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185A HW2 Solutions

1.5.2) Determine the sets on which the following functions are analytic, and compute their derivatives: a) 3z 2 + 7z + 5 is analytic on C and its derivative is 6z + 7. b) (2z + 3)4 is analytic on C and its derivative is 8(2z + 3)3 . c) 3z − 1 8 is analytic on C − {3} and its derivative is . 3−z (3 − z)2

1.5.10) Prove f (z) = |z| is not analytic. Solution: |z| ∈ R, so using the typical notation, u = x2 + y 2 and v = 0. Thus   √x √ y  2 2 x2 +y 2  Df =  x +y  0 0 So the CR equations hold nowhere on C − {0} and at (x, y) = (0, 0), u is not realdifferentiable. 1.5.30) Consider the function f (z) = 1/z. Draw the contours u = Ref = constant and v = Imf = constant. How do they intersect? Is it always true that grad(u) is parallel to the curve v = constant? Solution: These contours are quadratic curves of the form cy 2 = x − cx2 and cy 2 + y = −cx2 and they intersect perpendicularly. Let (x(t), y(t)) be one of these contours such that v(x(t), y(t)) = c, then 0 =
d v(x(t), y(t)) dt

= grad(v) · ( dx(t) , dy(t) ), so grad(v) is always dt dt

perpendicular to the curve v = c (this is true for all real smooth curves). Since f is analytic on C − {0}, the CR equations tell us grad(v) · grad(u) = 0, so for any analytic function f = u + iv, we have that grad(u) is parallel to the curve v = c, which is perpendicular to any intersecting curve u = d (there is exactly one such intersection at every point).

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− π < Re(z) < π . Give the derivative of this branch of sin−1 (z). we could use any value of z0 in this domain. Solution: First let’s find an appropriate domain for sin−1 . This way. 1. we then have cos(sin−1 (z)) 1 dz z d that dz sin−1 (z) = √ and thus sin−1 (z) = sin(z0) √ + z0 . then the image of 1 + z over A is the complex numbers with √ real part > 1. C minus the nonpositive real axis) as √ √ the domain (branch) of z. For example.18) Let f : A ⊂ C→C be analytic on an open set A. Let’s choose A = C − {x + iy|y = 0 & x ≤ 0} (i.3. our choice of z0 determines our branch of sin−1 .6. a) Describe A∗ geometrically. sin(z) = sin(w) ⇔ 0 = sin(z)−sin(w) = 2sin( z−w )cos( z+w ) (apply prop. 1. As multiple values of z0 go to the same value sin(z0 ).1. √ reiθ = √ reiθ/2 . So let’s do it! sin(z) = d sin(z) dz 1 (eiz 2i − e−iz ) is analytic on C and π 2 = cos(z) = 1 iz (e 2 + e−iz ) = 0 ⇔ eiz = −e−iz ⇔ e2iz = −1 ⇔ z = + πk. Thus A √ defines a branch of 1 + z over which it is analytic (as it is the composition of analytic functions).6.14) Define a branch of 1+ √ z and show that it is analytic. Let A∗ = {z|z ∈ A}. choosing our domain to be −π/2 + πk < Re(z) < π/2 + πk. 2 . we’ll always define is nonnegative. where the ± is ± 1 − z2 ± 1 − z2 determined by cos(z) per the formula above. d so the inverse function theorem tells us.4 twice.R.e. where √ r Solution: First note that despite the branch we pick.6) Solve sin(z) = w and show how to choose a domain and thus how to pick a particular branch of sin−1 (z) so that it is analytic on the domain. we can solve sin(z) = w. Thus. near sin(z0 ) for z0 = π + πk. which is still in A (where · is analytic by our choice of branch). once as double angle formula) ⇔ z −w = 2πk 2 2 or z + w = π + 2πk. Noting. 2 2 1. Solution: A∗ is the reflection of A over the real axis. dz sin−1 (z) = 2 1 . the image (or branch) is completely determined by the domain. sin2 (z) + cos2 (z) = 1 ⇒ cos(z) = ± 1 − sin2 (z). for the principle branch sin(z).

y). Show that g is analytic. u v ˆ ˆ uˆ u ˆ uˆ Let α(x. −y) = u(z) and v = v(x. u = u(x. Solution: Let f (x + iy) = u(x. −y)v(x. −y) = v(z). −y). y) = −2ˆv = −2u(x. y) + iv(x. Then ˆ ˆ g(x + iy) = [ˆ + iˆ]2 = u2 − v 2 + 2iˆv = [ˆ2 − v 2 ] + i[−2ˆv ]. −y)2 − v(x. y) = u2 − v 2 = u(x.b) Define g : A∗ →C by g(z) = [f (z)]2 . −y)2 and β(x. Dg =  = −2ux v − 2uvx 2uy v + 2uvy   2uux − 2vvx −2uuy + 2vvy    2uuy − 2vvy 2uux − 2vvx 3 . ˆ ˆ uˆ Now you can check (using the CR eqns for f ) that g(x+iy) =  y)+iβ(x.   2uux − 2vvx −2uuy + 2vvy  Cauchy-Riemann equations and is thus analytic on A∗ . y) satisfies the α(x.