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Integrated Circuit Description Integrated Circuit, tiny electronic circuit used to perform a specific electronic function, such as amplification;

it is usually combined with other components to form a more complex system. It is formed as a single unit by diffusing impurities into single-crystal silicon, which then serves as a semiconductor material, or by etching the silicon by means of electron beams. Several hundred identical integrated circuits (ICs) are made at a time on a thin wafer several centimeters wide, and the wafer is subsequently sliced into individual ICs called chips. In large-scale integration (LSI), as many as 5000 circuit fig.1 - Intrgrated circuits elements, such as resistors and transistors, are combined in a square of silicon measuring about 1.3 cm (.5 in) on a side. Hundreds of these integrated circuits can be arrayed on a silicon wafer 8 to 15 cm (3 to 6 in) in diameter. Larger-scale integration can produce a silicon chip with millions of circuit elements. Individual circuit elements on a chip are interconnected by thin metal or semiconductor films, which are insulated from the rest of the circuit by thin dielectric layers. Chips are assembled into packages containing external electrical leads to facilitate insertion into printed circuit boards for interconnection with other circuits or components. What can a IC do ? In consumer electronics, ICs have made possible the development of many new products, including personal calculators and computers, digital watches, and video games. They have also been used to improve or lower the cost of many existing products, such as appliances, televisions, radios, and highfidelity equipment. Computer technology, in particular, has benefited greatly. The logic and arithmetic functions of a small computer can now be performed on a single VLSI chip called a microprocessor, and the complete logic, arithmetic, and memory functions of a small computer can be packaged on a single printed circuit board, or even on a single chip. IC types Integrated circuits are often classified by the number of transistors and other electronic components they contain: y y y y y SSI (small-scale integration): Up to 100 electronic components per chip MSI (medium-scale integration): From 100 to 3,000 electronic components per chip LSI (large-scale integration): From 3,000 to 100,000 electronic components per chip VLSI (very large-scale integration): From 100,000 to 1,000,000 electronic components per chip ULSI (ultra large-scale integration): More than 1 million electronic components per chip

There are two major kinds of ICs: y y analog (or linear) which are used as amplifiers, timers and oscillators digital (or logic) which are used in microprocessors and memories

Some ICs are combinations of both analog and digital.

Need of connecting capacitor exterior to the semiconductor chip as it is neither convenient nor economical to fabricate capacitances exceeding 30 pF. 2. Quite delicate in handling as these cannot withstand rough handling or excessive heat. 4. if any component in an IC fails. Need of connecting inductors and transformers exterior to the semi-conductor chip as it is not possible to fabricate inductors and transformers on the semi-conductor chip surface. the whole IC has to be replaced by the new one. . Therefore. 6. In an IC the various components are part of a small semi-conductor chip and the individual component or components cannot be removed or replaced. therefore.demerits or Disadvantages of Ics The integrated circuits have few limitations also. Low temperature coefficient is difficult to be achieved. 3. 5. High grade P-N-P assembly is not possible. for higher values of capacitance. Limited power rating as it is not possible to manufacture high power (say greater than 10 Watt) ICs. discrete components exterior to IC chip are con¬nected. 7. Operations at low voltage as ICs function at fairly low voltage. 8. as listed below : 1.

regulators and even a whole micro computers in the form of a micro controller can be fitted inside a tiny package divided into two further Integrated circuits can be The output . Voltage dependence of resistors and capacitors. Integrated Circuits play a very important part in electronics. Large value of saturation resistance of transistors. However. and voltage of a representative follows changes in the input. 10. Most are specially made for a specific task and contain up to thousands of transistors. Special purposes IC's such as audio-amplifiers. control of the ratios is at a sufficiently acceptable level. The diffusion processes and other related procedures used in the fabrication proc¬ess are not good enough to permit a precise control of the parameter values for the circuit elements. Difficult to fabricate an IC with low noise. 12. logic blocks. FM radios. When from a microphone is connected to the a signal as the input the output will vary in the same way . Typical of a linear IC is an integrated audio amplifier.linear) and digital) analog :groups linear circuits is continuous. diodes and resistors.9. 11.

quickly . only the voltage will higher depending on the amplification of the be . Their It is a different situation with output voltage is not continuous.voltage from the microphone. the signal on same shape as the mic's signal.integrated circuit digital IC's. It is either LOW or and it changes from one state to the other very HIGH . If watched on an the output will be the oscilloscope.