Faktor pertimbangan untuk pemilihan jenis haiwan dan ciri haiwan 1.

Tujuan pemeliharaan y Sebagai hobi, perniagaan & sumber pendapatan - Untuk tujuan perniagaan, perlukan tempat, kawasan yang luas, kuantiti yang lebih banyak berbanding pemeliharaan sebagai hobi. Kucing, hamster sesuai untuk kanak-kanak, penyelengaraan mudah dan tidak melibatkan kos yang tinggi.


2. Gaya hidup y y y Gaya hidup yang sibuk mungkin menyebabkan kebajikan haiwan peliharaan dan ikan hiasan akan terabai. Waktu pemberian makanan tidak menentu, sangkar tidak dijaga dengan rapi dll. Pemelihara yang tidak penyayang, akan menganiaya haiwan.

3. Tabiat semula jadi haiwan y Lincah y haiwan penggerit. y manja. y licik. y Mencakar y Pemangsa. y garang. y berani. 4. Kos y y y y y y Sangkar, tempat tinggal. Akuarium dan aksesori Makanan, makanan sampingan. Perubatan Alat permainan Kemampuan menyediakan tempat tinggal dan kemudahan yang sesuai untuk ikan hiasan dan haiwan kesayangan.

5. Masa y y y y Penjagaan rutin. Memberikan makanan, minuman. Membersihkan sangkar dan peralatan lain seperti permainan hamster. Membersihkan haiwan itu sendiri.

perlukan kawasan yang lebih luas untuk menempatkan akuarium mahupun sangkar. 7. Ruang yang mencukupi untuk menempatkan sangkar. akuarium. JIka memelihara untuk perniagaan.y 6. haiwan peliharaan yang sedia ada seperti kucing perlu diberi perhatian Ciri-ciri haiwan yang perlu diperhatikan semasa pemilihan y Baka y Jantina y Peringkat umur y Ciri-ciri istimewa y Bentuk luar badan haiwan y Kesihatan y Kesempurnaan pergerakan haiwan . Haiwan peliharaan lain yang sedia ada y Jika ingin memelihara ikan hiasan. aksesori. air. Ruang y y Membersihkan akuarium.

Water is very heavy. Once a place that can support such a weight is found. about 8 lbs a gallon (about 1 k/l). The least expensive tanks are usually those that are mass produced. . more surface area for waste breakdown. Generally glass tanks are less expensive than Plexiglass tanks. the less the price (except for those under 10 gallons). and the needs of the fish. Fish Needs: Before selecting a tank.cost is usually an important factor in selecting the type and size of tank one can afford. the type and number of fish should be considered.THE AQUARIUM Selecting the Aquarium The type and size of the aquarium depends on the space available. The tank should be near electrical outlets and in a location where water changes can be easily made. check that the location fills other requirements. Take into account the size of tank that the species requires. Although it is not essential to decide what fish your are planning to have before buying the tank. Keep in mind. the tank should be clear of any heating units (stove. the cost. an Arowana or Oscar cannot be expected to survive in a 10 gallon tank. and a more stable environment. Choosing the Tank Location: The first requirement for the location of a fish tank is in an area that can support its weight. A 55 gallon tank tends to have a much more stable pH than a 10 gallon tank. economically and space-wise. beginning aquariasts should choose as large a tank that they can accommodate. Cost: Unfortunately. For example. 20. decide beforehand. the temperature of a 10 gallon tank can be affected more rapidly by sunlight or a cold night than a 55 gallon tank. Similarly. and 55 gallon tanks. a 20 gallon tank weighs more than 160 pounds not including gravel or rocks. For instance. Avoid placing the tank near a window or door where drafts may cool the tank. furnace) that will overheat the tank. The reason that large tanks are less trouble because there is more water volume for waste dispersal. for best results. Type of Aquarium The most common types of material used for tanks in the United States are glass and plexiglass. that larger tanks are easier to take care of than small tanks. Therefore. Usually the smaller the tank. Both of these materials appear to work well for keeping aquarium fish. such as 10. For example. The tank should be away from direct sunlight. which will encourage algal growth and can affect the water temperature.

made by reputable manufacturers. Glass tanks. Rectangular aquariums are good for housing fish because they usually have a large surface area for gas exchange. again because of the smaller surface area. Tanks with other shapes. In some cases with African Rift Lake fish. but they are not nearly as common as the two mentioned types. are generally reliable as far as not leaking. open. Some report that large tanks may "bow" with time. some cheaply manufactured tanks are subject to leakage and breakage. tall tanks cannot support as large a fish load as shallower tanks. . Hexagon tanks do not allow as much long. so-called "tall" tanks which have little surface area are less suitable and strong aeration is required. Generally. swimming room. The composition of the gravel is important in that gravel that contains minerals will dissolve and harden the water. These tanks are light. All glass tank are heavy. There are a few drawbacks including a higher cost than glass tanks and a vulnerability to scratches. cannot support as many fish as a rectangular aquarium. Be sure the tank you buy is guaranteed against leakage for a period of time. Tank Shape Aquariums are available in a number of shapes. Plexiglass tanks are less likely to leak than glass tanks.Glass tanks are advantageous because they are widely available at a relativity low cost. However. The gravel in the tank provides support for plants. be sure that a cover is included. and a region for fish to carry out activities such as breeding and feeding. water-hardening substrates are acceptable. the increasing water hardness is detrimental. There are other tanks available. a means of filtration with undergravel filter systems. the most common being rectangular. Whatever tank is chosen. However. Plexiglass tanks are gaining popularity in the United States. Aquarium Furnishings Gravel: The gravel in the serves both an aesthetic and a practical purpose. but for many fish and plant species. attractive. such as hexagon. and are available in a variety of sizes and shapes. The cover will reduce evaporation and lessen the chances of a fish jumping out.

as the wood will affect the alkalinity. Plants require more light. use flat rocks. Do not only use colored incandescent lights for tropical fish as these cause ill effects. The light hood should have a reflector. Perhaps the best way to construct rock structures is to place the rocks on a thin layer of Styrofoam (directly on the tank floor). quartz gravel. There are several types of bulbs that can be used. a spawning site. who raise plants. alkaline water. secure them. Many aquariasts. and gravels that are available in aquarium shops. slate. If plants are kept in the tank. granite. only light the tank for 10-12 hours a day. and the light equipment should be UL approved. and quartz. Accessories Lighting: The type of lighting is not especially important if plants are not grown. The result is a 3" (8 cm) gravel depth with a composition that in which plants can thrive. the gravel should be 2-5 mm in diameter. Wood can further add to the acidity of the water. To minimize algal growth. The gravel can be added to the tank and arranged levelly or terraced. Suitable types of rocks for the aquarium include lava. be sure that they are stable and will not collapse on burrowing fish. Fluorescent tubes are available in a wide range of . nor release calcium. followed by a layer of 5-7 mm size. The rocks used should not dissolve or crumble in water.Fluorescent tubes are the most popular type of bulb among aquariasts with plants. Fluorescent tubes consume little power. wood. or glass strips. although fluorescent and mercury vapor lamps are the most practical. for a longer period of time (12-14 hours) than a tank housing only fish. basalt. the gravel should be carefully washed to remove all small particles.Suitable substrate materials for the aquarium include river sand. (1) Fluorescent tubes -. and nourishment for some catfish. and provide an even distribution of light. Before adding the gravel to the tank. Do not use wood in tank with fish that require hard. followed by base fertilizer (available at aquarium stores) like laterite. produce little heat. On the bottom is placed 5-10 mm size gravel. When constructing rock structures. To terrace the gravel. layer the gravel. sandstone. benefiting fish that prefer acidic water. and finally a top layer of 2-4 mm size gravel. and then cover the Styrofoam and base of the rocks with gravel. Only use bog wood for the aquarium. The strength of lighting should be about 1 watt per gallon of water. basalt. as most other wood will rot in aquaria. Wood: Wood provides a refuge. Almost any incandescent or fluorescent light does fine. Rocks: The tank should be furnished with rock structures to provide hiding and breeding places for fish. Plants require light in order to carry out photosynthesis and grow.

When working in the tank.25 watts per inch. If the heater is immersed it is subject to breakage. place the heater in the filter unit (wet-dry filter). Light output can be increased by using a reflector or foil on the ceiling of the hood to reflect more light to the tank. incoming water is heated. There are two types of glass immersion heaters. To prevent this problem. the temperature does not vary much. Set the timer so that the light is on for 12-14 hours. Heaters using electronic thermostats are a new innovation. place the heater into the water and let it sit for 10-15 minutes. Fluorescent lights are not usually strong enough to light a tank taller (deeper) than 20" (50 cm). Thus fluorescent tubes should be replaced every six months. so that once the temperature is set. because they are usually more reliable and need not be unplugged whenever the water drops more than 6" (15 cm) from the top. The fish cannot be burned when the heater is in the filter. The air pump can be used to power air . cage-like structure.types including full-spectrum bulbs. One draw back to fluorescent lights is that their intensity decreases with time.Mercury vapor lamps are not that common. so that the clean. In tanks deeper than 20" (50 cm) use about 6. non-submersible and submersible. Some authors have suggested wrapping the heater with plastic airline tubing. To control the amount of lighting each day. Be sure to use the right size heater for the tank: 2-3 watts per gallon of water is usually suggested. Then read the temperature on the thermometer and adjust the heater accordingly. Most heaters include a thermostat. as this heating system creates circulation through the gravel. especially if there is no power filter to create surface disturbance for oxygenation. Air Pump: The air pump is an important part of the aquarium. but expensive heaters are excellent. although they are safe and will not burn fish. Sometimes this decrease is not noticeable to the keeper. (2) Mercury vapor lamps -. Another beneficial device is a dimmer switch which can be used to vary the levels of light. a timer can be purchased. Heater: The most popular means to heat the aquarium is a glass immersion heater. These lights require special fixtures. These are generally expensive. These highly accurate. With both types. These fish often receive burns. These types of heaters are generally fairly inexpensive. The submersible heaters are a better investment. although they work well for tanks with a depth greater than 20" (50 cm). Undergravel (cable) heating systems are most popular for the aquariast having plants. Two other heating devices are available: undergravel (cable) heaters and heaters that use electronic thermostats. always unplug the heater for safety reasons. If possible. Then plug in the heater and let it run until the tank reaches a constant temperature and the pilot light (indicates the heater is running) turns off. but still affects plants. In order to set the temperature with one of these units. Some fish species may rest or hide on the heater. the heater must be unplugged for 10 minutes before it leaves the water. protect the fish by surrounding the heater with a mesh.

Activated carbon serves as a means of mechanical filtration by absorbing small particles including toxins. The major drawback to air pumps is the noise they produce.Chemical filtration refers to the process of removing particles or altering water conditions by chemical means. Less expensive models are often noisier than higher quality. especially when they are vibrating against something. Nitrate absorbers are a new product that binds nitrates to render them less toxic. The larger the surface area of the media. Peat is used in a similar way to bring down the pH and reduce hardness for species that prefer "blackwater" conditions. clean only one at a time. Most motorized filters achieve aeration by surface disturbance. to remove particles from the water. more expensive models. This is why newly established tanks must "cycle" (build up a culture of nitrifying bacteria) before expensive fish are introduced. and most quality filters provide an adequate supply. and flowing rivers. Nitrifying bacteria (see Water Chemistry) break down organic wastes from ammonia to nitrite to nitrate. The filter is the device that must be capable of handling fish waste and particles in the aquarium. . Biological filter media should be rinsed only every month or two with cool to luke warm water. medications. Filtration: The filter is one of the most important pieces of equipment in the aquarium.Mechanical filtration refers to the filtering of water through a strainer or filter media. and some fish wastes. creeks. Some fish species. those inhabiting streams. Most of these can be "recharged" in a soaking in a salt water solution. One popular material for chemical filtration is ammonia absorber (zeolite) which binds to free ammonia. thus lowering the pH and softening the water. the more gas exchange). especially power heads. such as filter wool or foam. The amount of oxygen dissolved in the aquarium can be proportional to the amount of surface disturbance (the more disturbance. With a good filter. Bacteria need plenty of oxygen to do their work. After four weeks.stones which drive undergravel filters. internal box filters. so less there is disruption of biological filtration. prefer water with current. and sponge filters. no air stone should be necessary. The filter should have three means of filtration: mechanical. If there are two biological filter containers.Biological filtration is the most important function of the filter. the mechanical filter media begins to serve as biological filtration as bacteria cultures colonize the media. Water current can be created by the filter. and plant matter. Thus most media for biological filtration are porous or in irregular shapes to provide more surface area. ammonia is present from the fish excrement. . the more area for bacteria to interact with organic compounds. . chemical. so as not to kill off too much of the beneficial bacteria. Many chemical filter medias only work for a period of time before they are saturated. The filter should also provide oxygen for the fish. Without biological filtration. excess food. and biological. internal power filters. circulating . Ion exchange resins reduce the water hardness by removing salts from the water. Separate air stone can be used for further aeration.

Net: Every fish owner should have at least one (preferably more). For example. . The net should be fine mesh designed for aquarium use. Many filters are rated in terms of "gallons (liters) per hour.pumps. Siphon hoses are available in a range of sizes and designs: from inexpensive hoses to long hoses used for both emptying and filling. A 2.5 to 3 gallon (about 10-12 L) bucket is sufficient. a 20 gallon tank should be equipped with a filter that pumps at least 100-120 gallons an hour. The filter should be large enough to handle the amounts of wastes produced by the fish and plants in the tank. and spray bars from canister filters. Bucket: A bucket is needed for water changes and adding water." Use a filter that is rated to pump five to six times the tank's capacity an hour. The bucket should be used only for the aquarium. Siphon Hose: A siphon hose is needed for water changes.

This aggression makes most of them better suited to living in tanks where other species or fish aren't present. Cypriniforms (barbs. I have divided the most commonly available tropical fish into 7 main categories. Some things to consider when choosing a catfish are: y y y y Some catfish can get very large (over seven feet) Some catfish are nocturnal and need to be fed after dark Some catfish are specialized feeders and are not scavengers Coarse. When they are guarding their young or eggs they can be very aggressive towards any other fish in the area and may even guard their nest areas when they aren't actively hatching young. The bright colors and diversity of habitat common to these species make them popular in many aquariums. goldfish. some have very different eating habits.Seven Categories of Aquarium Fish To repeat what I mentioned earlier. Each one of these categories contains fish that are similar in many of their traits. The Cichlids all practice parental care which makes them more territorial. Some of the larger ones (piranhas) are more difficult and better suited to experts.000 species of catfish each with their own unique characteristics but as a group none of these fish have scales. there are over 2000 species of fish available. tetras. There is probably a species of catfish that would work well in just about any type of aquarium set up. koi): These fish are found in many locations throughout the world and the species include both tropical varieties and . Many of these species are wild caught. sharp substrate (gravel) can damage or irritate some of the bottom feeding catfish Some catfish need to live in groups y Characiforms (characins. Many catfish are used as scavengers in tanks and while many species are well adapted to this. Cichlids: This category consists of a large very diverse number of fish that are commonly found in Africa. loaches. However some species (dwarf cichlids and angelfish) will live together well in a community tank if the right conditions are provided. The important thing is to find the catfish that will work best in your tank. To help make your search for the right fish easier. They are covered with skin or an armor like plating. however it should be emphasized that this listing is just an outline and there are often many unique differences between fish in the same family and individual research into each specific species should be done before making your final decision. pencilfish. rasboras. hatchetfish. splash tetras): This category includes a very large number of fish that are commonly found in Africa and the Americas. 'sharks'. danios. the tropical Americas and Asia. Some of the smaller species are very popular in community tanks. Catfish: There are over 2.

ease of maintenance and willingness to breed. and colorful. swordtails. combtails. Many species are sociable and do well in a community tank. and both sexes of the adult combtails. peaceful fish that are well suited to community aquariums with the exception of some of the aggressive males of the fighting fish. paradise fish. Most species are small. . Labyrinth Fish (gouramis. silversides): The fish from this family come from a variety of different habitats and the individual needs of each species should be researched. They are generally small. Many of these species are popular in the aquarium because of their hardiness. The toothcarps consist of the egg layers that can be rare and difficult for beginners and the live bearers that are popular aquarium species such as guppies. killifish): These fish are usually small and live and feed near the surface. These fish tend to have an iridescent quality to their skin that makes them change colors as they move through the light. fighting fish. paradise fish): This group of fish is very popular with the aquarist. Cyprinodonts (toothcarps. peaceful. Rainbowfish (rainbowfish.coldwater species such as the goldfish. and platys. mollies. hardy. and make good additions to a community tank.

A temperature in excess of 20 C (68 F) is ideal. To encourage a hibernating hamster to wake from its sleep. apart from the southeastern corner. live specimens were brought to England from Syria by James Skene. or Syrian. only one .has become popular as a pet throughout the world.7 F) to a little above the environmental temperature. coupled with declining periods of light. The respiratory rate is barely one breath a minute. Twenty-four species are known but. it was suggested that the species was extinct. to the casual observer a hibernating hamster appears dead. Some of the progeny were sent to Dr. Subsequently. A fall in temperature. or Syrian. This is a natural trait. The breeding program was not entirely successful at first. such behavior is less likely to occur. there seems to have been none of these rodents in captivity until April. however.the Golden. It is amazing to reflect that all such hamsters kept throughout the world today are believed to be the direct descendants from that nest found on Mount Appo more than half a century ago. until Dr. within a year. This group seems to have thrived for thirty years. Israel Aharoni discovered a nest of Syrian Hamsters on Mount Appo in Syria. forty years later. Since the heart beat can also be as low as four contractions per minute. and then a female died as a result of a fight with the only surviving male. Edward Hindle in England and. Clearly. with the final progeny dying in 1910. will trigger hamsters to enter this torpid state. in a room in the home heated during cold weather. compared with five hundred per minute in the active animal. the male mated successfully with both the other females and. whereas under normal circumstances the figure reaches up to one hundred or more. since four of the eight hamsters escaped. Golden Hamsters became available to the pet-owning public. The young hamsters were transferred to the Hebrew University at Jerusalem. The hamster's body temperature falls from the normal level of about 37 C (98. 1930.A Complete Introduction to Hamsters These rodents are found in a wide range of habitats. from northern Europe in a broad band across much of Asia. It was not until the start of the Second World War that these hamsters were seen alive in North America. Hamster The Golden Hamster was first discovered in 1839 and. transfer it to a warm position where it can awake gradually. who had been serving there in the diplomatic service. From this unpromising beginning. as in the gerbils. three hundred and sixty-four offspring had been reared. Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) . Indeed. The Golden. which to some extent is now less apparent in domesticated stock. Gradually the . Hibernation An unusual and often disconcerting habit of hamsters is their ability to hibernate if environmental conditions are unfavorable. possibly via breeding stock at the London Zoo.

and its body will warm up as blood flow to the skin increases. These include the provision of a very deep layer of bedding material and.hamster's breathing will become apparent. treat it in this way to establish whether or not it has simply entered a torpid state. If you discover a hamster apparently dead in the nest. significantly. . Hoarding behavior is quite natural. with food being taken back in the cheek pouches and stored in the nest. Other factors also influence a hamster's readiness to enter a state of dormancy. an opportunity for the hamster to store food.

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