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Indonesian Journal of Physics

Vol. 15 No.4, October 2004


Gauged N = 2 Supergravity from Type II Compactied on Calabi-Yau 3-Fold
with Background Fluxes
Bobby E. Gunara
1)
, Freddy P. Zen
1)
, and Arianto
1,2)
1)
Theoretical High Energy Physics Lab, Department of Physics,
Institute of Technology Bandung
Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung, INDONESIA
2)
Department of Physics, Udayana University
Jl. Kampus Bukit Jimbaran Denpasar 80361, Indonesia.
Email: bobby@.itb.ac.id
Abstract
We address some geometrical aspects of a special class of four dimensional N = 2 supergravity theory obtained
from Calabi-Yau compactication of the Type II supergravities with background Ramond-Ramond (RR) uxes.
In particular, several properties of the vector multiplet and hypermultiplet scalar manifolds determined by Calabi-
Yau geometry and its deformation are considered. Moreover, aspects of background magnetic and electric uxes
on Calabi-Yau 3-fold which imply that the scalar manifolds have to be gauged with respect to their isometries
related to the uxes. We nally investigate the arising scalar potential and their vacua.
Keywords: Supergravity, String Theory, Calabi-Yau Manifold
1. Introduction
Mathemathical interests in type II supergrav-
ity (string theory) are driven mainly due to the fol-
lowing developments over a decade. Firstly, the non-
chiral type of the type II, called type IIA, provides an
argument which leads to the existence of a mysteri-
ous eleven dimensional supersymmetric theory called
M theory. Until now its non-perturbative formula-
tion still not yet been found (for a review see for
example in
1)
). Secondly the Calabi-Yau compacti-
cations of the type II exhibit a duality called mirror
symmetry which has found far reaching applications
in mathematics. It has been noticed that in many
cases the compactication of type IIA theory on a
Calabi-Yau manifold leads to exactly the same eec-
tive theory as the compactication of type IIB the-
ory on a topologically dierent manifold, the mirror
Calabi-Yau
2)
.
Our interest in this paper is related to the lat-
ter development, namely the compactication of the
type IIA and type IIB superstring theory on three di-
mensional complex Calabi-Yau manifold (or Calabi-
Yau 3-fold) with turning on Ramond-Ramond (RR)
uxes. This further implies that the eective four
dimensional theory is a subclass of the most gen-
eral (gauged) N = 2 supergravity in four dimensions
in which the gauging is with respect to an isome-
try of hypermultiplet scalar manifold
3, 4)
. Moreover,
it shows that the mirror symmetry still holds when
the background RR uxes are turned on.
The organization of this paper is as follows.
In Section 2 we introduce the type IIA and the type
IIB theories. Then some geometrical properties of
Calabi-Yau manifold are discussed in Section 3. The
compactication of the type IIA and the type IIB
with background uxes we put in Section 4. In Sec-
tion 5 we carry out some computation to rewrite the
results in section 4 in the standard supergravity form
with discussion about mirror symmetry and vacua of
the arising scalar potential. Finally, section 6 is de-
voted to our conclusions and future works.
2. Type II String Theories
Let us rst consider the nonchiral type II
string theory, called the Type IIA string theory, since
the gravitinos in this theory have opposite chiral-
ities. The massless bosonic spectrum consists of
graviton g
MN
, 2-form

B
2
, dilaton

and odd-form
elds

A
1
dan

C
3
. The rst three elds come from the
Neveu-Schwarz-Neveu-Schwarz (NS-NS) sector while
the rest are from the Ramond-Ramond (RR) sector.
We collect them as follows
1, 5)
:
NS-NS : g
MN
,

B
2
,

,
R-R :

A
1
,

C
3
. (1)
Bosonic part of the (massive) type IIA supergravity
99
100 IJP Vol.15 No.4, 2004
action is given by
5)
S
10
=
_
e
2

1
2

R 1 + 2d


1
4

H
3


H
3

1
2
_

F
2


F
2
+

F
4

F
4
_
+ L
top
_
, (2)
with the eld strengths are dened as

F
2
= d

A
1
+m

B
2
,

H
3
= d

B
2
,

F
4
= d

C
3


B
2
d

A
1

m
2
(

B
2
)
2
, (3)
and the topological part is
L
top
=
1
2
_

B
2
d

C
3
d

C
3

_

B
2
_
2
d

C
3
d

A
1
+
1
3
_

B
2
_
3
d

A
1
d

A
1
(4)

m
3
_

B
2
_
3
d

C
3
+
m
4
_

B
2
_
4
d

A
1
+
m
2
20
_

B
2
_
5
_
,
where the constant parameter m is related to a ten
dimensional cosmological constant.
Now we turn our attention to the chiral Type
II string theory, called the IIB string theory, in which
the gravitinos have the same chiralities. The ingredi-
ent of the type IIB string theory in the NS-NS sector
is identical with the type IIA string but in the R-R
sector we have a collection of even-form elds l,

C
2
and

A
4
. The complete bosonic sector of the type IIB
string can be rewritten as
NS-NS : g
MN
,

B
2
,

,
R-R : l,

C
2
,

A
4
. (5)
Note that although at the level of the equation
of motion the eld equations the eld strength

F
5
of
the gauge eld

A
4
is self dual which follows that the
kinetic term

F
5

F
5
vanishes identically, one can
still write a covariant action of the type IIB string.
This can be written down as
5)
S
10
=
_
e
2

1
2

R 1 + 2d


1
4

H
3

H
3
_

1
2
_
dl dl +

F
3

F
3
+
1
2

F
5

F
5
_

1
2

A
4


H
3
d

C
2
, (6)
where the eld strengths are dened as

H
3
= d

B
2
,

F
3
= d

C
2
l d

B
2
,

F
5
= d

A
4

1
2

C
2
d

B
2
+
1
2

B
2
d

C
2
. (7)
3. Calabi Yau Manifold
A Calabi-Yau manifold is a Kahler manifold
with the vanishing rst Chern class c
1
= 0. This
implies that the holonomy of a Calabi-Yau manifold
should be in SU(n). In particular our interest is
a three dimensional complex Calabi-Yau manifold
with SU(3) holonomy called Calabi-Yau 3-fold
2)
.
This manifold is characterized by the Hodge number
which is the complex dimensions of its Dolbeault
cohomology group written as h
(p,q)
and related
to each other. For example, h
(3p,0)
= h
(3p,0)
,
h
(p,q)
= h
(q,p)
. Beside that for all complex manifold
we have h
(0,0)
= 1 which corresponds to a space of
constant function. For Calabi-Yau manifold with
exact SU(3) holonomy and not its proper subgroup,
it can be shown that h
(1,0)
= h
(0,1)
= 0.
All of the Hodge numbers from Calabi-Yau
manifold can be collected in a diamond called Hodge
diamond. Since we are interested in Calabi-Yau
3-fold the Hodge diamond are
1
0 0
0 h
1,1
0
1 h
2,1
h
1,2
1
0 h
1,1
0
0 0
1
with Euler Characteristic = 2(h
1,1
h
2,1
). This
Hodge diamond is vertically symmetric because of
complex conjugation, and horizontally symmetric be-
cause of Poincare duality. The nontrivial parts are
h
1,1
and h
2,1
.
Now we can discuss the relation between basis
of the Dolbeault cohomology group and the Hodge
diamond. In the case at hand the Dolbeault coho-
mology group is isomorphic to the space of harmonic
forms. This means that one suciently considers the
space of harmonic forms. For H
1,1
(Y ) the basis are
the (1,1)-harmonic forms
i
, i = 1, . . . , h
(1,1)
which is
dual to (2,2)-harmonic forms
i
that span H
2,2
(Y ).
Both satisfy the normalisation condition
_
Y3

i

j
=
j
i
. (8)
Basis of H
3
(Y ) are (
A
,
A
) with A = (0, a) =
0, .., h
2,1
which is normalized as
_
Y

A

B
=
B
A
=
_
Y

B

A
,
_
Y

A

B
=
_
Y

A

B
= 0. (9)
where A, B = 0, . . . , h
2,1
.
Compactications on Calabi-Yau 3-fold Y
IJP Vol.15 No.4, 2004 101
means that 10 dimensional spacetime can be split
into direct product M
10
= R
1,3
Y with R
1,3
is the
four dimensional Minkowski spacetime. Formally we
can write the metric as
g
MN
=
_

0
0 g
0
mn
_
, (10)
with

= diag(1, 1, 1, 1) and g
0
mn
is the metric of
Calabi-Yau manifold. Because of its Ricci atness,
this congurations satises the Einstein equation au-
tomatically if other elds are zero. To nd graviton
in four dimensions, we have to deform the metric of
M
10
in four dimensional direction of G

.
Moreover, decomposition of 10 dimensional
metric into 4 dimensional spacetime metric, g

, and
Calabi-Yau metric g
mn
causing Ricci scalar in 10 di-
mensions can be written as
R
10
= R
4
+g

R
m
m
+g
mn
(R

mn
+R
p
mpn
). (11)
The Calabi-Yau metric g
mn
is expanded around
background metric g
0
mn
by a small deformation g
mn
,
g
mn
= g
0
mn
+g
mn
. (12)
This deformation must satisfy the vacuum Einstein
equation
R
mn
(g +g) = 0. (13)
First order expansions of g results an equation
known as Lichnerowicz equation

p
g
mn
+ 2R
mpnq
g
pq
= 0, (14)
where g
pq
= g
mp
g
nq
g
mn
. Since the Riemannian
tensor of Kahler manifold has simple structure (only
R

and its combinations are non vanishing) we


nd that variation of the (2,0) metric g

and (1,1)
metric g

are
g

= z
a

(
a
)

,
g

= v
i
(
i
)

. (15)
where is holomorphic (3,0) form,
a
are (1,2)
harmonic form. From Calabi-Yau point of view z
a
and v
i
constant, but from four dimensional point of
view they are scalar elds.
4. RR Fluxes on Calabi-Yau 3-Fold
4.1. Type IIA on Calabi-Yau 3-fold with
RR Fluxes
So far we have discussed how to achieve the
graviton g

and the scalar elds z


a
, v
i
from g
MN
.
Now we turn to consider other elds in the specic
model, namely the (massive) type IIA string with
background RR uxes. These elds are (

A
1
,

B
2
,

C
3
).
Since we are only interested in the low energy ef-
fective theory, thus the massive Kaluza-Klein (KK)
elds have to be integrated out.
The rst step is to expand the 10 dimensional
RR elds (

A
1
,

B
2
,

C
3
) on Calabi-Yau harmonic form
we obtain

A
1
= A
0
,

B
2
= B
2
+b
i

i
,

C
3
= C
3
+A
i

i
+
A

A

A

A
, (16)
where C
3
is 3-form,B
2
is 2-form, (A
0
, A
i
) are 1-form
and b
i
,
A
and
A
are scalar elds in four dimen-
sions. The Kahler moduli v
i
and scalar b
i
are com-
bined into a complex scalar eld t
i
= b
i
+ iv
i
and
together with 1-form A
i
belong to h
(1,1)
vector mul-
tiplets. The complex structure deformation z
a
and
the scalar
i
,
i
are members of h
2,1
hypermultiplets,
while
0
,
0
together with dilaton and B
2
form the
tensor multiplet. A
0
is a graviphoton, together with
g

describe the bosonic component of gravitational


multiplet.
Then the RR uxes come from the fact that
the eld strengths d

A
1
and d

C
3
are shifted according
to
5)
d

A
1
d

A
1
m
i

i
, d

C
3
d

C
3
+e
i

i
, (17)
where (e
i
, m
i
) are the ux parameters and
i
. As
these uxes and the elds expansion (16) enter in the
compactication the eld strengths (3) are replaced
with

F
2
= d

A
1
+m

B
2
(m
i
mb
i
)
i
,

H
3
= d

B
2
+db
i

i
, (18)

F
4
= d

C
3


B
2
d

A
1

m
2
(

B
2
)
2
+(dA
i
dA
0
b
i
+m
i
B
2
mB
2
b
i
)
i
+d
A

A
d
A

A
+e
i

i
(b
i
m
j

1
2
mb
i
b
j
)K
ijk

k
,
where K
ijk
denotes the triple intersection number on
Calabi-Yau 3-fold Y
3
K
ijk
=
_
Y3

i

j

k
. (19)
Inserting together (16) and (18) into the (massive)
type IIA action (2) after a tedious computation we
102 IJP Vol.15 No.4, 2004
nally arrive at the following form
5)
S
IIA/Y3
=
_
e
2
_

1
2
R 1
1
4
H
3
H
3
g
i

j
dt
i
d

j
+ d d + g
a

b
dz
a
d z

b
_
(ImM
1
)
AB
_
d Md

A

_
d Md

B
+
1
2
ImN
IJ
F
I
F
J
+
1
2
ReN
IJ
F
I
F
J
+
1
2
H
3
(
A
d
A

A
d
A
) B
2
J
2
(20)

1
2
M
2
B
2
B
2

1
2
M
2
T
B
2
B
2
V ,
where I = 0, .., h
(1,1)
and the matrix N
IJ
is given by
ReN
00
=
1
3
K
ijk
b
i
b
j
b
k
ImN
00
= K + (K
ij

1
4
K
i
K
j
K
)b
i
b
j
,
ReN
i0
=
1
2
K
ijk
b
j
b
k
ImN
i0
= (K
ij

1
4
K
i
K
j
K
)b
j
,
ReN
ij
= K
ijk
b
k
ImN
ij
= (K
ij

1
4
K
i
K
j
K
), (21)
with K is the Calabi-Yau volume. On the other
hand A = 0, ..., h
(2,1)
and M
AB
is dened by the
following relations
_
Y3

A

B
=
_
(ImM)
+(ReM)(ImM)
1
(ReM)

AB
,
_
Y3

A

B
=
_
(ImM)
1

AB
, (22)
_
Y3

A

B
=
_
(ReM)(ImM)
1

B
A
.
Both M
AB
and N
IJ
are the standard gauge cou-
plings in four dimensional N = 2 supergravity. g
a

b
is the metric of complex structure moduli space de-
noted by
g
a

b
=
a

b
K, (23)
where K is the Kahler potential given by
K = ln i(

Z
A
G
A
Z
A

G
A
), (24)
Z
A
(1, z
a
), (25)
G
A

G
Z
A
. (26)
where G(Z) is a prepotential of degree two.
The eects of turning RR uxes can be seen
from the arising of new couplings of the NS 2-form
B
2
and the quantities J
2
, M
2
, M
2
T
are found to be
J
2
= e
I
F
I
m
I
G
I
,
M
2
= m
I
ImN
IJ
m
J
, (27)
M
2
T
= m
I
N
IJ
m
J
+e
I
m
I
, (28)
where we have introduced the magnetic duals of
F
I
dA
I
by
G
I
= ImN
IJ
F
J
+ ReN
IJ
F
J
. (29)
Finally the scalar potential in the string frame has
the form
V =
1
2
(e
I
N
IL
m
L
)(ImN)
1IJ
(e
J


N
JK
m
K
)
(30)
4.2. Type IIB on Calabi-Yau 3-fold with
RR Fluxes
Now let us turning our attention to discuss the
type IIB case. Similar as before our starting point is
to expand the 10 dimensional RR elds in the Calabi
Yau harmonic form we have

B
2
= B
2
+b
i

i
,

C
2
= C
2
+c
i

i
,

A
4
= D
i
2

i
+V
A

A
U
B

B
+
i

i
. (31)
Self duality condition of

F
5
tell us that only half of
the degree of freedom of

A
4
are physical. From the 4
dimensional point of view this condition imply that
the 4 dimensional elds obtained from the expan-
sion, each has a Poincare dual. For example, 2-form
D
i
2
are duals of the scalar
i
, while the vector elds
(V
A
, U
A
) are related by electric and magnetic dual-
ity. Thus it is equivalent to keep either of the dual
elds. We will choose the scalar
i
, i = 1, . . . , h(1, 1)
and the vector V
A
, A = 0, . . . , h
(2,1)
as the physi-
cal elds. Taking into account the Calabi-Yau mod-
uli, we nd that the spectrum consists of gravita-
tional multiplets with bosonic component (g

, V
0
)
and double-tensor multiplet (B
2
, C
2
, , l), and h
(1,1)
hyper-multiplets (
i
, v
i
, b
i
, c
i
) and h
(2,1)
vector mul-
tiplets (V
a
, z
a
).
Furthermore self duality condition cannot be
obtained from the action, but it must be imposed
as a separate constraint, in order to obtain the cor-
rect equation of motion. We have to make sure that
the expansions of

F
5
satisfy

F
5
=

F
5
. This condi-
tion splits in the following two constraint for the 4
dimensional elds
G
A
= (ImM)
AB
F
B
+ (ReM)
AB
F
B
d
i

ijk
db
i
c
k
= 4g
ij

_
dD
j
2
db
j
C
2
dc
j
B
2
_
, (32)
IJP Vol.15 No.4, 2004 103
where
F
A
= dV
A
, G
A
= dU
A
. (33)
Before RR uxes are turned on let us rst per-
form the eld redenition A
4
A
4
+
1
2
B
2
C
2
which
aects that the eld C
2
appears in the action only
dC
2
. The form of the action (6) is not modied, but
now the eld strengths have a dierent form

H
3
= d

B
2
,

F
3
= d

C
2
ld

B
2
,

F
5
= d

A
4
+

B
2
d

C
2
. (34)
Turning on RR uxes is equivalent to shift the
eld strength of C
2
according to
5)
d

C
2
d

C
2
+m
A

A
e
A

A
, (35)
where (e
A
, m
A
) are the constant background uxes.
This implies that the expansion of the eld strengths

F
3
and

F
5
in the Calabi-Yau harmonic forms now
becomes

F
3
= dC
2
lH
3
+ (dc
i
ldb
i
)
i
m
A

A
e
A

A
,

F
5
= (dD
i
2
+b
i
dC
2
+B
2
dc
i
)
i
+

F
A

A
+

G
A

A
(d
i
+b
j
dc
k
K
ijk
)
i
, (36)
where we used the denitions

F
A
= F
A
+m
A
B
2
,

G
A
= G
A
+e
A
B
2
. (37)
As mentioned before one has to impose the self-
duality condition on

F
5
in order to get the correct dy-
namic in four dimensions. Imposing the self-duality
condition on the second equation in (36) one obtains

G
A
= (ImM)
AB


F
B
+ (ReM)
AB

F
B
, (38)
while the other self-duality condition involving D
i
and
i
is not modied. Now inserting (7) and the
above self-duality condition we nally obtain
5)
S
IIB/

Y3
=
_
e
2
_

1
2
R 1 + 2d d

1
4
H
3
H
3
g
ab
dz
a
d z g
ij
dt
i
d

t
j
_
+
1
2
Im(N
1
)
IJ
_
d Nd

I

_
d Nd

J
+
1
2
H
3
(
A
d
A

A
d
A
) (39)
+
1
2
ImM
AB

F
A

F
B
+
1
2
ReM
AB

F
A


F
B

1
2
B
2
(

F
A
+dV
A
)e
A
V

,
where we have used the elds redenition

0
= l ,
i
= lb
i
c
i
,

i
= 2
i

l
2

ijk
b
j
b
k
+
ijk
b
j
c
k
,

0
= h
1
+
l
6

ijk
b
i
b
j
b
k

1
2

ijk
b
i
b
j
c
k
, (40)
The string frame scalar potential V

is found to be
V

=
1
2
(e
A
M
AC
m
C
)(ImN)
1AB
(e
B

N
BD
m
D
) .
(41)
5. Relation to Gauged N = 2 Supergravity
5.1. The Standard Supergravity Form
To make a contact with four dimensional N =
2 supergravity, one has to rescale the actions (20) and
(39). This means that both theories are in Einstein
frame. Here we just look at the type IIA on Calabi-
Yau with uxes described by (20). As we shall dis-
cuss in the next subsection that these theories are
equivalent since they are related by mirror symme-
try.
Let us rst mention that it is a remarkable
fact of (20) is that it is inert under the following
Stuckelberg transformation
B
2
= d , C
3
= dA
0
, A
I
= m
I
. (42)
To dualize the two forms B
2
we have to introduce the
notation in terms of electric and magnetic potentials
A
I
and

A
I
5)

F
I
= dA
I
+m
I
B
2
,

G
I
= (ImN)
IJ
F
J
+ (ReN)
IJ
F
J
,
= d

A
I
+e
I
B
2
. (43)
The above denitions of

F
I
and

G
I
are guaranteed
by the transformation (42) and the equation of mo-
tion for A
I
. Now the equation of motion for B
2
sug-
gest that we can introduce a scalar eld such that
e
2
dB
2
= Da da 2m
I

A
I
+ 2e
I
A
I
. (44)
Finally the action ((20)) can be written down in the
standard supergravity form as follows
35)
S
IIA/Y3
=
_ _

1
2
R 1 g
ij
dt
i
d

t
j
h
uv
Dq
u
Dq
v
+
1
2
ImN
IJ
F
I
F
J
+
1
2
ReN
IJ
F
I
F
J
V
E
_
, (45)
104 IJP Vol.15 No.4, 2004
where
h
uv
Dq
u
Dq
v
= d d +g
a

b
dz
a
d z
b
+
e
4
4
_
Da ( d d )


_
Da ( d d )

e
2
2
(ImM
1
)
AB
_
d Md

A

_
d Md

B
.
(46)
The scalar potential V
E
can be written in the stan-
dard form as
V
E
=
1
2
(P
x
I
N
IL

P
xL
)(ImN)
1IJ
(P
x
J


N
JK

P
xK
),
(47)
where the triplet of electric and magnetic prepoten-
tial P
x
I
and P
x
I
are given by
P
3
I
= e
2
e
I
,

P
3I
= e
2
m
I
,
P
1
I
= P
2
I
=

P
1I
=

P
2I
= 0 . (48)
5.2. Mirror Symmetry and Vacua of the
Scalar Potential
As we mentioned in the previous subsection,
between the type IIA and the type IIB on Calabi-Yau
3-fold there exists a relation called mirror symmetry.
This means that if we are dealing with dynamics of
the type IIA on Calabi-Yau 3-fold, then on the other
hand we simply know about dynamics of the type IIA
on another Calabi-Yau 3-fold. In other words, the
mirror symmetry states that the type IIA on Calabi-
Yau 3-fold Y
3
is equivalent to the type IIB on dual
Calabi-Yau 3-fold

Y
3
. This mirror symmetry can be
seen via the following identication
z
a
t
i
,
N
IJ
M
AB
,
g
a

b
g
i

j
. (49)
This shows the existence of a mirror symmetry which
exchanges the moduli spaces of the type IIA with the
type IIB.
Using the above identication one can write,
for example, the scalar potential for the type IIB V

E
as follows
V
E
=
1
2
(P
x
A
M
AC

P
xC
)(ImM)
1AB
(P
x
B


M
BD

P
xD
),
(50)
where we also interchanged the electric and magnetic
charges
e
I
e
A
, m
I
m
A
. (51)
Finally we end this section by discussing the
possible supersymmetric vacua of the potential (50).
Let us rst consider the vacua which preserve full
N = 2 supersymmetry. As mentioned in sec-
tion 2, the only possible vacua are four dimensional
Minkowskian, that have zero cosmological constant
which correspond to the vanishing electric and mag-
netic uxes.
Another possibilities are BPS domain walls
which preserve half of supersymmetry in three di-
mensions. These solutions are nontrivial realization
of spontaneous N = 2 N = 1 supersymmetry
breaking studied in
4)
.
6. Conclusion
In this paper we have discussed several aspects
of the four dimensional gauged N = 2 supergravity
coming from ten dimensional type II supergravity
compactied on Calabi-Yau 3-fold with RR-uxes.
Moreover, the scalar potential was written down in
the standard supergravity form.
It has also been shown that the mirror sym-
metry between type IIA and type IIB on Calabi-Yau
still exists in the presence of RR uxes. However, it
is still unclear the relation between mirror symmetry
and bifurcation of BPS domain walls in these theo-
ries. This problem is our future work which will be
discussed in
6)
.
Acknowledgements
One of the authors, B.E.G would like to thank
Jan Louis, Andrei Micu, Thomas Mohaupt, and
Marco Zagermann for useful discussions.
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