You are on page 1of 8

BROADBAND AND CELLULAR NETWORKS

M.Salmabee III-CSE IdhayaEngg. College for Women Salmabee.m@gmail.com A.PrincyMedona Mary III-CSE IdhayaEngg. College for Women princyalbert@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
4G (also known as Beyond 3G), an abbreviation for Fourth-Generation, is a term used to describe the next complete evolution in wireless communications. A 4G system will be able to provide a comprehensive IP solution where voice, data, ultra-broadband Internet access, gaming services and streamed multimedia can be given to users on an "Anytime, Anywhere" basis, and at higher data rates than previous generations. As the second generation was a total replacement of the first generation networks and handsets; and the third generation was a total replacement of second generation networks and handsets; so too the fourth generation cannot be an incremental evolution of current 3G technologies, but rather the total replacement of the current 3G networks and handsets. The international telecommunications regulatory and standardization bodies are working for commercial deployment of 4G networks roughly in the 2012-2015 time scale. There is no formal definition for what 4G is; however, there are certain objectives that are projected for 4G. These objectives include, that 4G will be a fully IP-based integrated system. 4G will be capable of providing between 100 Mbit/s and 1 Gbit/s high speeds both indoors and outdoors, with premium quality and high security.

Earlier communications: 1. Hyper LAN- set of wireless LAN 2. 1G-First Generation : Speech 3. 2G-Second Generation : SMS , MMS, CDMA , GPRS , EDGE, Voice Mail 4. 3G-Third Generation: Wireless Internet, Video Calling, Mobile TV, Hyper LAN- set of wireless LAN. 4G Mobile communications: The approaching 4G (fourth generation) mobile communication systems are projected to solve still-remaining problems of 3G (third generation) systems and to provide a wide variety of new services, from high-quality voice to high-definition video to high-data-rate wireless channels. The term 4G is used broadly to include several types of broadband wireless access communication systems, not only cellular telephone systems. One of the terms used to describe 4G is MAGIC²Mobile multimedia, anytime anywhere, Global mobility support, integrated wireless solution, and customized personal service. As a promise for the future, 4G systems, that is, cellular broadband wireless access systems have been attracting much interest in the mobile communication arena. The 4G systems not only will support the next generation of mobile service, but also will

The features of 4G systems might be summarized with one wordIntegration. A second goal is to reduce blips in transmission when a device moves amongst areas covered by different networks. The latest iPhone is the best known example of 3G and 4G technology. An estimate of 1 billion users by the end of 2003 justifies the study and research for 4G systems. switched to a digital format and introduced text messaging. cdma2000/1xEV-DO systems. airports and libraries. framework. coffee shops. It can also be used for accessing the Internet on the move without having to be in a wireless hot-spot such as those offered by some bakeries. and applications to satisfy increasing user demands. One is known as WiMax and is backed by Clearwire. up to around 20MHz. standing for generation. systems using 4G mobile technology. suitable for initial migration of e. a firm whose majority owner is Sprint Nextel. full motion video. which began in the early 1990s. in mobile technology covers the major advances of the past 20-30 years. needed to provide the highest LTE data rates of 300 Mbit/s. Customers in areas which have strong 4G coverage will be able to use it for a home broadband connection which doesn¶t require any cabling to their household. need a new integrated network Limitations in applying recent advances in spectrally more efficient modulation schemes Need all all digital network to fully utilize IP and converged video and data . 4G mobile will be widely used for Internet access on computers as well as carrying cell phone communications. The competing system. and integration of mobile communication. 4G mobile should use enhanced security measures and offer drastically faster speed. making it possible to carry enhanced information services such as websites in their original format.support the fixed wireless networks. 3G technology improved the efficiency of how data is carried. wireless teleconferencing : Wider Bandwidth Difficult to move and interoperate due to different standards hampering global mobility and service portability Primarily Cellular (WAN) with distinct LANs¶. networks.g.25 MHz. there are two major y y y y applications like multimedia. mobile services. Why do we move toward 4G? y Limitation to meet expectations of What is the scoop on 4G? 4G mobile technology is the name for the next generation of mobile devices such as cell phones.The 4G systems are about seamlessly integrating terminals. Within the United States. 1G technology involved the first widely available mobile phones. The use of G. Long Term Evolution or LTE. Unlike previous generations of mobile technology. and applications. It became available from at least one provider in the US in 2009. wireless network access. This paper presents an overall vision of the 4G features. Its transmission bandwidths ranging from around 1. is backed mainly by Verizon. 2G technology. The continuous expansion of mobile communication and wireless networks shows evidence of exceptional growth in the areas of mobile subscriber.

as well as with digital (broadband) broadcasting systems. from satellite broadband to high altitude platform to cellular 3G and 3G systems to WLL (wireless local loop) and FWA (fixed wireless access) to WLAN 4G Mobile Communication System (wireless local area network) and PAN (personal area network). These services and models need to be further examined for their interface with the design of 4G systems. The 4G systems will interoperate with 2G and 3G systems. Connection with the network applications can be transferred into various forms and levels correctly and efficiently. higher data rate. and entertainment broadcast services. radio environment. it is possible to exploit the time domain. OFDM also provides a frequency diversity gain. Using ODFM. pictures. high-speed information services. are the keys of the 4G infrastructures. anytime. 4G systems will be fully IP-based wireless Internet. Application adaptability and being highly dynamic are the main features of 4G services of interest to users. such as smart antennas and MIMO. Based on the developing trends of mobile communication. The dominant methods of access to this pool of information will be the mobile telephone. 4G will have broader bandwidth. all with IP as the integrating mechanism. the frequency domain and even the code domain to optimize radio channel usage. KEY 4G TECHNOLOGIES Some of the key technologies required for 4G are briefly described below: OFDMA: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) not only provides clear advantages for physical layer performance. This allencompassing integrated perspective shows the broad range of systems that the fourth generation intends to integrate. with a seamless connection to a wide range of information and services. the space domain. These features mean services can be delivered and be available to the personal preference of different users and support the users' traffic.VISION OF 4G: This new generation of wireless is intended to complement and replace the 3G systems. With 4G. The key concept is integrating the 4G capabilities with all of the existing mobile technologies through advanced technologies. It ensures very robust transmission in multi-path environments with reduced receiver complexity. data. perhaps in 5 to 10 years.OFDM modulation can also be employed as a multiple access technology (Orthogonal Frequency Division . and quality of service. and laptop to seamlessly access the voice communication.dom. air interfaces. and smoother and quicker handoff and will focus on ensuring seamless service across a multitude of wireless systems and networks. In addition. improving the physical layer performance . and receiving a large volume of information. but also a framework for improving layer 2 performance by proposing an additional degree of free. Accessing information anywhere. The future 4G infrastructures will consist of a set of various networks using IP (Internet protocol) as a common protocol so that users are in control because they will be able to choose every application and environment. video. Operator-driven broadband networks to personal areas. and so on. PDA. and ad hoc networks. a range of new services and models will be available.It is also compatible with other enhancement Technologies.

but such a technique should only be used in situations where spectrum is very scarce. This not only provides additional flexibility for resource allocation (increasing the capacity). bit repetition). multi-band equipment with reduced development effort and costs through simultaneous multi-channel processing.g. OFDMA). This aspect of OFDM greatly simplifies processing. MULTIPLE-INPUT OUTPUT: MULTIPLE ± Processing of the received signals may deliver several performance improvements: range. VSFOFDM. 4G Mobile Communication System MIMO uses signal multiplexing between multiple transmitting antennas (space multiplex) and time or frequency. The signal transmitted by m antennas is received by n antennas. For a manufacturer. 4G Mobile Communication System These methods are applicable to data and probably also voice. as it is possible to process independent time symbols as soon as the OFDM waveform is correctly designed for the channel. multi-standard base stations and terminals. In the context of 4G systems. quality of received signal and spectrum efficiency.) (Sub channels). It is well suited to OFDM. In single-frequency networks. SDR will become an enabler for the aggregation of multi-standard pico/micro cells. the same alternative exists as in CDMA. Several techniques can be used when the carrier to interference ratio is negative (e. MIMO allows macro-diversity processing with performance gains. this can be a powerful aid to providing multi-standard. However. HANDOVER AND MOBILITY Handover technologies based on mobileIP technology have been considered for data and voice. This is not as complex as in CDMA. it is generally admitted that the gain in spectrum efficiency is directly related to the minimum number of antennas in the link. Mobile IP techniques are slow but can be accelerated with classical methods (hierarchical. In the case of OFDM. Although in future the terminals will adapt the air interface to the available radio access technology. SDR makes this reconfiguration easy. In OFDM. during a sports event). SOFTWARE DEFINED RADIO: Software Defined Radio (SDR) benefits from today¶s high processing power to develop multi-band. an operator will reconfigure its network adding several modems at a given Base Transceiver Station (BTS). but also enables cross-layer optimization of radio link usage. In this case. However. the implementation of macro-diversity implies that MIMO processing is centralized and transmissions are synchronous. but the drawback of these techniques is capacity. to increase network capacity at a specific time (e. it is necessary to reconsider the handover methods. MIMO is more efficient when many multiple path signals are received.Multiple Access. 4G Mobile Communication System Several infrastructure gains are expected from SDR.g. In principle. each OFDM symbol can transmit information to/from several users using a different set of sub carriers (Given as the fig. Wi-Max: WiMAX. at present this is done by the infrastructure. which is to use macrodiversity. meaning Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. For example. fast mobile IP). The performance in cellular deployments is still subject to research and simulations. is a telecommunications technology that .

CONVERGENCE BENEFITS: Broadcasters will benefit from the use of cellular mobile systems to adapt the content of their multi-media services more rapidly in response to the feedback from customers. From the cellular mobile operator point of view: Providing a complementary broadband downlink in vehicular environments to support IPbased multi-media traffic which is inherently asymmetrical. which was formed in June 2001 to promote conformity and interoperability of the standard. * Inter-network roaming.16 standard (also called Broadband Wireless Access). and authorization for the access of network connectivity and QoS resources for the mobile nodes flow. confidentiality. * Higher capacity and QoS enhancement. decryption and filtering. * Lower cost of networks and equipment. * Dynamic reconfigurable. * Security in wireless networks mainly involves authentication. CONVERGENCE OF COMMUNICATIONS BROADCASTING: From broadcaster point of view: *Introducing interactivity unidirectional point-to Broadcasting systems. and lightweight security mechanisms should be developed. The technology provides up to 20 Mbps in real world enduser throughput without the need for cables. from pointto-multipoint links to portable and fully mobile internet access. integrity. Benefits for Users: * Access to broadband multimedia services with lower cost and where mostly needed. The name "WiMAX" was created by the WiMAX Forum. SECURITY: * The heterogeneity of wireless networks complicates the security issue. to their multipoint MOBILE AND That is. * Higher revenue. * The use of license-exempt spectrum. Cellular operators will benefit from offering . * AAA (Authentication Authorization Auditing) protocols provide a framework for such suffered especially for control plane functions and installing security policies in the mobile node such as encryption. The technology is based on the IEEE 802. adaptive. The forum describes WiMAX as "a standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL".provides wireless transmission of data using a variety of transmission modes. a broadband downlink based on DAB/DVB-T and a narrowband uplink based on 3G cellular systems. 4G Mobile Communication System BENEFITS: CONVERGENCE OF CELLULAR MOBILE NETWORKS AND WLANS Benefits for Operators: * Higher bandwidths.

personal mobility is a concern in mobility management. ‡ Correction of software bugs and upgrade of terminals. RE-CONFIGURABLE TECHNOLOGY USERS: ‡ A multimode terminal attaches to the WLAN and scans the available systems. WIRELESS SYSTEM DISCOVERY: ‡ Flexible spectrum allocation and sharing between operators. OPERATORS: ‡ Respond to variations in traffic demand (load balancing). An ideal software radio receiver RE-CONFIGURABLE TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGES: ‡ Regulatory and Standardization issues ‡ Business models ‡ User preference profiles ‡ Inter-system handover mechanisms and criteria ‡ Software downloads mechanisms . ‡ Access to new services. ‡ Connect to any network ± Worldwide roaming. ‡ Rapid development of new personalized and customized services. ‡ It can download suitable manually or automatically. 4G Mobile Communication System ‡ This eliminates the need to use multiple terminals (or multiple hardware components in a terminal). ‡ Incorporate service enhancements and improvements. multimode user terminals are essential as they can adapt to different wireless networks by reconfiguring themselves. software ‡ Select network depending on service requirements and cost. ‡ Increased flexible and efficient production.their customers a range of new broadband multimedia services in vehicular environments. * Personal mobility concentrates on the movement of users instead of users¶ terminals. MANUFACTURERS: ‡ Single platform for all markets. RE-CONFIGURABLE TECHNOLOGY: ‡ In order to use the large variety of services and wireless networks. PERSONAL MOBILITY: * In addition to terminal mobility. ‡ The most promising way of implementing multimode user terminals is to adopt the software radio approach.

And involves the provision of personal communications and personalized operating environments. (vi)MULTIMEDIA ± VIDEO SERVICES * 4G wireless systems are expected to deliver efficient multimedia services at very high data rates. * Bursting is basically file downloading using a buffer and this is done at the highest data rate taking advantage of the whole available bandwidth. (iv)TELE-MEDICINE AND EDUCATION: 4G will support remote health monitoring of patients. * Streaming is performed when a user requires real-time video services. 3G data rates are currently 2Mbit/sec. the caller¶s agent can directly communicate with his agent. Data Rate for 4G: 4G mobile data transmission rates are planned to be up to 20 megabits per second which means that it will be about 10-20 times faster than standard ASDL services. The fourth generation promises to fulfill the goal of PCC (personal computing and communication) a vision that affordably APPLICATIONS: (i) VIRTUAL PRESENCE: This means that 4G provides user services at all times. . even if the user is off-site. But in 4G it is expected to restore such crisis issues in a few hours. Projected 4G systems offer this promise of a standard that can be embraced worldwide through its key concept of integration. * Once the caller¶s agent identifies user¶s location. * Basically there are two types of video services: bursting and streaming video services. (v)CRISIS MANAGEMENT: Natural disasters can cause break down in communication systems. CONCLUSION: As the history of mobile communications shows attempts have been made to reduce a number of technologies to a single global standard. In today¶s world it might take days or 7 weeks to restore the system. Future wireless networks will need to support diverse IP multimedia applications to allow sharing of resources among multiple users. and about 10 times faster than 3G broadband mobile.6Kbit/sec. (iii)TELE-GEOPROCESSING APPLICATIONS: This is a combination of GIS (Geographical Information System) and GPS (Global Positioning System) in which a user can get the location by querying. 4G will be about 200 times faster than present 2G mobile data rates. in which the server delivers data continuously at a playback rate. which is very fast compared to 2G¶s 9. For people who are interested in life long education. There must be a low complexity of implementation and an efficient means of negotiation between the end users and the wireless infrastructure. 4G provides a good opportunity. In terms of connection seeds. (ii)VIRTUAL NAVIGATION: 4G provides users with virtual navigation through which a user can access a database of the streets. buildings etc.

provides high data rates everywhere over a wireless network. 4G was launched in 2010 and the world is looking forward for the most intelligent technology that would connect the entire globe. .