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ARRANGEMENT OF REINFORCEMENT IN TYPICAL CONCRETE MEMBERS

Simple Beams and Slabs Simply supported slab:

Curtailment of tension steel in simply supported slab construction.

position and the shape of the bar . Steel reinforcement is used to take up tensile stresses in reinforced concrete beams.DETAILING OF BEAMS ○ Beam carries transverse external loads that cause bending moment. HYSD bars have ribs on the surface and this increases the bond strength at least by 40% Bar Bending Schedule ○ ○ Drawings generally include a bar bending schedule The bar bending schedule describes the length and number. Mild steel bars or Deformed or High yield strength deformed bars (HYSD) are used. shear forces and in some cases torsion ○ ○ ○ ○ Concrete is strong in compression and very weak in tension.

Standard hooks .○ ○ Anchorage in steel bars is normally provided in the form of bends and hooks The anchorage value of bend of bar is taken as 4 times the diameter of bar for every 45 0 bend subjected to maximum of 16 times the diameter of bar.

T. L. continuous and cantilever beams ○ According to reinforcement: Singly reinforced and doubly reinforced Cover in Beam ○ Minimum cover in beams must be 25 mm or shall not be less than the larger diameter of bar for all steel reinforcement including links. Shear reinforcements in the form of vertical stirrups and or bent up longitudinal bars are provided.The beams are classified as: ○ ○ According to shape: Rectangular. ○ Nominal cover specified in Table 16 and 16A of IS456-2000 should be used to satisfy the durability criteria. Types of Reinforcement in Beams Generally a beam consists of following steel reinforcements: ○ ○ Longitudinal reinforcement at tension and compression face. fixed. . Circular etc According to supporting conditions: Simply supported.

Side face reinforcement in the web of the beam is provided when the depth of the web in a beam exceeds 750 mm.1% of the web area and shall be distributed equally on two faces at a spacing not exceeding 300 mm or web thickness whichever is less) Specification for the reinforcement in beams is given in clause 8. (0.6 of SP34 .1 to 8.

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HYSD bars: # or Main bars are shown by thick single line. Different forms of stirrups used in beams Typical drawing of a simply supported beam .○ ○ ○ ○ While drawing the details of a beam following convention representation of bars are used Mild steel bars : f. Hanger bars are shown by medium thick lines.

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN Assumptions Concrete has no tensile resistance The reinforcing resists all the tensile forces. Maximum tensile stress in the steel: The characteristic cube stress of the concrete = fcu and the compressive stress in the concrete = 0. Resistance moment (Mr) of a singly reinforced concrete beam or slab.4 fcu The maximum neutral axis depth (dn) is limited to 0. The internal moments are in equilibrium with the external moments.5 d. .

e.15 is applied to the steel and 1. Neutral axis depth and lever arm with known beam section details: Note that b.5 d The resistance moment of the tensile zone: Take moments about the centroid of the compression zone.A partial material factor of 1. Assume a practical limit for the maximum: maximum dn = 0. d and As are known..5 to the concrete. i. . centroid of the tensile steel. The following formula may be derived: Resistance moment of the concrete in the compression zone: Take moments about the tension zone.

04 0. Substitute n1 and z in the equation for Mu Solve for a1: This can be written in a tabular form: 0.Horizontal equilibrium of forces: Fc = Ft The lever arm z Determination of the lever arm z = a1xd and tensile area As for a known section and known dimensions b and d with a moment Mu acting on the section. .15 a1 0.80 0.95 With a known value of a1 the lever arm z may be calculated.85 0.13 0.10 0.75 0. Once the lever arm is know. the steel may be calculated.07 0.90 0.