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www.elsevier.com/locate/fss

**A PID type fuzzy controller with self-tuning scaling factors
**

Zhi-Wei Woo, Hung-Yuan Chung ∗ , Jin-Jye Lin

Department of Electrical Engineering, National Central University, Chung-Li, 32054, Taiwan Received February 1998; received in revised form April 1998

Abstract By relating to the conventional PID control theory, we propose a new fuzzy controller structure, namely PID type fuzzy controller. In order to improve further the performance of the transient state and the steady state of the PID type controller, we develop a method to tune the scaling factors of the PID type fuzzy controller on line. Simulation of the PID type fuzzy controller with the self-tuning scaling factors shows a better performance in the transient and steady state response. c 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: PID type fuzzy controller; Scaling factors; On line

1. Introduction The conventional fuzzy PID controller needs three inputs and the rule base has three dimensions, it is more di cult to design the rule-base. However, the fuzzy PID type controller has just two inputs and the rule-base is two dimensions. Its performance is also better than the fuzzy PI and fuzzy PD controller [7]. Fuzzy control design is composed of three important stages, namely, I. knowledge base design, II. control tuning parameters and III. membership functions. In order to make the fuzzy controller achieve the prospective target, we have to adjust these three stages of the fuzzy controller. But only the scaling factor adjustment can achieve the requisite of real time control. Therefore, if we want to apply the fuzzy control, the scaling factor of the fuzzy controller which can be self-adjusted is a necessary requirement.

The membership function reports are referred to as in [1 – 3,10,16] and methods with the tuning scaling factor are studied in [4 – 6,9,15]. Tuning the scaling factor of the fuzzy PID type controller is discussed in [11,12,14]. In this paper, by designing the membership functions and self-tuning scaling factors, we try to make the performance better.

2. PID type fuzzy controller structure Fuzzy PI type control is known to be more practical than fuzzy PD type, since it is di cult for the fuzzy PD to remove the steady state error. The fuzzy PI type control is, however, known to give poor performance in the transient response for higher order process due to the internal integration operation. To improve the performance of the fuzzy PI type and fuzzy PD type at the same time we want to design a fuzzy controller that processes the ÿne characteristics

∗

Corresponding author.

0165-0114/00/$ - see front matter c 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. PII: S 0 1 6 5 - 0 1 1 4 ( 9 8 ) 0 0 1 5 9 - 6

2. It is just like the fuzzy PI type control rule base. The MF of e. Fig. thus the reaction of the control system against the error will be slowed down (Fig. 2:8: These equivalent control components are repeated as follows: Proportional: Ke P + ÿkd D integral: ÿke P derivative: kd D The membership functions of error. G(s) = 1=(s + 1)(0:5s + 1). ˙ of the PID controller only by using the error and the rate of change of error as its inputs [8]. Comparison of the di erent ÿ in the system. The control output u can be determined from the method of the center of the gravity. e and u. 1. A PID type fuzzy controller structure that simply connects the PD type and the PI type fuzzy controllers together in parallel is shown in Fig. ˙ = (A + PKe e + DKd e) +ÿ ˙ (A + PKe e + DKd e) dt = A + ÿAt + ( Ke P + ÿKd D)e + ÿKe P e dt + Kd De: ˙ (1) Before presenting the simulation. Woo et al.322 Z. 3). change rate of the error and u are shown in Fig. 1. = 0:2 ÿ = 1. 1:6. Notice that the proportional component includes the term of the production of ÿ and kd . The plant model is a second-order and type 0 system with dead zone 0.-W. The fuzzy PID type control rule is shown in Table 1. The output of the PID type fuzzy controller is uc = u + ÿ u dt Fig. then {u is ZR}. we give a description of the simulation model. Ke = 1. 3. ÿ = 1(::::::). The PID type fuzzy control system.2. the integral control component is decreased so that the damping of the system is increased and the system is more stable. ÿ = 1:6(− · − · −·). These rules are expressed as: If {e is ZR and e is ZR}. 2. . / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 115 (2000) 321–326 Table 1 A gereral fuzzy PID type rule base E=E PL PM PS ZR NS NM NL NL ZR ns nm nl nl nl nl NM ps ZR ns nm nl nl nl NS pm ps ZR ns nm nl nl ZR pl pm ps ZR ns nm nl PS pl pl pm ps ZR ns nm PM pl pl pl pm ps ZR ns PL pl pl pl pl pm ps ZR Fig. While decreasing the value of ÿ the proportional control component will decrease. kd = 0:25. From the simulation and control components it can be seen that if we decrease the parameter ÿ gradually. ÿ = 2:8 (——).

5. The parameter adaptive method This method and the simulations are shown in [13]. kd . g(e(t)) = b1 × (1 − abs(e(t))) + b2: (2) (3) Fig. b2 parameters to expand the region of tuning parameter. g(1) = b2: In the steady state. we adjust the MF of u. a2.Z. 5.-W. Adjusting the MF and self-tuning the scaling factors If we do not change the fuzzy rules and scaling factors. ÿ. Block diagram of the parameter adaptive fuzzy controller. 4. in the steady state. a1. Di erent phases of the step response of a control system. To ÿnd how a1. we can see the steady state of the performance is improved in Fig. The PID type fuzzy controller structure with the self-tuning scaling factors are shown in Fig. Woo et al. 8. : : :). where kds and ÿs are the initial value of kd and ÿ. The response process can be divided into different phases by the peak value times. Then the self-tuning scaling factors changing with time are described follows: ÿs (e(t)) = ÿ × f(e(t)). 4 shows the step response of a control system. . we can progress in the following way: In the beginning. Just like the example. The parameter regulator tunes the controller parameters kd and ÿ simultaneously at each peak time signal and according to the peak value at that time. Block diagram of the parameter adaptive fuzzy controller is shown in Fig. we can ÿnd that just changing the MF is hard to improve the transient state. The algorithm of tuning the scaling constants and the integral gain is as follows: kd = kds = k . g(0) = b1 + b2: (7) (6) ∗ ÿs . and b2 are very important. In the simulation results. Fig. respectively. k is the absolute peak value at the peak time tk (k = 1. b1. 7. So we can adjust the ÿs (e(t)) and kds (e(t)) roughly with the error of the time. (4) (5) 3. b1. e = 1: f(1) = a1 + a2. the g(e(t)) will be equal to (b1 + b2). It also means that besides tuning Ke . kds (e(t)) = kd × g(e(t)). However. Fig. 7. 2. . e = 0: f(0) = a2. we can adjust the membership function (MF) to improve the steady state response of the performance. In the other words. From Fig. f(e(t)) = a1 × abs(e(t)) + a2. Therefore we can use the same idea in the parameter adaptive method and deÿne the functions f(e(t)) and g(e(t)). a2. and b2 are all positive constants. the function g(e(t)) is the inverse objective. The objective of the function f(e(t)) is to decrease the ÿs (e(t)) with the change of error. a2. the error will be zero and f(e(t)) will eventually be equal to a2. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 115 (2000) 321–326 323 4. b1. 3. we can add the a1. 6. m5 be near the center and thinner in Fig. ÿ= k where ÿ and kd are the initial values of the scaling factors. Making the m4 of MF be thinner and m3.

The change of the output MF u. b2 described as follows: Fig. Some simulation results of the fuzzy control system with self-tuning scaling factors under di erent initial values of the scaling factors are shown in Figs. We can adjust a1 and a2 to tune the (a1 + a2)ÿ and (a2)ÿ to decide the initial value and the ÿnal value of ÿs (e(t)). 6. a2. . Generally speaking. b1 = 4:3. it is equal to (a2)ÿ. Woo et al. b2 = 0:8: So in the beginning. 9–11. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 115 (2000) 321–326 Fig. a2. We hope f(1) × g(1) = f(0) × g(0) to keep the proportional component ( Ke P + ÿkd D) not to change much and the system can always react quickly against the error. ÿs (e(t)) is equal to (a1 + a2)ÿ. b2 and may provide better performance. and the parameters are a1. the simulation results demonstrate that the fuzzy controller with self-tuning scaling factors improves the performance. The PID type fuzzy control system with function tuner. 8. b1. 7. The original MF (− · − · −·). The simulation of the model is like Fig. in the steady state. 8. Fig. One can also use another method to tune a1. b1.-W. The changed MF (——). a1 = 1:3. a2 = 0:25.324 Z.

Adaptive expert control. [2] C. 721–728. ÿ) = (1.H. Self-tuning fuzzy PID type: (——). in: Industrial Applications of Fuzzy Control.C. . Gatland. [3] C. 2). (Ke .A. (Ke . Control 54 (4) (1991) 867– 881. Braae. Amsterdam. pp. D. kd . Systems Man Cybernet. (Ke . IEEE Trans. H. 0:2. Rutherford. 5. Internat. Lu.-W. 0:25. [5] J. References [1] G. 9. A heuristic self-tuning fuzzy controller. meanwhile keeping the proportional control component not to change too much so as to guarantee quick reaction against the error. ÿ) = (1. We have presented the simulation results to demonstrate the ÿne performance of the proposed PID type fuzzy controller structure with self-tuning scaling factors. Ying. J. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 2 (2) (1979) 185 –199. 0:2. With the self-tuning fuzzy controller. Batur. .. Fig. ÿ) = (1. Woo et al. Bartolini et al. Kasparian. 1985. [7] Han-Xiong. H. we designed a method of self-tuning scaling factors of fuzzy controller. 0:25. Predictive fuzzy expert controllers. 0:2.Z. Comput. H. Kasparian. 3). [4] M. Expert fuzzy controller. 11. 20 (2) (1991) 199 –209. Buckley. Indust. Conventional fuzzy and its enhancement. . V. Chou. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 44 (2) (1991) 373 – 390. kd . The PID type fuzzy controller can be decomposed into the equivalent proportional control.J. [6] C. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 61 (3) (1994) 249 –264. 3).B. 10. V. Batur. Development of performance adaptive fuzzy controllers with application to continuous casting plants. kd . Normal fuzzy PID type: (− · − · − · −·). the system response process time so as to increase the damping of the system when the system is about to settle down. It can greatly reduce the oscillation and shorten the settling time of the system. Elsevier. integral control and the derivative control components. This method decreases the equivalent integral control component of the fuzzy controller gradually with . 26 (5) (1996) 791–797. the oscillation of the system is strongly restrained and the settling time is shortened greatly. 0:15. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 115 (2000) 321–326 325 Fig. Fig. Selection of parameters for a fuzzy logic controller. Conclusion To improve further the performance of the proposed PID type fuzzy controller.

D 138 (3) (1991) 303 – 311. Choi. Conf.H. A switching type of fuzzy controller. [9] M. Qiao∗ . Feng. IEEE Trans. K.J. Direct digital control. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 78 (1) (1996) 23 – 35. A. C.326 Z. M. on Fuzzy Systems 1994. Vega.-J. A self tuning fuzzy controller.-Y. . [10] S. Self-tuning predictive PID controller. pp. Self-tuning fuzzy controller with variable universe of discourse. D. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 115 (2000) 321–326 [13] W. [15] C. 3 (5) 2628 – 2632. 30 – 34. 1992. A practical guide to tune of proportional and integral (PI) like fuzzy controllers. Proc.Z. Zheng. Mizumoto.-W. Aleixander. Maeda.M. pp. 34 (2) (1987) 298 – 300.K. IEEE Internat. Systems Man Cybernet. Peng. Prada. [11] A. Indust. Park. IEE Proc. Electron. Self-tuning discrete PID controller. [14] P. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 30 (2) (1989) 135 –153. 1st IEEE Internat. Garcia-Cerezo. Generating rules for fuzzy logic controllers by functions.T. IEEE Trans.C Wong. [16] L. Oh. Conf. V. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 36 (2) (1990) 83 – 89. S. [8] J. Woo et al. Ollero. PID type fuzzy controller and parameters adaptive method. on Fuzzy Systems. Murakami. Kim. [12] X. autotuning and supervision using fuzzy logic. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 51 (2) (1992) 29 – 40. 633 – 640.

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