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# Z05_SULL8028_03_SE_BARREL.

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Tables and Formulas for Sullivan, Statistics: Informed Decisions Using Data ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc

Chapter 2 Organizing and Summarizing Data
• Relative frequency =

frequency

• Class midpoint: The sum of consecutive lower class limits
divided by 2.

sum of all frequencies

Numerically Summarizing Data

Chapter 3

g xi
N

• Population Mean: m =
• Sample Mean: x =

g xi
n

• Population Variance from Grouped Data:

• Range = Largest Data Value - Smallest Data Value

• Population Variance: s2 =

• Sample Variance: s2 =

gwixi
gwi

• Weighted Mean: xw =

g 1xi - m22
N

g 1xi - x22
n - 1

gx2i =

1gxi22

=

g1xi - m2 fi
gfi

gfi

=

n

gx2i fi -

g1xi - m2 fi
2

n - 1

s2 =

• Population Standard Deviation: s = 2s

2

A gfi B - 1

• Empirical Rule: If the shape of the distribution is bellshaped, then
• Approximately 68% of the data lie within 1 standard
deviation of the mean
• Approximately 95% of the data lie within 2 standard
deviations of the mean
• Approximately 99.7% of the data lie within 3 standard deviations of the mean
gxifi
• Population Mean from Grouped Data: m =
gfi

• Population z-score: z =

• Sample z-score: z =

1gxifi22

gfi
gfi - 1

=

• Sample Standard Deviation: s = 2s2

x - m
s

x - x
s

• Interquartile Range: IQR = Q3 - Q1
• Lower and Upper Fences:

Lower fence = Q1 - 1.51IQR2
Upper fence = Q3 + 1.51IQR2

• Five-Number Summary

gxifi
gfi

• Sample Mean from Grouped Data: x =

gfi

• Sample Variance from Grouped Data:

1gxi22

-

s2 =

1gxifi22

N

N

gx2i

gx2i fi -

2

Minimum, Q1 , M, Q3 , Maximum

Describing the Relation between Two Variables

CHAPTER 4

aa
• Correlation Coefficient: r =

• Residual = observed y - predicted y = y - yN

xi - x yi - y
ba
b
sx
sy

• R2 = r2 for the least-squares regression model
yN = b1x + b0

n - 1

• The equation of the least-squares regression line is
yN = b1x + b0, where yN is the predicted value, b1 = r #

sy
sx

• The coefficient of determination, R2, measures the
proportion of total variation in the response variable
that is explained by the least-squares regression line.

is the slope, and b0 = y - b1x is the intercept.

CHAPTER 5

Probability
• Addition Rule for Disjoint Events

• Empirical Probability
P1E2 L

P1E or F2 = P1E2 + P1F2

frequency of E
number of trials of experiment

• Addition Rule for n Disjoint Events
P1E or F or G or Á 2 = P1E2 + P1F2 + P1G2 + Á

• Classical Probability
P1E2 =

N1E2

number of ways that E can occur
number of possible outcomes

=

N1S2

P1E or F2 = P1E2 + P1F2 - P1E and F2

a2 # 100% confidence interval about m with s s known is x .a2 # 100% confidence interval about m with s s unknown is x . Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.p2 • Finding the Score: x = m + zs Sampling Distributions • Mean and Standard Deviation of the Sampling Distribution of x s mx = m and s x = 2n x • Sample Proportion: pN = n • Mean and Standard Deviation of the Sampling Distribution of pN mpN = p and spN = p11 . • A 11 . Inc. 2.m2X • Poisson Probability Distribution Function P1x2 = • Binomial Probability Distribution Function P1x2 = nCxpx11 . E N where p is a prior estimate of the population proportion. za/2 # .QXD 8/26/08 4:06 PM Page 2 Tables and Formulas for Sullivan.m22 # P1x2 = g x2P1x2 .Z05_SULL8028_03_SE_BARREL.pN 2a b rounded up to the next integer.a2 # 100% confidence interval about s2 is 1n .p2 C n CHAPTER 9 Estimating the Value of a Parameter Using Confidence Intervals Confidence Intervals • • A 11 .m z = s CHAPTER 8 sX = 4np11 .a2 # 100% level of confidence: n = a E rounded up to the next integer.12 # 1n .12s2 1n .r2! N1E and F2 = n! n1! # n2! # Á # nk! N1E2 • General Multiplication Rule P1E and F2 = P1E2 # P1F ƒ E2 CHAPTER 6 Discrete Probability Distributions • Mean (Expected Value) of a Discrete Random Variable mX = g x # P1x2 • Mean and Standard Deviation of a Binomial Random Variable mX = np • Variance of a Discrete Random Variable s2X = g 1x . x2a/2 x21 .a2 # 100% confidence interval about p is pN 11 . C n • A 11 . Inc • Complement Rule • Factorial P1E 2 = 1 . . Statistics: Informed Decisions Using Data ©2010 Pearson Education.p2n.12s2 2 6 s 6 .x CHAPTER 7 1lt2x x! e-lt x = 0.a/2 Sample Size • To estimate the population mean with a margin of error E za/2 # s 2 b at a 11 . Á • Mean and Standard Deviation of a Poisson Random Variable mX = lt sX = 2lt The Normal Distribution • Standardizing a Normal Random Variable x .22 # Á # 3 # 2 # 1 • Permutation of n objects taken r at a time: nPr = P1E and F2 = P1E2 # P1F2 • Multiplication Rule for n Independent Events P1E and F and G Á 2 = P1E2 # P1F2 # P1G2 # Á • Conditional Probability Rule P1F ƒ E2 = • Combination of n objects taken r at a time: n! nCr = r!1n .a2 # 100% level of confidence: za/2 2 n = pN 11 . za/2 # . • To estimate the population proportion with a margin of error E at a 11 . 1.pn2 pn .P1E2 c • Multiplication Rule for Independent Events n! = n # 1n . ta/2 # .25 a E no prior estimate of p is available. 1n A 11 . za/2 2 b rounded up to the next integer when or n = 0. Note: ta/2 is computed using 1n n .1 degrees of freedom.r2! • Permutations with Repetition: P1E and F2 P1E2 n! 1n .

t0 = Note: ta/2 is found using the smaller of n1 .n2 .Z05_SULL8028_03_SE_BARREL. s unknown s n 1n • x20 = p011 .pN 22 .p2) 4pN 11 .m12 s A2 k .1 = 1 Fa. ta/2 # 1n • Test Statistic Comparing Two Means (Independent Sampling): 1x1 .(p1 .QXD 8/26/08 4:06 PM Page 3 Tables and Formulas for Sullivan. n1 + n2 • Confidence Interval for the Difference of Two Proportions Note: ta/2 is found using n .n2 .pN 2 • Confidence Interval for Matched-Pairs data: sd d .12s2k n .pN 12 n1 pN 211 . 2.1. CHAPTER 12 1 B n1 where pN = • Test Statistic for Tukey’s Test after One-Way ANOVA Mean square due to treatment Mean square due to error = MST MSE where MST = n11x1 .x22 + n21x2 .x1 1 s # 1 + a b A2 n1 n2 2 .n1 .x22 .1m1 .12s2 s20 Inferences on Two Samples CHAPTER 11 • Test Statistic for Matched-Pairs data d . Á .1 degrees of freedom.m22 t0 = s21 s22 + C n1 n2 • Confidence Interval for the Difference of Two Means (Independent Samples): 1pN 1 .1 degrees of freedom.1 12s21 2 + 1n2 .expected22 expected = a 1Oi .p02 n 1n .pN 2 . • Test Statistic Comparing Two Population Proportions z0 = pN 1 . ta/2 C n1 n2 CHAPTER 13 + x1 + x2 .1 Inference on Categorical Data • Expected Counts (when testing for goodness of fit) Ei = mi = npi for i = 1.12s22 + Á + 1nk . #a1 n1 + 1 b n2 = x2 .1 or n2 .m0 t = • 0 single mean. k All Ei Ú 1 and no more than 20% less than 5. Á .1.pN 22 + n2 • Finding a Critical F for the Left Tail F1 .md sd n 1n where d is the mean and sd is the standard deviation of the differenced data. 2.a. za/2 C pN 111 .Ei22 Ei i = 1. Inc CHAPTER 10 Testing Claims Regarding a Parameter Test Statistics x .x22 + Á + nk1xk . Comparing Three or More Means • Test Statistic for One-Way ANOVA F = 1 n2 • Test Statistic for Comparing Two Population Standard Deviations s21 F0 = 2 s2 s21 s22 + 1x1 .x12 .p0 • z0 = C x . Inc.1m2 .m0 z = • 0 single mean. Statistics: Informed Decisions Using Data ©2010 Pearson Education.x22 MSE = 1n1 - q = 1x2 . s known s n 1n pN .k Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. k • Chi-Square Test Statistic x20 = a • Expected Frequencies (when testing for independence or homogeneity of proportions) Expected frequency = 1row total21column total2 table total 1observed .x22 .n1 .

se b1 . Statistics: Informed Decisions Using Data ©2010 Pearson Education. T.2 = • Standard error of b1 sb1 = 2 4 g 1xi . The test statistic. yN b1 . will be the smaller of the number of minus signs or plus signs.b 1 = sb1 • Confidence Interval for the Slope of the Regression Line b1 .2 degrees of freedom. • Test Statistic for the Mann–Whitney Test Small-Sample Case (n1 ◊ 20 and n2 ◊ 20) • Test Statistic for a One-Sample Sign Test Small-Sample Case (n ◊ 25) If S is the sum of the ranks corresponding to the sample from population X.31N + 12 n2 nk N1N + 12 n1 where Ri is the sum of the ranks in the ith sample. then the test statistic. k. ta/2 # 1x… . yN g residuals2 C n . • Test Statistic for the Kruskal–Wallis Test Small-Sample Case (n ◊ 30) Two-Tailed Large-Sample Case (n>30) Left-Tailed Right-Tailed Ho : MD = 0 Ho : MD = 0 Ho : MD = 0 H1 : MD Z 0 H1 : MD 6 0 Ho : MD 7 0 Test Statistic: T is the smaller of T+ or T- Test Statistic: T = T+ Test Statistic: T = ƒ T. where ta/2 is computed with n .12 where di = the difference in the ranks of the two observations in the ith ordered pair.x2 where x… is the given value of the explanatory variable and ta/2 is the critical value with n . Inc CHAPTER 14 Inference on the Least-squares Regression Model and Multiple Regression • Standard Error of the Estimate se = C g 1yi . Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ta/2 # se se 2 4 g 1xi .x22 • Prediction Interval about an Individual Response.ƒ H= = ni1N + 12 2 1 12 B Ri R a N1N + 12 ni 2 R21 R22 R2k 12 + + Á + B R . ta/2 # se C 1 + 1x… .x22 1 + n g1xi . Large-Sample Case (n>25) The test statistic. the test statistic is 2n1n2 + 1 n C and sr = B 2n1n212n1n2 .2 • Confidence Interval about the Mean Response of y. k.mr where z0 = sr mr = T z0 = If n1 7 20 or n2 7 20. will be the number of minus signs. Large-Sample Case (n1>20) or (n2>20) n1n2 T 2 z0 = n1n21n1 + n2 + 12 B 12 • Test Statistic for Spearman’s Rank Correlation Test rs = 1 - 6gd2i n1n2 . k. is n 1k + 0. The test statistic.x2 • Test statistic for the Slope of the Least-Squares Regression Line t0 = se n4 g 1xi .2 degrees of freedom.x2 yN .b 1 yN . will be the number of plus signs.12 n1n + 12 4 n1n + 12 12n + 12 24 where T is the test statistic from the small-sample case. • Test Statistic for the Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed-Ranks Test T = S - n11n1 + 12 2 Note: The value of S is always obtained by summing the ranks of the sample data that correspond to MX in the hypothesis. Large-Sample Case r . the number of runs.Z05_SULL8028_03_SE_BARREL. the test statistic in the runs test for randomness is r.yN i22 n . is given by Two-Tailed Left-Tailed Right-Tailed Ho: M = Mo Ho : M = Mo Ho : M = Mo H1 : M Z Mo H1 : M 6 Mo H1 : M 7 Mo The test statistic.x22 where x… is the given value of the explanatory variable and ta/2 is the critical value with n .QXD 8/26/08 4:06 PM Page 4 Tables and Formulas for Sullivan. Nonparametric Statistics CHAPTER 15 • Test Statistic for a Runs Test for Randomness Small-Sample Case If n1 … 20 and n2 … 20. z0. .n2 n2 1n .x22 1 + 2 Cn g 1xi . Inc.52 2 z0 = 1n 2 where n is the number of minus and plus signs and k is obtained as described in the small sample case.2 degrees of freedom.

997 0.444 0.666 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 n 0.754 0.381 0.811 0. Inc Table I Random Numbers Column Number Row Number 01–05 06–10 11–15 16–20 21–25 26–30 31–35 36–40 41–45 46–50 01 02 03 04 89392 61458 11452 27575 23212 17639 74197 04429 74483 96252 81962 31308 36590 95649 48443 02241 25956 73727 90360 01698 36544 33912 26480 19191 68518 72896 73231 18948 40805 66218 37740 78871 09980 52341 26628 36030 00467 97141 44690 23980 05 06 07 08 09 10 36829 81902 59761 46827 24040 98144 59109 93458 55212 25906 66449 96372 88976 42161 33360 64708 32353 50277 46845 26099 68751 20307 83668 15571 28329 09419 86737 78423 13874 82261 47460 89073 79743 15910 86741 66628 88944 82849 85262 86548 81312 31457 08264 09160 31887 08763 54185 00377 00843 61845 37879 47050 78824 63423 84592 40906 17525 18513 00718 55141 11 12 13 14 15 14228 55366 96101 38152 85007 17930 51057 30646 55474 18416 30118 90065 35526 30153 24661 00438 14791 90389 26525 95581 49666 62426 73634 83647 45868 65189 02957 79304 31988 15662 62869 85518 96635 82182 28906 31304 28822 06626 98377 36392 17117 30588 94683 33802 07617 71489 32798 16696 80471 50248 16 17 18 19 20 85544 10446 67237 23026 67411 15890 20699 45509 89817 58542 80011 98370 17638 05403 18678 18160 17684 65115 82209 46491 33468 16932 29757 30573 13219 84106 80449 80705 47501 84084 40603 92654 82686 00135 27783 01315 02084 48565 33955 34508 74664 19985 72612 50250 55158 20553 59321 61760 72592 78742 Table II Critical Values for Correlation Coefficient n 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 n 0. Statistics: Informed Decisions Using Data ©2010 Pearson Education.388 0.374 0.482 0.361 .456 0.QXD 8/26/08 4:06 PM Page 5 Tables and Formulas for Sullivan.Z05_SULL8028_03_SE_BARREL.602 0.367 0.413 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.532 0.404 0.632 0.553 0.950 0.396 0.423 0. 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 0. Inc.497 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 n 0.576 0.468 0.878 0.707 0.514 0.433 0.

3015 0.0057 0.0003 0.9664 0.9808 0.0089 0.07 .9973 0.9871 0.4 0.0455 0.1038 0.645 1.4052 0.0170 0.9901 0.1446 0.9406 0.9985 0.2 1.9783 0.1 ⴚ3.0 0.9968 0.0113 0.0150 0.0125 0.9554 0.9980 0.6217 0.0005 0.9713 0.9887 0.9955 0.0021 0.9525 0.9906 0.0052 0.0028 0.9 0.8599 0.2327 0.0853 0.8051 0.0005 0.7 1.9997 0.9997 0.9767 2.6406 0.3409 0.9834 0.0036 0.06 .0119 0.0013 0.3 ⴚ3.9981 0.9 ⴚ0.9719 0.5596 0.9959 0.9535 0.9916 0.0287 0.0571 0.0030 0.9545 0.9987 0.9981 0.4721 0.5000 0.0336 0.9948 0.1 0.9147 0.8790 0.01 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.8264 0.9960 0.0023 0.4364 0.2 ⴚ2.1788 0.9931 0.9699 0.2676 0.9994 0.0004 0.8 2.7611 0.9484 0.2 3.0008 0.0004 0.0951 0.3 1.0048 ⴚ2.6 0.9962 0.7794 0.5636 0.5 0.0034 0.0019 0.0006 0.0016 0.0643 0.9798 0.08 .6026 0.0 3.0015 0.0250 0.9608 0.0059 0.9236 0.0934 0.0110 0.1 ⴚ1.4325 0.0655 0.5239 0.1003 0.0054 0.0526 0.2776 ⴚ0.0012 0.5120 0.6368 0.1814 0.0019 0.00 .2743 0.9978 0.6554 0.7517 0.9997 0.0228 0.QXD 8/26/08 4:06 PM Page 6 Tables and Formulas for Sullivan.0808 0.7389 0.9693 0.0749 0.0901 0.0025 0.1210 0.28 1.2090 0.8340 0.9927 0.0002 0.9996 0.0465 0.9756 0.6 1.8 0.0281 0.9911 0.4 ⴚ2.0003 0.9279 0.9997 0.8 ⴚ2.5832 0.0104 0.9251 0.9989 0. Statistics: Informed Decisions Using Data ©2010 Pearson Education.0004 0.5000 0.0035 0.1736 0.8830 0.9678 0.8869 0.9929 0.0009 0.0694 0.8577 0.0548 0.8643 0.7454 0.9994 0.2358 0.9990 0.9976 0.0024 0.1977 0.7357 0.01 .4761 0.4 ⴚ0.96 2.9971 0.9985 0.5948 0.0003 0.9861 0.33 1.8531 0.7088 0.0026 0.9706 0.9838 0.0778 0.28 1.9495 0.0301 0.0005 0.9995 0.0207 0.0004 0.3897 0.3859 0.9854 0. Inc.9963 0.2 ⴚ0.4 0.9778 0.9941 0.1151 0.5438 0.9957 0.3520 0.5398 0.09 ⴚ3.7224 0.9972 0.8849 0.0060 0.8749 0.0823 0.3 ⴚ2.4641 0.0010 0.10 0.9966 0.4801 0.1587 0.0606 0.90 or 90% 0.645 2.0537 0.0384 0.9965 0.1335 0.0084 0.0344 0.9345 0.0029 0.5 0. A Left Tailed Right Tailed Two-Tailed 0.9842 0.9582 0.0026 0.9015 0.9265 0.4 0.9429 0.1894 0.0096 0.9857 0.6 ⴚ2.9984 0.9982 0.0107 0.2177 0.9656 0.6179 0.5517 0.3228 0.1 2.2005 0.4207 0.9934 0.9 ⴚ1.02 .9995 0.5160 0.4840 0.7734 0.2 ⴚ1.8023 0.7704 0.99 or 99% 1.8508 0.2 ⴚ3.2206 0.2420 0.9909 0.9505 0.3974 0.0401 0.0027 0.9881 0.4 ⴚ1.0154 0.9993 0.9996 0.8907 0.98 or 98% 0.9987 0.1 ⴚ0.1292 0.0020 0.0418 0.0078 0.05 0.9997 0.0256 0.3936 0.8810 0.0023 0.3707 0.0 0.3783 0.8159 0.0007 0.6 ⴚ0.5359 0.9969 0.5279 0.1131 0.0009 0.9994 0.0006 0.4602 0.9864 0.3156 0.9997 0.7852 0.0359 0.9898 0.9649 0.0485 0.0136 0.9850 0.2 0.8997 0.2266 0.8729 0.3 0.0004 0.9991 0.9732 0.1314 0.Z05_SULL8028_03_SE_BARREL.8621 0.0038 0.0008 0.3 3.0003 0.9977 0.0018 0.0618 0.9943 0.9994 0.0559 ⴚ1.9970 0.9936 2.5714 0.0129 0.0212 0.7549 0.9788 0.1469 0.0037 0.9793 0.9812 0.2236 0.9082 0.6480 0.0918 0.0495 0.0244 0.8925 0.0007 0.8315 0.0375 0.1056 0.9564 0.9949 0.0009 0.5793 0.6985 0.9726 0.9990 0.9750 0.3085 0.575 Hypothesis Testing Critical Values Level of Significance.3557 0.0885 0.9370 0.2389 0.0011 0.0006 0.9 0.5080 0.8 ⴚ0.8 ⴚ1.1379 ⴚ0.0329 0.9686 0.9989 0.0764 0.6950 0.6 2.0174 0.8413 0.6844 0.9918 0.7967 0.0 0.0005 0.6 ⴚ1.2514 0.7190 0.1841 0.0007 0.0013 0.9996 0.0188 0.6772 0.0869 0.9961 0.3483 0.9357 0.9993 0.9979 0.7054 0.9896 0.3050 0.8365 0.33 2.9846 0.4129 0.4286 0.95 or 95% 0.0021 0.0047 0.4013 0.0582 0.9967 0.8888 0.9945 0.9292 0.1190 0.3632 0.0080 0.0307 0.0041 0.0091 0.2119 0.9956 0.0594 0.2061 0.0017 0.0102 0.9913 0.1685 0.2033 0.0012 0.9772 0.8212 0.9573 0.0039 0.9032 0.1611 0.1562 0.0040 0.9974 0.0033 0.3 ⴚ0.4404 0.8686 0.8389 1.9803 0.8944 0.1 3.7823 0.7257 0.9826 0.0668 0.4168 0.0 0.9878 0.4880 0.5871 0.04 .7881 0.7 0.9115 0.8554 0.2912 0.0075 0.1251 0.9997 0.9987 0.0202 0.0032 0.8485 0.9938 0.9925 0.7642 0.1949 0.9992 0.0018 0.2546 0.9979 0.6141 0.0838 0.1271 0.9998 Area z Confidence Interval Critical Values.1401 0.9332 0.8461 0.9951 0.8438 0.9932 0.9984 0.7324 0.0 2.1711 0.3446 0.0014 0.0043 0.0 0.0003 0.96 2.7764 0.1660 0.9099 0.5319 0. 1.9992 0.0192 0.2 2.8962 0.8186 0.0011 0.9394 0.2946 0.0274 0.9995 0.9989 0.0069 0.0068 0.9066 0.0351 0.0793 0.2296 0.4562 0.6736 0.9988 0.9983 0.2643 0.9992 0. Inc Table V z Standard Normal Distribution .9982 0.0233 0.9952 0.9988 0.9441 0.1170 0.0031 0.9975 0.9 ⴚ2.0055 0.8289 0.9761 0.1 ⴚ2.6879 0.7673 0.0003 0.9177 0.6700 0.9875 0.0392 0.0122 0.0158 0.2877 0.3300 0.0051 0.0146 0.0446 0.3 ⴚ1.3264 0.9817 0.8078 0.0217 0.0968 0.6103 0.0985 0.0681 0.3121 0.9993 0.9131 0.8708 0.5 2.8770 0.33 1.0262 0.9884 0.3669 0.9990 0.6915 0.2981 0.3 2.9830 0.9671 0.9641 0.5 0.0162 0.0087 0.7019 0.6443 0.9049 0.4090 0.9207 0.5 0.9821 0.9974 0.9997 0.7157 0.9474 0.1020 0.5478 0.8106 0.3745 0.9997 0.0436 0.9996 0.9515 0.9904 0.3192 0.3821 0.7291 0.0094 0.1075 0.0003 0.0014 0.5199 0.0008 0.5040 0.0011 0.0049 0.0222 0.0066 0.0179 0.0197 0.9319 1.9306 0.9946 0.9964 0.3372 0.9994 0.1867 0.4483 0.6331 0.9192 0.5675 0.0735 0.0 1.0082 0.7486 0.9463 0.8238 0.0721 0.8980 0.1423 0.2843 0.9744 0. zA/2 0.0005 0.9922 0.9996 0.9868 0.1112 0.0062 0.0505 0.9222 0.6591 0.0008 0.0006 0.0708 0.4 ⴚ3.6293 0.2709 0.0007 0.9995 0.9920 0.0630 0.2810 0.0010 0.5910 0.05 .9997 0.0005 0.4443 0.0116 0.6628 0.0004 0.9599 0.9986 0.0427 0.5557 0.03 .6064 0.0022 0.0183 ⴚ1.9382 0.6664 0.1492 0.4247 0.9418 0.0239 0.2611 0.1922 0.9993 0.9633 0.0073 0.0045 0.9591 0.1762 0.7939 0.7422 0.6255 0.0013 0.9996 0.0314 0.0064 0.2483 0.1635 0.7 2.9953 0. zA/2 Level of Confidence Critical Value.0294 0.9995 0.9 0.7995 0.9738 0.0367 0.0016 0.4 0.0475 0.4920 0.0322 0.4681 0.9890 0.9452 0.7 ⴚ0.7910 0.8133 0.0015 0.7123 0.2148 0.0044 0.3594 0.9940 0.575 .0139 0.5987 0.1515 0.2451 0.9992 0.9162 0.9625 0.0132 0.9977 0.6808 0.8665 0.7580 0.9893 0.4960 0.0268 0.8 1.4522 0.3336 0.0006 0.5 1.0003 0.0143 0.7 ⴚ2.2578 0.0516 0.0166 0.1539 0.0003 0.9995 0.0099 0.0010 ⴚ2.0003 0.9616 0.9991 0.9991 0.5753 0.0409 0.6517 0.1357 0.9986 3.1093 0.7 ⴚ1.645 2.645 1.1230 0.1 1.0071 0.

156 1.337 1.920 2.043 1.431 2.138 2. .984 1.846 0.123 2.990 2.690 0.706 4.685 1.457 2.460 3.659 3.773 4.842 0.728 2.167 2.348 3.965 4.587 4.048 2.667 1.408 5.848 0.314 2.081 2.622 3.453 5.602 2.781 4.002 2.765 0.174 3.679 0.064 1.847 0.878 2.499 3.398 2.235 2.297 4.340 3.745 3.304 1.576 127.501 4.093 2.797 2.450 3.296 1.183 3.865 0.119 1.080 2.980 2.678 0.886 1.883 3.785 4.816 0.205 2.711 0.307 1.201 2.129 2.741 0.050 1.327 10.684 0.633 3.303 2.718 0.473 2.286 3.214 2.261 3.134 1.330 2.691 0.158 2.059 1.026 2.104 3.084 2.326 3.040 2.682 0.611 3.291 1.15 0.416 3.807 318.318 1.833 3.920 0.317 4.851 0.687 0.051 1.307 3.215 7.009 2.044 1.819 3.150 2.599 12.061 0.921 2.368 2.619 31.042 1.684 0.304 1.869 5.852 0.131 2.0005 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1000 z 1.078 1.101 2.566 3.381 2.076 1.738 2. Inc.169 3.063 1.681 0.779 2.960 15.996 2.683 0.309 22.812 1.714 1.678 0.860 0.581 2.250 3.645 12.764 2.074 1.686 3.314 1.963 1.683 0.965 3.694 1. Inc Area in right tail t Table VI t-Distribution Area in Right Tail df 0.552 2.646 1.978 0.707 3.662 1.Z05_SULL8028_03_SE_BARREL.055 1.858 0.704 2.145 2.305 1.054 1.706 0.330 1.677 0.326 63.987 1.924 8.849 3.724 2.036 3.306 1.282 2.862 0.02 0.999 2.701 1.066 1.030 3.133 2.706 1.228 2.173 5.685 0.052 2.190 1.855 0.734 1.708 1.208 4.712 2.054 1.402 3.868 0.032 2.372 3.093 2.264 2.042 2.440 1.319 3.162 2.492 2.508 2.819 2.776 2.052 1.421 3.990 1.QXD 8/26/08 4:06 PM Page 7 Tables and Formulas for Sullivan.224 2.518 2.428 3.183 2.045 2.069 2.870 0.638 1.282 1.604 4.962 1.078 3.692 1.365 2.528 2.055 1.345 1.435 3.612 2.482 2.821 2.792 3.686 0.850 3.845 2.319 1.386 1.309 1.671 1.353 2.249 2.197 3.355 3.782 1.127 2.069 1.179 2.316 1.703 0.567 2.429 2.485 3.763 2.303 1.893 5.189 2.365 3.682 0.721 1.675 0.372 1.678 2.060 1.052 1.539 2.182 2.601 3.860 1.333 1.497 3.363 1.211 3.691 1.326 3.533 1.660 2.144 2.690 3.328 1.029 3.851 0.299 1.20 0.083 1.147 2.197 2.582 3.323 1.684 0.098 3.022 3.100 1.449 2.894 4.896 2.05 0.682 0.753 1.325 1.853 0.25 0.174 3.086 2.403 2.682 0.10 0.262 2.467 3.873 0.012 2.221 4.308 1.015 3.852 0.517 2.707 3.057 1.771 2.0025 0.747 3.143 2.453 2.438 2.757 2.768 3.153 3.047 1.328 2.135 3.664 1.053 1.727 0.610 6.690 3.750 2.476 1.887 2.089 7.064 2.686 1.057 3.505 3.141 2.160 2.250 1.109 2.930 3.067 1.047 3.681 0.842 1.861 0.073 4.896 0.626 2.303 3.038 3.845 0.687 1.725 3.796 1.119 3.876 0.552 3.071 1.131 2.056 2.598 4.001 0.833 1.694 0.290 1.462 2.374 2.998 2.922 3.356 1.132 2.359 2. Statistics: Informed Decisions Using Data ©2010 Pearson Education.030 2.841 4.883 0.333 3.719 2.718 2.646 3.341 1.632 2.375 3.681 2.447 2.479 2.650 2.041 4.831 2.025 3.852 0.350 1.676 1.021 2.690 1.088 2.005 0.056 1.376 1.854 0.055 3.959 5.437 4.177 2.032 3.365 3.052 1.383 1.435 3.697 1.846 0.971 2.677 0.091 3.899 2.309 1.943 1.541 3.090 636.579 3.937 2.310 1.856 0.685 0.060 2.571 2.684 1.397 1.024 2.527 3.415 1.581 3.688 0.700 0.318 4.859 0.660 1.423 2.895 1.390 2.925 5.852 3.711 1.061 1.025 0.449 2.054 31.396 3.853 0.551 3.282 6.591 3.646 3.120 2.099 2.688 0.648 2.681 0.787 3.871 2.313 1.385 3.761 1.985 2.292 1.851 0.364 2.000 1.037 2.445 2.496 3.500 2.232 3.000 0.467 2.855 0.697 0.125 2.441 2.906 0.051 1.708 2.821 6.558 3.696 1.858 0.300 3.172 2.306 1.683 0.356 3.878 2.035 2.854 0.624 2.015 3.657 9.682 0.058 1.863 0.056 2.744 2.851 0.856 0.717 1.426 2.879 0.695 0.976 2.699 1.941 0.079 1.252 3.144 4.977 2.434 2.610 3.574 3.321 14.408 3.294 1.898 2.787 2.681 0.028 2.733 3.106 3.088 1.01 0.045 1.740 1.321 1.679 0.037 1.674 1.857 0.639 2.866 0.703 1.023 2.222 3.313 3.994 1.058 1.681 0.485 2.291 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.311 1.110 2.853 0.015 1.715 2.583 2.689 0.771 1.674 3.154 2.729 1.195 3.756 2.813 2.746 1.067 3.315 1.140 4.725 1.889 0.849 0.915 2.861 2.306 2.136 2.686 0.688 1.108 1.807 2.074 2.093 1.390 3.733 2.692 0.050 1.042 1.008 3.947 2.

845 30.885 40.204 2.483 16.482 48.290 49.207 0.982 11.216 0.860 16.879 59.004 0.697 6.813 32.660 5.459 55.277 15.114 18.314 41.348 11.672 9.493 17.646 38.611 13.237 1.801 16 17 18 19 20 5.217 27.991 7.490 4.103 0.023 106.020 0.588 50.578 55.278 49.507 16.141 30.812 18.064 1.629 63.549 19.741 37.488 24.707 27.047 16.292 18.564 8.718 37.000 33.768 20.172 22.688 29.812 6.085 10.689 12.278 51.534 43.434 5.979 45.473 29.236 3.955 23.117 10.995 0.188 11 12 13 14 15 2.584 1.754 70.757 28.337 24.262 4.646 2.582 39.851 9.527 96.603 3.275 51.953 13.126 77.689 46.121 13.090 21.764 43.605 6.378 9.706 4.156 0.833 6.787 12.879 10.987 12.312 10.879 13.645 12.989 1.026 22.010 0.420 83.319 32.337 42.088 2.575 5.524 10.540 24.345 13.461 13.362 14.328 61.256 38.442 53.196 67.017 13.531 101.065 65.325 3.023 20.01 0.10 0.289 41.781 38.170 32.691 76.275 18.498 113.067 15.338 13.239 1.856 11.952 104.153 26.091 13.892 6.042 7.053 3.086 7.735 2.841 5.852 34.916 39.831 0.298 95.075 4.591 7.304 7.684 15.645 50.488 11.191 37.615 30. 2 The area to the right a of this value is 1 .722 46.041 14.635 2.211 0.758 57. 2 2 .725 26.072 0.558 1.267 35.299 140.410 28.796 44.409 34.920 23.566 34.652 35.329 66.087 40.142 5.535 19.025 0.599 35.565 4.195 44.750 6 7 8 9 10 0.180 2.342 71.597 12.638 42.707 37.520 8.261 5.113 41.807 128.397 85.790 8.932 40.929 73.172 36.996 21.833 3.672 40 50 60 70 80 20.819 31.226 5.99 0.554 0.352 0.589 25.565 118.198 12. Inc Table VII Degrees of Freedom Chi-Square (X2) Distribution Area to the Right of Critical Value 0.635 9.357 40. 2 Xa2 The area to the right of this value is a .773 41.076 39.485 45.119 27.082 90.587 28.671 33.015 7.907 9.578 6.136 129.561 124.975 0.815 9.156 38.300 29.963 48.591 12.563 36.007 33.120 11.401 13.260 6.115 0.991 35.278 21.758 67.690 2.169 Right tail Left tail Area  1a Two tails a Xa2 The area to the right of this value is a.362 23. Statistics: Informed Decisions Using Data ©2010 Pearson Education.643 9.Z05_SULL8028_03_SE_BARREL.559 46.QXD 8/26/08 4:06 PM Page 8 Tables and Formulas for Sullivan.939 19.016 0.404 5.143 12.196 10.256 14.191 31.923 43.408 7.816 4.685 24.443 23.168 4.013 17.928 26 27 28 29 30 11.144 31.869 30.919 18.461 45.145 0.924 35.167 74.297 0.736 26.401 42.425 112.229 3.283 10.805 36.675 21.051 37.578 26.571 4.479 36.344 1.940 2.805 63.307 19.838 14.812 21.379 100.892 48.865 10.001 0.475 20.865 11.629 6.024 7.557 43. 2 X1a a 2 a 2 a 2 X1a The area to the right of this value is 1a.610 2.05 0.642 46. Inc.379 16.997 21 22 23 24 25 8.329 64.364 40.164 29.509 34.336 53.95 0.265 6.565 14.484 0.321 90 100 59.711 1.708 18. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.505 79.872 1.210 11.769 25.247 1.188 51.251 7.070 5.647 74.449 16.074 3.908 7.571 7.928 17.064 22.651 12.573 15.733 3.848 14.676 0.980 44.659 16.107 4.791 15.542 24.666 23.358 107.548 20.167 2.145 124.989 27.215 116.779 9.231 8.547 17.739 60.291 82.382 32.160 11.342 118.844 7.296 27.390 10.415 37.490 91.592 14.993 52.209 18.151 16.962 8.204 28.601 3.412 26.034 8.433 32.260 9.633 8.181 45.897 9.391 29.886 10.240 14.90 0.766 79.005 1 2 3 4 5 — 0.196 34.808 12.542 10.700 3.412 — 0.051 0.844 14.308 16.009 5.154 88.222 69.116 135.526 32.307 14.848 15.