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Chapter 8: Acids and Bases

Chapter 8: Acids and Bases

Acids and Bases


Acid: any substance which when dissolved in H2O makes [H3O+] (hydronium) HNO3 + H2O H3O+ + NO3acid conjugate base

Base: any substance which when dissolved in H2O increases [OH-], hydroxide ion NaOH Na+ + OHbase conjugate acid

Both examples above are strong acid/base


indicates 100% ionization
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ACID NOMENCLATURE

Chapter 4: Suppliment- Naming Acids

Naming Acids: Simple acids (Binary)


Rule: if anion ends with ide acid is named hydro_________ic acid
Anion ClFS2CNHydrobromic acid Hydroiodic acid Anion name Acid formula Acid name

Chapter 4: Suppliment- Naming Acids

Naming Acids: Ternary (Polyatomic Ion containing- If you havent already done so, you MUST memorize the polyatomic ions) If the anion ends with _ate acid is named ________ic acid (note the absence of hydro)
Anion Anion name Acid formula Acid name

NO3-

Sulfate

Phosphoric acid

Chapter 4: Suppliment- Naming Acids

Naming Acids: Ternary (Polyatomic Ion containingIf you havent already done so, you MUST memorize the polyatomic ions) If the anion ends with ___ite, the acid is name _________ous acid
Anion NO2Sulfurous acid
Chapter 4: Suppliment- Naming Acids

Anion name

Acid formula Acid name

Bronsted-Lowry Acids/Bases
Acid: a species which donates a proton. Base: a species which accepts a proton.
Thus, acid base rxns involve the transfer of a proton. CH3COOH + H2O H3O+ + CH3COObase acid base acid

NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OHbase acid acid base

Concept of Equilibrium
A + B C + D K = VERY LARGE # Reaction is almost 100% complete A+B C + D K =1 equal amounts of reactant and product A+B C + D K <1 More reactant (equilibrium lies to the LEFT) A+B C + D K >1 More product (equilibrium lies to the RIGHT)

[C ][ D] K [ A][ B]

Meaning of K

Chapter 8: Acids and Bases

Strength of Acids and Bases


Strong Acid Ionizes completely in aqueous solution

Strong Base Ionizes completely in aqueous solution

The Strong Acids/Bases


Strong acids
HClO4 H2SO4 HNO3 HCl HBr HI

Strong bases
LiOH NaOH KOH Ca(OH)2 Sr(OH)2 Ba(OH)2

If it does not appear on this list it is WEAK!

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Strength of Acids and Bases


Weak Acid Partially ionizes in aqueous solution

Weak Base Partially ionizes in aqueous solution

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Conjugate Pairs
o Bronsted Lowry define:
o o o o Acid Proton donor Base Proton acceptor Acid Base Reaction Proton transfer reaction Compounds involved in the proton transfer are a conjugate acid base pair

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Conjugate Pairs

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Weak Acids
Monoprotic acid: Acid that gives up one proton

Diprotic acid: Acid that gives up to two protons

Triprotic acid: Acid that gives up to three protons


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Weak Acids
Amphoteric: a species which can act as an acid or base by either gaining or losing protons (amphiprotic) or OH- groups.
Most important example is water Example 8.1

Remember BronstedLowry acids can give up a hydrogen


Not all hydrogens can be given up*

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Introduction to Acid-Base Equilibrium


Strong Acids have equilibrium, just far to the right
Example of HCl in water

Weak acids have an equilibrium more to the left


Only a few acetic acid molecules react with water to give acetate and hydronium ions

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Weak Acids/Bases: Equilibria


Acid Base HA + H2O H3O+ + Aacid base acid base

BOH B+ + OHbase acid base

K=

[H3O+] [A-] [HA] [H2O] [H3O+] [A-] [HA]

But H2O is a pure liquid so [H2O] = 1 Ka - the acid dissociation constant. The size of Ka tells the strength of the acid.
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Ka =

The Ionization Constant


Ka for acetic acid is 1.8 x 10-5 We manipulate the number to make it easier to use by taking the negative logarithm of Ka So acid strength is represented as log Ka which we call the pKa pKa = -log Ka The pKa for acetic acid is 4.75, a nicer number to deal with Example 8.3 and 8.4
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Examples
Ka for benzoic acid is 6.5 X 10-5. What is the pKa for this acid Which is the stronger acid:
Benzoic acid with a Ka of 6.5 X 10-5 or hydrocyanic acid with a Ka of 4.9 X 10-5

Calculator
Chapter 8: Acids and Bases 21

Acid-Base Reactions
Several important reactions of acids and bases: 1. They react with each other neutralization

2. Reaction with metals Strong acids react with active metals to produce H2 gas and salt

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Acid-Base Reactions
3. Reaction with Ammonia and Amines Acids stronger than NH4+ will react with NH3 to form a salt:
HCl (aq) + NH3 (aq) NH4+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) (very important in biological systems)

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Acidic and Basic Properties of Pure Water


Acids make H3O+ and bases produce OH- ions What goes on in pure water with no acid or base?

Small amounts of ions are present!

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Amphoteric Water
H2O + H2O H3O+ + OHSoooo...

Auto-ionization of water

K=

[H3O+] [OH-] [H2O] [H2O]

Kw =

[H3O+] [OH-]

Kw, the ion product of water

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Auto-Ionization of Water
Kw = [H3O+][OH-] Kw = 1.0 x 10-14 At equilibrium the concentrations are equal, so

Example 8.5 The [OH-] of an aqueous solution is 1.0 X 10-4 M. What is its [H3O+]?

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pH
We generally represent the hydronium ion concentration as: pH = - log [H3O+] Rules
A solution is acidic if the pH is less than 7.0 A solution is basic if its pH is greater than 7.0 A solution is neutral if the pH is equal to 7.0

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Acid/Base Calculations
[H+] x [OH-] = 1x 10-14 If given [H+] or [OH-], then use these to solve for the other.

[H+] = (1 x 10-14)/[OH-] [OH-] = (1 x 10-14)/[H+]

Once you have [H+] you can use this for pH.

pH = - log[H+]

[H+] = 10

-pH

OR given pH you can solve for [H+].


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Example
The [H3O+] of a certain liquid detergent is 1.4 X 10-9 M. What is its pH? Is this solution acidic basic or neutral?

The pH of tomato juice is 4.1. What is its [H3O+]? Is this solution acidic, basic, or neutral?

Chapter 8: Acids and Bases

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pOH and pH Relationship


Same treatment for the concentration of OH pOH = - log[OH-] Kw = 1 x 10-14 = [H+][OH-]

14 = pH + pOH
If we know the pH, we can calculate the pOH Example 8.7
The [OH-] of a strongly basic solution is 1.0 X 10-2 M. What are the pOH and pH of this solution?

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Example
The [OH-] of a strongly basic solution is 1.0 X 10-2. What is the pOH and pH of this solution? Is it acidic/basic/ or neutral?

Chapter 8: Acids and Bases

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Titration: Stoichiometry with Solutions (8.8-8.9)

Chapter 8: Acids and Bases

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1. Acid of unknown concentration in the flask, known volume! 2. A known concentration of base and known volume is added by buret 3. When the indicator changes from colorless to pink the acid has been completely neutralized the base

Titrations

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Titrations Requirements
1. Know the balanced chemical equation, must know the molar ratio to calculate the unknown concentration 2. Reaction must be fast and go to completion 3. When reactants combine completely you have to visualize the completion, indicator and equivalence point 4. Measure CAREFULLY and ACCURATELY to obtain good data Problem 8.8

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Use Molarity to convert between Moles and Liters of solution


Mole A Molarity (M) __Moles A* = 1 Liter of Solution Liters of solution A

Example: 3.0 M HCl =

3.0 moles HCl 1 L HCl solution

Chapter 8: Acids and Bases

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***

Stoichiometry
Mole A

Coefficients in balanced equation represent the MOLE RATIO

# of particles* of A

6.022 X 1023
particles*A=1mole A

Mass A
__g A** = 1 mole A

(grams)

* Molecules (molecular) *Formula Units (ionic Compounds

_mol A*** = __mol B

*Atom (element)

**Use molar mass as a conversion

PERIODIC TABLE!!!!

# of particles* of B

Mole B

6.022 X

1023
__g B** = 1 mole B
Chapter 8: Acids and Bases

Mass B

particles*B=1mole B

(grams)
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***

Stoichiometry
Mole A

Coefficients in balanced equation represent the MOLE RATIO

Liters of Solution containing A

Molarity (M) __Moles A* = 1 Liter of Solution

Mass A
__g A** = 1 mole A

(grams)

Liters of Solution containing A

Molarity (M)

_mol A*** = __mol B Mole B

__Moles B* = 1 Liter of Solution


Chapter 8: Acids and Bases

Mass B
__g B** = 1 mole B

(grams)
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Example 8.8
Following are data for the titration of 0.108 M H2SO4 with a solution of NaOH of unknown concentration. What is the concentration of the NaOH solution? Volume of 0.108 M H2SO4 Trial 1 Trial 2 25.0 mL 25.0 mL Volume of NaOH 33.48 mL 33.46 mL

Trial 3

25.0 mL

33.50 mL

Chapter 8: Acids and Bases

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Titration Vocabulary
HC2H3O2 + NaOH H2O + NaC2H3O2

Titration: Technique for determining concentration of an unknown reaction End point


Indicator turns color Slightly Past the Equivalence point

Equivalence point
Acid and Base have been added in STOICHIOMETRIC proportion
Chapter 8: Acids and Bases 43