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New differential absorption lidar for stratospheric ozone monitoring in Patagonia, South Argentina

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J Porteneuve5. for example the SOLAR campaign made in the Argentine Patagonian region during 2005 and 2006 spring periods. Some of these changes are related with the increase of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) emissions during the industrialization period in the northern hemisphere inducing changes in the natural balance of 1 © 2008 IOP Publishing Ltd Printed in the UK . Villa Martelli. A number of different changes have been made to increase the dynamic range of this lidar: a mechanical chopper was installed together with a gated photomultiplier in the high-energy detection channels to avoid the detector being overloaded by strong signals from lower atmospheric layers.IOP PUBLISHING J. UMAG. with relative differences less than 10%. ˜ A Pazmino5 . Introduction We have strong evidence that human activities linked to industrialized processes have perturbed the natural balance of 1464-4258/08/104021+07$30. Paris. a B1603ALO. giving the possibility to make field campaigns outside CEILAP laboratories.00 the atmosphere’s composition [1]. The comparison of the integral of height integrated lidar profiles with total ozone column measured with a Brewer photometer shows good agreement. France e 6 National Institute for Environmental Studies. with relative differences inside 1σ deviation of the lidar measurement. This new version was installed inside a shelter. The comparison with five quasi-coincident sondes launched in Punta Arenas during spring 2005 shows good agreement between both types of measurement.iop. Punta 1 Received 27 February 2008. Since the initial construction of the first DIAL instrument. the Lidar Division of CEILAP has made important financial and scientific investments to upgrade this initial prototype. Intercomparisons with the ozone sonde and satellite platform instrument are presented. each of 50 cm diameter. ozone Abstract As part of environmental studies concerned with measurements of the stratospheric ozone layer. and a larger number of detection channels: four different wavelengths are detected simultaneously and six digital channels record the Rayleigh and Raman backscattered photons emitted by a ClXe excimer laser at 308 nm and the third harmonic of a Nd–YAG laser at 355 nm. S Godin-Beekman5. Tsukuba. South Argentina E A Wolfram1 . The results show agreement better than 10% in 16–38 km altitude range when the same airmasses are sampled. A: Pure Appl. Argentina ı ı 3 Laboratorio de ozono y radiaci´ n UV. Opt.1088/1464-4258/10/10/104021 New differential absorption lidar for stratospheric ozone monitoring in Patagonia. H Nakane6 and E J Quel1 CEILAP Centro de Investigaciones en L´ seres y Aplicaciones (CITEFA-CONICET). C Casiccia3 . Chile o 4 Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais. accepted for publication 23 April 2008 Published 2 September 2008 Online at stacks. Brazil 5 Service d’A´ ronomie (IPSL). Keywords: lidar. J Salvador2 . The new version has a bigger reception system formed by four Newtonian telescopes. CEILAP has developed a new differential absorption lidar (DIAL) instrument. ozone hole. R´o Gallegos. Japan E-mail: ewolfram@citefa. 10 (2008) 104021 (7pp) JOURNAL OF OPTICS A: PURE AND APPLIED OPTICS doi:10. Argentina 2 Fellow Universidad de San Mart´n and CONICET. remote sensing 1. N Paes Leme4 . In this paper a full description of the instrument update is given. R D’Elia1 .

In this paper we describe the new DIAL instrument. The ozone distribution as a function of altitude is determined by the DIAL equation. with special attention to improvements that gave this instrument a better performance than the previous version. z) . Measurement technique 2. Opt. For the wavelength absorbed by ozone. and σO3 (λi ) is the difference between ozone absorption cross sections at λon and λoff . in the O3 presence of low stratospheric aerosol loading [6]. 10 (2008) 104021 E A Wolfram et al stratospheric ozone over the globe. ı For that reason a little bias could be introduced in the ozone concentration retrieved for lidar measurement. 30 Hz repetition rate and 130 mJ maximum energy. typically between 80 and 150 km. The setup of CEILAP’s DIAL instrument is shown in figure 1. which might damage living organisms. during the integration time t . principally in developed countries. The SOLAR campaign was held during the winter and spring 2005 and 2006 in the Patagonian city of R´o Gallegos (51◦ 55’ S. z) (2) n O3 (z) is the ozone number density at height z .1. The paper is organized as follows: first the ozone DIAL algorithm is presented. In the stratosphere. maximum energy per pulse of 300 mJ is used. 0. 3. intercomparisons with other ozone measurement platforms are presented. Also. this new instrument was the central part of a field campaign carried out in the southern part of Argentina. This average produces a horizontal spatial resolution of about 200 km. N(λ I . The new setup was developed in collaboration with Service d’A´ ronomie-CNRS. and the optical receiving system e is similar to that developed for other lidar systems. an excimer (XeCl) laser emitting at 308 nm with a repetition rate in the range 1–100 Hz. The methodology uses a Fernald inversion [8] algorithm to evaluate the aerosol backscatter signal at 355 nm and extrapolated to 308 nm [9]. DIAL instrument In this section a description of the instrument’s different subsystems is given. CFCs have a very long lifetime and they still affect the stratospheric ozone balance at present. Ozone plays an important role in the atmosphere by absorbing the short-wavelength ultraviolet (UV) radiation. including the adaptation made in the inversion program to atmospheric input data in southern Argentina. when the first differential absorption lidar (DIAL) of Latin America [4] was developed. This temperature profile is completed with the climatologic temperature profile from CIRA [7] over the complete altitude range of the lidar measurement. particles (aerosols) and other atmospheric components. The Montreal protocol was signed in 1987 in order to stop the emission of these gases. This technique is self-calibrated because no instrumental constants are involved in the ozone DIAL retrieval. z) the number of photons at wavelength λi backscattered by the atmospheric layer z at a distance z . The laser wavelength chosen in the DIAL instrument minimizes the complementary term in the stratosphere to less than 10% of n meas . this systematic error is not larger than 2%. At the focus of each telescope an optical fiber of 0.02 numerical aperture. which has better performance than the older one. The Lidar Division of CEILAP has made a different contribution related to monitoring of stratospheric ozone in Argentina since 1999. At present. Santa Cruz Province. ln 2 σO3 dz N(λon . The instrument developed at the CEILAP laboratory is an extension of the previous (more limited) one. Finally. more than ten years after the peak level of CFCs was detected [2]. This produces a total reception area of ∼7238 cm2 . in order to monitor ozone hole intrusions over subpolar regions. which is temperature dependent. The term δn O3 is the complementary term.94 mm effective diameter. the signal registered is averaged over the full acquisition time of the measurement. Additional correction by stratospheric aerosol contamination is made. ı Argentina.27 db km−1 attenuation (@ 308 nm) is placed. we make two corrections: (1) subtraction of the background signal using a linear regression within the range of altitudes where the lidar signal is considered negligible. and as a result of these international actions.J. the first term on the right-hand side of (1) is large as compared to the complementary term. which has two terms [5]: n O3 = n meas + δn O3 O3 where (1) n meas (z) = O3 1 d N(λoff . Punta Arenas is located 200 km south west from R´o Gallegos. (2) dead time correction of the detector. For the evaluation of the ozone absorption cross section. 0. The other end of the fiber is positioned at the focus of a quartz lens placed 2 2. The DIAL technique requires two emitter lasers. The reference wavelength is produced by the third harmonic of a Nd–YAG laser at 355 nm. For these reasons ozone has been at the center of middle atmosphere research effort [3]. More details of both lasers are given in table 1. especially when different air masses are sampled. A: Pure Appl. we use the vertical temperature profile measured by a radiosonde launched in the city of Punta Arenas each morning. However. in order to correct the saturation of the photocounting signals in the lower altitude ranges. the concentration of CFC and other ozone depleted substances in the stratosphere peaked during the mid-1990s. Before processing the signal using equation (1). DIAL equation The DIAL system is a powerful instrument for monitoring the vertical distribution of ozone. such as the instrument at Observatoire de Haute-Provence [8]. Various amendments of the protocol were signed. we have increased this research effort with the construction of a new version of a DIAL instrument. In order to increase the signal to noise ratio. at 12 UTC (Coordinated Universal Time). The acquisition time is typically three to four hours. according to weather conditions. Opt. second the instrumental setup is described. which involves atmospheric scattering and attenuation by molecules. 69◦ 14’ W). However. and also by maintaining the radiative budget in equilibrium.22 ± 0. . The backscattered photons are collected by four Newtonian f /2 telescopes of 50 cm diameter with parabolic aluminized surfaces of 48 cm diameter.

Dispersion 0. The instrument is deployed inside the same shelter as the Raman water vapor lidar [10]. The results of these measurements are shown in figure 4. 0. 30 Hz repetition rate. Experimental setup of the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) developed at CEILAP. The wavelength separation is performed by a plane holographic diffraction grating of 3600 groove mm−1 with 40% transmittance at 300 nm. Maximum count rate 40/60 count μs−1 . designed at CEILAP. the results . Reception Telescopes Optical fiber Diffraction grating Detection Photomultipliers Discriminators Acquisition inside a spectrometric box. Typical gain 106 Phillips Scientific Model 6904 300 MHz BW. and adapted for photon counting. In all the channels. A: Pure Appl. Paris. and 30 for the Raman channels. The acquisition of the signals is made by a system developed at Service d’A´ ronomie. 0. DIAL subsystem characteristics. 3600 lines/mm with 40% transmittance at 300 nm.27 dB km−1 (@ 308 m)/0. A detailed description of the system characteristics is given in table 1. Additionally. A mechanical chopper is in the optic path of the signal collected by the telescopes. 1–100 Hz repetition rate.A. 300 mJ maximum pulse energy at λon = 308 nm. 0. Measurements The DIAL instrument was developed. Figure 3 shows a layout of the spectrometer. 4. tested and adjusted by the Lidar Division of CEILAP. 130 mJ maximum pulse energy at λoff = 355 nm (third harmonic). Opt. Threshold is variable from −10 mV to −1 V with a 15-turn potentiometer Developed at Service d’ Aeronomie. During the period that spans from August 2004 to April 2005. The layout of the chopper blade’s shape. France.4 divergence beam. Opt. the radiations due to the Raman scattering by nitrogen molecules of the 308 and 355 nm radiations are detected. Total reception area ∼7238 cm2 HCG-M0940T. f /2. It has a rotating velocity of 150 Hz and its role is to block the strong lidar signals originating from the lower part of the atmosphere. the DIAL instrument carried out routine measurements of the concentration of stratospheric ozone at CEILAP. 3–5 ns pulse length Newtonian configuration. Institute Pierre e Simon Laplace. High speed counters of 300 MHz. where we can observe the typical climatological behavior of the ozone layer at middle latitudes.S.02 numerical aperture (loss of 20%). Six independent channels.J. located in the outskirts of Buenos Aires. Subsystem Emitter Lasers Specifications Lambda Physik LSX 210i excimer laser. Table 1. low dark current. 1024 time gates/1 μs. Spectral band width 1 nm Hamamatsu Type H6780-03 and Hamamatsu Type R7400U. The signals are amplified by six amplifiers with 250 MHz bandwidth and amplification factor of 10 and 20 for the 3 high-level and low-level channels respectively. in six photo counting modules of 300 MHz bandwidth. 0. Hamamatsu photomultipliers type H6780-03 adapted for photon counting are used for signal detection. Six channels are detected simultaneously.94 mm effective diameter. is shown in figure 2. 0. 10 (2008) 104021 E A Wolfram et al Figure 1. diameter: 48 cm.3 nm mm−1 . Four of them correspond to the elastic backscattering photons at both laser wavelengths in high-energy and low-energy mode.6 divergence beam.22 ± 0. 4–20 ns pulse length Quantel 980 Nd:YAG laser.2 dB km−1 (@ 355 nm) attenuation Jobin-Ivon I.

which is at 23 km in spring in the southern hemisphere and increases to 25 km at the end of the southern summer. the instrument. 10 (2008) 104021 E A Wolfram et al Figure 2. (10) output 308 nm low-energy Rayleigh signal. Figure 3. The comparison between the primitive version of the DIAL instrument and the new DIAL instrument were reported in [11–15]. This instrument is the principal one involved in the SOLAR (Stratospheric Ozone Lidar of ARgentina) campaign [12]. are in agreement with similar measurements carried out by the lidar group at CEILAP in previous years [4]. (3) chopper motor. Upper triangles indicate the lidar measurements. (5. (13) output 355 nm low-energy Rayleigh signal. Time–altitude ozone cross section of lidar ozone profiles measured in Buenos Aires during August 2004–April 2005. These results correspond to the expected concentration of ozone for these latitudes due to the balance between the photochemical processes (production and destruction) and the transport phenomena that affect ozone at mid-latitudes. It has the main objective to monitor the vertical distribution of stratospheric ozone between 14 and 45 km. Opt. A: Pure Appl. (9) output 308 nm high-energy Rayleigh signal. (11) output 387 nm nitrogen Raman signal. The statistic measurement error is much smaller with the new system (15% at 35 km instead of 35%). (2) chopper blade. 6. (1) Bundle of fiber optics. The latter system has higher performance than the former one due to the addition of a low-energy channel in order to cover a larger altitude range in the lower stratosphere. (14) output 347 nm water vapor Raman signal. (4) collimating mirror. In this figure we can observe the change in height of the peak of maximum ozone concentration. installed inside a mobile shelter. (1) Fiber optic. 7) concentrating mirror. due to the bigger reception area of the four Newtonian telescopes. was moved to the city of R´o Gallegos (51◦ 55’ S. The first results of this kind of event were reported in [13]. (12) output 355 nm high-energy Rayleigh signal. (8) plane holographic grating 3600 grooves mm−1 . The R´o Gallegos location ı selected to carry out this campaign offers the possibility to observe overpasses of the polar vortex that contain the ozone hole during spring. Layout of mechanical chopper. in the south of Argentina. Opt. Province ı of Santa Cruz. (2) chopper.J. 69◦ 14’ W). After the test measurement period in Buenos Aires. Ozone number densities are in molecules cm−3 × 1012 . (15) output 332 nm nitrogen Raman signal. 4 . (3) focusing telescope. principally Figure 4. Layout of spectrometer used to separate the lidar signals.

(a): DIAL ozone measurement on 24 October 2005 (black line) in R´o Gallegos together with ECC ozone sonde measurement in ı Punta Arenas for the same day (gray line). Figure 5 shows the DIAL and electro-chemical cell (ECC) ozone sonde stratospheric ozone vertical concentration in the 15–40 km height range. Figure 6 shows a rather good agreement between 16 and 32 km. reaching 35% at 15 km. (b) Relative difference between DIAL and ozone sonde. and other ı ground based measurements. 10 (2008) 104021 E A Wolfram et al Figure 5. together with satellite measurements. In this paper we present the intercomparison with the stratospheric aerosol gas experiment (SAGE) III measurement [14]. A: Pure Appl. The comparison ı shows very good agreement between both measurements. with relative differences ranging within ±10% (figure 6(b)). This day was characterized by high ozone content without the influence of the polar vortex. The selected comparison day was 24 October 2005. 5 Similar results were obtained when DIAL ozone vertical profiles were compared with satellite platforms.36◦ S. (a) Comparison between DIAL ozone measurement at Rio Gallegos and SAGE III satellite ozone measurement on 24 October 2005. Opt. Above 38 km the relative difference increase is principally due to degradation of the signal to noise ratio of the lidar signal from the upper stratosphere. the relative difference increases quickly. basically limited by cloud cover during the measurement night. This means that the ozone vertical distribution was typical of the usual ozone vertical distribution during spring time at subpolar regions in the southern hemisphere. Below 16 km. but it was sufficiently close to make the intercomparison possible. The sonde was launched in Punta Arenas. Chile. starting at 23:33 UTC. The satellite profile was measured at latitude 45.J. . Figure 6.62◦ W. 200 km south west away from R´o Gallegos. The satellite profile measured by this instrument on 24 October 2005 was not totally in spatial coincidence with R´o Gallegos’ ı geographical position (there was a shift of 5◦ in latitude). This effect can be reduced by increasing the acquisition time of measurement. The DIAL ozone profile was obtained as an average of 4 h acquisition time. In this paper we present the intercomparison between DIAL ozone profiles measured in R´o Gallegos. like the ozone sonde. longitude 74. with relative differences between measurements less than 10% from 16 km up to 32 km. Opt. (DIAL − Sonde)/DIAL (%). the maximum height reached by the ozone sonde for this launch (figure 5(b)). (b) Relative error between satellite and DIAL measurement.

Figure 8. which means that there is a slow increase of lidar signals between the time when the chopper blade fully obscures the signal and the time when the chopper blade is fully open. such comparison requires the smallest time difference between the measurements. This could be due to the critical selection of the merging altitude between the lidar profile and the mean tropospheric ozone profile from sondes. Figure 7 shows the 6 averaged ozone profiles obtained from five quasi-coincident ECC sondes and DIAL lidar ozone measurements. As a result.J. the ozone profile was completed with the US standard climatologic profile. Comparison of averaged ozone profiles obtained from five quasi-coincident ECC sondes (dotted line) and the averaged lidar ozone profile (white line). (b) Relative difference (Brewer − Lidar)/Brewer. in the case of overpass of the polar vortex over the station at some altitude level. A good coincidence is found between the total ozone columns obtained with the lidar and Brewer instruments. 10 (2008) 104021 E A Wolfram et al Figure 7. Good agreement is found between both types of measurement. The largest difference is seen in the lower stratosphere. For that reason we computed a full ozone profile from the ground surface to 80 km by merging the lidar profile with an averaged tropospheric ozone sonde profile below 15 km and with a climatologic profile beyond 45 km. The transit time of the edge of the chopper blade through the fiber-optic bundle is 34 μs. Due to the large ozone variability in the lower stratosphere at this latitude. We calculated the averaged tropospheric ozone profile as the mean of 21 ozone sondes performed in this city during spring 2005. Opt. A similar pattern was observed in all comparisons with the DIAL instrument. The ozone profile is measured by lidar between 15 and 45 km altitude. The shadow area corresponds to ±1σ of lidar measurements and the horizontal line corresponds to ±1σ of sondes. but this bias is not significant at one standard deviation level of lidar measurements. To avoid differences between both ı measurements because they are sensing different air masses. in the same location where the ozone sondes were made. . some saturation effects may be observed in the low-altitude signals. Another limitation of this instrument that has been studied is the slow velocity of the mechanical chopper. Figure 8 shows the comparison between the integrated lidar ozone profiles and total ozone columns measured with the Brewer spectrophotometer. The performance of the lidar instrument is further checked by comparing the mean of coincident lidar and ECC sonde measurements obtained within ±12 h difference. producing a slow opening of the lidar signal [15]. because of the high variability of ozone content in the lower stratosphere. As is clear from figure 8 bottom panel. With the purpose of increasing the number of comparisons between the lidar and other measurement methods at Rio Gallegos. the selected measurements for coincidence were chosen when both sites were outside the polar vortex. This instrument belongs to the Laboratorio de Ozono y Radiaci´ n o Ultravioleta of Magallanes University (UMAG). Above 45 km. A: Pure Appl. This means that the full lidar signal can only be detected above 13 km altitude. (a) Total ozone column measured during 2005 late winter–spring with the Brewer spectrophotometer in Punta Arenas and calculated from the lidar profile. A set of five quasi-coincident sondes launched in Punta Arenas and lidar measurements in R´o Gallegos were found in the September–October period. below 19 km. and the ozone hole can have a strong influence on the shape of the measured ozone profiles at this latitude. ı This is spring time in the southern hemisphere. For that reason the ozone profiles measured with sondes in Punta Arenas can show differences against the lidar profiles taken in R´o Gallegos. We believe that this is due to the saturation by backscattered photons in the low-energy channels. The photomultipliers of the lower altitude and Raman channels can therefore be illuminated with intense signals from the upper troposphere. Opt. Chile. Chile. a small bias towards positive differences is found. we compare the integral of the lidar profiles with the total ozone column measured with the Brewer MKIII180 spectrophotometer deployed in Punta Arenas. Both the ozone sonde and satellite comparison with the DIAL profile show increased differences below 16 km. Relative differences less than ±10% were found. The set of 29 lidar measurements considered in this figure corresponds to the intensive measurement period of the SOLAR Campaign in spring 2005.

30 1631 [15] Wolfram E A 2006 Mediciones atmosf´ ricas de ozono y vapor e de agua con t´ cnica lidar y radiometria solar ultravioleta e Doctoral Thesis La Plata Nacional University. We are planning to investigate this problem using the signal from nitrogen Raman channels which are much less intense than the Rayleigh one. Opt. Monitor. Switzerland [2] Newman P A. Lavorato M. Also. During the period that spans from August 2004 to April 2005. Pallotta J. the DIAL instrument carried out routine measurements of the concentration of stratospheric ozone over Buenos Aires. provided the shelter and the electronic acquisition system. Salvador J. division-lidar. Godin S and M´ gie G 1986 Upper stratospheric e (30–50 km) lidar observations of the ozone vertical distribution J. The comparison of results from the lidar total ozone column in R´o Gallegos with those from the ı Brewer spectrophotometer in Punta Arenas shows very good agreement. Rep. The comparison with five quasi-coincident sondes launched in Punta Arenas during spring 2005 shows good agreement between both types of measurement. and Their Applications. Res. Opt. which 7 . In particular. vol 47 Geneva.J. on 24 October 2005. With the development of this instrument. Proc. Kawa S R. Nakane H and Quel E 2005 Solar campaign: stratospheric ozone lidar of Argentina Lidar Remote Sensing for Environmental Monitoring VI. Porteneuve J and Garnier A 2003 Systematic DIAL ozone measurements at Observatoire de Haute-Provence J. And Monit. D’Aulerio P. D’Elia R. Res. Opt. The results were in good agreement over the 16–32 km altitude range for both intercomparisons. We also appreciate the support of the Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE III) project of NASA. Laser Radar Conf. offering to the international scientific community a new remote sensing site in a subpolar region and also an attractive ground base platform site for satellite validation programs. Nash E R. Argentina has increased its remote sensing capacities in global issues like ozone hole and global ozone depletion. ESA 561) vol I. (Matera. Different instrumental subsystems were described as well as the lidar signal processing and ozone algorithm retrieval. Res. we compared the DIAL ozone vertical profile with an ozone sonde measurement launched in Punta Arenas and the SAGE III satellite. The total ozone column obtained from the integral of the lidar profiles completed with the tropospheric mean sonde profile below 14 km and the US standard profile above 45 km were calculated. Below 16 km the relative difference increases. 10 (2008) 104021 E A Wolfram et al 5. 31 L21104 [3] Megie G and Menzies R T 1980 Complementary of UV and IR differential absorption lidar for global measurements of atmospheric species Appl. References [1] World Meteorological Organization (WMO) 2002 Scientific assessments of ozone depletion WMO Global Ozone Res. 40 55–65 [5] Godin Godin-Beekmann S. Nakane H and Quel E 2006 SOLAR campaign: first results of ozone profile measurements at Rio Gallegos. Buenos Aires. Proj.nerc. Wolfram E. Lett. SPIE 5622 1214–9 [12] Wolfram E A. with relative differences inside 1σ deviation of the lidar measurement. This instrument was first installed in the outskirts of Buenos Aires city where CEILAP is located. Conclusions In this paper we have presented a description of the DIAL instrument for stratospheric ozone monitoring developed by the Lidar Division of CELAP. Argentina 22nd Int. Res. we wish to make sincere acknowledgment to CNRS. Opt. A: Pure Appl. probably due to the saturation of lowenergy channels as a consequence of chopper’s slow rotation velocity. [Internet] British Atmospheric Data Centre (Available from http:// badc. Laser Radar Conf. Also. Fierli F. 23 652–3 [9] Godin-Beekmann S. Salvador J. Lett. where the typical climatological behavior of the ozone layer at middle latitudes was observed. Porteneuve [13] Wolfram E A. pp 443–6 [11] Dworniczak J C et al 2004 Lidar measurements of atmospheric parameters at CEILAP. Montzka S A and Schauffler S M 2004 On the size of antartic ozone hole Geophys. Pazmi˜ o A. Congeduti F. Argentina Acknowledgments We would like to thank the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) for their support of the SOLAR Project. 19 1173 [4] Pazmi˜ o A. Lett. Salvador J. 91 8667–71 [7] Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) 2006 The COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA-86). Environ. Argentina 5th Iberoamerican Mtg on Optics and 8th Latin American Mtg on Optics. n Godin-Beekmann S. ed C Nagasawa and N Sugimoto pp 365–8 (Part II) [14] Thomason L W and Taha G 2003 SAGE III aerosol extinction measurements: initial results Geophys. Porteneuve J and Quel E 2004 Raman water vapor lidar at Buenos Aires. SPIE 5887 588713 (Web page of SOLAR project: www. with relative differences lower that 10%. M´ gie G and Pelon J 1989 Systematic lidar e measurements of the stratospheric ozone vertical distributions Geophys. a new chopper with higher performance will be installed in the near future. Intercomparisons with different ozone measurement platforms were presented. UNSAM and CONICET supported the fellowships of PhD students. Otero L. Porteneuve J. Lasers Eng. Proc. Italia. Argentina Opt. Otero [8] Fernald F G 1984 Analysis of atmospheric lidar observations: some comments Appl. Argentina Reviewed and Revised Papers Presented at the 23rd Int. Godin S. with relative difference lower that 10%. Lasers. which were of crucial importance in developing this project. 5 57–67 [10] Wolfram E A. n Quel E and Megie G 2003 Intercomparison of ozone profiles measurements by a differential absorption lidar system and satellite instruments at Buenos Aires. 16 547–50 [6] Pelon J.