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Meiosis is a type of cell division required for sexual reproduction and produces gametes or spores.

During Meiosis I, DNA replication occurs and chromosomes line up on the equator as a homologous pair known as chromatids. At the first stage of Meiosis, Prophase I, DNA of individual chromosomes coils more and more tightly, known as DNA condensation. Sister chromatids then attach to specific sites on the nuclear envelope to bring the homologous pair of chromosomes close together. The sister chromatids line up so they can pair up with its corresponding "sister gene" on the homologous chromosome. Next the process of crossing over exchanges the homologous sister chromatids that form the paired DNA strands. This involves the separation of the DNA double helix in one paternal and one maternal chromatid and joining of the respective ends. At the end of meiosis I, each chromosome is still composed of two chromatids held together by a particular DNA sequence called the centromere.

Gregor Mendel came up with two laws following his experiment on pea plants. The first law is called The Law of Segregation is when two coexisting alleles of an individual for each trait segregate during gamete formation so that each gamete gets only one of the two alleles. Alleles again unite at random fertilization of gametes. Mendel s Pea Experiment showed that a cross between a green pod plant and a yellow pod plant produced only green pod plants for the F1 generation. It appeared that the yellow pod characteristic had disappeared. However, the F2 generation threw up an unexpected result; the yellow pod variant appeared in a quarter of this generation which proved his law correct.

The second law is called The Law of Independent Assortment . This occurs in Meiosis I in eukaryotic organisms in the anaphase stage and produces a gamete with an assortment of the organism's maternal and paternal chromosomes. The law states that separate genes for separate traits are passed independently of one another from parents to offspring and the alleles of different genes assort independently of one another during gamete formation. Mendel s Dihybrid Cross proved his law. He crossed pure breeding peas with round seeds and yellow albumen to pure breeding plants with wrinkled seeds and green albumen. The F1 generation plants all had round seeds and yellow albumen and Mendel predicted that they would be heterozygous for both traits (RrYy).

One common genetic disorder is Down Syndrome. In this phenotype, the individual has an extra chromosome 21, called trisomy-21. In meiosis, the pairs of chromosomes are supposed

However. known as disjunction.to split up and go to different spots in the dividing cell. This accident is called nondisjunction. A few phenotypic characteristics resulting from trisomy-21 are: delays in development. physical and mental retardation. This means that in the resulting cells. round heads. protruding tongues. but there is definitely connection with maternal age. The cause of the nondisjunction error is unknown. . one will have 24 chromosomes and the other will have 22 chromosomes. short necks. occasionally one pair does not divide. and small noses. and the whole pair goes to one spot.