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5. Maile Alyxia stellata (Apocynaceae) Maile is a vine famous for the bark’s sweet fragrance. There are many different forms of Maile, and they can vary greatly in leaf size, shape, and fragrance. Maile is a material often used in leis, and is important in hula. In the landscape, it looks best with a support to twine around—such as a trellis or a small tree. 6. Palapalai Microlepia strigosa (Dennstaedtiaceae) Palapalai is a fern that has compound leaves and is used often in lei making and hula. In the landscape, it does well in a shady spot and can be used as a ground cover or an accent plant. I D MW 9. ‘Ilima Sida fallax (Malvaceae) I D M ‘Ilima is characterized by its heartshaped leaves and golden, hibiscuslike flower. It may grow from 6-12 inches tall, sometimes taller, and may be used as a low ground cover especially in hot and sunny areas. ‘Ilima flowers are strung together to make leis, using about 1000 flowers per lei. 10. Dwarf ‘Ākia Wikstroemia uva-ursi (Thymelaeaceae) E D M W Dwarf‘Ākia is a sprawling shrub with oval, grey-green leaves arranged in an overlapping pattern. It has small yellowish green flowers, followed by orange-red berries. It is a good groundcover or low shrub for sunny areas, and is very drought and wind tolerant once established. Koʻoloaʻula is a shrub with heart-shaped leaves and small, red, hibiscus-like flowers that hang down. This endangered species can grow from 3-6 feet tall and may be used as a drought-tolerant shrub or hedge. Its flowers are sometimes used in leis. 13. Koʻoloaʻula Abutilon menziesii (Malvaceae) E D 14. Koa Acacia koa (Fabacae) E D M I D M 7. ‘Uki ‘Uki Dianella sandwicensis (Liliaceae) I D M ‘Uki ‘uki is a clump-forming lily, found at forest edges or in open sunny places. It can have bright blue to white flowers with contrasting yellow stamens. Its fruits are bright blue berries, which the native Hawaiians used to make a blue dye. It can be used in the landscape as an understory for trees and shrubs, or may be put in large, decorative pots. Metrosideros polymorpha (Myrtaceae) E D M W The ‘Ōhi‘a Lehua can be a ground hugging shrub to a majestic tree, up to 100 feet tall. The flowers are usually red, but sometimes come in orange, salmon and yellow. The flowers are popularly used in leis and flower arrangements. Lehua flowers are also an important source of nectar for many birds and insects. 11. ‘Ōhi‘a Lehua Koa, the largest of all native trees, can reach up to 115 ft. Its immature leaves have a feathery, compound structure, while the mature foliage has sickle-shaped leaves also known as phyllodes. Koa can be used as an ornamental tree in landscape, and its wood was used by the Hawaiians in the construction of canoes, paddles, spears, and containers. Its wood is so beautiful, it is also known as “Hawaiian Mahogany.” ʻAʻaliʻi is a small tree or shrub and may be used in landscapes as an ornamental tree. Its most attractive feature is its winged seed capsules, that may be red, green, dark maroon, or pink. Its seed capsules, fruit, and leaves may be used in leis. Its wood was also used by the native Hawaiians in the framework of houses, as well as for spears and other weapons. 16. ʻAʻaliʻi Dodonaea viscosa (Sapindaceae) I D MW 17. Kokiʻo keʻokeʻo Hibiscus arnottianus (Malvaceae) E MW Kokiʻo keʻokeʻo, a native Hawaiian white hibiscus, can be identified by its large, fragrant flowers. In landscapes, it can be used as a tree and can grow up to 30 or 40 feet high, but it is more commonly used as a 3 to 4 foot shrub. 8. Koʻokoʻolau Bidens amplectans (Asteraceae) E M W Koʻokoʻolau is a shrub-like plant with daisy-like flowers. It is an endangered plant that can be found naturally in the Waiʻanae Mountains. It may be used as a blooming shrub in landscape, and requires sun most of the day. The dried leaves and flowers of all Koʻokoʻolau species are used to make tea. 12. Māmaki Pipturus albidus (Urticaceae) E M W Māmaki is a small shrub or tree that has light green leaves with veins that may either be green, pink or red. It is fast-growing and is the food of the rare, native Kamehameha butterfly. Māmaki leaves were also used by native Hawaiians to make a medicinal tea. Wikstroemia E D M W oahuensis (Thymelaeaceae) ‘Ākia is a small shrub or tree with opposite leaves. Because of its abundant leaves, and bright red, orange, or yellow fruit it is an attractive landscape plant. The ancient Hawaiians once used ‘Ākia bark as a source of cordage, and its fruit as a laxative and lei material. Pulped ‘Ākia was also used as a cold-blooded poison to catch fish. Native Hawaiians also made a drink from ‘Ākia roots that they used for suicide and the execution of criminals. 15. ‘Ākia 18. ‘Ahu‘awa Cyperus javanicus (Cyperaceae) I D MW ‘Ahu‘awa is a tall, clumping sedge with numerous bluegreen leaf blades. The plant can be up to 110 cm tall (3.6 ft.). It is found naturally in wetland environments, but grows well in other environments as well. It can be used in the landscape as a fast-growing ground cover. Hawaiians pounded the stems of the infloresence to make a fiber used in straining ‘awa–a popular Polynesian drink. Match the numbers next to the listed plants to the plant location map on the back of the brochure. PLANT LOCATION MAP Towards the mountains NATIVE HAWAIIAN GARDEN Mauka 14 NATIVE HAWAIIAN GARDEN The native garden is a collection of common to rare plants 17 11 12 14 that will grow at this elevation, approximately 500 ft (152.4 m). It is designed to help visitors learn to identify native species, and to encourage their use in landscaping. The garden is also an important source of propagation and research material for the Arboretum. This brochure lists some of the plants in the native garden, occurring in the order that you will encounter them as you walk along the path. The garden map on the back of this brochure will help in locating and identifying plants in the garden. Origins Native Occurring naturally in the area which it lives; includes indigenous and endemic species 7 16 Gazebo Site 14 Bridge to Ethnobotanical Garden 14 18 11 11 12 12 11 11 11 13 Some Helpful Definitions: 15 16 Moisture Regimes 18 18 10 8 11 18 9 5 1 2 3 4 7 6 I E Indigenous—Having arrived naturally D M W Dry—relatively low rainfall—less than 1200 mm (47.2 in) annually without human intervention, but may be found in other places in the world 17 7 Stemmerman Garden Towards the sea Endemic —Evolved in Hawaiʻi, and is found nowhere else in the world Makai Parking Lot tween 1200-2500 mm (47.2- 98.4 in.) of annual rainfall Wet —relatively high rainfall—more than 2500 mm (98.4 in) annually Mesic—neither extremely wet or dry—be- To locate or identify a plant, match the numbers on this map to the numbers on the inside of this brochure. (Dennstaedtiaceae) 1. Palaʻā Sphenomeris chinensis I W 3. Carex wahuensis (Cyperaceae) E D M Enjoy your walk! Come and discover the native flora of Hawai’i! Palaʻā is a fern and is one of the few Hawaiian plants that thrives in red, iron-rich soil. It can be used as a ground cover or as a patch to make the fern available for lei-making. The native Hawaiians also used its fronds to make a brown dye. Carex wahuensis is a sedge that grows in dense clumps and can range from 1-3 feet in height. In landscapes, it can be used as a drought-tolerant, pest-free ground cover that will grow in shade to full sun. 2. Alaheʻe Psydrax odorata (Rubiaceae) Researched/Written by Grace Asperin Illustrations/Design by Tina Fuller August 2008 LYON ARBORETUM Alaheʻe is a drought-tolerant shrub or small tree with glossy, deep green leaves, and can range from 3 to 30 feet tall. It has small, white, fragrant flowers. In the landscape it can be used as a shrub, and may be pruned into a desirable shape. It will grow in partial shade to full sun. I D MW 4. Pomelo Citrus maxima (Rutaceae) Introduced M This introduced citrus fruit tree can be found in cultivation in nurseries and many Hawaiʻi homes. It is useful in landscape for providing shade and an edible fruit similar to grapefruit.