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QUESTIONS & INSTRUCTIONS LEADING TO SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS 1.OBSERVING. • • • • • • • • • • What is the difference between these three objects? What is unusual about this picture? How does it taste? What colour is the book? How does the object feel? What can you see? How does the object feel? Are they the same? Does it longer or shorter? What happen when you push the car harder? 2. CLASSIFYING • • • • • • • • Are all the objects the same? What is the difference between the seeds in the two groups? How are the seeds in each group alike? Why did you put these objects in one group? Why did you put the other objects in the other group? Why did you sort/group the objects in such a way? How did you sort the objects? How did you group the objects? Can you sort/group the objects in other way? 3. MEASURING AND USING NUMBERS • • • Of which colour was the greatest number of sweets? What unit did you use? What instrument did you use to measure? 1 • • • • • What is the weight/height/length of the object? Which plant is taller? Which has more leaves? Count the number of leaves. How many leaves are there? How long is the table? 4. MAKING INFERENCES • • • • • • • • Why do you think it turns yellow? What do you think happens? What do you think cause it? What do you think the object is? Are they any other reason for that? Give one reason based on your observation. What makes the objects float? Why do you think the nails become rusting? 5. PREDICTING • • • • • What do you think will happen next? What will happen to stem after 3 weeks? What will happen to both nails after 7 days? What do you think will happen to the fish after sometime? What is the number of animal at the year of 2008? 6. COMMUNICATING • • • • • Based on the product label, describe the product. What can you say about this object? Tell us how you make the bulb lights up. Draw how the plant grows after 1 week. Name one plant that reproduces in the same way as the tapioca plant 2 • Describe what happens when you add water to it? 7.SPACE-TIME RELATIONSHIP • • • • • • • Where is the ball after a while? What will happen to the ice after a few minutes? What happened before / after that? What happened first/ last? How does the tree look like from inside the house? Where is the canteen located? How did it look from the top/bottom/side? 8.INTERPRETING DATA • • • • • What can you say about brightness of the bulb when one battery is used? What happened to the brightness of the bulb as the number of batteries increase? How does the number of batteries effect the brightness of the bulb? Based on the pictograph what is the most common height among your classmates? What is the trend of the graph. 9.DEFINING OPERATIONALLY • • • • • • • What is a ball? Can you tell me what a ball is? What do you do with the ball? What are the things needed to make a complete circuit? What is a complete circuit? How did you make a complete circuit? What did you do to the things to make a complete circuit? What is man made materials? How do you explain speed? 3 10 CONTROLLING VARIABLES • • • • • • What are the things that you use in the activity? What are the things that affect the result of the activity? What do you keep the same? What do you measure? What do you need to change? How does size of a sponge affect the amount of water it will hold? 11 MAKING HYPOTHESES • • • • • • What will happen if I add more water? What do you think will happen if this is change? What is the relationship between the number of batteries use and the brightness of the bulb? What will happen to the result if we change this? What will be affect if this is change? Will the plant grow healthier if we use more water? 12 EXPERIMENTING • • • • What is your conclusion? Describe what you will do to find out what plant need to grow healthy. How would you prove your hypothesis/inferences? Design a fair test. ENABLING QUESTIONS ON FAIR TEST 4 1.Getting Started • • • • 2. Planning • • • • • • • • • • What are you going to investigate? What are you going to change? How will you change it? What things will you keep the same every time? How will you keep them the same? How will you make it a fair test? What will you measure? How will you measure it? What equipment will you use? How will you make it safe? What are you investigating? What could you change? What will you change? What do you think will happen? 3. Carrying out activities and presenting result • • • How will you make your readings accurate? How will you record your results? What units will you use to measure? 4. Analyzing and interpreting • • • What do your results tell? Can you see any patterns in your results? What can you conclude from your investigation? 5. Evaluation • • • • • • Were your results what you expected? Were there any results that didn’t fit the pattern? How could this have happened? Did you make sure you kept everything accurately the same every time? How? How could you improve your investigation? What further investigation would you like to carry out? 5 6. Communicating • How could you tell/show others what you did and found out in your investigation so that others could repeat what you did? 7. Make sure your report explains the four things: a) What you do want to find out… • Write the title • Predicting/hypotheses b) What you did to show that your test was fair.. • Draw diagram of the equipment • What is measured and how to measure it • Control variables c) What you found out.. • Table • Trial measurements & main measurements d) What you have found… • Meaning of data • Agreement from others 8. Drawing Table A table can help to organize an investigation. • Decide your variables • Write the column headings (include units) • Choose the values for your manipulated variable • Write in the values for your manipulated variable on the right column • Add in the response variables while you do the practical on the left column i. Two types of things to change (manipulated variable): Continuous how many indecide which between values values to be used how far apart what will be are they the biggest and suitable to smallest use line graph 6 ii. Categoric decide which values to be used the values will be the different types of the variable you are testing suitable to use bar graph e.g. continuous variable is used Amount of sugar added (g) Temperature for the sugar to melt (C) e.g. categoric variable is used Types of sugar used Temperature for the sugar to melt (C) Axes for graph Response variable & units Manipulated variable & units 9. Units and symbols: Variable Force Temperature Distance Unit Newton degree Celcius Millimeter Centimeter Metre Kilometer square millimeter cubic centimeter Gram Kilogram Second Symbol N °C mm cm m km m2 cm2 g kg s Volume Mass Time QUESTION AND ANSWERING TECHNIQUE FOR SCIENCE PURPOSE / AIM A-key To find out the.. To investigate the.. To prove that.. To study the.. • • • • • • • importance of…to …. the basic needs of… relationship between…(T2C) and…(T2M) TREND / PATTERN Q-key • State the trend/pattern • • Steps Observe the trend/ pattern arrangement Identify the differences A-key Increasing: -From small getting bigger or larger -From lower became higher Decreasing Did not change Consistent Evenly Uniformly PREDICTION Q-key Steps A-key • • What happens if…? Predict what will happen to…. • • • • • • The process of guessing • Predict the number what will happen based • Predict the situation on • E.g.: observation/information/ -10kg, 1 hour data/ or previous -Will grow healthy / be extinct / experience stay alive due to …. Analyse the observation given or the results Make sure the answer ask to predict the previous or future results Look at the pattern Find the uniformly arrange pattern From the pattern arrangement, predict your answer MAKING INFERENCES Q-key -infer -give reason for your answer in …. • Steps A-key An early conclusion/ • If x comparing; explanation from an E.g.: observation why it happen The …can/will/get … because the - give reasons. …. is.... a) observation + why The plant getting withered b) observation + cause because …. c) relates observation with a) didn’t get enough.. cause b) didn’t get any… c) didn’t get the right amount of… • Usually our previous knowledge and experience d) there is no.. will influence the • If comparing; conclusion. E.g.: *Observe the phenomenon/object -…because…compare to….. before and after -using our (comparing) senses. -.…because ….it is ….. than …. *Think why it happens – using our mind. INTEPRETING DATA Q-key • • • What is the title of this investigation? Purpose of the investigation State the pattern • • • • Steps Analyse all information given / collected Identify the pattern / information Understand the details of the information Identify the relationship between the information • • A-key To analyse the effect of…to… To find out the relationship between the…. CONTROLLING VARIABLES Q-key If you want to make this activity a fair test/ If you want to make the test fair, what are; 1.Things to keep the same: -the same thing (more than 1 - constant/fixed) 2. Thing to change: - different/not the same (1 only - manipulated/ controlled/ independent) 3. Thing to measured / observed: -the results/findings (responding/ dependent) • • Steps List out all variables involved Identify the variables A-key 1.Same type/size of 2. The presence of.. (the differences / not the same) 3. The condition of… MAKING HYPHOTESES Q-key • • • • Hypotheses Results The relation What do you understand … • Steps General statement about objects/ phenomenon based on an observation whether it is true of false till it can be tested before carry out the fair test. Hypotheses is build based on the inference. It relates between T2C and T2M • • • • • • A-key The higher…(t2c) the lower the …(t2m). The bigger/smaller The longer/shorter The thicker/thinner The more/least The wider.. • • CONCLUSION Q-key Steps A-key • • • What can you conclude from this activity/fair test. State your conclusion based on the activity/fair test. What the result means? • • The results/findings from an activity/ fair test It relates between T2C and T2M • • • • • • ….when….. …..needs….to….. From the fair test, we found out that/can understand…. From the activity, we can conclude the relationship between… The…of….relies on the… of…. The… was influence by/due to the… MY SCIENCE INVESTIGATION PLAN SHEET Name:_______________________________________________ Class:___________________________ Date:_______________ Before the experiment: Title of Science Investigation :___________________________________________ What do I want to find out? (My problem) ________________________________________________________________ __ What variables will I; keep the same change What will I need to use? (Materials needed) ________________________________________________________________ ___ What do I think will happen? (My prediction) ________________________________________________________________ ___ During the experiment: I record or my results here: (My findings) What do I want to observe/ measure? (My inference) ____________________________________________________ Remember to use Science Terminologie s After the experiment: What happened? Things to measure/obseve(The result) ________________________________________________________________ _____ My reasons / explaination why this happened? (My hyphoteses) ________________________________________________________________ _____ What did I learnt from the experiment? (My conclusion) ________________________________________________________________ _____ If I could do the experiment again, I would change… ________________________________________________________________ ______