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# A Discussion on the Concept of Symmetry

## Nino Capogreco 2009

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The Central Concept In this paper I shall put forward the idea that at the very foundation of the universe there are two very different states and an innumerable number of variations in between. The first state, which I call total symmetrical state (TSS), is the state where time does not flow. The result of this is that absolutely everything is symmetrical. However it can be said that it is the symmetry state that causes time to be in a no-flow state. At the other extreme is the total absence of any symmetry. There is total asymmetry from any point of view. I call this total asymmetrical state (TAS). In between these two states, there are a great many variations of part symmetry states, where some things are symmetrical and some are not. At the very outset I need to specify what I mean by symmetry. Symmetry exists where there is no variation in a characteristic of an entity after an event has taken place. The event may be external to the entity or internal. For example the mass of electron A is the same as the mass of electron B irrespective of the environment in which A or B exist. Therefore there is symmetry between electrons in terms of mass. Similarly the mass of electron A is the same over time. Therefore there is symmetry between electrons in terms of time. Another example is the speed of light between points A and B. Such speed is also the same speed assumed by light traveling from point C to D. It is trite to state that if time flow is zero then there cannot be one event following another and therefore an entitys pre-existing symmetry or asymmetry will be undisturbed. We refer to many symmetries as natures constants. It is also a state where B ceases to exist and decomposes to form part of A (B then equals A) whereas before its death B was separate and unequal to A. Where B=A there is an invariance in the states of A and B over time so long as B=A. Symmetry also includes (as in biology) an equality in the distance of position of entities (such as cells) from a central axis. The most common of such type of symmetry is the mirror image symmetry (ie: the symmetry of the human face). There are also so called gauge symmetries where the characteristic is unaffected by the method of measurement used, this is typically found in gravity. The concept of symmetry can exhibit itself in all fields of knowledge such as physics, geometry, mathematics, psychiatry, biology and so on. It is the noted that an event can only occur if time is flowing, therefore by definition TSS can only occur in a no time flow state. At the other extreme we have asymmetries. These are states that have variance in all or some of their properties after an event. The fundamental ingredient of an asymmetric state is time flow, which means that many states in a time-dynamic universe cannot be symmetric from one minute to the next. A good example of this is our body. Whilst it may seem the same from one minute to the next, in some very small way (perhaps at the atomic level or even subatomic level) it is not. Another obvious example is our own Planet and indeed the whole universe.

## A Discussion on the Concept of Symmetry

Nino Capogreco 2009

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Another way we can explain these states is by saying that things that stand still in a time sense have a symmetry state. The central feature of the dichotomy is time. If time flow is nil then the time-dynamic environment we have in our universe would disappear. I argue that this was the state prior to the big bang and which I refer as the state of absolute symmetry. The universe before the big bang was a place where time flow was equal to zero, and where all spatial dimensions were also nil. Therefore before the big bang there was no space in the dimensional sense as we know it. This is consistent with the relativistic notion of time-space since time-space requires time to have a value (a flow). When I refer to time flow I use the term figuratively. In relativistic terms time is regarded as simply to be or laid out and it is only our perspective and sensory system that creates the impression of flow. However I will use the term flow as it is a good illustrative way to explain my theory. In the total symmetrical state, the laws of physics themselves need to have symmetry. This means that in effect there is only one law for if there were more than one, they would be different at some level and therefore not be symmetric. What would that law be? I believe that it would express this equation: time in a no-flow state equals the universe (T(no-flow)= Universe). This law would create the total symmetrical state. The question arises as to how such a state could ever change to give rise to the big bang if it is only governed by one single law as I have described. Could a universe in such a state be interfered with by an external source? How else could it be changed if not by an external source? The resolution of the issue is given by T(no-flow)= Universe as the formula disallows any interference. Therefore the big bang can only be caused by an external source. Total symmetry states are much more vulnerable to outside interference or quantum instability from within than the asymmetrical states because if they were able to repel such external or quantum interference they would possess more than the T(no-flow) = Universe formula. In other words, the universe that corresponds to T(no-flow)= Universe is a universe that can and is most likely to be interfered with by another universe or its own quantum state and when that happens there is a big bang (in other words T-flow has a value greater than 0). The Symmetry Theory Perspective In our universe there is a tendency towards increases in symmetries as temperatures rise. In other words complexity born out of the asymmetries diminishes as temperature rises. An example of this is the interior of the Sun which is a lot hotter and simpler than the cooler but more complex surface of the Earth. However in the current phase of our

## A Discussion on the Concept of Symmetry

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universe these increases in symmetries are achieved at a great cost: energy is used up to reach these temperatures and this has the effect of dispersing energy. One might say that this is also pushing the universe towards a symmetry where the stars fade away into a cold space of protons which in time would also fade away and all space is at absolute zero temperature. When that time comes it is argued that a universe of high symmetry will develop. This can be expressed as the tendency to return to T-flow=0. The second law of thermodynamics is part of this tendency. Asymmetric to this tendency is gravity which has the ability to compress spacetime. We can view gravity as the tendency to also return to T-flow=0. However this tendency works very differently to the second law of thermodynamics tendency (in other words gravity and second law of thermodynamics are asymmetric in they way they work but symmetric in the tendency towards T-flow=0). Complexity and its increases in some planets establish very complex forms. One such form we call life. Life is defined as a system that has the ability for a faster degree of evolution (increase in complexity) than any other system. This is the result of the symmetry break that is life (the famous example is the throwing of a dead bird: it behaves like a stone eg: part of the non-living universe, throw a live bird and it has its own will). Within the life forms, the system that has the potential for the fastest evolution is one that has knowledge processing ability to jump by its own will from the constraints of natural selection to evolution determined by its own actions. I call this life form intelligent life and it is the system with the ability to control other systems for its own ends. Intelligent life is the most complex system we know. Symmetries decrease as a system becomes more complex. In other words an intelligent system does create asymmetries and turns existing symmetries into asymmetries. An example of this process is the asymmetry created by an organism such as an insect which is physically separated from its surrounds (in terms of asymmetry with ones environment a stone is more symmetric than an insect). A life form that is not conscious of being separated from its surrounds does not totally break the symmetry of life form=universe. A life form that is conscious does. Whilst we are able to say that there is a trend of increased complexity causing increased asymmetries, there are at times U-turns and stops and starts. For example an intelligent life form that discovers and makes nuclear bombs and uses them against itself would reset a symmetry/ies where the nuclear bomb wipes out all life forms and restores a simpler less complex environment. The formation and disintegration of symmetries in areas where there is intelligent life forms will depend largely on the ability of the intelligent life form to manage its own ability to assimilate and use knowledge to take over other processes. An intelligent life form that is very successful at learning and managing its environs will be able to take over other systems. Eventually this will mean that the intelligent life form could take over the whole of its universe and indeed become the universe itself if

## A Discussion on the Concept of Symmetry

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that was its intent and will. To do so it would need to solve the increase in entropy caused by the second law of thermodynamics. Why should an intelligent life form take over the universe and even become the universe itself? Paradoxically I believe that the core tendency is to restore the total symmetry state. An intelligent life form is made of matter and matter was born out of the big bang. Matter is fundamentally unstable in a time-flow state. This instability is illustrated by the second law of thermodynamics. This law shows that matter has a basic tendency to find an equilibrium (ie: the restoration of a symmetry) when time-space with a value other than 0 is applied to matter. The tendency of restoration of a symmetry in so far as matter is concerned is by no means exclusively found in the second law of thermodynamics. Gravity is another expression of the tendency to restore total symmetry state. The more matter congregates the more gravity increases. Furthermore there is a symmetry in the direction in which gravity acts on matter. That is why stars and planets are spherical. Therefore given sufficient matter, the force of gravity will increasingly compress matter. Gravity will slow time flow down as it increases. We can view gravity as an agent seeking to restore zero time flow. That is to say, gravity is a tendency to restore the pre big bang condition of total symmetrical state. In our solar system a planet revolves around the Sun, this can be illustrated in a 3D form thus:

Illustration 1 If we then include time the orbit is not a circle but a spiral, thus:

Illustration 2

The above simply says that the planet after each orbit arrives at the same location but different time. If time flow =0 then we do not revert to illustration 1, for in illustration 1 the planet cannot be in position A and B where A and B are different. If there is not time flow the

time

## A Discussion on the Concept of Symmetry

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only way the planet can manage to be at A and at B is to travel in zero time from A to B and that cannot occur as it would be more than the speed of light. In fact the speed would need to be infinite. B A

In a state of T-flow=0 it is not that planets or for that matter anything else cannot be in two places at once simply because it would violate the speed of light. It is because there is no location at all. This can also be expressed thus: in space-time, if space equals 100 and Time equal 0 than 100 x 0 = 0. Since matter can only exist in a defined location, then matter cannot exist if there is a state of T-flow=0. Therefore matter does not exist in the T-flow=0 state before the Big Bang. When the state of T-flow=0 was interfered externally or by its unstable quantum state the interference brought with it some baggage and the aftermath of the point of impact of the interference (the Big Bang) lead to the universe we inherit to this day. The primary result of the interference was that once time flowed then there could be location. This meant that the baggage or part thereof could be at location A, and B and so on along the time flow scale. The birth of location is the birth of dimensions, be those spatial or otherwise. However the birth of location went hand in hand with the birth of the information about the state of the universe from hour zero onwards. The baggage also included some laws governing location and information. It is important to realise that T flow greater than 0 is not a value that is attributable to T alone. Time alone cannot flow, it must pair itself with something else and in the case of our Big Bang it paired with (at least) space which was part of the baggage or the result of the mix of the baggage and time. However this pairing caused a marriage of somewhat dubious coherence. We know that space-time warps and that gravity interferes with it quite a lot. In fact gravity does not like the marriage at all, and it comes up as the tendency to put the pair asunder by returning time to zero flow. T-flow has no base value (other than 0) in our universe because its flow is determined in every square inch of the universe by the force of gravity at that particular location. Therefore T-flow can only be relative to gravitational force. Part of the baggage of the interference was a vast amount of energy. We know that because the first few seconds of the Big Bang were very hot. We also know that at very high temperatures there are lots of symmetries. The energy baggage was potent sufficiently to stop gravity break the marriage of time and space. But energy in turn would cause in the process the spatial expansion and the onset of the chemistry that lead to the formation of mass. We could think of energy as the pro-marriage party that in fact had the upper hand during the honeymoon period.

## A Discussion on the Concept of Symmetry

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So, in the pro-spacetime lobby we have energy and in the anti-spacetime lobby we have gravity. It would then be wrong to call gravity one of the forces of nature. Forces are forms of energy and all types of energies are pro-spacetime. In relativistic terms gravity is a tendency to compress (in an at least 4-dimensional sense) spacetime. Given sufficient gravity spacetime will compress to a singularity where Tflow=0. The driver for this tendency is matter and its inherent abhorrence to be in a state with Tflow greater than 0. Total Symmetries Before discussing other aspects of this theory I need to explore the following question: if time did not flow before the big bang, what type of time was it? In my theory the state of total symmetry does not actually require flow to be zero for total symmetry to occur. For example if there was Tflow that occurred in every direction or measurable entity with the same values then whilst there would be Tflow we would have also retained the total symmetry state. It is of course nonsensical to imagine our universe as having more than one time direction. However it is possible to postulate that the answer to the question as to what T was prior to the big bang was indeed Tflow that occurred in every direction or measurable dimension. There is another possibility: that Tflow was zero (as mentioned above). If indeed this was the case, what then is left of T?. If the theory is that the external universe/s interfered with something to create Tflow as we know it, what was T? It is impossible to imagine time that stands still and actually representing something. It certainly would not be made of mass, or indeed any form of energy. I believe that time that stands still would at least contain information and an ability to react to interference from energized intrusions. If so what would be the physical embodiment of this information. We can find physical embodiment of information in our universe, for example, in the DNA or in the properties of proteins that react to certain states. The word physical is apt for this universe but makes no sense to the pre big bang state. To find the answer we need to look at black holes. Unfortunately the event horizon bars us from looking directly into the black hole. However we can get some clues: there is lots of gravity; in fact it is so powerful that nothing escapes it and it is concluded that within it gravity is infinite. Matter swallowed by the black hole is extremely compacted to be reduced to a singularity. The word singularity means that at this point there is no size in a spatial sense at all. This means that all the matter that fell into it has lost a spatial value. It occupies no space at all! Due to the infinity value of gravity, time stands still. It all sounds as if inside the black hole the marriage of space and time comes to an end, thanks to the efforts of gravity. It also seems to suggest that this marriage can only end this way since everywhere else, except in black holes, spacetime, as we know it, is up and about. In a black hole it is incorrect to say that matter has been annihilated, for if this was the case the question arises as to what would happen to gravity. In my theory gravity assumes complete symmetry at the singularity state. This means, among other aspects, that it is not uni-directional. Afterall there is no space available to travel along and compress lumps of matter. Within the singularity gravity has lost its property to compress matter in a spatial sense. A property that pervades our universe is lost. Like time, gravity becomes a totally symmetric entity and, like time, an unimaginable one at that (for us).

## A Discussion on the Concept of Symmetry

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If within the singularity we have time and gravity, albeit in a very strange form, it would be fair to ask whether we also have energy and spacetime as well. In my theory the answer is that these two entities may well be present so long as they are capable of assuming total symmetry. Now, we have to remember that energy that fell into the black hole would have been made mostly by matter and matter has mass. Of course once we are in a singularity the notion of mass is nonsensical. It is irrelevant whether we choose Newtonian mass or relativistic mass, in both cases any attempts to calculate mass within the singularity result in either zero or infinity. Therefore it would be reasonable to conclude that energy within the singularity will not be in a form known to us and it does not have any property that requires a spatial value or indeed a time value involving unidirectional time (flow). What is left in energy once we take these properties away? We may also ask the same question for spacetime. For this entity we do know that the marriage of time and space is at an end. So, for each entity that falls inside the black hole and found within the singularity we seem to come up against the same questions: if we take from them the properties that seem to define them in this universe, what is left? Another way of questioning what is left is to ask what is time, space and energy that are totally symmetric. I mentioned above the possibility of time retaining flow and also retaining total symmetry. This is achieved by a flow that no matter how measured retains symmetry. Could we say the same about space and energy? We may be familiar with the concept of space in this universe and indeed energy as well. What concepts could help us answer this question? There is a hint about the presence of or the re-establishment of some sort of spatial symmetry in the double-slit experiment. It seems to point to a symmetry between wave and particle. There is also a symmetry in Machs principle (the cause of the feeling of inertia are the forces of distant matter in the universe.). It somehow points to a unity that defies at first reaction the speed of light and causation. In fact from the whole science we refer to as quantum physics, (with its principles of uncertainty about location and velocity, of the behaviour of matter and radiation (two forms of energy) simultaneously as wave and particle and of the observer becoming part of the experiment and entanglement), we actually have strong indications that space and energy can have properties that are not apparent in every day observations and may do without properties that we may think as absolutely necessary. The strongest hints that matter, albeit massless matter, can exist in a symmetry that breaks the asymmetry spacetime plays on matter, are the concepts of nonlocality and of entanglement. Nonlocality has nothing to do with travel faster than light speed. It is just that the entities in question, say two photons, have assumed the symmetry that exists when spacetime has zero value as far as these photons are concerned. This is the hint that points to the state prior to the Big Bang: that prior to the Big Bang there was no location. It would then be true that entities such as photons can retain a symmetry (such as nonlocality) at certain times despite the fact that generally most other things do not have that symmetry.

## A Discussion on the Concept of Symmetry

Nino Capogreco 2009

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The consequence of this line of reasoning is profound and it is this: to make sense of the state prior to the Big Bang as well as the state after the Big Bang (our Universe) we have symmetries and asymmetries. These are not properties or descriptions of a particular event but a description of the entity itself. These symmetries and asymmetries reveal to us in particular physical vestiges such as photons, protons and so forth. Therefore, reality is at its very foundation a composite edifice of symmetries and asymmetries. It is not made of what we regard as physical particles, forces and so on. Reality prior to the Big Bang was total symmetry state. This in a way answers the question of what was time if the characteristic of flow is zero: it is the expression we can reason to exist of the total symmetry state. In effect I am arguing that symmetry is not a characteristic of a physical entity, rather that a physical entity is a characteristic of a symmetry or asymmetry. I acknowledge that this is counter-intuitive and difficult to conceptualise. In the case of the photon nonlocality, it is not strictly correct to say that the photon has this symmetry here and not there. It would be closer to reality if one would say that the symmetry of nonlocality shows itself to us at times with the character of nonlocality in the form of a photon in a given situation. In discussing what this expression of the total symmetry state might be, it is easier to conjecture what it is not rather than what it is. For example it does not have motion or mass, it does not have any type of energy we know of. All these things must be absent in the total symmetry state for their presence would not make total symmetry. What, then, is it? I believe that time at zero flow is a code, a piece of information which when mixed with external or quantum interference may in some contexts create asymmetry and produce big bangs, matter and so on. It is in a way a much more basic DNA without the physical attributes of the DNA we know. This code which represents the total symmetry state would be akin to the potential spark to ignite our universe. I believe that this code would not be in a zero time flow, it is the zero time flow. This comes about because at the total symmetry state there is really only room for one entity and nothing else. All the characteristics, properties and measurements of this thing all come to one single entity. It immediately springs to mind that the code must by definition be a very simple code or piece of information. But why was the big bang so hot? Does not the enormous initial temperature imply that there must have been energy at the total symmetry state? I believe that the presence of a temperature is consistent with TSS. However that temperature must not have variations. Since at TSS there is no time flow, there would be no temperature variations over time and since there is no space there are no temperature variations in a spatial sense. We know that symmetries increase with increases in temperature and the higher the temperature more symmetries appear from what seemed at lower temperatures to be separate entities. An example is the unification of the strong and weak nuclear forces. Another aspect is that there is a maximum low temperature but finding a theory for a maximum high temperature has been more elusive. This in itself is an asymmetry (I mean having a max low temperature and not being able to find with the same degree of certainty a max temperature). At TTS this asymmetry

## A Discussion on the Concept of Symmetry

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cannot exist. Put simply the law that applies at TSS must say that at TSS there is only one temperature, there is no minimum or maximum for the presence of either would create an asymmetry. We know that beyond the Planck temperature of 1032K laws of physics break down. This is consistent with the breakdown of all asymmetries. In my opinion somewhere above 1032K the last asymmetry is converted into a symmetry and TSS is achieved. The last asymmetry may well be time flow. We can draw an analogy with a black hole, except that TSS would be the ultimate black hole squeezing the whole universe into a singularity. The whole of spacetime is now within it and it cannot have any emission or loss since there is no spacetime outside it. Without loss of any energy this ultimate black hole would convert all asymmetries into symmetries including laws of physics that may have been frozen into place by a prior cooling effect and wiping out all differentiation that existed in matter, energy (including dark energy), and anything else that existed as a separate entity. TSS is the ultimate black hole unifying everything and this process can only stop at the singularity where there is total symmetry state. If we describe TSS as a code and TSS had a temperature above 1032K then the code must include that temperature and the necessary information that says I am the ultimate singularity. Part of the necessary information would be zero time flow for the code must ensure that the result is total and absolute symmetry. So to recap the state of total and absolute symmetry would: 1. Have Temperature above 1032K 2. Have Zero time flow 3. Have No space time 4. Have All physical laws boiled into one (the code itself) 5. Not exclude its own quantum instability 6. Not preclude external interference. Next I will discuss another topic: the principles that govern the symmetry theory. Principles of Symmetry Theory Reality is a composite edifice of symmetries and asymmetries with the two extremes of TSS and TAS Principle 1: Asymmetries are borne from symmetries The number of asymmetries grow in a cooling universe, especially in pockets that give rise to complex systems. For example muons and bosons were initially within a symmetry which underwent a symmetry break. By applying this principle we could trace back all forces of nature to one force. The ultimate consequence of this principle is that all things would be traced back to one single state: the Total Symmetry State. Principle 2: All symmetries and asymmetries are connected A corollary of Principle 1 is that there is a connection with everything in our universe. An analogy of some sort can be made with the family tree of the human race where each

## A Discussion on the Concept of Symmetry

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human could, if records were available, trace a family connection down the line with every other human. Principle 3: Laws of nature are part of symmetries and asymmetries just like all else. Another principle we can extrapolate is that laws of nature are themselves subject to such a process. Principle 4: The coming into existence of symmetries and asymmetries is connected to what went on before (when Tflow=0) and during the early stages of the the Big Bang. For example the amount of hydrogen in the universe was established by the symmetries and asymmetry events that occurred before and during the hydrogen period formation. Some symmetries reveal to us as constants. These were probably symmetries that have remained as such in the early phase of the Big Bang. They can be viewed as remnants of the Total Symmetry State. One very important such symmetry is the speed of light which itself is embedded in another symmetry in relation to energy (E=mc2). Principle 5: The speed of light is a remnant symmetry from Tflow=0 This principle can be viewed as part of Principle 4. In the composite edifice of symmetries and asymmetries that we see now, why is it that the speed of light has not had a symmetry break? Could it be that if Tflow is no longer equal to zero and if T marries up with space (and perhaps other dimensions), than the speed of light symmetry is assured to remain a symmetry? The answer to this is found in the asymmetry of matter not being the universe: a lump of matter that reaches the speed of light needs a lot of energy to reach that speed, in fact it would need so much energy that it would have infinite mass. Whenever we strike these infinities we actually see a gate or if you like a possibility closed. The message is that a lump of matter at the speed of light equates to all the mass in the universe (and may be more!). In breaking the speed of light barrier one enters the symmetry of its mass = mass of the universe: an impossible symmetry to occur within the current universe. Principle 6: The growth of asymmetries goes hand in hand with the growth of complexity. I have already cited the example of the Sun versus the Earth. I would also cite the example of the emergence of life which breaks the symmetry of the it (an animal or plant) being equal (part of) the whole (the universe). Within the same process we then have the next and probably final step of symmetry break when the it gains intelligence thru its ability to understand its environment. Thus the human mind can decipher nature. At this level of asymmetry the break from the whole creates the widest break (or if you like the biggest asymmetry so to speak) that is possible. Let me explain: consciousness is knowing the self, in other words, knowing you and I are not part of the whole. So not only are we not part of the whole (step 1) , we also know we are not part of it (step 2). The jump from step 1 to step 2 is truly gigantic in terms of asymmetry because entering step 2 is in effect saying that you and I can be (and may be should be!) above the constraints we are born with. For example we may not agree that we need to

## A Discussion on the Concept of Symmetry

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necessarily die and get sick. We also know that we have the brainpower to find a solution to these constraints. In effect we can and know we can reshape the universe and to some extent have already reshaped our own backyard, albeit with lots of errors and misguidance. The potential is then created for the intelligent creature to reshape the universe limited by its ability to work within the physical laws (and may be even these could be reshaped). In other words the step 2 asymmetry has created the potential for an entity within and part of the universe to rearrange the universe itself. The step 2 asymmetry is the representation of the most complex system we know: our brain. Central to our brain is understanding which in turn is fed by knowledge. The more knowledge we have the more we understand. The step 2 asymmetry has created the key to unlock the keys nature has. There is no reason to deny that the entity that gains these keys can unlock every process in the universe so that it can work to the entitys advantage. Ultimately the intelligent entity could (if it so wished) replace the universe with its own self or it could restore total symmetry state or indeed total asymmetry state. So long as a universe can power the formation of complexity, the symmetry breaks will lead (given enough time and energy) to the step 2 asymmetry. Whilst I see step 2 asymmetry as an unavoidable consequence (given enough time and energy), I do not forecast that it is a common asymmetry. Neither do I say that it is predictable; for the more complex a system is the more it is subject to quantum uncertainty and nondeterminism. Further I do not forecast that the advent of step 2 asymmetry will, as a matter of course, lead the entity to either take over the universe or indeed become the universe itself. The step 2 asymmetry merely creates the potential for that to happen. However when that happens there will be the creation of a higher and final symmetry: the step 3 symmetry: intelligent entity = the universe. Would this step 3 symmetry represent the re-setting of total symmetry state? I see no reason why the intelligent entity could not achieve such a result given the knowledge required. In my opinion it would certainly be a possible outcome, albeit an extremely paradoxical one: the most complex entity formed at the upper end of the complexity process gives rise to TSS, the simplest state. To recap on Principle 6: the human brain (and all that goes with it, ie: consciousness) is the expression of a step 2 symmetry, which has the potential to evolve into a step 3 (and final) symmetry. Principle 7: Symmetries and Asymmetries contain Information If we view any entity as an expression of a symmetry or asymmetry, then the symmetry or asymmetry that gives rise to that entity has an inherent amount of information. The presence of information is not here assumed to take any physical state or for that matter be detectable by the human brain. It is a character of the symmetry or asymmetry that allows the entity to exist according to external or quantum influences. For example a plant has the ability to detect water and its cells to react to the presence of water. Another example relating to plants is the ability to detect sunlight. To react to external factors the entity (eg: the plant) has information inbuilt into itself. An entity viewed as a symmetry or asymmetry can be explained much more easily in terms of possessing information since the entity is something beyond what it might

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appear to our senses. An easily conceivable information within an entity is the DNA within living entities. Yet in many other symmetries or asymmetries the identifiable character may not be as clear as DNA. Simply put an entity X that reacts to an external influence A must know that the influence is not something else (eg influence B or C etc.). In order to do so it must have information on how to detect A. But how, one may ask, did that information get into X? For example a leaf must have information on how to detect sunlight as opposed to other radiation types. We know that natural selection is the process that develops living entities, but whist this process explains that entity X with the right ability (information) to detect and exploit an external influence will survive better than an entity that does not have such information, it does not explain how that information can be into entity X in the first place other than to say that it must be some mutation in X. The explanation offered by the theory of symmetry is that all asymmetries develop from symmetries and vice versa, and therefore carry some of the baggage of the parental symmetry or asymmetry. In this baggage there is information. The degree to which it remains part of the baggage or is lost will depend, for living entities, on the process of natural selection as well as other external factors. The process should not be thought of as one where information gets dispersed from the big bang onwards in an almost linear passing on from generation to generation. The setting of symmetries and asymmetries is capable of creating by itself information within an entity. This will be explained in the next principle. Principle 8: The development of a symmetry or asymmetry can create information. There is no clearer example than the asymmetry of consciousness discussed above and the advent of the knowing of existing by human beings. This high-level symmetry break has created a large amount of information in the human brain. It needs to be emphasized that I do not suggest that information would necessarily come from nothing, I refer to it in relative terms to the entity in question (example: information is created within or developed by a leaf of a plant so that it can detect sunlight). The Accelerating Universe Problem There is now proof that the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. The space between galaxies is expanding and the cause is the repulsive force of dark energy. In other words the more empty space is, the greater the repulsive force (a force that enlarges empty space). It seems that the greater the absence of matter the greater the repulsive force gets. It therefore appears that the universe is on a course of increasing expansion. There is no reason to suggest that the separating velocity of matter will stop at the speed of light. However it is wrong to conclude that galaxies cannot fly apart at greater than the speed of light because in reality they are not travelling at such speed thru space, it is the space that is separating them that is growing at an accelerating rate. Dark Energy E= mc2 applies only to non-dark energy (which I shall call positive energy or E+) because dark energy force is accelerating the expansion of the universe and therefore increasing in value. In E=mc2 the total value of E+ is fixed. That is to say that E+ has retained a symmetry relational to mass.

## A Discussion on the Concept of Symmetry

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Dark energy (or E-) does not have such a symmetry, its increasing value has broken the symmetry within E= mc2. If E+ and E- had the same relational symmetry to mass, then E+ would equate to E-. This is a symmetry that could only exist in a perfectly steady universe (which is most improbable) or at TSS. Once TSS is broken then E+ and E- values must differ. The differences may be due to a great number of variables and one such variable is whether one or the other has kept at some state beyond TSS a symmetry in relation to mass. It is therefore concluded that the value of E- is not bound by the value of mass and can increase in value itself well beyond the value of mc2. Since E- is not relational to mass, it must be made of energy fields that are unaffected by mass in so far as the mass symmetry is concerned but which energy fields do expand the non-mass universe (now known as the vacuum) and consequentially cause mass (galaxies etc.) to increasingly become separated. Another consequence of the above argument is that the law of energy conservation is only applicable to E+. In my view it is not necessary to have a source of the additional E- occurring. The Increase in E- happens because it is not bound by the mass symmetry and that is sufficient, no need to find a source of the growing value of E-. In other words E- is an entity which if unrestrained will grow, and it does. Similarly in an imploding universe E+ could be such growing entity. A corollary of E- being capable of growing is that it is possible that its value may grow to such levels where the acceleration of the expansion causes a separation speed greater that C value (speed of light). It is therefore concluded that E- does not have a relational symmetry to speed of light. Once the assumption is made that E- value is unrestrained (an assumption made from the observations that the universe is expanding) then E- has broken the symmetry to mass and to speed of light. We can conclude that our universe is lop sided in terms of energy (asymmetric), with one energy type being limited to a level and the other type being unlimited (at least on its effect on mass). As remarked earlier in this paper, the force of gravity is associated inextricably with mass as evidenced by the fact that gravity increases with mass. On the other hand E- is the opposite: the less matter (and gravity) the more it grows. It is as if gravity is replaced by E- in some proportional formula. So that in an expanding universe, some regions that have less mass than others and such regions will increasingly get bigger and at an accelerating speed. The question arises as to what is the ultimate consequence of such a scenario. One possible outcome is that the universe is broken up by these ever expanding regions. Regions that have E+ value greater than E- will compress into singularities where TSS can be achieved and regions that expand will reach a uniformity at absolute 0 temperature with zero mass, a state where TSS can also be achieved. In other words both processes lead to a potential TSS. Another possible scenario is that the universe is not broken up, it just expands to reach a state where certain regions, due to causative separation (the separation is such that a region cannot have any effect on another), can achieve TSS as well.

## A Discussion on the Concept of Symmetry

Nino Capogreco 2009

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There is no difference between these two scenarios except of the definition of when a universe is broken. There is a third scenario: that the universe will expand up to a certain value of E-. If in a region gravity is zero, then E- may have reached its limit. This model is based on the notion that there is an indirectly proportional relationship between E- and gravity. The conclusion being that at zero gravity E- has reached its highest value and that region will cease to expand. However the question is whether zero gravity is actually a possibility. I am mindful of the effect of Machs Principle here and the notion that zero gravity can only exist if mass in one region does not cause any pull towards it on mass in another region. Simply stretching space will not do, for dividing the gravity pull will only make that gravity pull smaller but never zero (a number can be divided infinitely). Therefore Ewill not stop growing unless there is a third factor that emerges at some phase of the expansion. I speculate that one such factor is an explosion of a region of vacuum akin to a phase transition, (and sort of mirrored in a supernova in a mass context) where the value of E- reaches an instability that takes it into a phase transition which will cause the annihilation of any gravity that may have been present. Once gravity value is zero, then that region has broken Machs Principle symmetry, and it would make no sense vis a vis the other regions to say that it is expanding or not, for there is nothing to compare it with. In such a state that region is then in a state capable of TSS.