively. shown in Equation 12. the values for outer cone distance. Calculation of the geometry factor. s. Equations for these values are presented in the AGMA standard. to begin the iterative process. Once these values are known. normal pressure angle. This value is then used to solve for the length of line of contact. an assumption is made for f. and the load sharing ratio. Now. a typical iteration follows the procedure below: 39 .7 will be employed to calculate the geometry factor for pitting resistance. diametral pitch. number of teeth. and mean spiral angle must be known. The methodology previously discussed in Section 2. Calculation of every required variable will not be discussed here. shown in Equation 6. the remaining variables can be calculated. Using the assumed value for f. net face width. which will then be used to find the value for compressive stress acting on the gear teeth. mN. I. Design Manual for Bevel Gears. fc. I. but is shown in Appendix C for reference. pitch angles. Before starting.

Figure 15 . as described above.Iterative procedure to calculate the load sharing ratio.0. This process is then continued until the geometry factor is minimized. The iterative procedure was continued until the geometry factor was successfully minimized. Design experience led the iterative procedure to begin with a value for f equal to 1. 40 . The table below shows the results of the iterations and the dashes represent iterations that could not be finished. the geometry factor. mN [10] Once mN and s are calculated. This prevented calculation of the load sharing ratio and the geometry factor because values for η1 and η2 are non-existent because the result is an imaginary number. I. can be calculated.

The tooth form factor is calculated using [10]. the remaining items required to calculate the Hertz stresses could also be finalized.0 is definitely sufficient.Table 8 . Ks. and the geometry factor. which is an ideal case and is not typical in most applications.10 as previously explained. the Hertz stresses in the gear teeth were calculated to be.1086 0.1206 0. An mN value of exactly 1. which incorporates both the radial and tangential components of the normal load applied to the gear teeth. The fact that an mN value close to 1. a value for the size factor.0 would mean that the pinion and gear share the applied load equally. a load sharing ratio value. Cp was calculated using Equation 7. Km. and the remaining design factors were chosen based on previous discussion in Section 2.10 0. using Equation 13.4 Calculation of Bending Stresses Analysis now shifts to establishing the value for bending stresses in the gear teeth based on the geometry of the teeth and the applied loads. which shows that the minimization procedure has been successfully completed. Using Equation 11. Ks.5 0.884239 0.997657 0. close to 1. previously discussed in Sections 2. J.335146 0. Wt using Equation 2.15 0.1658 0. Once the geometry factor was calculated.0 0.Results for calculating the load sharing ratio and geometry factor f mn I 1. Combining all of these known values.05 0.7. the tooth form factor.6 𝑘𝑠𝑖 𝑐 Equation 34 3.1410 0.60129 0.5 and 2.985792 0. In addition.660 and the load distribution factor.1072 Further reduction of f has very little effect on the value for I. mN.739121 0. J. 41 .2450 0.002 0.01 0. The remaining calculation to perform prior to calculating the bending stress is the calculation of the geometry factor. was calculated to be . the load distribution factor. was assumed to be 1.25 0. Calculation of the bending stresses includes utilizing the size factor.0 has been achieved is a marked example of the accuracy of this iterative procedure. 𝑓 = 180. Km.7. The only remaining variable needed is Yk.

The iteration process appears below. because of the limitations of the formulas above. a value for the ratio does not 42 .𝑌𝐾 = 2 3 𝑘 𝑓 𝑃𝐼𝑇𝐶𝐻 1 tan 𝜙𝑛 𝑋𝑛 − 3𝑡𝑛 Equation 35 where kf is the actual stress concentration factor. Xn is a ratio which defines the gear tooth strength factor.5 as a recommended initial value. derived from the theoretical stress concentration factor. Figure 16 . and tn is one-half the tooth thickness at the critical section of the gear tooth. In this application however.Iterative procedure to calculate tooth form factor. the gear tooth strength factor. Xn [10] with a value of θ less than . kt. involves an iterative process to accurately define this ratio. Calculation of Xn. Φn is the angle which the normal force makes with a line perpendicular to the tooth centerline.

J.48541 0. is only an increase of .05935 will be used because it produces the closest Xn value to the desired value of . and Spiral Bevel Gear 43 .06. Therefore. The data from Table 10 below was compiled from Tables 3 and 5 in the AGMA 2003-B97 standard.Assumed values for θ and its effect on bending stress θ Xn Yk J Bending Stress (ksi) 0.24275 31. a value for θ was assumed and the remaining values for Xn.2489 30.6 0. or 900 psi.06 0. The higher bending stress however.24205 31.35268 0. and the effect this has on the important factors in the bending stress analysis. Zerol Bevel.05935 0.24205 will be substituted into Equation 8 previously discussed. but this result produces a ratio value of only .4 0.50007 0.05 to .35237 0. Rating the Pitting Resistance and Bending Strength of Generated Straight Bevel.5 0.24186 31. Table 9 below displays computed results using assumed values for θ in the range of .35233 0.6 ksi.059 0. not close to the desired value of . Yk. which is only 2.9 ksi.05 and .1. 31. in order to calculate the bending stress in the gear teeth.50825 0.5.0575 0. Continual reduction of θ leads to a range for θ between .11695. and Bending Stress were calculated based on the assumed θ values.82642 0.35228 0.5 ksi compared to 30.9% of the applied bending stress and is therefore considered minimal.5. 𝑓𝑏 = 31.05 0. This results in a value for fb of.5 To complete Table 9.turn positive until θ is equal to .35877 0. a J value of .54582 0.24217 31.5 𝑘𝑠𝑖 Equation 36 Now that the analytical procedures have been performed in order to identify the bending stresses and compressive stresses in the gear teeth. even though it results in a higher bending stress.5 0. Table 9 . the next step is to compare the calculated values to the allowable values to ensure that the design is safe for operation under the specified parameters. a θ value of .06. Because the ultimate goal in this analytical procedure is not to reduce the bending stress but to accurately calculate the bending stress.

Table 5 from the AGMA standard recommends a hardness value of 58 – 64 HRC for the gear teeth and a hardness value of 30 HRC minimum for the core (center of tooth at root diameter). mechanical properties. Discussion of these factors is covered in the AGMA standard and should be adhered to in order for these values to accurately represent the design and analysis covered throughout this paper. For Grade 3 gears. residual stress. Because these are the hardness values that have been chosen for this specific gear application. The allowable value for bending stress. As such. 40 ksi.6 ksi compressive stress for this application.Teeth. cleanliness. Table 10 . is also much higher than the calculated value of 31.5 ksi. and is greatly dependent on material composition. the allowable stress values presented below are accurate to this type of application. quality. final processing operations in manufacture and method of stress calculation [8]. forging practices. heat treatment. as specified above. is chosen based on Table 3 from the AGMA standard which provides hardness recommendations for the core of the gear as well as the gear teeth. This extracted data represents the results of laboratory and field experience for the specified material and condition of that material. the values for a Grade 3 gear are the true allowable values to which the calculated values should be compared. an allowable value for compressive stress is 250 ksi which is much higher than the calculated 180. This 44 . Because the design and analysis presented has followed the recommendations of the AGMA standard.Allowable stress values [8] Material Designation Heat Treatment Carburized & Case Steel Hardened Minimum Surface Hardness Compressive Stress Allowable (ksi) Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 58 – 64 HRC Minimum Surface 200 225 250 Material Designation Heat Treatment Carburized & Case Steel Hardened Bending Stress Allowable (ksi) Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Hardness 58 – 64 HRC 30 35 40 The appropriate Grade.

the gear designed and analyzed herein has unlimited life for both bending life and durability life. and compared to the allowable stresses in accord with AGMA recommendations shown above in Table 10.analysis proves that the finalized gear tooth design has been shown to be safe for operation in this specific application. The input power is then converted to a bending stress and a compressive stress. The flight spectrum. If the calculated fatigue life is greater than 50.6.000 hours.000 flight hours. 3. the five maneuvers were input into Appendix D. shows five flight maneuvers in which fatigue damage occurs to the gear teeth. shown in columns F and J respectively. presented in Appendix A. To perform these calculations. individual damage occurrences are calculated for each maneuver and then summed in order to obtain a life calculation for both bending and durability. the gear is said to have unlimited life for application in this helicopter. The calculated fatigue life was then compared to the required 50. along with the composite percent time and input power associated with each of the five maneuvers. Using the calculated stresses and Equation 10 previously discussed. Using a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet specifically designed for the calculation of damage accumulation. specifically utilizing the Miner’s rule methodology presented earlier in Section 2. As Appendix E shows. IF-THENELSE statements were used to determine the true extent of each damage occurrence. 45 .5 Gear Life Calculations Gear life calculations were performed in accord with AGMA recommendations.

Fatigue analysis was then conducted at the most critical sections of the gear.87.5 times the endurance limit of the gear.0 times the endurance limit. Upon completion of the analysis of the gear shaft. This static analysis at section B-B produced a margin of safety equal to . Upon completion of the design phase of the gear. material processing. Per the AGMA standards. design of gear teeth. Gear loads were calculated based on geometry of the spiral bevel gear teeth and bearing support structure.48 was determined at section A-A. The Hertz stresses were calculated to be 180. shown in Figure 11. Margins of safety were calculated at the two critical sections and a margin of safety equal to . exceeding the Federal Aviation Administration recommendation of 2. A detailed summary of material selection. bearings. A margin of safety equal to 3. Conclusion A spiral bevel gear has been designed and analyzed using current industry standards combined with the implementation of learned methodology through years of design experience and test results. The gear was designed for use in an intermediate gearbox of a medium class helicopter and was framed around the existing transmission components in use. the analytical focus shifted to the gear teeth.4. allowable stresses in carburized and case hardened gear teeth are 46 .35 was determined at section B-B. analysis was conducted to ensure appropriate margins of safety had been implemented into the design. the highest loaded section of the gear shaft. Static analysis was then performed at section B-B. A positive margin of safety was shown to provide adequate safety for operation in this application. Geometry factors for pitting resistance and bending strength were calculated using iterative procedures that were explained in detail. Hertz (compressive) and bending stresses in the gear teeth were calculated using the recommended practices of the American Gear Manufacturing Association (AGMA). and seals. also shown in Figure 11. The static analysis was conducted at approximately 2. and selection of design factors was presented in order to clarify the proper selection of certain design parameters.6 ksi and the bending stresses were calculated to be 31. specifically utilizing the current transmission housings.5 ksi.

250 ksi and 40 ksi respectively. Finally. 47 . which resulted in unlimited life for the gear under the specified design parameters. fatigue life calculations were performed using the estimated flight load spectrum and the specific flight maneuvers that cause fatigue damage to the gear teeth. Miner’s rule was explained and utilized to perform the necessary fatigue life calculations. the stresses produced in the gear teeth were acceptable. As a result. mitigating the risk of failure to the designed gear teeth.

Holbrook L. 28th Edition. Materials Science and Engineering An Introduction. [8] “Rating the Pitting Resistance and Bending Strength of Generated Straight Bevel. Transmissions Design Manual. Franklin D. William D. [4] Dieter.. Ryffel. and Pradeep P.5. [3] “Design Manual for Bevel Gears.. Boston. 2004. Erik Oberg. 2005. Zerol Bevel and Spiral Bevel Gear Teeth.” ANSI/AGMA 2005-D03 (2003). Jones. Donald R. MA: McGraw-Hill. Heat Treatment and Processing Manual. [5] “Gear Materials. [10] United Technologies Corporation.” ANSI/AGMA 2003-B97 (1997). Fulay. The Science and Engineering of Materials. Robert L. [6] Horton. 48 . Mechanical Metallurgy. Connecticut: Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation. 1992. New York: Cengage Engineering. New York: Industrial Press. [2] Callister. [7] Mott. Machinery’s Handbook.. and Henry H. References [1] Askeland. Connecticut: Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation. [9] United Technologies Corporation. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc.. Jr. 1986. Sikorsky Structures Manual. 1990. 2008. Machine Elements in Mechanical Design. 2003. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.” ANSI/AGMA 2004-C08 (2007). George E.

See Microsoft Excel file titled.6. “Flight Spectrum and Anticipated Load Conditions” on the associated CD. Appendix A Helicopter flight spectrum with anticipated horsepower and torque loads. 49 .

See Microsoft Excel file titled. Appendix B Fatigue and static analysis on gear shaft.7. “Fatigue and Static Analysis” on the associated CD. 50 .

51 . compressive stresses and bending stresses. See the Microsoft Excel file titled.8. “Spiral Bevel Gear Data” on the associated CD. Appendix C Calculation of geometry factors.

See the Microsoft Excel file titled.9. 52 . Appendix D Fatigue life calculations. “Spiral Bevel Gear Life Calculation” on the associated CD.

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