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fl'/l ~Cy""_l\/" ~""l--". limestone. ~.::.'...' 30 The Machine Doctor Vibration due to rotor unbalance By Bil Hilman 33 Turbine Tech Turbine inlet cooling with indirect evaporation - ISSUE Ii From the Editor Energy Showcase Advertsers' Index with greater density comes more power By David Voeller and Marcus Bastianen.."URES ~~ . Blazek 24 Important concepts of wet-limestone flue gas desulfurization By Brad Buecker Many utilities in the United States are installng flue gas desulfunzation (FGD) systems to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-fired boilers.E 37 38 OCTBER 2008 ENERGY-TECH. This is especially true when bolts are replaced. Smith Bolting is commonly used in machinery and piping systems to fasten parts together." ".£.. P.Ji1.:".:ó' ~::~ :..'.-::. in many areas of the countr. .:i.Y~. and control both S02 and NOx emissions. The majonty of these systems wil be based on wet-limestone technology due to the reliabilty of the process and the abundance of the scrubbing reagent.':. Problems can easily be avoided by having a better understanding of boltng technology..t: ç"""ç~ ' s~~:~~~~~:)!:f:~:~~ '..~i:~ i~:~~~.. ~. bolting technology is commonly misunderstood and problems can develop.w.? "Q~ ~~ M ~ ' . CO':UMNS' .-.''r. improve boiler efficiency.4 .'ihT'. which wil hopefully prove useful to plant personnel who might be asked to plunge into unfamilar territory.' .i~ 8 Bolting basics By Patrick J..~~~ ~i~.. "C0"' "~~0 ~~..:: '::':~ .~~ : .: . ASME POWER DIVISION SECTION 22 Fuels & Combustion Technologies Committee By Christopher F. This artcle outlines a number of fundamental principles of wet-limestone scrubbing. S. ::.:~-:~~S~ ~::~~~~i.'J. Photo courtesy of iStock Photo.~ ~ ' FE. ¡4. 14 Operating experience of a coal-fired boiler retrofit with an advanced hybrid of coal gasification for 502 and NOx emissions control By Keith Moore The recent operating experience of an advanced hybrid of coal-gasification retrofit on an industrial coal-fired boiler shows promise to reduce operating cost.'r. While relatively simple.'. . ' '."'Ii. com .-.~~"F~".


There is a relationship between the magnitude of the loading and the number of cycles to failure and this is typically determined by a fatigue test. A typical stress vs. As shown. '" l "". at a stress level corresponding to 107 cycles. Thus. even if the loading is below the yield strength of the or see the Ad Index page 3 ENERGY-TECH.coii 877-326-6411 1. Fatigue failures are fractures that start at defects or microscopic cracks in the material surface. the endurance limit for a notch-free polished specimen is approximately 50 percent of the ultimate tensile strength. or more precise. the Elongation Figure 2 break. This test is repeated at different stress levels. the condition of the surface. Fatigue A part can fail or break if it is subjected to repeated loading/unloading cycles. the specimen can be subject- To find out just how easy it is. the specimen has an infinite life. P ()=A cr = Tensile Stress P = Load A = Cross Sectional Area The threaded part of a bolt is the weakest part and it has a complex form. or boilers. See the graph in Figure . it is important to use bolts of the same strength as the original bolts. diesel. turbines. A specimen is repeatedly loaded and unloaded at a specific stress level and the number of cycles to failure is counted. such as Mark's Handbook for Mechanical Engineers. load cycle-to-failure graph can then be created. contact us today. These cracks grow a little with each loading/unloading cycle... This type of failure is called fatigue. enter 02811 on infolink at Energy-Tech.features Yie!Poin ii ~ ed to an infinite number of load/unload cycles at this stress level and not fail in fatigue. and other factors can affect the endurance limit. ECOM will help you maintain the highest level of efficiency and compliance demanded by today's environment. When replacing bolts. stress concentrations. As mentioned earlier. When your operations depend on natural gas. shot peening. graph for a carbon steel specimen. ECOM is at the forefront of emission testing technology with a variety of portable analyzers for virtually all combustion-oriented power generating equipment. surface hardening.. This stress level is called the endurance limit. The stress area for typical bolts can be found in a variety of references. and other surface treatments can all improve the endurance limit. Stress is defined as load divided by cross sectional area. See Figure 3 for a typical Analyze this: Emission testing has never been easier. bolts are available in a variety of materials and strengths. Polishing the surface."" Um~ ecomusa. The maximum. oil fired reciprocating engines. In other words. The stress area is the equivalent area that a round bar could be substituted for the thread.9 . As a result. For most steels.Joad that the bolt can sustain is the ultimate tensile point.' Number of Cycle to Faiur Figure 3 OCTOBER 2008 For more information about this company.

. In this case. The parts also are preloaded. the parts will not separate until the applied load exceeds the preload.0.~2 ~---___~_ (J Yiek Threads that are rolled are formed by extruding. Tel: 626-938-0200 · ww.. . it is loose.. ENERGY-TECH. A common method is the use the Modified Goodman diagram.. Bolt threads can be made by rolling or OCTBER 2008 . the fatigue factor of safety is greater than 1.. . The solid line is the approximate line of failure.' '. The estimated endurance limit for a part is typically determined by de-rating the ideal endurance limit for surface finish. although to a much smaller degree. ". . The FS Factor of Safety (JaIi Alternating Stress (Jend Endurance Limit (Jmean Mean Stress (JUTS Ultimate Tensile Strength Bolt preload The bolt in Figure 5 is used to clamp two parts together. the endurance limit for a bolt with rolled threads will be higher than an equivalent bolt with cut threads. or preloaded. As the bolt is further tightened.. .'" " . Both the bolt and parts act like springs that hold the assembly together.including Pumps.a. As the bolt is tightened. .. . When the nut is first installed on the bolt. Extrusion is a process where the material is pushed through a die that has the desired cross section. the fatigue factor of safety is less than 1..0. So. .. Motors. . The construction of this diagram is shown in Figure 4.0. If the combined point is below the line of failure. Threads that are cut are formed by cutting or removing materiaL. If a load is then applied to separate the parts. the slack is taken up until the bolt is snug against the part..iemtf endurance limit is not a true mechanical property like yield strength and tensile strength. the endurance limit for a bolt with rolled threads will be about 26 percent higher than the same bolt with cut threads. enter 04259 on infolink at or see the Ad Index 38 . neither the yield strength nor the endurance limit alone can be used to determine the suitability of a particular bolt for this type of application.. and other factors. the combined effects of both loads must be considered and there are several methods available to analyze this.UTS a typical stress concentration factor of 3. In most Vibration Monitoring Systems For Rotating Equipment Applications. size. Fans and more. compared with aUTS a. If it is above the line. '''\. '''. . Trust CEC to bring quality to your field of operation. .8 for cut threads. Thus." '.' "'. A typical stress concentration fartor for rolled threads is 3.cecvp." ~i ~. Figure 4 FS = (Jay' (Jend + (Jmeanl. For more information about this company.._v~. Extruding results in a work hardened surface that is more fatigue resistant.. The equation for the fatigue safety factor based on the Modified Goodman equation is: bolt is stretched. Bolts are typically subjected to both constant loads and alternating loads. stress concentration. (J Yl . Turbines. It is a common misconception to assume that the bolt load includes both the preload and the applied load. fyle .

measured. most of the applied load is taken up by the parts. As load is applied to separate the parts. enter 04800 on infolink at Energy-Tech. Referring to Figure 6.TaJ? E-mo yoII questin to LmdiØJencotecltcom am we may use it in the next issue. The modulus of elasticity is the the condition of tip spill strips. which will stretch the spring a little. Schenectady. ~ .lnc. bolting is not designed to handle both loads and the bolt will be overloaded and faiL. . or to request an example steam path audit report. you open a turbine missing blade covers A Whenstrctural damage. then this stiffness ratio has to be adjusted by the ratio of the modulus of elasticity. we have developed a computer program that we call eSTPE (Steam Turbine Performance Evaluation). The auditor knows what the various clearances are supposed to be and makes careful measurements on each stage to determine how the actual values compare with the desired ones. the parts will elongate a little. the parts are much stiffer than the bolt and most of the applied load is taken up by the parts. What are a little more subtle and diffcult to evaluate are the many leakage control devices around each stage. . For more information on steam path audits.11 For more information about this company. Preload is very advantageous in applications where there are cyclical loads. Thus. the bolt load is only 1j of the total applied load.. It isn't until the parts separate that the spring takes the entire preload and the applied load. this works out to the parts being 8 times stiffer than the bolt. However. and interstage packing seals that are so important to achieving high stage effciency. NY 12301-0714 tell me more this is a paid advertisement wwencotech.. Box 714 measure of the stiffness of a material and is defined as the slope of the stress-strain curve in the elastic region. Assuming the material of the bolt and parts have the same modulus of elasticity. root spil strips. The equations to determine the total tensile load in the bolt and the total a broken . This then assures the station management that the turbine has been thoroughly analyzed and also tells them the magnitude of each deficiency so that decisions can be made quickly as to what is wort fixing. P. and the Spring outage season will be here before we know it. The data is then entered into the eSTPE program which will then produce a report describing all the contrbutors to unit performance degradation. With eSTPE. we can enter these measured values and the program wil tell us how much loss in output and increase in heat rate can be attributed to tensile load in the parts are: Kb Fb = Kb + Kp Kb *p + F" Fb = Kb + Kp *P F b = Bolt force Fp = Part force Kb = Bolt stiffness Kp = Part stiffness P = Applied load F 0 = Preload In many cases it is difficult to accurately determine the stiffness of the parts. a common assumption to make is that the parts can be modeled as a hollow cylinder with an inside diameter the same size as the bolt and an outside diameter three times the size as the bolt diameter. At Encotech.figure 5 figure 6 applications. you can usually see any evidence of .207 State street Encotech. Sufficient preload reduces the fatigue ~. and analyzed.fij . We also measure the surface finish of the steam path. Hope oljestin for Power. such asfor an internal or that holds two assemblies together. quantify the impact of physical damage and solid particle erosion. How much of the applied load is taken up by the parts and how much is taken up by the bolt is a function of the relative stiffness of each component. If the bolt and parts are made of different materials that have different modulus of elasticity.:i! OCTOBER 2008 ENERGY-TECH. The Fall outage season is beginning. In most cases. In this case. a preloaded bolt can be thought of as a spring inspection. contact Encotech at the number or e-mail address below. and measure and record the clearances in the shaft end packings to quantify their impact on unit heat rate 1008 :'. What makes the steam path audit especially useful is that it is thorough and follows a well established procedure to be sure that all parts of the turbine that can affect performance are or see the Ad Index page 38 d(0~:t y:.

200 Ibs · Palternating = (Pmax . · A cyclical load between 0-2. In case 2.06. As shown. the endurance limit used in the equation is not a true material property.400 Ibs is applied. These cases are shown on the modified Goodman diagram in Figure 4.700 psi (includes the stress concentration for the threads). It is important to note that this analysis is not a precise science.500 · Pmean = 2.200/0. ENERGY-TECH. It is an estimate based on several factors that can vary from one part to another.0 and do not fail and there are parts that operate at factors of safety greater than 1.effects of the bolt because the cyclical load on the bolt is significantly reduced. A 112"x4" 13 UNC steel bolt is used to clamp two steel plates together as shown in Figure 7.1419 in2. the fatigue analysis only approximates the point of failure.500 = 2.1419 = 8. This is due to a variety of reasons.634 Ibs · P alternating = 134 Ibs · Gmean = Pmean / StressArea =18. In this example: · Pmax = 1/9*1. The following values will be used in this example: · Bolt material has yield strength of 70.Pmin)/2 = 1.500 Ib preload is applied to the bolt.0 and faiL. This is because the preload significantly lowers the cyclical load applied to the bolt. a 2. There are parts that operate at factors of safety less than 1.200/0. enter 05361 on infolink at Energy-Tech. the load on the bolt is the same as the load on the part. First. the probability of For more information about this company.400 Ibs · Pmean = (Pmax+Pmin)/2 = 2.500 = 2. an ultimate tensile strength of 90. The stress area of the 11z bolt is 0.457 psi Plugging these values into equation (2) yields a fatigue factor safety of 0. the bolt is only snug and there is no preload. In this example. However. · Pmin = 0 Ibs · Pmax = 2. · In case 1. Second. preload has a dramatic impact of the fatigue factor of safety of the bolt. Rgure 7 · The steel parts are 8 times stiffer than the bolt.200 + or see the Ad Index page 38 12. This can be demonstrated by the following example.767 · Pmin = 1/9*0 + 2.400/2 = 1.558 psi · GallernalÙig = Pa/¡ernaring / StressArea = 940 psi Plugging these values into equation (2) yields a fatigue factor of safety of OCTOBER 2008 . equation (3A) is used to determine the bolt load.000 psi.1419 = 8. In case 1. · In case 2.200 Ibs · Gmean = P mean / StressArea = 1.000 psi and an endurance limit of 18.457 psi · Ga/¡ernaring = Palternaling / StressArea = 1. This is because the parts take most of the cyclical load due to the part being much stiffer than the bolt.

Michael R. 11th Edition. There is no universal minimum factor of safety and it is very much application dependent. E. required preload. It also is important to note that the required stretch is not based on the entire length of the bolt. psi 35 percent. Mark's Handbook for Mechanical Engineers. in many applications it is very important to set an accurate preload.0 (J * L !lL = s. In addition. The torque required to tighten the bolt is used to approximate the preload. it is not necessary for a bolt to be preloaded to a precise value for it to function properly and not faiL. cannot be used. This method is based on the calculated friction force between the mating threads and the friction between the bearing surfaces.failure is greater the lower the factor of safety. and cogeneration plants. 2001 2. Professional Publications. However. The friction factor. operator "feel" is sufficient to ensure a tight joint. There are a lot of assumptions that go into the torque calculation. Readers are encouraged to review the references for additional information.. not overtightening. Po. 3rd Edition.. which type of lube is used. 1996 to · T = torque in inch-pounds · Kt = the torque coefficient that depends on the bolt geometry and the friction factors between the threads and the friction factor at the collar (bearing face) ) Ibs · dbolt = bolt diameter in inches Patrick J.. In a given application. Allentown. Baumeister.4 if no lubricant is used to 0. McGraw Hill. Lindenburg. wlzere Iie provides teclinical machinery separation. A torque wrench i. Inc. and the hardness of the parts. Angle torquing is very similar to the torque wrench. Reference 1. bolts can loosen and fail in fatigue. To use this method. In these cases.0. the materials. the accuracy of the preload using this method is +/. Conclusion Although bolting technology seems straightforward. enter 05484 on infolink at Energy-Tech. Mechanical Engineering Design. Belmont. Once the stress is known. there must be a way to measure the length of the bolt before and after it is tightened. CA. Avallone. it is important to understand the loading. Iiydrogen psi psi !) If interested. For example. The torque primarily depends on the size and type of the bolt and the friction factor. 10th Edition. As a result of these assumptions and others. the accuracy of a torque wrench in setting the preload is typically about +/- processing. In many cases the bolt is captured and this method For more information about this company. Joseph Shigley. a typical minimum factor of I the ire safety is 2.. angle torquing.5 Comon meods to obtin bolt preload In some applications.A. and measuring fastener stretch or elongation. T. for example. there are a lot of common misconceptions that can lead to mistakes and result in machine failures. III. tes :e E M = Elongation or stretch E = Material modulus of elasticity itert L = Length of bolt being stretched The stretch is the increase in length of the bolt as it is tightened. the friction factors vary depending on estimates for non-lube.s a special wrench with a built-in percent. The equation is: T = KtdbOltFi to 75 percent of the yield strength. McGraw Hill. The accuracy of this method is similar to that of the torque wrench. So knowing the required preload and stress area of the bolt. When looking at a bolting application. Measuring bolt elongation is a much more precise method of obtaining a precise preload. With insufficient preload. In this case.06 depending on the type of lubricant. the reader is encouraged to review the references for the equation for the torque coefficient. Three common methods include the torque wrench. the required stretch can be determined from the following :hat equation: 1. the required stress can be determined from equation (1). or if lubricated. surface finish. the bolt is turned to some specific angle past the snugging depends on the lubricant (if used). dirt and debris in the threads can significantly affect the friction. Most bolt failures are due to insufficient preload. stress is defined as the load (or force) 1e int'sis divided by the area. 1977 3. As described earlier in this article. the friction factors can change from 0. In general. A typical rule of thumb is to pre-load bolts indicator that measJres the applied torque. Smitli if lead mac/iinery engineer at AÙ' Products & support to tlie company's operating oil' · Fi = preload in pounds Cliemicals. Contact Pat via e-mail at editorial(§ or see the Ad Index page 008 OCTBER 2008 . The torque calculation also assumes that the mating surfaces are perfectly square. which is not always the case. Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual for the PE Exam. It is based on the length of the bolt that is under load. and method to obtain the preload. However.