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of Geological Sciences The copyright for texts, graphical elements, and images lies with C. Heubeck, unless otherwise specified. Download, reproduction and redistribution of theses pages in any form is hereby permitted for private, personal, non-commercial, and class-related purposes use as long as the source is identified. Despite of my efforts, I cannot guarantee the completeness, correctness and actuality of the material. Prof. Christoph Heubeck Institut für Geologische Wissenschaften Freie Universität Berlin Malteserstr. 74-100 12249 Berlin GERMANY ph: ++49-(0)30-83870695 cheubeck@zedat.fu-berlin.de fax: ++49-(0)30-83870734 http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~cheubeck/

Today‘s Lecture
Why is this important ? Packing Porosity Definition Types Sandstones and Carbonates

Packing, Porosity, and Permeability

Permeability Definition Relationship to porosity Porosity Development with depth as a function of … Porosity and scale Links und Literatur

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convection and conduction • Mineralizing solutions Packing in loose sand (Simplification: spheres. alluvial fan) Differences in packing in recent dunes (fine-grained quartz sand) grain shapes and orientations Avalanches Grain fall Saltation Lithologies / solubility 47 % 39 % Φ= 43 % Schenk (1981) Degree of cementation 2 .26) Cubic packing Coordination number = 6. φ = 0.Why do we need a porous system ? Permits storage (porosity) and transmission (permeability) of liquids and gases Fundamentals of civilisation • water • Heat.42) Packing in loose sand Packing: Approximating Reality grain sizes due to to sorting (eolian vs. loose) • • • Porosity is independent of grain size Porosity is dependent of packing Packing is dependent on depositional and diagenetic history Rhombic packing (coordination number = 8: φ = 0.

low k The plumbing of a reservoir ? http://www. low k low φ.com/pore_cor. high k high φ. to store) Permeability (k.Fundamental Reservoir Properties Packing (and Porosity) in sandstones is therefore dependent on Porosity (φ.html Why is this important ? Packing Porosity Definition Types Sandstones and Carbonates Permeability Definition Relationship to porosity Porosity Development with depth as a function of … Porosity and scale Links und Literatur 3 .micromeritics. high k low φ. to flow) • Lithology (resistance against compaction) • Grain size • Grain orientation • Grain sorting • Degree of cementation high φ.

and calcite). Fracture. of open space How is pore space quantified ? Fundamental: Concentration of solids. C C = VSolids / VTotal (%) Porosity φ is that part of the sedimentary rock not occupied by solids. Porosity Ranges Sand and gravel Till Silt Clay Clastic sediments Limestone Basalt Tuff Pumice 20-50 % 10-20 % 35-50 % 33-60 % typically 3-30 % <1 to 30 % 1-12 % 14-40 % . mostly filled with gas or liquid.VSolids ) / VTotal Matrix: Mechanically or chemically instable particles (mostly of clay minerals. Engineering / Technical effective / ineffective Fractured crystalline rock Unfractured crystalline rock 3.edu/classes/hydrology/lectures/ch_02/ch_02. In carbonates: Many 2.html 4 .87 % 1-5 % ~0. φ=1-C Cement: Chemically precipitated minerals connecting grains therefore (%) φ = 1 .What is pore space ? Framework: mechanically stable. Intragranular. Sedimented particles Pores: A network.wustl.(VSolids / VTotal) or φ = (VTotal .1 % What porosity types exist ? 1. finegrained quartz. Descriptive In sandstones: Intergranular. . Genetic primary / secondary http://geodynamics. Dissolution. Porosity is therefore the ratio of pore volume to total volume.

Descriptive porosity (in a sandstone) Fracture porosity Intergranular Effective Porosity φeff Intragranular Total Porosity Engineering Porosity φt = φeff + φineff • contributes to fluid flow • connected porosity • intergranular or fracture Dissolution porosity Ineffective Porosity φineff • is in sandstones mostly intragranular porosity Genetische Porosität Primary porosity: Pore space remaining after deposition Genetic Porosity: Primary Primary porosity in sandstones is mostly intergranular Secondary porosity: Results of • Dissolution of existing minerals (grains / cement) • Sediment shrinkage • Fracturing Rotliegend Sandstone. Northern Germany 5 .

onlap. probably ineffective porosity Sequence stratigraphy: Upbuilding.htm Secondary. fluvio-eolian..org/vacrc/sem04. Northern Germany Secondary porosity Etched Feldspar Mineralogy: Calcite / Aragonite / Dolomite Carbonates Facies: Platform. Bolivia Secondary. Feldspar • Secondary “oversized pores”: Dissolution of instable volcanic or metamorphic grains Carboniferous Escarpment Fm.edu/groups/csl/trips/bahamas. outbuilding.creationresearch. Ramp.rsmas. intragranular. intergranular.Genetic Porosity: Secondary Secondary porosity Dissolved VRF. Reef.html http://mgg. probably ineffective porosity Rotliegend Sandstone. Slope … http://www. offlap … Particle size 6 .miami.

Why the distinction ? Sandstones Amount of primary porosity Types of primary porosity Pores sizes Pore shape Influence of diagenesis Importance of fracturing Visual estimate Core plugs φ-k correlation Choquette and Pray. 1970 Types of porosity in carbonates Fabric-Selective Interparticle Intraparticle Fenestral Shelter Growth-Framework Intercrystal Moldic Primary Carbonates 40-70% Interparticle and intraparticle f (diagenetic and biologic processes) greatly varied major! major feasible to impossible commonly inadequate varied or independent Breccia 25-40% interparticle f (particle size. 1970 Permeability: Definition … is a measure of the ability of a fluid or a gas to cross a network of pores Why is this important ? Packing Porosity Definition Types Sandstones and Carbonates Permeability Definition Relationship to porosity Porosity Development with depth as a function of … Porosity and scale Links und Literatur • • • measured in Darcy (D. sorting) „negative“ of particles minor – moderate minor – moderate feasible or easy representative consistent Not Fabric-Selective Fracture Channel Vug Cavern Secondary Fabric-Selective or Not Boring Burrows Shrinkage Choquette and Pray. oder mD) a measure of the degree of interconnectedness of pores Critical neumber and size of pore throats 7 .

known volume.5µ 0.3500 150 . l) 1µ RT 1 RT 2 RT 3 RT 4 RT 5 > 3500 k/phi 450 .32 .How is permeability measured ? What influences the throughput of a fluid (Q) through a porous solid ? Permeability .01 0.15 porosity (v/v) 0.30 8 .10 0.00 Rate Q = V / t Standardized geometry (A.00 0.00 µ 1000.00 Fluid reservoir.Darcy’s Law How is permeability measured ? Q= k A l ∆p Permeability .Darcy’s Law What influences the throughput of a fluid (Q) through a porous solid ? Length Cross-sectional area Pressure difference Fluid viscosity l A ∆p (-) (+) (+) (-) Q= k A l ∆p µ µ Proportionality constant therefore µ ∆p k µ ∆p Q~ A l ∆p Q~ A l ∆p µ µ l A l A Permeability .20 0. graded scale keep ∆p und T constant 20 µ 100.25µ 0.150 > 6.32 0.10 0.00 2µ 1.25 0.05 0.Porosity How are permeability and porosity related ? (in a sandstone) 10000.1µ 0.450 6.00 10 µ perm (mD) 5µ 10.

00 2µ 1. Carman-Kozeny equation K~ Pe Sv • • Pe = effective Porosity Sv = surface (specific per unit volume of solid) ( in turn dependent on grain size) K= Pe3 5 Sv (1-Pe)2 Porosity (%) Depth dependence 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Why is this important ? Packing Porosity Definition Types Sandstones and Carbonates Permeability Definition Relationship to porosity Porosity Development with depth as a function of … Porosity and scale Links und Literatur 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 Factors of porosity with depth: • Maximum depth • Mean grain size • Composition • Temperature gradient • Age • Pressure • Hydrocarbon fill 9 .00 perm (mD) • RT 1 RT 2 RT 3 RT 4 RT 5 > 3500 k/phi 450 .30 • z.3500 150 .00 0.05 0.Permeability .1µ 0.10 0.32 10.10 0.150 > 6.450 6.15 porosity (v/v) 0.00 Important for permeability prediction Empirical equations based on calibrated samples 1µ Permeability (mD) 0.5µ 0.25µ 0.00 20 µ • 10 µ 5µ 100.Porosity How are phi and k related ? 1000.Porosity How are permeability and porosity related ? 10000.25 0.01 0.00 Permeability .32 .B.20 0.

feldspars through CO2 ^ completely cemented 7 8 Mechanical compaction Grain bending Pressure effects Mechanical breakage of plagioclase Rotliegender Sandstein. -1000m mechanical shaking. Norddeutschland 10 . ! cement and mineral dissolution: carbonate. anhydrite. SiO2-cement. >500m grain fracturing and bending.Depth dependence 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 5 10 Depth dependence 15 20 25 30 35 40 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Factors of porosity with depth: • Maximum depth • Mean grain size • Composition • Temperature gradient • Age • Pressure • Hydrocarbon fill 2 3 4 5 6 chemical compaction: CaCO3. -1000m dehydration of smectite to illite (2000-3000m): -15% Vol.

Leaching and Dissolution 0 5 10 Depth dependence 15 20 25 30 35 40 1 Fine-grained Factors of porosity with depth: • Maximum depth • Mean grain size • Composition • Temperature gradient • Age • Pressure • Hydrocarbon fill 2 3 4 Coasegrained Leached tuffaceous (fine-grained volcanic) fragment 5 6 7 8 0 10 20 30 40 Depth dependence 0 RFs 1 5 10 clay minerals 15 20 25 30 35 40 1 Litharenite Factors of porosity with depth: • Maximum depth • Mean grain size • Mineralogical composition • Temperature gradient • Age • Pressure • Hydrocarbon fill 2 3 4 5 6 7 Ar k (~ 5% s ic s Lith ( >> 5% / km ) 2 3 Quartzarenite 4 5 6 /k m ) c os i Dickinson and Suczek (1979) 8 7 8 9 10 Qu ar tzo se ss (< 5% ss /k m ) 11 .

60 50 Sorting of nonclay fraction Rounding of grains yc le 70 Dissected Arc Dissected Arc Transitional Arc 30 20 Undissected Arc 80 90 10 0 100 L 6 7 0 Low Moderate High Extreme Transitional Arc 10 40 50 60 70 80 Undissected Arc 90 100 8 8 Total input of modifying kinetic energy Mechanical compaction and porosity 0 5 10 Depth dependence 15 20 25 30 35 40 High: 4°C / 100m 1 2 3 4 5 Factors of porosity with depth: • Maximum depth • Mean grain size • Mineralogical composition • Temperature gradient • Age • Pressure • Hydrocarbon fill Low: 1. 90 0 100 F 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 d Much Clay Grains not well sorted 100 90 80 70 quartzose rec. Germany 7 8 12 .Depth dependence and mineralogical composition 0 RFs 1 5 10 clay minerals 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 RFs Depth dependence and mineralogical composition 5 10 clay minerals 15 20 25 30 35 40 Litharenite 1 Litharenite Quarzarenite 2 2 Folk. 0 10 100 90 80 70 4 5 6 7 F Basement Uplift 80 90 100 0 10 20 30 4 5 50 40 Grains not rounded 30 40 Recycled Orogen 60 Removal of Clay transitional rec. 1980 Immature Submature Mature Little or no clay Grains well sorted Grains rounded Supermature Quarzarenite 3 Craton Interior Qm 0 10 20 Transitional Continental 50 60 30 40 R ec Composition and provenance 3 Q Craton Interior 20 Transitional Continental 60 50 40 30 20 70 Basement Uplift 80 lithic rec. nach Blatt.3°C / 100 m 6 Devonian greywacke. 1951. Taunus.

1978 Factors of porosity with depth: • Maximum depth • Mean grain size • Mineralogical composition • Temperature gradient • Age • Pressure • Hydrocarbon fill Depth dependence 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Why is this important ? 1 Packing Porosity 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Oil fill prevents cementation Definition Types Sandstones and Carbonates Permeability Definition Relationship to porosity Porosity Development with depth as a function of … Porosity and scale Links und Literatur Factors of porosity with depth: • Maximum depth • Mean grain size • Mineralogical composition • Temperature gradient • Age • Pressure • Hydrocarbon fill 13 .Depth dependence 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 5 10 Depth dependence 15 20 25 30 35 40 1 PermoTriassic Carboniferous JurassicCretaceous Paleocene 1 Overpressure compartments due to high pore pressure 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Factors of porosity with depth: • Maximum depth • Mean grain size • Mineralogical composition • Temperature gradient • Age • Pressure • Hydrocarbon fill Selley.

xxxx km) Well 0 1.5 0. 1973 Levels of Reservoir Heterogeneity How is permeability (k) and porosity (φ) related ? Grain and Pore Scale φmax φmin Kmax ? Kmin ? 1-10 cm 0.11m 1.2 Coarse Medium Fine Grain Size Very Fine After Beard and Weyl.044 Extremely well 40 0 42 20 0 10 0 25 50 10 Very Well 5 Sorting 40 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 2.How is permeability (k) and porosity (φ) related ? How is permeability (k) and porosity (φ) related ? Grain and Pore Scale 1.1-10 km 1-100µ Hairy Illite RotliegendesProblem Kaolinite 14 .5 0.100 m 0. Moderate Poor Very Poor Silt 0.1-10 mm http://www.25 0.mm) (mm .creationresearch.5 • • • • • (sub-) microscopic pore scale hand sample outcrop reservoir basinal scale (µm .125 0.0625 0.x km) (xx km .org/vacrc/sem02.0 0.dm) (m .html 0.100 m) (100 m .

Pantea. 2001. Michael P. some figures : http://www.. 21-38) Barwis. angewandt auf die Erdölgeologie eines ganzen sedimentären Beckens: http://www. Füchtbauer. Slatt. 432 p.G. Higley. M. McPherson.R. 1997. p. Sedimentary Petrology (for diagenesis) Hutcheon.usgs. Sedimente und Sedimentgesteine.pdf Debra K.. eds.Porosity Moore.org Handout for the Geol 463 class at the University of Saskatoon (where is that ? Ask your Instructor).R. Wilson. Carbonate Reservoirs: Developmetns in Sedimentology.D. Powder River Basin. Allen. I. eds.ca/AGS_PUB/ATLAS_WWW/ATLAS. 3-D Reservoir Characterization of the House Creek Oil Field.usgs. J. 150-161. Wyoming: U. Principles of Physical Sedimentology (Chapter on Packing.ags.J.cr.. 1990.gov/dds/1997/dds033/USGS_3D/ssx_txt/all.gov. 583 p. J.How is permeability (k) and porosity (φ) related ? Reservoir or outcrop scale Natural Reservoir Literature • • • • • Layered Tank • • Simple Tank Permeability . 11.. a few pages of good text. J. 1985.Porosität Links • • • • Eine virtuelle Tour durch die Porenräume eines Ölreservoirs (Pilotstudie des US DOE) http://greenwood.. Website.W. Elsevier. 1990. H. 1994. Morrow..aapg. V1.00 (access Dec. Blatt. Diagenesis: Geoscince Canada Reprint Series 4.usask.S. Sandstone Petroleum Reservoirs: Springer (New York).. and D. p.ca/geology/classes/geol463/46306b. p. Reservoir Quality Assessment and Prediction in Clastic Rocks: SEPM Short Course Notes 30.. and Studlick. 2002) • 15 . 165-176.L. and Roger M. I. Permeabilität .. http://pubs.HTM AAPG webseite: http://www.. Aspects of diagenesis in coarse-grained silicilcastic rocks: in McIlreath. Clyde H.htm.gov/pub/dds/dds-033/USGS_3D/ssx_txt/all. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY DIGITAL DATA SERIES DDS-33. 55.ab.htm Porosität und Permeabilität.