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The History of the Keyboard

Typewriter roots

The Dvorak keyboard

It's also designed to slow the speed at which a user can type. almost all of the keys from the QWERTY keyboard moved in the Dvorak redesign.and least-used letters in traditional typing. today's computer keyboard is modeled partially on the old-fashioned typewriter. you probably never think about the humble origins of your modern keyboard. Typing away every day. The Dvorak keyboard When electric typewriters came out in the mid-1930s. The teletype was a marriage of the typewriter and telegraph. As you might guess. August Dvorak patented a new keyboard layout to reduce typing strain by placing the most commonly used letters in the home row. keyboards are everywhere. Multics and the modern keyboard In the mid-1960s. Although mechanical jams aren't an issue with computer keyboards. Unfortunately. most people are unwilling to retrain and the Dvorak keyboard has never been able to overtake QWERTY in popularity. Bell Laboratories and General Electric worked together to create Multics. bypassing the punch system or magnetic tape formerly used. . which many consumers have never even seen. With the development of the VDT and a keyboard that sent electronic impulses directly to the computer. The QWERTY layout is designed around the most. while a computer in the late 1940s went a step further and used an electric typing device to create magnetic tape to feed data to the computer. The VDT and electronic keyboard made it possible to input and manipulate data directly and became the prototype for modern computing. the modern keyboard was born. Multics was a multiuser computer system.The History of the Keyboard Millions of people around the globe use keyboards every day. Transition from typewriter to electronic keyboard A few key inventions helped ease the transition between old-fashioned typewriters and the modern computer keyboard. In spite of typing tests proving that the Dvorak layout is faster. and its development led to the invention of the video display terminal (VDT) so that users could easily input text to program and use computers. As computer use increases. An early computer in the mid-1940s used a card-punch system to input and output data. Programmers and IT administrators are the primary audience for this layout. typing was taught in so many schools over the years with QWERTY keyboards that it was natural to continue using the layout for computers. the keyboard took the final step to becoming the modern device we know when MIT. while another application took a punch system combined with a typewriter to create a keypunch. Typewriter roots Today's keyboard layout is based on the typewriter patented by Christopher Sholes in the mid1870s. The idea of the QWERTY layout is that the most frequently used letters are scattered around the keyboard so that the type bars in mechanical typewriters came from different directions and didn't jam during typing. so retraining on the Dvorak keyboard could take a month or more for most typists. These intermediary technologies paved the path between the mechanical typewriter and the electronic input device you use in modern computing.

History of the Computer Mouse First Mouse Laser Mouse Roller Ball Mouse Gyroscopic Mouse Optical Mouse .

which looked more like a medieval torture device than a computer peripheral. Logitech released a mouse recently that uses gyroscopic technology so that you can make changes to applications in Windows Vista by moving your arms about. it could navigate a pointer around the screen with ease.The computer mouse If you are reading this one of your hands is probably resting on a mouse. brushing your hair and singing the national anthem at the same time it is so accurate. one was supposed to be most simple for new users. Over the years the amount of buttons on the mouse has fluctuated. he came up with all sorts of ideas. . you can still buy a basic no frills roller ball mouse today. wanted to create a way for people to interact with a computer screen. but in the end the majority of users have two buttons on their mouse. this hub page reflects the origins of the mouse and the future. allowing you to tailor their feel depending on the game you are playing. a relatively unknown inventor Douglas Englebart. In September 1972. and more recently the laser mouse. Englebart's project partner-English-built the roller ball mouse. this month the humble computer mouse celebrates its 35th year. These days there are mice that are specifically designed for games. both these types beat the roller ball mouse hands down. replaced by the optical mouse. but these devices lacked speed and accuracy unlike his personal favorite-a mouse which was nothing more than a carved block of wood with some electronics inside. it's hover like skills that saved you from having to dust your desktop. with the laser mouse if you had the inclination. and it was so successful that despite advances in technology. In the 1960's. including a giant metal track ball and a knee operated device. the humble roller mouse will be missed by many. you don't require a rubber mat for them. a pioneer of human-computer interaction. The roller ball mouse has gradually been phased out over the past ten years. With the help of Bill English. three gave more options. you could surf the internet on your laptop whilst doing a bungee jump. despite the advances of the mouse.

Replace the BIOS or upgrade if possible The programmable interrupt timer has failed. Replace the IC if possible Bit 13. Replace the IC if possible Bit 7. This data bit on the first RAM IC has failed. Replace the CMOS if possible The BIOS ROM has failed. Replace the IC if possible Bit 4. Replace the IC if possible Bit 3. Low 1-1-2 System board select failure 1-1-3 CMOS read/write error Low 1-1-3 Extended CMOS RAM failure 1-1-4 1-2-1 1-2-2 1-2-3 1-3-1 1-3-2 1-3-3 1-3-4 1-4-1 1-4-2 1-4-3 1-4-4 2-1-1 2-1-2 2-1-3 2-1-4 2-2-1 2-2-2 2-2-3 2-2-4 2-3-1 2-3-2 2-3-3 2-3-4 2-4-1 2-4-2 BIOS ROM checksum error PIT failure DMA failure DMA read/write failure RAM refresh failure 64KB RAM failure First 64KB RAM failure First 64KB logic failure Address line failure Parity RAM failure EISA fail-safe timer test EISA NMI port 462 test 64KB RAM failure 64KB RAM failure 64KB RAM failure 64KB RAM failure 64KB RAM failure 64KB RAM failure 64KB RAM failure 64KB RAM failure 64KB RAM failure 64KB RAM failure 64KB RAM failure 64KB RAM failure 64KB RAM failure 64KB RAM failure . Replace the IC if possible Bit 12. This data bit on the first RAM IC has failed. This data bit on the first RAM IC has failed. Replace the IC if possible Bit 10. Replace the IC if possible Bit 5. This data bit on the first RAM IC has failed. This data bit on the first RAM IC has failed. Replace if possible The DMA controller has failed. Replace the IC if possible Bit 8. Replace the CMOS if possible The extended portion of the CMOS RAM has failed. This data bit on the first RAM IC has failed. Replace the CPU The motherboard is having an undetermined fault. Replace the IC if possible Bit 9. This data bit on the first RAM IC has failed. Replace the IC if possible Bit 11. Replace the IC if possible The first RAM control logic has failed The address line to the first 64KB RAM has failed The first RAM IC has failed. Replace the IC if possible The RAM refresh controller has failed The test of the first 64KB RAM has failed to start The first RAM IC has failed. Replace the IC if possible Bit 6. Replace the IC if possible Bit 1. This data bit on the first RAM IC has failed. Replace the IC if possible The DMA controller has failed. This data bit on the first RAM IC has failed. Replace if possible Replace the motherboard Replace the motherboard Bit 0. This data bit on the first RAM IC has failed. Replace the IC if possible Bit 2.Beep Codes of Phoenix Motherboard Beeps 1-1-2 Error Message CPU test failure Description The CPU is faulty. This data bit on the first RAM IC has failed. This data bit on the first RAM IC has failed. This data bit on the first RAM IC has failed. This data bit on the first RAM IC has failed. Replace the motherboard The real time clock/CMOS is faulty.

Replace the RAM test failure motherboard The system timer IC has failed. Reseat the adapter or replace the adapter if possible The system's timer IC has failed.2-4-3 2-4-4 3-1-1 3-1-2 3-1-3 3-1-4 3-2-2 3-2-3 3-2-4 3-3-1 3-3-2 3-3-3 3-3-4 3-4-1 4-2-1 4-2-2 4-2-3 4-2-4 4-3-1 4-3-3 4-3-4 4-4-1 4-4-2 4-4-3 64KB RAM failure 64KB RAM failure Slave DMA register failure Master DMA register failure Master interrupt mask register failure Slave interrupt mask register failure Interrupt vector error Reserved Keyboard controller failure CMOS RAM power bad CMOS configuration error Reserved Video memory failure Video initialization failure Timer failure Shutdown failure Gate A20 failure Replace the IC if possible Bit 14. replace the Math coprocessor failure MPU . Replace the IC if possible Unexpected interrupt in protected This is a CPU problem. Replace the CMOS IC if possible The keyboard controller has failed. This data bit on the first RAM IC has failed. Replace the IC if possible Bit 15. Restore the configuration or replace the battery if possible There is a problem with the video memory. Replace the video adapter if possible There is a problem with the video adapter. Replace the CPU and retest mode System RAM addressing circuitry is faulty. Replace the CMOS Time of day clock failure if possible Serial port failure A error has occurred in the serial port circuitry Parallel port failure A error has occurred in the parallel port circuitry The math coprocessor has failed. If possible. Replace the IC if possible Replace the CMOS battery or CMOS RAM if possible The CMOS configuration has failed. Replace the IC if Interval timer channel 2 failure possible The real time clock/CMOS has failed. Replace the controller if possible The interrupt controller IC has failed The interrupt controller IC has failed The BIOS was unable to load the interrupt vectors into memory. Replace the controller if possible The DMA controller had failed. Replace the motherboard The keyboard controller has failed. Replace the IC if possible The DMA controller has failed. This data bit on the first RAM IC has failed. Replace the IC if possible The CMOS has failed.

Beeps 1-1-1-3 1-1-2-1 1-1-2-3 1-1-3-1 1-1-3-2 1-1-3-3 1-1-4-1 1-1-4-3 1-2-1-1 1-2-1-2 1-2-1-3 1-2-2-1 1-2-3-1 1-2-3-3 1-2-4-1 1-3-1-1 1-3-1-3 1-3-2-1 1-3-3-1 1-3-3-3 1-3-4-1 1-3-4-3 1-4-1-3 1-4-2-1 1-4-2-4 1-4-3-1 1-4-3-2 1-4-3-3 1-4-4-1 1-4-4-2 2-1-1-1 2-1-1-3 2-1-2-1 2-1-2-3 2-1-2-4 2-1-3-1 2-1-3-2 2-1-3-3 2-1-4-1 2-1-4-3 2-2-1-1 2-2-1-3 2-2-2-1 2-2-2-3 2-2-3-1 2-2-3-3 2-2-4-1 2-3-1-1 Description Verify real mode Get CPU type Initialize system hardware Initialize chipset registers with initial values Set in POST flag Initialize CPU registers Initialize cache to initial values Initialize I/O Initialize power management Load alternative registers with initial POST values Jump to UserPatch0 Initialize timer initialization 8254 timer initialization 8237 DMA controller initialization Reset Programmable Interrupt Controller Test DRAM refresh Test 8742 Keyboard Controller Set ES segment register to 4GB Autosize DRAM Clear 512K base memory Test 512K base address lines Test 51K base memory Test CPU bus-clock frequency CMOS RAM read/write failure (this commonly indicates a problem on the ISA bus such as a card not seated) Reinitialize the chipset Shadow system BIOS ROM Reinitialize the cache Autosize the cache Configure advanced chipset registers Load alternate registers with CMOS values Set initial CPU speed Initialize interrupt vectors Initialize BIOS interrupts Check ROM copyright notice Initialize manager for PCI Options ROMs Check video configuration against CMOS Initialize PCI bus and devices initialize all video adapters in system Shadow video BIOS ROM Display copyright notice Display CPU type and speed Test keyboard Set key click if enabled Enable keyboard Test for unexpected interrupts Display prompt "Press F2 to enter setup" Test RAM between 512K and 640K Test expanded memory .

2-3-1-3 2-3-2-1 2-3-2-3 2-3-2-3 2-3-3-1 2-3-3-2 2-3-3-3 2-3-4-1 2-3-4-3 2-4-1-1 2-4-1-3 2-4-2-1 2-4-2-3 2-4-4-1 2-4-4-3 3-1-1-1 3-1-1-3 3-1-2-1 3-1-2-3 3-1-3-1 3-1-3-3 3-1-4-1 3-2-1-1 3-2-1-2 3-2-1-3 3-2-2-1 3-2-2-3 3-2-3-1 3-2-3-3 3-2-4-1 3-2-4-3 3-3-1-1 3-3-1-3 3-3-3-1 3-3-3-3 3-3-4-1 3-3-4-3 3-4-1-1 3-4-1-3 3-4-2-1 3-4-2-3 3-4-3-1 3-4-4-1 3-4-4-3 4-1-1-1 4-2-1-1 4-2-1-3 4-2-2-1 4-2-2-3 4-2-3-1 4-2-3-3 4-2-4-1 Test extended memory address lines Jump to UserPatch1 Enable external and CPU caches Configure advanced cache registers Enable external and CPU caches Initialize SMI handler Display external cache size Display shadow message Display non-disposable segments Display error messages Check for configuration errors Test real-time clock Check for keyboard errors Setup hardware interrupt vectors Test coprocessor if present Disable onboard I/O ports Detect and install external RS232 ports Detect and install external parallel ports Reinitialize onboard I/O ports Initialize BIOS Data Area Initialize Extended BIOS Data Area Initialize floppy controller Initialize hard disk controller Initialize local bus hard disk controller Jump to UserPatch2 Disable A20 address line Clear huge ES segment register Search for option ROMs Shadow option ROMs Setup power management Enable hardware interrupts Set time of day Check key lock Erase F2 prompt Scan for F2 keystroke Enter SETUP Clear in-POST flag Check for errors POST done .prepare to boot operating system One beep Check password (optional) Clear global descriptor table Clear parity checkers Check virus and backup reminders Try to boot with INT 19 Interrupt handler error Unknown interrupt error Pending interrupt error Initialize option ROM error Shutdown error Extended Block Move Shutdown 10 error .

4-2-4-3 4-3-1-3 4-3-1-4 4-3-2-1 4-3-2-2 4-3-2-4 4-3-3-1 4-3-3-2 4-3-3-3 4-3-3-4 4-3-4-2 4-3-4-3 Keyboard Controller failure (most likely problem is with RAM or cache unless no video is present) Initialize the chipset Initialize refresh counter Check for Forced Flash BIOS ROM is OK Do a complete RAM test Do OEM initialization Initialize interrupt controller Read in bootstrap code Initialize all vectors Initialize the boot device Boot code was read OK .