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Table of Contents

Note: Module number sequencing is not complete as some module numbers are obsolete or have not been developed.

XP-SWMM Version 9.0 Introduction (Power Point Presentation) Workshop Examples
Workshop Example 1 - Storm Water Management with Water Quality Workshop Example 2 - Sanitary Sewer Modeling Workshop Example 3 - PCSWMM GIS for XP-SWMM Module

Workshop Modules Introductory Modules
Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4 Basic Runoff Layer Example Basic Sanitary (Transport) Example Basic Hydraulics (Extran) Example Surface Ponds in Hydraulics Layer

XP-SWMM2000's DSS Tools cont’d
Module 25 Spatial Report Generation Module 26 Graphical Encoding Module 27 Tabular Reports

XP-SWMM2000 Interface Introduction Hydraulics Theory and Examples
Module 5 Module 7 Module 8 XP-SWMM Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Theory Surface Flooding in the Hydraulics Layer Overland Flow Routing in the Hyd. Layer Module 28 Module 29 Copying, Pasting, and Deleting Data The Combine Block in XP-SWMM2000

Program Input And Output
Module 30 XP-SWMM2000 to EPA SWMM Conversion XPX Import EPA SWMM Import Calculating Conduit Lengths from Drawn Lengths XPX Export Using MAKE_XPX XPX Export Using the XP-SWMM2000 Interface Output File Tables CAD Drawing Graphical Import XP-SWMM2000 Files .RES File .CDM, .PBS, .PBT and .RIZ Files Module 31 Module 32 Module 33 Module 34 Module 35 Module 36 Module 37 Module 38 Module 39 Module 40

Runoff Examples
Module 10 Automatic Sensitivity Analysis in Runoff Module 11 All Runoff Methods Module 12 Runoff Groundwater Flow Mounding Module 13 Other Infiltration Options Module 14 Calibration Using “Calibrate” Node Module 15 Rational Formula in XP-SWMM2000 Module 16 Colorado Urban Hydrograph Procedure Module 17 Rational Formula with IDF Curves

XP-SWMM2000's DSS Tools
Module 20 Review Results Module 21 Long Section Plotting Module 22 Plan Section Plotting Module 23 Global Data Editing Module 24 SWMXP.INI and SOLVE.BAT Files Module 42 Module 43 Module 44 Using Continuous Rainfall Data Continuous Runoff Simulation Statistics Utility

Continuous Simulation

Water Quality
Module 47 Module 48 Water Quality Theory Runoff Water Quality Example

Hydraulic Layer Pumps and RTC cont’d
Module 96 Module 97 Module 98 Module 99 Variable Speed Pumps in Hydraulics Pump Check Valves Automatic Pump Flow Generation (NO)PUMPWT Configuration Parameters

Storm Water Examples
Module 55 Module 56 Module 57 Module 58 Module 59 Module 62 Module 63 Module 64 Module 65 Module 66 Module 68 Module 69 Offline Storage w/ Real Time Control Regulators Typical Runoff-Hydraulics Surface Pond System All 3 Layers Surface Pond System Hydraulics Layer Quick Flow and Stability Major-Minor or Dual Drainage System Modeling Seepage Losses Hydraulics Groundwater Connection Hydraulics Layer Weirs Hydraulics Layer Orifices Detention Ponds and Alternative Data Input Regulators in Hydraulics User Defined Weirs

Module 100 Valves with Head Losses

Sanitary Layer Flow Control Devices
Module 101 Sanitary Layer Pumps Module 102 Sanitary Layer Flow Dividers Module 103 Sanitary Layer Storage Pond Outlets

Miscellaneous Modules
Module 106 Gauged Data Module 119 Multi-Run and Multi-Review

Advanced Features
Module 140 Kinematic Wave Routing Module 141 Diffusion Wave Routing Module 151 Vertically Graduated Roughness Module 152 Runoff Layer XPX Import Module 153 Sanitary Layer XPX Import Module 154 Time Varying Orifice Areas Module 155 Minor Losses in the EPA Solutions Module 158 Evaporation in Hydraulics Layer Module 161 Basement Flooding Example Module 162 Modelling RDII in XP-SWMM Module 167 Picture Files and Notes for Objects Module 168 Outfall Boundary Conditions Module 169 Notes Field for Advanced Features Module 170 Configuration Parameter EXTRA Module 171 Configuration Parameter FUZZYQ Module 175 Configuration Parameter EXTERNAL_XLS Module 176 Velocity Component Comparison Module 177 Flow Component Comparison Module 194 Energy Long Section Plotting

Advanced Hydraulics Features
Module 70 Module 71 Module 74 Module 79 Module 86 Module 88 Module 89 Sanitary Sewer Example Model Combined Flow Example Culverts in Hydraulics Bendable Weirs Explicit Solutions EPA Iterative Solution Preissmann Slot Options

Hydraulic Layer Pumps and RTC
Module 90 Module 91 Module 92 Module 93 Module 94 Module 95 Dynamic Head Pumps Well Volume Controlled Pumps Depth Rated Pumps Real Time Control based on Depth Real Time Control based on Flow Pump Discharge Pipes (Force Main)

Introduction to XP-SWMM
Version 9.0

Product Line
XP-SWMM XP-Storm XP-SOBEK XP-Flood XP-Culvert XP-RatHGL XP-GIS XP-12D

In the Pipeline…
• • • • • • • • • • LA County Modified Rational Formula Hydrology Procedure New Implicit Solution to Extran BOD-DO-NOX Reaction in Conduits 2-D Overland Flow 1-D Coupling Modflow and Hydraulics Integration SCADA and RTC Polling for Flood Forecasting SCADA and RTC for Gate/Structure Operation 2-D Grid Rainfall Data Integration Increased GIS Functions Equation for Pond Losses (infiltration through pond floor)

Description of XP-SWMM

• State-of-the-art software for storm and wastewater management modeling software • Decision support system encompassing a graphical user interface and an analytical engine • XP stands for the embedded eXPert system • Analytical engine is based on EPA SWMM and contains numerous proprietary enhancements • Compatible with Windows 95 to XP Operating Systems

Common Uses of XP-SWMM
• • • • • • • • • Storm sewer network modeling • Master drainage plans • Detention basin sizing • Site development • Wetland simulation • BMP simulation (ponds, swales) • River modeling • Floodplain modeling • Flood forecasting (RTC) • Sanitary sewer network modeling Combined sewer modeling Capacity analysis CSO & SSO prediction Complex hydraulics Retrofit I/I reduction modeling Asset management RTC simulation

XP-SWMM Interface
• Ortho Photo, CAD and Shape File Graphic Backgrounds • Runoff, Sanitary (Transport, Storage/Treatment), Hydraulics (Extran) and Utilities (Rain, Statistics etc.) • Hydrographs and Pollutographs exchanged with Interface Files • Physically Representative Data (Real World Coordinates) • Graphical Objects (links and nodes) associated to Multiple Layers • Global Database for Repeatable Data • Integration with Databases, GIS, CAD and other Models

“Public Friendly” Input Tools
Data Entry in Dialogs Text File (XPX, CSV) Import

XP Tables & Quick View Data Forms – Tabular Input & Copy/Paste

XPX Files
• Free format text file • Essentially all data can be imported • 7 Commands:
– – – – – – Node: NODE Shape “Node_Name” X-Coordinate Y-Coordinate Link: LINK Shape “Link_Name” “Upstream_Node” “Downstream_Node” Data: DATA Field “Object_Name” Instance Count Value(s) Global Records: GLDBITEM “Record_Type” “Record_Name” Global Data: GLDBDATA Field “Record_Type” “Record_Name” Count Value(s) Data Table: $TABLE Fieldname1, Fieldname2, … “Object”, Instance, Count, Value1, Value2, … $TABLE_END

Field Names
• Hovering your mouse on a field will bring up a tool tip which contains a description then [field name] and [units] • Selecting the Field Info icon and then the field brings up the field info dialog which also shows valid and reasonable ranges • Field names are important for XPX import and changing database defaults in the .INI file

Exporting XPX Files
• • • • Export XPX files from the File->Export Data menu Good way to exchange parts of models between users Since version 9.0 global databases can be exported Exported XPX files are used to create templates and for default data in the new file wizard

Merging Files • Merge XP files from the File->Merge menu • The current opened file is the target project • Then select the source file from which the data will be extracted • Job Control data will be overwritten • All object and global database data will be duplicated if it already exists .

Introduction to XP-SWMM GIS Module .

Import External Databases using OLE & ODBC Technology Create a new connection starts the wizard .

Wizards take you step by step to link to the data .

Define connection type and create the objects .

Map your data to the XP database definitions .

Once configured a simple click allows data to be imported. exported and updated .

Network Created! .

Rainfall. SCS. Snowmelt.Runoff Layer • Deterministic Model of the Hydrologic Cycle. and many Unit Hydrograph Methods • Infiltration by Horton. Kinematic Wave. Infiltration. and Groundwater • Continuous and Event Simulation • Surface Hydrology using 14 methods: Runoff. Green-Ampt and Initial. Evaporation. Proportional and Continuing Losses • Subsurface Hydrology using 2 Compartment Groundwater Module (Mounding) • Water Quality (generation of non point source pollutographs) • Redirect Surface Flows – Low Impact Development • Global Storms .

Model the Hydrologic Cycle .

Snowmelt • Single Event or Continuous Simulations .

Hydrology Methods • 12 different methods – – – – – SWMM Runoff Kinematic Wave Laurenson SCS Unit Hydrographs • • • • • SBUH Snyder Rational Formula Time Area Nash – Rational Method Uses IDF – Plus Regional Methods • LA County Method (MORA) • CUHP • Alameda County (Snyder) .

/hr) 10. AES and Earth Info Data 17.5 5.5 Rain (in.0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 Time (minutes) .5 Rainfall 15.e.0 12. SCS Type II Generate Statistics on Rain and Graph the Storms Import and Analyze NWS.0 2.0 7.5 0.Flexible Rainfall Data Input • • • • • Single Event or Continuous Constant or Variable time Steps Design Storms i.

Runoff Layer Details .

Subcatchment Width .

Catchment Surfaces and Flow Redirection .

Infiltration Procedures • • • • • • • • Horton Horton with Cumulative Maximum Infiltration Green-Ampt Initial and Continuing Loss Initial and Proportional Loss All the Above Optionally Connected to Groundwater SCS .Loss Rates & Fixed Depth Initial Abstraction .Loss Rates & Fraction Initial Abstraction SCS .

and k = decay coefficient (DECAY). ft/sec.Horton Infiltration Horton Infiltration. sec -1. fo = maximum or initial value of fp (WLMAX).fc) e -kt where: fp = infiltration capacity into soil. . 1940) as: fp = fc + (fo . fc = minimum or ultimate value of fp (WLMIN. ft/sec. sec. t = time from beginning of storm. ft/sec. Infiltration capacity as a function of time is given by Horton (1933.

Horton Infiltration Curve .

Horton Equivalent Time .

ft water. fp = infiltration capacity. ft/sec. ft/ft. ft. . Fs = cumulative infiltration volume to cause surface saturation. IMD = initial moisture deficit for this event (SMDMAX). ft. i = rainfall intensity. F = cumulative infiltration volume. ft/sec. Su = average capillary suction at the wetting front (SUCT). this event. ft/sec. (HYDCON) ft/sec. and Ks = saturated hydraulic conductivity of soil.Green-Ampt Equation For F < Fs: f=i and Fs=Su IMD/(i/Ks-1) for i>Ks and no calculation of Fs for i<Ks For F > Fs: f = fp and fp=Ks(1+Su IMD/F) Where: f = infiltration rate.

A3= 16KDc /TW L2 and TW=BC . A2=16KDcbo/L2. B1=2. B1=0 Hooghoudt’s Eq’n : A1=16K/L2.Two Compartment Groundwater Model Flexible Groundwater Outflow Equation Dupuit Forcheimer: A1=A3=4K/L2. B2=0. A2=0.

Exponential Functions or Rating Curves .Pollutant Generation • Simulate Pollutant Buildup by Equations • Associate Pollutants to Solids as Potency Factors • Pollutant Washoff by EMC.

Storage Treatment Options • Use Storage and Screen Units to model the processes of a BMP – Choose Complete Mixing or Plug Flow for Storage Units – Pollutant Removal by Equation. Particle Size or Settling Velocity .

Sanitary Layer • • • • • • Comprises EPA Transport and Storage/Treatment Kinematic Wave Routing (Very Fast) Routes Pollutographs and Hydrographs Sediment Transport and BMP Simulation Dry Weather Flow Hydrograph Generation Infiltration Modeling Based on Pipe Length and Diameter (Inch-Miles) • Scour and Deposition (Shields Criteria) .

mgd. gallons per person per day etc. .Sanitary Flow Development • Multiple Methods and Flexible Equation • Multiple Flow Units.

Diurnal Patterns • Hourly and Daily Pattern • Up to Two Diurnal Patterns per Node • No Pattern Limit -Each Node Can Have Its Own Pattern .

but can vary seasonally . roof downspouts – Flows from submerged manhole covers • Rainfall Dependant Infiltration – Flows that result from increased groundwater elevations that occur within hours or days of the rain • Groundwater Infiltration – Flows that result from groundwater that are usually constant.Inflow/Infiltration Flow Development Runoff Layer • Direct Inflow – Fast responding flows that occur during the rain and end quickly after the storm has finished – Flows from cross connections.

Node .00 19 Fri 20 Sat Jun 92 21 Sun 22 Mon 23 Tue 24 Wed 25 Thu 22 Mon 23 Tue 24 Wed 25 Thu Time Jun 92 Node .8200] Flow Rainfall Total 3 Flow 3 Rainfall 2 2 1 1 0 0 4 3 Direct Inflow Flow (cfs) 18 Thu 0.gw [Max Flow = 0.8951] Rainfall Total 3 Rainfall Flow 2 1 0 5 4 Combined I & I Flow (cfs) 3 2 1 0 Jun 92 18 Thu 19 Fri 20 Sat 21 Sun 22 Mon 23 Tue 24 Wed 25 Thu Time .25 1 Rainfall Dependant Infiltration 18 Thu 19 Fri 20 Sat 21 Sun Time Rainfall 0 0.4564] Rainfall Total Node .Groundwater and Inflow [Max Flow = 4.75 Flow (cfs) 0.PEAK [Max Flow = 4.50 2 0.

0 2.390] 15.5 10.Wet and Dry Weather Flows Conduit L6 from Node 6 to N7 Base Scenario [Max 14.982] dry [Max 3.0 12.5 0.0 Flow 7.0 Mar 2002 Apr May Jun Time Jul Aug Sep Oct .5 5.

Wetweather Max Rainfall 0.3 0.0 12.1 0.2 0.0 2.4 Rainfall Data 0.0 Metered Flow Modeled Flow 7.5 Flow (cfs) 10.7 0.0 Mar 2002 Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Time .5 0.5 Rainfall 0.0 Mar 2002 Apr May Jun Time Jul Aug Sep Oct Conduit L6 from Node 6 to N7 [Max Flow = 14.Meter Data Comparison Node .6 0.9824] 15.5 5.

Hydraulics (Extran) Layer • • • • • • • • • • • • Dynamic Wave Routing (St. Orifices Handles Looped Networks & Adverse Sloped Conduits Can Also Route Water Quality Has Several Real Time Control Elements & Capabilities Superior Solution (More Stable & Capable than EPA) Enhanced Dry Weather Flow Generation Inlet Analysis for Dual Drainage New Real Time Control Module (Option) . Pumps. Venant Flow Equations) Fast Solution with Variable Time Step Handles Multiple Boundary Conditions Simulates Networks of Open and Closed Conduits Handles Multiple Conduits. Weirs.

Venant Equations Continuity Equation: (Conserves Mass) ∂A ∂Q + =0 ∂t ∂x Momentum Equation:(Conserves Energy)  Q2  ∂  A   ∂Q  + gA ∂y + gA(S + S + S − S ) = 0 +  e c f o ∂x ∂x ∂t .St.

San and Rnf Hyd. San and Rnf Hyd and San Hyd and San .Momentum Equation Terms Local Inertia Convective Inertia Pressure Slope Friction Slope Bed Slope Entrance/Exit Losses Expansion/ Contraction Losses ∂Q ∂t ∂(Q2/A) ∂x ∂y ∂x Sf S Sec See Hyd Hyd ( Diffusive Wave) Hyd and San Hyd.

Link Node Representation .

Definition of Elevations at a Junction .

Natural Channel Definition .

Elevations for Open Channel System .

.FHWA Inlet Control Equations • The head under inlet control may be significantly greater than that estimated assuming outlet control. • XP-SWMM uses Inlet Control equations from the FHWA's “Hydraulic Design of Highway Culverts”. • Interface to XP-Culvert2000 to enable direct import of rating curves directly into your project.

Pipe Groove End Projecting Slope = 0. Conc.Inlet Control Comparison of Culvert Headwater Elevation for Various Flow Control Conditions and Flow Rates 10 9 Headwater Elevation (m) FHWA HDS-5 (Steady State) SWMM Momentum Eqn.5m Reinf.5% Length = 24m 3 Q = 8 m /s Q = 4 m /s 3 3 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 Time (hrs) 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00 . Q = 16 m /s 3 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0:00 XP-SWMM Inlet Control XP-SWMM (Inlet Ctrl + Losses) Q = 12 m /s Culvert Details: 1.

the cross section is modified to position the lowest point between the overbanks.Natural channels Revisions • Left and right overbank points now interpolated between actual cross section points. • When low point is outside the main channel. • Computation of left channel and right conveyance parameters including area. . velocity and discharge have been modified to correctly represent the individual channel results.

• These encroachment procedures. .Floodplain Encroachment • Users can employ an encroachment computation option that has been widely used in the analysis of floodplain encroachments for the FEMA flood insurance program. allow the modeler to simulate the effects and to the extent development can take place to yield a given rise in the water surface.

Water Quality Routing in HDR (Extran) Layer .

This feature is extremely useful when working on large projects with a range of photographs available. . • Most of the standard windows image file types are supported. JPG through to TIFF.Attach Images to Links and Nodes • XP-SWMM supports images attached to both NODES and LINKS in the network. ranging from BMP.

Powerful Network Editing Split Links Reverse Direction Calculate Slope Calculate Length .

Real Time Control Module .

Encryption for XP-Viewer .

Combination of Layers Storm Water Network Simulation Storm Water Network Simulation with Quality Sanitary or Combined Sewer Simulation Runoff Sanitary Hydraulics √ √ √ √ DWF in San or HDR Layer √ √ √ .

Routing Capabilities of Each Layer Runoff Sanitary Hydraulics Positive Slopes Very Flat Slopes Adverse or 0% Slopes Store Surcharge US Manhole Flooding out of Manhole Surcharge or Pressure Flow Storage Nodes Backwater Effects Outfall Boundary Conditions Major-Minor Drainage (Dual) When Using Ponding .

Conduit Types for Each Layer Runoff Sanitary Hydraulics All SWMM Closed Conduits ALL SWMM Open Channels HEC2 Style Cross Sections Circular & Rectangular Orifices Horizontal Weirs User Defined Weirs Pumps Rated by Well Volume Pumps Rated by Depth Dynamic Head Pumps Static Head Pumps RTC Elements (Regulators) .

RES and CSV Output to GIS or Databases XP Tables and Quick Data View Forms Interactive Analysis Engine & Run Time Graphing .“Public Friendly” DSS Tools • • • • • • • • • • • • • Plan View Plotting and Plan View Export Comprehensive and Indexed Output File Review Results (Graphing of Time Series) Profile Plotting with Envelope of Maximums Dynamic Long Section View (Animation of HGL) Dynamic Section Views Dynamic Plan View Spatial Reports for Plan View Notation Graphical Encoding for Plan View Query Tabular Report (user-defined) XPX.

Plan View Plotting and Export .

Output File .

Review Results .

Profile Plotting Graphic .

Dynamic Long-Section View .

Dynamic Section Views .

Dynamic Plan View .

Spatial Reports .

Graphical Encoding .

CSV using icons or the Export menu • Good link to GIS for model results .TXT or .Tabular Reports – Export to .CSV or .TXT • Export report to text files .

XP Tables • Exchange data with other programs and XP-Tables • Create a Query by using filters .

Quick Data View .

Interactive Analysis Engine and Runtime Graphing .

1 Hour [Max 4.e.1 Hour [Max 19.1 Hour [Max 38.1 Hour [Max 9.027] Flow 10.013] 100 Year .0 12.pipe from N44 to RR.210] 100 Year .E.1 Hour [Max 81.Global Storms Node . 10 Year .346] 20.0 Flow 11PM 30 Sun Jun 96 1 Jul 1AM Time 40 2AM 30 20 10 0 1AM 1 Mon Jul 96 2AM 3AM 4AM Time .0 50 Year .5 70 5.560] Conduit L52.N28a 2 Year .0 60 2.(i.1 Hour [Max 81.1 Hour [Max 15.0 80 7.5 50 0.1 Hour [Max 60.5 15.765] 17.575] 10 Year .447] 50 Year .5 2 Year .

Show Gauged Data .

ILSAX…) Laurenson Hydrology (RAFTS) Rational Formula Hydrology Unit Hydrographs (Snyder.XP-SWMM Features NOT in EPA-SWMM • Runoff: – – – – – – – – – – – – SCS Hydrology (Triangular & Curvilinear) Time Area Hydrology (ILLUDAS. Nash) Kinematic Wave Hydrology Unlimited number of Pollutants 21 different Conduit Shapes Import HYDRON Rainfall Data Import Generic User-defined Rainfall Import Tipping Bucket Rainfall Data Event Mean Concentration Pollutant Generation . SBUH.

mgd.XP-SWMM Features NOT in EPA-SWMM • Transport (Sanitary): – – – – – – – – – – Storage/Treatment Integrated into Network Multiple STP’s/BMP’s Permitted Unlimited Number of Pollutants 30 different Conduit Types Dry Weather Flow Generation Based on Census Data. Direct Input or Unit Area Flow Rate Multiple Diurnal and Weekly Flow Patterns (node dependent) Weekly and Daily Flow Patterns for Constant Inflow DWF Peaking Factor Expanded units for DWF (gpm. gpd. l/s…) User-defined Equations for Pollutant Removal .

XP-SWMM Features NOT in EPA-SWMM • Extran (Hydraulics): – 30 Different Conduit Shapes – Dynamic Wave Pollutant Routing – Generate Dry Weather Flow including Diurnal and Seasonal Patterns – Read Inflows Directly using any File Format – Read Colorado Urban Hydrograph (CUHP) Files – Design Under-sized Conduits – Ponded Water can be Returned to the System – Sealed (Bolted) Manholes are Provided – Shock Losses caused by Transition between Sub-critical and Super-critical Flow – FHWA HDS-5 Inlet Control (57 Configurations) – User-defined Closed Conduit – Dynamic Memory Allocation (all layers) .

WQC Devices…) – Automatic Calibration (PEST) – Additional Outlet Types (Stage or Flow History. Rating Curve) – Inlet Rating Curves (HEC-12) to Model Manhole Inlets – Dry Weather Flow Generation – Multiple Conveyance Calculation Methods – Pump Speed Factor – Static Head Pump Type – Pump Losses (Bend. Vortex Structures. Remote Sensing Pumps.XP-SWMM Features NOT in EPA-SWMM – Expansion/Contraction Losses. Internal Rating Curves. Hydrobrakes. Valve losses) – Multi-point Pump Curves – Pressure Control Valves . Bendable Weirs. Exit. Entrance/Exit Losses – Pressure Change Coefficients (Missouri Charts) – RTC Structures (Inflatable Weirs.

38 EPA-SWMM Any timestep between 1 and 5 seconds 0.39 Flow (m^3/s) 0.41 EPA-SWMM Timestep = 15 secs EPA-SWMM Timestep = 10 secs EPA-SWMM Timestep = 5 secs EPA-SWMM Timestep = 1 secs XP-SWMM Timestep = 120 secs XP-SWMM Timestep = 300 secs 0.37 0.36 XP-SWMM Any timestep between 1 and 300 seconds 0.Consistent Results at any Timestep EPA-SWMM Extran vs XP-SWMM Results 0.35 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Time (Hours) .4 EPA-SWMM Any timestep > 10 seconds 0.

4 1.2 0.6 0.2 1.5 1.5 0.3 1.8 0.4 0.7 0.9 0.Consistent Results at any Timestep EPA-SWMM Extran vs XP-SWMM Results 1.3 0.1 1 EPA-SWMM Timestep = 15 secs EPA-SWMM Timestep = 10 secs EPA-SWMM Timestep = 5 secs EPA-SWMM Timestep = 1 secs XP-SWMM Timestep = 120 secs XP-SWMM Timestep = 300 secs Flow (m^3/s) 0.1 0 0 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 Time (Hours) .

• New Rational Method and LA County Hydrology • Interface Productivity Enhancements • Natural Channel Simulation Improvements and Reporting • Interactive Natural Channel Editing • Conduit Design now includes partial flow options • Scenario Manager . spread and velocity at capacity-limited inlets and surface ponded volumes.Important New Features of Version 9.0 • Inlet Capacity and Dual Drainage enhancements including the calculation of approach flow gutter depth. • Subsurface Hydrology enhancements to better account for perched water tables and also to connect groundwater to channels in the Hydraulic Layer.

Rated by Flow or Depth or HEC-22. . • HEC-22 allows a selection of Grate.Inlet Capacity Enhancements • Choose between Maximum Capacity. Curb and slotted inlets or a combination of grate and curb.

5 X (Metre) 10.5 15.5 0.0 0.0 0. spread and velocity at capacity-limited inlets • Modification to Inlet Capacity to account for ponded water on the surface • Use the new Global Databases for Natural Channels and Pavement Crossfalls to store typical road cross sections and curb types Local Street Parking 1 Side 3.5 3.0 7.0 2.0 4.5 1.5 m Travel Lanes 5.Dual Drainage Enhancements • Calculate approach flow gutter depth.5 2.0 12.0 3.5 5.0 .0 1.5 4.0 Stage (Metre) 2.

Hydrology Enhancements • Cut off the infiltration available to the groundwater using a maximum cumulative infiltration volume. This could represent high groundwater tables where the porosity times the depth to groundwater is the only available storage. .e. i. 100mm.

. • Now the dynamic depths of the conduits in Hydraulics can be linked to the Runoff groundwater module.Hydrology Enhancements • “Simultaneous” option allows Hydraulics to run at the same time as Runoff without the need for interface files.

Profile Enhancements • Add other services such as water mains to profile plots from the Conduit Profile dialog • Plot intermediate ground points along a conduit .

Profile Enhancements • Profile plots allow natural surface. design surface and services to be plotted .

Typical IDF Curve .

New Rational Formula Method .

LA County Hydrology Method .

Expanded Import Capabilities • Import natural channel geometry from HECRAS or HEC-2 • Store and merge natural channel geometry in the global database .

Lengths command • New menu items and toolbar icons such as Regenerate Views and Active Job Control .Interface Productivity Enhancements • Expanded results variable list to include virtually all output file results • Ability to create a new job as a blank database or use the New File Wizard • Calculate conduit slopes and lengths for specific elements or the entire network using the Tools>Calculate Conduit->Slopes.

Existing Conveyance Condition -------> <----.0152 ------> <.--------.--------.--------.0511 Right Area 0. Method Station Station 3. 98. 99.0000 Left Area 0.--------.--------.Floodplain Mapping Conduit Name street 1 *==================================* Upstream Downstream WS Elev.0000 Maximum Depth 0.0152 Encroach 0.--------.0500 Natural 0.------.515 Station Station 3.--------.8652 Encroach 8.0000 Centre Channel 0.5000 <----.------.Natural Channel Overbank Flow Information | Maximum Area ------> <--.0000 Depth Incr.--------- .------.7958 WS Elev.0000 | Center Flow 0.------.0000 Right 0.0000 0.--------.0000 None *==================================* | Table E14b .2000 Total Encroach.--------.Natural Channel Simulation and Reporting • New Tables E14a & E14b .3101 Total Left Right Reduction Left 0.------.6348 12.------.Maximum Flow -------> <-----Conduit Name street 1 Left Velocity 0.3101 Right Bank 0.Max.3101 Right Bank 0.------.515 ---------.Encroachment Data --> Conduit Name street 1 Left Bank 0.--------.0000 0.7772 Left Flow 0.% Volume --> <-.Maximum Velocity -----> <-----.----------------0.--------*========================================================* | Table E14a . left.8804 Total Left Right Left Bank 0.0000 Left Area 0.Encroachment Conveyance Condition -----> <.1364 Right Area 0. 8.--------.--------.------.3101 | Channel Length 120.------.------.------.8652 ------> <----.--------. main and right channel volumes etc.Right Offsets Bank 9.--------.--------.--------.0000 Center Station 12.0456 *========================================================* <---.Channel Widths-> Bank 0.------.Natural Channel Encroachment Information *========================================================* <------.0000 Center Velocity 0.--------. Storage Volume ---> Center Area 0.Natural Channel Encroachment Information and Floodplain Mapping • New variables added to computation: encroachment depth.0000 --------------.------.6348 12.0000 Center Area 6.Left Offsets Natural 8.--------.--------.7772 Right Velocity 0.------.8804 8.2952 --------------.0350 Right Flow 0.--------.--------.------.--------.--------.0000 Centre Channel 0. • Added maximum link volume (during simulation) to Table E15 and time series to "Detailed Printout" *========================================================* | Table E14 .

Natural Channel Editing • Copy and paste cross-section geometry • Tabular or graphic editing of channel geometry as shown below by clicking and dragging the points .

Conduit Design Options • Design for full. check all available sizes . partial flow or minimum allowable freeboard • Design using available pipe size list.

Scenario Manager-Multiple Runs .

Delete and Activate Scenarios in the Manager Dialog • Scenario Properties Track Changes Automatically New Value Old Value .Scenario Manager-Management and Reports • Add.

Scenario Manager.Series of Review Results .

Scenario Manager – Multiple Results in Tables .

Application Settings and Customization • Change Application Settings from the Tools->Application Settings menu • It is basically an interface to the SWMXP. . adding a user defined application such as DDSWMM in the application settings.INI file.INI file and changes in one are reflected in the other • Most common changes include: enabling CUHP or LA hydrology. modifying the Date Format and enabling the Project Menu from the Config section. modifying fields defaults if they are already entered in the . switching between different engine versions and choosing a text editor for the output file in the main section.

xpt SCS Storms.xpt Swfwmd.XPT geopak_master.xpt Saskatoon_Master. • When XP-SWMM loads you can start with a template for a new project or under the File menu select New->Create from Template • Any XP-SWMM model can be saved as a template using File->Save as Template • The following template examples can be found in the template directory: • • • • • • • • • • • Master.xpt Lfucg.xpt Grande-Prairie-Master 2004.xpt San Diego County Master.XPT Huff.xpt .xpt and Master2002.Using Templates • Templates are XP-SWMM model files with pre-defined data and settings.xpt Edmonton_master.xpt cityofsurrey_master_database.

Modifying Defaults • Defaults can be modified for all Projects in the . then when an object is created by import or digitized it will take on the new values as defaults .INI file and edited in the application settings as mentioned previously • Defaults for a specific project can be selected when using the New Project Wizard or at any time later from the File->Properties menu • Simply select node and link fields and enter appropriate values.

0 TABLE_E20_CSV $review_elevatio $use_half_volume 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0. they only impact the solution when a model is solved.01 $new_storage $old_iteration EXTERNAL_CSV $minlen=10.0000 0.0000 10.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 50.0000 0.0000 0.Using Configuration Parameters • Configuration Parameters are command line arguments for the SWMM analysis engine.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0. they do NOT change the interface • They are accessed from the Configuration->Configuration Parameters menu • A complete listing of the parameters and an explanation of their function is in the help menu • The top of the output file records all configuration parameters used in a run including those which are hardwired to be on in certain versions • Hardwired configuration parameters are indicated in the output file with a $ in front of the parameter $powerstation $perv $oldegg $as $noflat $oldomega $oldvol $implicit $oldhot $oldscs $flood $nokeys $pzero $oldvol2 $oldhot1 $pumpwt $ecloss $exout MAXPTS=5000 $weirlen = 50 $oldbnd $nogrelev $ncmid $new_nl_97 $best97 $newbound Q_TOL=0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 2 1 1 1 0 5000 1 1 1 0 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 7 11 21 24 28 29 31 33 40 42 55 59 63 70 77 97 136 153 154 161 164 290 294 295 316 322 333 345 346 373 383 385 .0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 0.0000 0.

CN=99 On use elevation in rating curve outfalls. Allows the simulation tolerance for flow to be relative rather than fixed.e.01 is a 0. Prevents a resetting of the Initial Abstraction until X days since the start of the simulation.25 =25% Each command supresses the creation of the Hydraulics. Use the depth in the downstream node as the control for the rating curve as opposed to the difference in elevations.e. Volume-Stage and Volume Elevation options for Stepwise linear storage nodes.e.e.EXP extension. The actual orifice equation is used instead of using the equivalent pipe for the orifice flow. User inflow hydrographs from 0-23 hours will be repeated on subsequent days for simulations longer than 24 hours.VS. Runoff or Sanitary binary results files Switches the HGL line in Review Results and Dynamic Long section to become the EGL line All Hydraulics inflows and computed flows will be interpretted as million gallons per day or gallons per minute. . Allows the simulation tolerance for head to be relative rather than fixed. All elements will start flooded to this level. H_TOL=0. Q_TOL=0. Calculates and removes evaporation from nodes in Hydraulics (EXTRAN). The peak flow through the orifice will be calculated from the orifice equation and not an equivalent surcharged pipe. Area-Elevation. Forces the analysis engine to use the distance between US and DS nodes as the length of the conduit.5 is a 0. Off use depth in rating curve outfalls which is the default.CSV extension Redirects detailed printout time series from output file to a comma delimited file with a . Use the depth in the upstream node as the control for the rating curve as opposed to the difference in elevations. Generates an XPX file on solve of the most common link and node data used in the run.Top 25 Used Configuration Parameters MAXPTS=X EXTERNAL_CSV EXTERNAL_XLS Table_EX_CSV SENSE=X NOSYF.5% tolerance. Initializes the entire network to the elevation of X. GPM 24HR_LOOP Q_TOL=X H_TOL=X MAKE_XPX USE_XYINFO ZREF=X USE_ORF_EQN USE_US_RC USE_DS_RC ORFULL AS. NOSYT ENERGY MGD. File has . i. NOSYR.01% tolerance. To define the Preismann slot width. AE. (X is the % of the conduit width) Set the Catchment Slope as percentage default is dimensionless as m/m or ft/ft Changes the default impervious CN value of 98 to the value X i. 0. i.XLS extension Duplicates the output tables E1-E20 where X is from 1-22 to a comma deleimited file with a .CSV extension Performs a sensitivty analysis on SWMM Runoff method parameters X is fraction change in parameter i. Area-Stage.VE EXT_EVAP PSLOT=X CATSLOPE=% CN=X RCOUT SCSDUR=X Sets Upper Limit (X) of Graphical Results Points for Runoff and Sanitary Layer Redirects detailed printout time series from output file to a comma delimited file with a .

Added the configuration parameter PSLOT=xx to define the Preismann slot width.Natural Channel Encroachment Information Added Table E14b . Allow 500 files for multi-runs. Horizontal and Vertical Ellipses are now checked against max and min sizes.SWMM Engine Changes • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Calculate approach flow gutter depth.Floodplain Mapping Added Left. (xx is the % of the conduit width) Modification to Inlet Capacity to account for ponded water on the surface Cut off infiltration available to groundwater at maximum infiltration volume Added LA Hydrology Procedure Added Conduit Max Volume Variable Added Table E14a . Main and Right channel volumes for natural channels Added maximum link volume (during simulation) to Table E15 and time series to "Detailed Printout" Added encroachment depth to output file Support Lahey Interface files created by PDX-SWMM Always use USE_ORF_EQN keyword if using RTC Added additional error checking to hot start files. spread and velocity at capacity-limited inlets.invert NWS Post 1980 Fixed Format rainfall data now supports 4 digit years Read and apply DATE_FORMAT variable in analysis engine . Show flows due to snowmelt in Review Results Add tolerance to Type 5 pumps to prevent oscillations when iterating Correct plug flow calculations for metric units in SAN layer Account for temporal pattern for constant flow and concentrations in HDR layer Increase the number of weirs and orifices handled by review via INI setting (MAX_WEIRS & MAX_ORIFICES) Correct rainfall utility for 4-digit year EarthInfo ASCII and Canadian AES format Correct rainfall utility for user-defined rainfall on last day of year Fix to Temperature Utility to read user-defined temperature data Correct event duration reporting error for 4 digit years Calculate storage in adverse grade dry conduits using intersection of water surface and pipe bed slope When depth for open channel is zero substitute depth as ground Elev . Correct storage volumes for storage nodes with orifices attached.

then after clicking OK on the message box select the objects to paste this field value and then select paste from the Edit menu or <ctrl-v>. • Select 1 object such as a link or a node. . Choose paste and all selected objects will have identical data for the current layer. Deselect objects then choose paste and identical objects will be pasted into XP-SWMM. Select copy with a right mouse-click then select any number of similar objects.Copy and Paste Capabilities • The Copy icon on each dialog allows 1 field at a time to be copied to the clipboard. • Select any number of objects then the copy command place those objects on the clipboard.

DAT) for the analysis engine (SWMMENGW.EXE) • Time series files (.SY?) are prepared for animation and review during the solve • After the solve is completed the single value results from the run are automatically imported to the interface from the .RES file • These results are committed to the database only if it is saved to disk .XP file is saved to disk • The database is blank except any database defaults which are set by the user • When a dialog is opened for the first time it is loaded with program defaults and if OK is selected the defaults are committed to the database • If the same dialog is opened after an OK then the dialog will be populated with the same numbers as before but they will be the values in the database • Selecting the Cancel button or the upper right hand corner X box are equivalent to the ESC key and discard all changes • When a solve is requested the data of the active objects are organized into an input file (.XP-SWMM Model Structure • The .XP file is a fixed format proprietary ASCII database and the XP-SWMM program is a graphical interface to the data • The user interacts with the database in memory (a much faster alternative) and as such it is only a permanent change when the .

dat) Load Results (.exe) User Command Automated Open Save Binary Results (.XP-SWMM Software Structure Meteorological Data Topographic Data XP-GIS Import Export module XP-SWMM Interface XP Database in Memory Solve (.res) SWMM Analysis Engine (swmmengw.XP) Permanent Files On Hard Disk .out) XP Database (.sy?) Text Output File (.

SOBEK architecture • modular design • based on generic toolset DelftW ISE • open GIS platform through NETTER .

SOBEK 1D-2D modelling .

XP-SOBEK Wetland Modeling .

XP-SOBEK Urban Modeling .

XP-SOBEK Levee Breach .

XP-SOBEK Street Flooding .

XP-SWMM Water Quality Version 9.0 .

the process is assumed over a wide area just like the runoff • The hydrographs are thus allowed a varying concentration vs. time and flow vs. Evaporation. and Groundwater • Continuous and Event Simulation • Water Quality generation in Runoff is for non point source pollutographs i. Snowmelt. time • The flow and concentration can be related if using an EMC or a rating curve washoff approach .Rainfall. Infiltration.e.Runoff Layer – Hydrology with Water Quality • Runoff layer computes hydrographs by various methods including a deterministic model of the hydrologic cycle.

mg/l Total Phosphorus. percent 75 TSS.5-3 5-40 5-50 Less Less Less 10-100 100-1000 . µg/l Zn.5 50-150 300-500 0.2-0. mg/l Total Nitrogen. Roof Areas Residential Areas Industrial Areas Open Areas and Agricultural Areas Storm Water Runoff Concentrations (Mikkelson et al. µg/l Cu.5 50-125 125-400 Roof Runoff Atmospheric Deposition. µg/l Cd. µg/l 30-100 40-60 2 0. percent 19 70 23 40 30 50 70-80 30-40 70 5-25 10-100 7 30-40 Attached to Suspended Solids. mg/l COD. mg/l Pb. 1993) Pollutant Urban Runoff Highway Runoff 30-60 25-60 1-2 0..Runoff Layer : Typical Simulated Sources of Water Quality • • • • • Highways (including parking lots and airports).

constant or curb length .Buildup • To major processes can be simulated in water quality: Buildup and Washoff • Pollutant buildup options include: – None: only washoff is simulated – Landuse: all pollutants are a factor of 1 pollutant “dust and dirt” – Time dependant: related to catchment area.

Buildup – Dust and Dirt • Simply model a generic pollutant called dust and dirt (TSS) • Use potency factors or fractions for all pollutants based on the buildup of dust and dirt • For example. 5 percent of dust and dirt is BOD or 112.000 times the dust and dirt is the Coliform count • Originated in the STORM model (1974) and became the first SWMM water quality model in Version 2 • Not a good method for dissolved species • Good method for metals since they are predominantly attached to solids • Not normally recommended since most pollutants have unique buildup behavior and this can be simulated in SWMM using the Time Dependant Buildup method .

Buildup .Theory • From physical studies pollutants can be seen to buildup rapidly over a few days since last rain or street cleaning • After about 2 weeks this levels off to a maximum • SWMM allows a different Buildup formulation for every Pollutant and Landuse combination using 4 equation types • Impose a maximum buildup .

Washoff • Pollutant Washoff by: • EMC or Event Mean Concentration (concentration is constant) • Exponential Washoff: (concentration varies based on availability) • Rating Curves: (concentration varies based on flow rate) • If buildup is not simulated use EMC or Rating Curve • If buildup is simulated use Rating Curve or Exponential Washoff .

Washoff Parameters RCOEF and WASHPO .

Other Processes • All pollutant description can be based on Landuse: • Use unique EMC or buildup/washoff functions • Unique concentration in precipitation. NaCl • Pollutants can be assigned a daily decay rate . groundwater and catchbasin • Unique street sweeping efficiency • Pollutants can be linked to snowmelt events such as those that would accumulate in the snow pack.

Other Processes • Street sweeping efficiencies based on pollutant and landuse and a street sweeping schedule can be simulated • Erosion can be simulated using the Universal Soil Loss Equation • Erosion as a pollutant can be added to TSS .

Rating Curve. Exponential Washoff • Metals attached to Solids: Potency Factors • Method generally matches the availability of the data: • Storm water composite samples or EMC EMC or rating curve washoff • Automatic samplers or storm grab samples Rating curve washoff • Multiple storm samples with varying dry times Time dependant buildup and exponential washoff .Choosing a Method • Water Quality Modeling options for metals are: • Dissolved Constituents: EMC.

Buildup Washoff Mass Balance .

time (kg/s) or cumulative load (kg) • Select the WQ icon to see Hydraulics water quality results .Review Results for Water Quality • Choose the options icon to add load as a resulting time series – Choose load vs.

Output File for Water Quality Tables • Output file contains summaries of water quality simulation by pollutant • Nodes and links selected for detailed printout will have time series including water quality concentrations in the output file • Runoff Tables are: – Runoff Quality Summary Page and Detailed Printout Table • Sanitary Tables are: – Table T3 .Quality Continuity Check and Detailed Printout Table • Hydraulics Tables are: – – – – Hydraulics Layer Water Quality Analysis Hydraulics Layer NODE Water Quality Summary Hydraulics Layer LINK Water Quality Summary Detailed Printout Table when directed to an External file using the configuration parameter EXTERNAL_CSV .

Detailed Printouts in Output File • Detailed printouts show hydraulic and water quality time series • Each layer can produce these time series in the output file • Frequency of the result is controlled by the user .

Detailed Printout for WQ Time Series: Runoff Job Control Dialog Node Dialog Link Dialog .

Detailed Printout for WQ Time Series: Sanitary Job Control Dialog Node Dialog Link Dialog .

Detailed Printout for WQ Time Series: Hydraulics Job Control Dialog Node Dialog Link Dialog .

.Activating Water Quality Routing in Sanitary or Hydraulics In the Job control select Pollutant List to activate water quality routing.

Particle Size or Settling Velocity .Storage Treatment Options • Use Storage and Screen Units to model the processes of a BMP – Choose Complete Mixing or Plug Flow for Storage Units – Pollutant Removal by Equation.

time .Dry Weather Flow Concentrations • Dry weather flows are not assigned water quality concentrations • In order to simulate pollutants in a dry weather flow select either: • Constant Inflow and assign a flow pattern • User Inflow and directly enter flow and concentration vs.

Outfall Loads • If an interface file is assigned then: • Terminating nodes in a Runoff network have flow and concentration automatically saved to an interface file • Terminating end nodes of Sanitary models are assumed outfalls and can be selected to save outflows to an interface file • Outfall nodes and node with overflows in Hydraulics are automatically saved to an interface file • To summarize these results use: – Review Results and export the water quality results – Tag all locations for detailed printout – Use the Interface File Utility .

.CSV files the outfall loads • Converts interface and binary results files (. .syr. syh. .Interface Utility • The utility is located in the Tools->Launch Application menu • Graph and Export to .syf.syq) .syt.

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Workshop Example 1 Storm Water Management with Water Quality Building a Model. Analyzing Model Results. Workshop Example 1 – Page 1 of 64 . Continuous Simulation. © XP SOFTWARE. Decision Support System (DSS) Tools and Adding Water Quality to a Storm Water Model and Water Quality Routing. Advanced Topics. Solving a Model. Do not reproduce without written authorization.

........................................................................................ Skills to be learned A) Introduction................... Water quality generation and routing is easily added to existing networks.................. Do not reproduce without written authorization.......................................................................................................................................2 B) Building a Model.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................22 21) Setting Mode Properties (What to Solve) ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................23 23) Exporting the Data to an XPX File ..........................................................................................4 1) Starting a New Project ............................................................................ looped networks.........................18 16) Adding Storage Data for Node Detention..........11 11) Entering Data in Tables ........38 1) Reading External Data............29 4) Reviewing Continuity Error at All Nodes ............................................................................................................................................................................8 7) Renaming Network Objects...............................................................................27 1) Interpreting Flooding Using Review Results................20 19) Rainfall Data in the Global Database.........................................................40 2) Controlling the Resolution in Review Results............................................................................................................ storage nodes such as ponds and multiple outfalls...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................17 15) Entering Data for the Node "Outlet"…………………………………………………………………………………..............................................................................................................................19 18) Infiltration Data in the Global Database ........................................9 8) Adding and Removing the Vertices on a Poly-Link ............................................ This tutorial contains all of the popular components in a storm water system and introduces the user to some advanced options for modeling pond losses...... 32 1) Simulating Overland Flow (Dual Drainage)...................................................30 E) Additional Features…………………………………………………………………………………………………….............................................................................................................................................23 22) Importing XY Coordinates for the Nodes using XPX .......34 4) Entrance/Exit Losses and Other Minor Losses ..........................................12 12) Entering Data using External Database Import………………………………………………………………………...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................28 3) Orientation to the Output File and Interpreting Flooding .................................................................5 3) Merging Global Data ...............................16 14) Entering Data for Diversions and Structures for the Pond and Link "Structure"....................................................................................................................24 C) Solving a Model..................................................................................................26 D) Analyzing Model Results.................................32 2) Simulating Inlet Restriction .....................................................................................................................................................37 F) Continuous Simulation ................................................................................7 5) Adjusting Node and Link Attributes……………………………………………………………………………………..............................................5 4) Digitizing Network Objects on Scaled Backgrounds...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................33 3) Surface Ponding................................................................... mixtures of open channel and closed conduits..........................................................10 9) Layer Control......14 13) Attaching Images and Notes to Nodes..................................................................................................................................................42 3) Modeling Infiltration Losses in a Pond................................8 6) Adding Text to Model……………………………………………………………………………………………………..........................................................................................................................................................A) Introduction XP-SWMM comprehensively models the hydrologic and hydraulic components of most storm water management systems........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ numerous hydrograph generation methods................................ It includes modeling capabilities for continuous simulation.................43 © XP SOFTWARE........................................4 2) Loading the Background................... and several management options for handling flooding.........................................................................18 17) Adding Data for Channel Cross-Section.........................................27 2) Interpreting Flooding in the Long Section.....................................................................................................................................36 5) Sediment Depth .........................................36 6) Global Storm.................................................26 1) Trouble Shooting Error Messages and Running the Model......................................................................................................................................................... Workshop Example 1 – Page 2 of 64 ......................................20 20) Setting the Job Control (Simulation Limits and Criteria) .....................................................................................................................................................................10 10) Entering Data in Dialogs .........................

................................. 60 References .....LFUCG rain gauge data September 2001 PIPEL6............................... 50 3) Generating User Defined Reports ................................................................RDF ....................................................... 58 I) Water Quality Routing in the Hydraulics Layer .............. KY LEXINGTON...........................................................................report definition file SUBCATCH.................................4) Calibrating the Model to Measured Peak Flows .................................. 54 3) Selecting the Pollutants and Landuses for the Simulation ..............................................report definition file © XP SOFTWARE................. 45 6) Performing a Sensitivity Analysis.MASTER Database for Lexington........................ 56 4) Defining the Landuses at each Subcatchment . 53 H) Adding Water Quality to a Storm Water Model..................................... 57 5) Reviewing Water Quality Results .......................JPG ............................................................................ 64 Files Needed LEXINGTON......................................................................................................................................................XPX ................................................................................................................ 49 2) Screening the Model with Graphical Encoding.............XP ...............................XLS ..............DWG .................................................................................................................. Do not reproduce without written authorization.......... 44 5) Using Measured Flows (Gauged Data) in Review Results .......JPG and MH2............................................................................................................................................. 54 1) Setting the Job Control for Water Quality................. Workshop Example 1 – Page 3 of 64 .report definition file MAINTENANCEHOLE....... 47 G) Decision Support System (DSS) Tools ........................Data Source for the model GPS............ 46 7) Adjusting Model Parameters.....................Background Drawing (AutoCAD) LFUCG........ 49 1) Screening the Model with Spatial Reports .................................................................................measured flows at link L6 September 2001 CONDUIT.........................................................................RDF ..............................................Node Coordinates from GPS Field survey STRUCTURE......................................................................................................................................TXT .........................................................HIS ...................................................................................................... 51 4) Using the Plan Section Tool.....................................................................................................RDF .................................................................................(Digital photos) 84295001........................................................................................................................ 54 2) Entering Global Databases for Water Quality Modeling ................

The next step in the wizard is to enter the simulation start and stop times. This dialog appears only once at the start of a new project. No conversion of data is performed. Change the roughness from 0. If you have already been using XP-SWMM. you will see a summary screen showing what © XP SOFTWARE. At this point. hence a value of 3 for diameter is interpreted as 3 feet or 3 meters depending on the units. if known. Then click on Next.XP extension. 2002) for the Simulation stop time.013 and then click on the finish button. Click on the button with the file and plus sign and using the drop down menu. This data will be used in all three layers. 06. the user can select the command Configuration=>Units to change from Metric to US Customary or vice versa at any time.014 to 0. however. The next screen allows the user to enter any global databases for the area using the XPX file format. select link. Do not reproduce without written authorization. In this example. Workshop Example 1 – Page 4 of 64 . Click on the next button. The primary file that is opened (existing) or created (new) by XP-SWMM is a database. Use the name LEX.XP. 1992 (June 19. Then click on the next button. you can enter link data that will apply to all links in the model. The simulation time step of 60 seconds will also be entered here. close any active file then select the command File=>New or choose the New Icon from the toolbar or use the Ctrl+N keyboard shortcut to create a new database for this storm water project. select the US Customary. When prompted for units. 1992) for the simulation start time and 19. 1992 (June 18. type in 18. which signifies that it is a database for XP-SWMM. Then select roughness and click on the ok button. link data and then conduit data. Click on the next button. it has an . This screen allows you to enter node data that will apply to all nodes in the system. Follow the database wizard and use Lexington Stormwater Example as the project title.B) Building a Model 1) Starting a New Project The first step after launching XP-SWMM is to either open or create an XP-SWMM database. The XPX file format will be explained later in this example. As in the previous screen. 06.

If a particular subcatchment was to use the infiltration data one simply needs to select the record name that was used to store the data. The word global refers to the fact that the data stored here is available for multiple objects. the real world coordinates will be read by XP and entered in the destination rectangle shown to the right: Fit the graphics to the screen with the command View=>Fit Window or us the Fit to Window Icon to place all of the background in the network window. The first icon is the add picture tool previously used and the second is the Image Properties tool. 3) Merging Global Data The global database is accessed from the Configuration menu. © XP SOFTWARE. 2) Loading the Background The command to load backgrounds is located at View=>Background Images menu or use the Add Picture icon from the toolbar. Holding the mouse over the icon will display a bubble of the icon's purpose and a detailed description of the command is displayed in the lower left-hand corner of the program interface. If you are satisfied with the set-up. This prevents an unnecessary amount of data entry for data that would be repeated over and over for multiple objects. It loads the dialog shown right. The following portion of the tool strip is used for backgrounds. Do not reproduce without written authorization.DWG. click the ok button or click the cancel button and return to any of the above screens to make any additional changes you wish to include. Workshop Example 1 – Page 5 of 64 . infiltration data can be stored in the global database and given a record name. For example. Use the file LEXINTON.selections you have made.

EPA SWMM dry weather flow data (S) Sewer Infiltration .groundwater data including the groundwater outflow equation and soil properties (R) Infiltration .XP databases have been prepared by XP Software and others for regions of the USA and other international locations.stores hydraulic rating for structures such as vortex separators User Defined File Types .Total system sewer infiltration from various sources (S) Waste Stream Temperature .infiltration properties of soil and depression storage values (R) Initial Loads . Choose to merge the Global Database and then select the file LFUCG.XP will then be filled with all of the necessary global data for this example.XP files have many global databases that contain design storms.allows XP to read and interpret external data such as rainfall and flow series XP Tables .stores groundwater parameters as unit flows per acre (R) Landuse . captured flow (H) Hydraulic Brakes .user-defined tables of results and data Many default .flow patterns as hourly and daily peaking factors. The LFUCG. Once the LFUCG.XP from the work directory. usually used for DWF (H) Pump Rating Curves .water quality data for Runoff such as Rating Curves or EMC concentrations (R) Erosion .XP by selecting the merge command from the File menu.XP model is based on the LFUCG drainage manual.inlet rating curves as approach flow vs.not currently implemented in XP-SWMM (S) Pollutant . Workshop Example 1 – Page 6 of 64 .describe dust and dirt buildup and initialize landuse for unique pollutant buildup/Washoff parameters (R) Pollutant .XP file is merged the Global database of our LEX.temperature series for some BMP descriptions (SH) Temporal Variation . These . For more information on global databases. Do not reproduce without written authorization.Below is a listing of all 21 types of the global database records: (R) Buildup/Washoff . water quality data and infiltration records etc. Merge the file LFUCG. These Global Database records and Job Control settings can be shared among other models by merging them into existing projects.holds design storms.snow pack and melt data (S) BMP .erosion data for the modified USLE (R) Groundwater .manufacturer pump curves and depth or volume pump flow characteristics (H) Pit Rating Curves . real measured storms and rainfall station numbers for continuous simulations (R) Snowmelt .pollutant parameters including units and scour/deposition for the Sanitary layer (S) Sewer DWF .pollutant parameters including units for the Runoff layer (R) Rainfall . see page 20 of this example problem.assigns total pollutant available at the beginning of the simulation (R) Groundwater . © XP SOFTWARE.

Do not reproduce without written authorization. Polygon tool: Extracts areas. regulators and other RTC elements. Link tool: Creates a link to represent a closed conduit such as a pipe or an open conduit such as a river or man-made channel. re-scale the window. The orientation is important and the arrow on a link marks US to DS. orifices.4) Digitizing Network Objects on Scaled Backgrounds Digitize using the Object Icons on the Toolbar for the links and nodes as shown below. Text tool: Annotates the network by placing text objects on the network. New objects will be labeled consecutively from 1. Be sure to use the Diversion (Multilink) Tool to create the link "Structure" from the Pond node to the Riser node. change object attributes and to enter data. Node tool: Creates nodes on the network. These may physically represent a maintenance hole or pit. Multi-link tool: Creates a link that allows multiple open and closed conduits and diversions such as pumps. Workshop Example 1 – Page 7 of 64 . perimeters and lengths from a scaled background picture or network drawn using real world coordinates. © XP SOFTWARE. reconnect links. weirs. move objects. an inlet for a catchment. a pond or retarding basin an outfall or a Best Management Practice (BMP). We will rename the objects at a later time. Pointer tool: Used to select objects. with N1 for nodes and L1 for links.

Then select Edit on the menu bar and then attributes on the pull-down menu. 6) Adding Text to the Model Many times it is very useful to add text notes to a model. © XP SOFTWARE.10 and change the Node Size Width and Height to 0. Following the same procedure.10 and change the Node Size . but let’s label the two ponds. This will display the attribute box. To add labels to the model.1 and click on the modify button so that the red checkmark is on. the street names are included in the background image. select the Text Tool in the menu bar and click where you wish to place the text. select all nodes and change the text height – Display size to 0. Then click the ok button. Then change the text attributes by selecting both text boxes holding the Shift key and selecting both boxes. Then change the Color to Blue. Method 2 The second method allows you change the attributes of all of either the nodes or links in the model. Workshop Example 1 – Page 8 of 64 . Ctrl L will also do this. Let’s name the pond on the subdivision side of the railroad Stormwater Pond and the other Pond Railroad Pond. Change the text height – Display Size to 0.Width and Height to 0. Then select Edit on the menu bar and then attributes on the pull-down menu.12. Method 1 Highlight any node and then right click on the node. The same procedure can be used for a link.12 and then select the OK radial button twice to return to the main window. Then click the ok button.5) Adjusting Node and Link Attributes The size and thickness of both links and nodes can be adjusted in two ways. Select Objects. Change the text height – Display size to 0. Do not reproduce without written authorization.02. select View. Using the select all links button or using the menu. Then select the display attributes button. In this case. and all links to select all of the links.15 and click on the modify button so that the red checkmark is on. Then change the Line Size – Display Size to 0. Change the text height – Display Size to 0.

They are not case sensitive. Do not reproduce without written authorization. although names slightly larger can be used if imported or edited on the screen (Method 3). Then double-click with the mouse to overwrite the current cell contents and key in the new name.7) Renaming Network Objects Objects can be renamed in three ways. Node Link Method 2 Right mouse-click on the selected object and a pop-up dialog allowing the Attribute Dialogs shown above will be displayed. Node Link Method 3 Select the object. When the text in a field is highlighted. © XP SOFTWARE. Use the names exactly as shown on page 7. keyboard entries will replace the existing text. The pop-up dialogs for links and nodes are shown below. Method 1 Highlight the node or link and then use the command Edit=>Attributes. Use all three methods for this tutorial to discover your preference. Workshop Example 1 – Page 9 of 64 . then double-click on the node’s or link’s label and a user entry field will appear where the object’s name can be edited. otherwise the text will be inserted from the cursor position. When all objects are renamed. Follow the entry with an enter key and the new name will appear. This will display an attribute dialog for the node or link and it will contain a field for entering the object name. The aforementioned dialogs are shown below. save your work. The field will accept up to 10 alphanumeric characters.

Switch to the RUNOFF layer by selecting Rnf from the Toolbar and add nodes MH1-MH11 and Pond to the RUNOFF layer by selecting the + icon. Click the OK button to accept this choice. select the calculate conduit lengths. The user in the appropriate dialogs must explicitly enter these minor losses in the conduit factors dialog.XP file may be ported to other users or machines that do not contain the same directory structure. Objects can be added or removed incrementally to a selection set by holding down the shift key and selecting with a left mouse click. Once a vertex is added. These nodes. Runoff saves the flows for all active nodes to an output SWMM interface file and Hydraulics layer reading the existing Runoff layer interface file. To add a vertex. The most common set up for storm water modeling uses rainfall interface files into Runoff. © XP SOFTWARE. 9) Layer Control All network objects (link or node) exist in each layer of XP-SWMM. These nodes are being added to the Runoff layer so that hydrology calculations can be performed. To switch to another layer select the Rnf. Select the ok button and the calculated length will be added to the model database. When no path is used the program will search for the file in the current directory. San or Hdr icons from the toolbar below. click and drag the vertex to cause the conduit to bend. To remove a vertex. Do not reproduce without written authorization. highlight the link and with the CTRL key depressed click with the mouse on the link. This is often the best choice since the . Select the channel and then select the tools pull down menu.INT as a good convention. which represent Maintenance holes in the Hydraulics layer. Each of the layers when solved can read and write certain types of interface files. Each Inlet in Runoff can have up to five attached subcatchments. represent inlets in the Runoff layer. Make sure the Create New File in Runoff Layer and Read Existing Interface File in Hydraulics checkboxes are active. Using the + and – icons on the Toolbar the object can be activated in the current layer. However. Both sections should use the same name and path (if used) as shown. the object can be active in any combination of layers including not being active in any layer. Workshop Example 1 – Page 10 of 64 . We can get the actual channel length using the calculate conduit length in the tool pull down menu. Select all MH nodes MH1-MH11 and Pond while in the Hdr layer. The original length of 0 and the new measured length will be displayed. The file name should have an extension . Please note that no losses are added to the conduit. Interface Files Flows and pollutant concentrations can be stored on binary interface files that are created from a model solve. Interface files are designated using the command Configuration=>Interface Files for each appropriate layer. hold down the CTRL and Shift key and click with the mouse on the vertex.8) Adding and Removing the Vertices on a Poly-Link and Calculating Conduit Lengths Since the conduit "Channel" winds through the lots we can create vertices on the conduit and have it bend. An active object will be exported to the Calculation Engine on a Solve command. Select the Configuration=>Interface Files menu command and the Interface File dialog will be shown as seen on the next page. Choose the selected button and then the calculate button.

Then highlight the Read existing file and right click and choose paste. stay consistent to avoid any problems. Do not reproduce without written authorization. Using the copy and paste is a good idea so that typographical errors won't occur. which contain the most common data for the link or node. After you name the interface files. © XP SOFTWARE. The node dialog is layer dependent and shows different data depending on the mode. If flows are generated in Runoff but they do not appear in Hydraulics layer then check dates. 10) Entering Data in Dialogs The most straightforward method of data entry in XP-SWMM is to enter data to the objects through dialogs attached to the nodes and links. interface file names.Regardless of the fact that a path is or isn't used. An alternative method to access the dialogs is to select the object and then use the command Edit=>Data. Other data is entered in dialogs that are spawned by selecting buttons on the first level dialog while other data such as rainfall is entered in a global database. the Mode properties to ensure all appropriate layers are being solved and make sure that no conduits are active in more than one layer. The first dialogs of the node and link are shown below. save your work. highlight the Rainfall interface file and fight click on the highlighted file and choose copy. Note that the object name is displayed in the dialog title bar. To use copy and paste. This double clicking or command brings up the first level dialogs. To access these dialogs double-click with the left mouse button on the link or node. Interface file names and the object selection set (which objects are active in which layers) along with inappropriate dates are the most common user errors. Workshop Example 1 – Page 11 of 64 .

Workshop Example 1 – Page 12 of 64 . This will load the © XP SOFTWARE. click with the mouse or choose the tab key.XLS.Node Data Dialog Runoff Mode . We will be using the Dialog boxes later in the example to enter data. 11) Entering Data in Tables XP-SWMM has a feature. Switch to the Runoff layer to add the subcatchment data first. Do not reproduce without written authorization. If the data is not valid or it is unreasonable an error message or warning will be displayed respectively. The first step is to prepare a XP Table with the appropriate columns and rows and then copy and paste the data from the spreadsheet LEXINGTON. We will be adding the data to the model using this portion of the software. or select the XP Tables icon from the tool strip to load this function. Select the menu item Results=>XP Tables. The temporary database is written to the permanent database (your .Hydraulics Mode . click with the mouse on the field and begin typing.XP file) during a File=>Save or Save As command. Cancel or the red X in the upper right hand corner will ignore any changes that have been made and will not invoke the data checking. Selecting the OK button causes an embedded expert system to check the data. press the F2 function key. Selecting the OK button also closes the dialog and commits the data to the temporary database. which allows the user to build tables for data entry and review of input data and results.Node Data Dialog Single Conduit Data Dialog To enter data in the dialog. To navigate to another field.

Workshop Example 1 – Page 13 of 64 . save the table using the save icon in the toolbar.Select table dialog where you can use an existing table or create any number of tables. the user can type the data from the Lexington. This saves the data into the XP-SWMM database. © XP SOFTWARE. sheet Runoff Data. Also selecting a column and the sort ascending or descending icons allows you to screen the model for inappropriate data. or can copy and paste the data directly from the spreadsheet into the XP Table. The blank XP Table and the excel spreadsheet are both shown on the following page. Use the insert button and the Variable Selection to select the Sub-Catchment Flag variable. Be sure to check that the Node Names and data columns are the same. Click on the add button and select the node button and name the Table Hydrologic Data. Do not reproduce without written authorization. Then click the ok button. Then click the ok button. Select the view button to open the table for input.xls spreadsheet. This opens the XP Table selection below. After the data is copied into the table. If you close Tables without saving the data will be lost. which will be stored in the Global Database. At this point. The first step is to create the Table. Entire rows and columns can be copied and pasted from other applications into the XP Table. Then use the append buttons and the Variable Selection below right create the table with the variables shown below. Then copy and paste the data from the excel spreadsheet to the XP Table.

Either type the data directly into the table or copy and paste the data.5 930 931 927 927 920 920 920 12) Entering Data using External Database Import In addition to dialog boxes and XP-Tables. First. Do not reproduce without written authorization. Select the “Create a new database connection” icon and follow the External Database Wizard. When you click on XP Tables. This wizard allows the user to import any OLE/OBDC database. Workshop Example 1 – Page 14 of 64 . click on File and then Import/Export External Databases.Node Data. Make sure that the Nodes are in the same order in both XP-SWMM and Excel.5 932 930 931 928.xls. Select variable type node and insert the HDR data items “Ground Elevation” and then append “Invert Elevation”.The same method will be used to bring in the Manhole data required for the Hydraulics layer.5 927. Select node as the display object and name the table . data can be brought into the model using the import external database procedure. Lexington. Remember to save the data in XP-Tables using the save icon. Then click next button to move to the next step. choose the “Select a file” icon and choose the file. This procedure is only available if you have purchased the GIS Module. Click on the XP Tables Icon again and the XP Tables creation screen will appear. In the menu. Next we will create a table called Node Data with the ground and invert elevations. © XP SOFTWARE. Node Name MH1 MH2 MH3 MH4 MH5 MH6 MH7 MH8 MH9 MH10 MH11 Pond Riser Outfall Spill Crest (GRELEV) 942 941 939 938 939 938 937 937 937 936 936 934 930 928 Invert (Z) 934 931. the original table (Hydrologic Data) will appear.

Continue to define all of the parameters: Roughness. Then move onto step 4. select the Length parameter. select the link button and define the mandatory data (Link Name. In step 4. US and DS Node Names were defined in Step 5 and do not need to be redefined here. This is the start of the mapping of data between the import database and XP-SWMM. Shape. Upstream Invert. Click on the next button to move to Step 6. In Step 3. choose to import and/or export data. Downstream Invert. Then click on the Import Button and note that Import was completed with 72 variables read into the model. The Link Name. and Diameter. US and DS Node Names) as shown below. Workshop Example 1 – Page 15 of 64 . Using the Variable Selection tree menu. we will map the data from the Lexington spreadsheet to the XP-SWMM database. select the XP variable for Pipe Length (below). © XP SOFTWARE. In Step 5. Do not reproduce without written authorization. Using the “Select an XP variable …” button. In Step 6. Then close the External Database Import to return to the model. choose to “Create New or Update Existing” for both import and export.Choose the Table ‘Conduit Data’ and click the next button.

This would be a good point to save and backup your work. we will attach the image MH2. This field will be ignored. attach and view the image to the right STRUCTURE. Using the same procedure. Likewise we can add notes to this project by selecting Notes from the pop-up dialog. etc. however if the data was entered in the Conduit Profile dialog the expert system will notify with warnings if the data for slope does not match the inverts and length. Do not reproduce without written authorization. At any node or link. For this example. To view the image. Workshop Example 1 – Page 16 of 64 . To add the picture. right mouse click and select attributes (shown to the left) then browse for the picture file MH2. In addition to photos. The dialog for entering notes is shown below. JPG. notes may be added at either nodes or links.JPG to the link Structure. © XP SOFTWARE. the user may attach a reference to a digital photo in a variety of formats including TIFF.JPG (shown below) to MH2. This will help you visualize the outlet structure of the node Pond and the elements of the multi-link described on the next page.JPG. 13) Attaching Images and Notes to Nodes The affordability of digital cameras and their applicability to field inspection has many engineers using digital images to enhance system knowledge and presentation. Add the notes shown below toMH2. The results would not be affected with or without the warnings. BMP.Note: Pipe Slopes are not required in the Hydraulics layer. Simply select the Solve routine in the conduit profile dialog to have the software calculate the slope for you and no warnings will be generated. Right mouse clicking on a node and selecting the appropriate command from the pop-up menu accesses both of these capabilities. repeat the right-mouse click for the pop-up dialog and select View Image.

Click on the View Menu. Make sure to change the orifice type from bottom to side outlet. Make sure to enter all of the data for both of the two orifices and weirs. including the Culvert Link.14) Entering Data for Diversions and Structures for the Pond and Link "Structure" First. Then double click on the multi-link “Structure”. Orifice 1 Data (Bleeder) Orifice 2 Data (Rectangular) The next set of data to be entered is the weir data. Using dialog boxes. If the link was digitized as a single link. Select the orifice No 1 and 2 and then enter the data below in the dialog boxes. If the red arrow on conduit 1 is turned on. The data can be entered in either Weir 1 and 2 or Weir 3 and 4. right click on the link and select the multi-link. Workshop Example 1 – Page 17 of 64 . Weir Data (Notch) Weir Data (Rim) © XP SOFTWARE. The crown elevation in the weir dialog box allows the software to automatically change from the weir equation to the orifice equation. Do not reproduce without written authorization. This opens the multi-link dialog box. we will enter the data for the multi-link “Structure”. click on it to turn it off. and using Save View. using the “Window area in” icon in the Toolbar. if the weir is in a closed conduit. save the view named as Pond. zoom in on the pond area. The data for the “Structure” is shown below.

top of bank elevation for the pond. XP-SWMM can run this analysis without an outfall. Then click “ok” until you are back at the network drawing.5 5.0 12.0 2.0 7. The depth field is the depth to the node invert and the area is in units of acres. Click on “Type 1. Click on the “ok” button. most models specify outfall conditions. Then enter an initial depth of 5 feet for the node so that the pond starts at the control level at the beginning of the simulation. Workshop Example 1 – Page 18 of 64 . double click on the node “Pond” and then click on Storage Button. Double click on the Node “Outfall”. which matches the rim or.5 Depth 10. Use a Node Surcharge Elevation of 934 ft. Click on the Stepwise Linear Button and enter the storage data shown to the right.15) Entering Data for the Node “Outlet” Although. Stepwise Linear Storage 10 9 8 7 6 A re a 5 4 3 2 1 0 0. Right click on the graph and experiment with the numerous capabilities of the graphing package. Make sure that the “Node Invert” button is active. Click on the “ok” button and return to the system drawing. Graph the data and check that your graph matches the graph in the lower right corner of this page. Free outfall” and then select “Use Minimum of Yc_Yn”. To enter the storage data. You have the ability to export the graphic as a graphic or as data using the Export Dialog selection. Do not reproduce without written authorization. Outlet Data for Node "Outfall” 16) Adding Storage Data for Node Detention The node “Pond” contains the storage data for the pond shown in the drawing.5 © XP SOFTWARE. Close the graph and click ok.

Double click on “Channel” and then click on the “Natural” button. The section coordinates can be entered directly into the Section coordinates dialog or they could be imported along with other data from a HEC2 file. After the general information above is entered. S tage 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 x 30 35 40 45 50 © XP SOFTWARE. roughness. Do not reproduce without written authorization.17) Adding Data for Channel Cross-Section The link "Channel" is a natural channel and requires cross sectional data. click on the “Sect Coordinates” button. left and right overbank station information shown to the left. You can use the insert and delete key to insert and delete rows in the table. using the “Ok” buttons. this would be a good point to save and backup your work. Workshop Example 1 – Page 19 of 64 . Section Coordinates 9 8 7 Once again. Click on the “Graph” button and see if your cross section looks the same as the cross section shown below. Enter the length. Enter the data shown on the right. For this tutorial enter the data as shown below for the link Channel in the appropriate dialogs. If it does. click out to the main model.

Selecting the graph button will produce the image that is shown on the next page. This storm had a total of 4.99 inches in an 18-hour period. Each of the fields of data records the amount of rainfall that has accumulated at the end of that 20-minute period. we can use existing data from the global database. 19) Rainfall Data in the Global Database Select the Database Type as Rainfall and then edit the record June 18.XP file earlier in this example (page 6). © XP SOFTWARE. The Global Database for a new project is empty since this information is internal to the XP file. infiltration data may be the same for many subcatchments. Our database has information because we merged the LFUCG. Change the data format to MM/DD/YYYY from DD/MM/YYYY. Workshop Example 1 – Page 20 of 64 .18) Infiltration Data in the Global Database Now that the network object data is complete. Select the Database Type as Infiltration on the left side of the dialog. in lieu of entering the same data repeatedly for each of many subcatchments. Then edit the record Huntington “B” to see the data as shown below. For example. The global database has been created to enable the storing of groups of data that may be associated to multiple network objects. 1992. The global database allows the data to be entered once and then referenced to the objects. The information can be edited or entered into the Global Database by selecting the command Configuration =>Global Data. Do not reproduce without written authorization.

Copy Icon Select item you wish to copy With this record now copied the rainfall can be attached to all nodes by returning to the network window and selecting the command Edit=>Paste Data or use CTRL+V for paste. 1992" labeled button with the mouse. Do not reproduce without written authorization. This pastes the “reference” to the global database record to all nodes for subcatchment 1. Then select the copy icon in the upper right hand corner of the dialog and pick the "June 18. You can also select the rainfall reference directly in XP-Tables using the pull-down menu. This copies the item to the clipboard. After the global databases have been entered go to the Subcatchment 1 of node "MH1" and select the "June 18. © XP SOFTWARE. Note: Rather than the above method. 1992" for the rainfall and "Huntington “B”" for the Infiltration records to be attached to this subcatchment.Rainfall graphed within XP-SWMM. Workshop Example 1 – Page 21 of 64 . you could copy and paste the rainfall reference using the XP tables.

we have to turn off the Snow Melt and Water Quality that have red check marks. and Print Control data is required and the data for this project is shown below. In the past. Buttons without check boxes are mandatory. These fields are turned on because we merged the LFUCG.XP including job control data. The evaporation data shown below was also brought in by the merge and can be left unchanged. although we must enter the screen and then click ok. since inappropriate values can generate erroneous results. In addition. All other hydraulic Job Control data is optional and should be used with discretion. Although we entered the Time Control data on page 4.20) Setting the Job Control (Simulation Limits and Criteria) Separate Job Control data is required for Runoff Layer and the Hydraulics Layer. No changes are required for the Print Control. In this simulation we will use a 60 second time step and also save the graphic results at a 60 second interval as well. the wet and transition time steps should be the same value to insure that all of the rainfall data is accounted for. Do not reproduce without written authorization. the merge changed the data and we will have to reenter the Transition and Wet Time Steps and the Simulation Start and Stop information. Today the use of these parameters often causes model(s) to be less stable. This group of data sets the simulation start and simulation end as well as setting the simulation time step. © XP SOFTWARE. simply select the same time period and choose an appropriate time step. In general. so in reference to the Runoff layer the Evaporation. For the Hydraulics Layer. Workshop Example 1 – Page 22 of 64 . Time Control. Simulation Tolerances and Routing Control were often used to adjust the models and provide for a more stable model condition. We turn these buttons off by clicking on the two buttons to turn them off.

The radio buttons in the Group "Current Mode" correspond with the Toolbar Icons Rnf. click on the OK button to import the data into the model.XPX.Toolbar icons. San. Workshop Example 1 – Page 23 of 64 .21) Setting Mode Properties (What to Solve) The final item required to complete our model before a run can be started is the Mode Properties. while the Add>> and Delete<< buttons below refer to the + and . 22) Importing XY Coordinates for the Nodes using XPX XPX files are free format ASCII text files with special key words to perform import instructions. This dialog shown to the left directs the program to which layers (modes) should be solved. and the solve order when selecting specific layers is top to bottom. the node coordinates are able to be stored with double precision accuracy. We will choose as solve mode Runoff and Hydraulics by selecting the command Configuration=>Mode Properties. Select the command File=>Import Data=>XPX Format File and select the file GPS. The following keywords exist with their function: NODE LINK DATA GLDB $TABLE creates or updates a node of given Name at specific X and Y coordinates creates a single or multiple link of given Name between US and D/S Nodes adds or overwrites single types of data to a specific object adds or updates a Global Database Record (Name) signifies the start of a comma separated table to import many variables to a group of objects $TABLE_END signifies the end of a CSV table Although the nodes were digitized on the screen and coordinates were assigned they are only as accurate as the screen placement. However. In this case the estimated XY coordinates will be overwritten with the survey data. Select the Import Button to perform the command. The contents of this file are shown on the next page. Do not reproduce without written authorization. © XP SOFTWARE. The next screen provides the user with an opportunity to cancel out of the data import. Note: For the Solve Mode only the "Current Mode" or a specific selection of Modes can be solved. If you are sure that you want to import the data in the XPX file. Remember that you can cancel the import by clicking on the Cancel button. It acts somewhat like a script when loaded into a database. and Hdr. The use of the XPX import procedure will overwrite any existing data present in the model.

Use the default file name of LEX.GPS.XPX i. since the current version does not have an undo of position changes. Having several sets of data in XPX would facilitate the user to easily return to a previous version or repair a database that has been corrupted. As mentioned previously the NODE commands at the top of the XPX file will restore objects to an original location if accidentally moved. Workshop Example 1 – Page 24 of 64 .e. The command is accessed from the File Menu=>Export Data. "YOURFILE. 23) Exporting the Data to an XPX File Similar to importing XPX files the data entered can be exported to a XPX file.XPX. In this tutorial. A portion of the file can be seen on the following page. by using the current file name with the extension . After the import is completed successfully. If you should move the nodes. which is created. © XP SOFTWARE. This will stop you from accidentally moving the nodes. you could always redo the XPX import of the node coordinates. Please note that your file may not show results if the model has not been solved.XPX.XPX NODE 134 "MH1" 1033235 351566 NODE 134 "MH2" 1032686 351585 NODE 134 "MH4" 1032658 351825 NODE 134 "MH6" 1032628 352062 NODE 134 "MH10" 1032596 352319 NODE 134 "MH11" 1032583 352447 NODE 134 "MH3" 1033055 351811 NODE 134 "MH5" 1032946 352053 NODE 134 "MH9" 1032887 352311 NODE 133 "Pond" 1032982 352454 NODE 133 "Riser" 1033046 352397 NODE 134 "outfall" 1033371 352395 NODE 134 "MH7" 1032603 352173 NODE 134 "MH8" 1032361 352145 This node command creates or updates a node nominated in quotes to the x and y coordinates specified. click on the ‘Lock Nodes Positions’ button. We are using it to precisely place the nodes at the “known” (GPS) coordinates. This command is an excellent method of generating a backup set of "data" from a project. 152 and 153 provide additional examples of XPX import procedures. we will now create a backup of our data using this command. Note: A file of NODE commands could be used to repair a network if objects are accidentally moved from their original positions. Modules 31. Do not reproduce without written authorization. Select all objects and all variables as is shown in the picture above. To export all the data or a selection of data choose the command File=>Export Data to see the following dialog: The Select Button allows the user to pick a list of data to export.

ROUGH "L2" 0 1 .095658961 R_REVAPGW "MH2" 0 1 0 R_RWATCNT "MH2" 0 1 0 R_RGRDLDA "MH2" 0 1 0 R_RMXGRDP "MH2" 0 1 0 R_RMXDBGS "MH2" 0 1 0 E_RNFLOOD "MH2" 0 1 59.002464364 E_RCRNTTS "L2" 0 1 3.5 ZP2 "L2" 0 1 930. NODE NODE NODE NODE NODE NODE NODE NODE NODE NODE NODE NODE NODE NODE LINK LINK LINK LINK LINK LINK LINK LINK LINK LINK LINK LINK LINK DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA 134 "MH1" 1033233.91535836 E_RXSECAR "L2" 0 1 3.013 ZP1 "L2" 0 1 931.103860 E_REGLREL "MH2" 0 1 -.559452933 E_RCMRUFF "L2" 0 1 .21 "" "" "" "" R_WIMP "MH2" 0 5 30.0 NODST "MH2" 0 1 0 FLGOUTF "MH2" 0 1 0 SFLOOD "MH2" 0 1 0 INQ "MH2" 0 1 0 GINFLOW "MH2" 0 1 0 DRY_WTH "MH2" 0 1 0 JPRT "MH2" 0 1 0 JPLT "MH2" 0 1 0 JNRR "MH2" 0 1 0 ICAP "MH2" 0 1 0 R_RSRFRUN "MH2" 0 1 21. whereas nodes that pass flow on an interface file are common in more than one layer and show data and results from all active layers. NKLASS "L2" 0 1 1 QO "L2" 0 1 0.8669673 E_MAXDEPTH "L2" 0 1 9 E_RTOPWID "L2" 0 1 1. A partial list is shown below including some results.92599078 E_RDSGNFF "L2" 0 1 17. Z "MH2" 0 1 931.01 "" "" "" "" R_WQTAG "MH2" 0 1 0 R_SMTAG "MH2" 0 1 0 R_GWTAG "MH2" 0 1 0 R_GWFLAG "MH2" 0 1 0 R_RAINSEL "MH2" 0 1 "June 18.1429 133 "Riser" 1033046 352397 134 "outfall" 1033371 352395 134 "MH7" 1032603 352173 134 "MH8" 1032361 352145 136 "L1" "MH1" "MH2" 136 "L2" "MH2" "MH4" 136 "L3" "MH4" "MH6" 136 "L4" "MH6" "MH7" 136 "L6" "MH10" "MH11" 136 "L7" "MH3" "MH4" 136 "L8" "MH5" "MH6" 136 "L9" "MH9" "MH10" 136 "channel" "MH11" "Pond" 138 "Structure" "Pond" "Riser" 136 "culvert" "Riser" "outfall" 136 "Branch1" "MH8" "MH7" 136 "L5" "MH7" "MH10" R_NODEFLOW "MH2" 0 1 0 R_RESSAVENODE "MH2" 0 1 0 R_RFCMNT "MH2" 0 5 1 0 0 0 0 R_WAREA "MH2" 0 5 1.The XPX file generated can include data and results. E_RMAXFLO "L2" 0 1 14.28571 E_RFROUDE "L2" 0 1 .0 DEEP "L2" 0 1 2.566 E_RVOLUME "MH2" 0 1 106.55622484 E_RMINFLO "L2" 0 1 0 E_RMINVEL "L2" 0 1 0 E_RMAXVD "L2" 0 1 39.7499999 E_RTIMENF "L2" 0 1 1294.80916175 E_RDSGNVL "L2" 0 1 5. 1992" R_INFILSEL "MH2" 0 1 "Huntington \"B\"" R_FSCS "MH2" 0 1 0 GRELEV "MH2" 0 1 940.6458161 R_RMXIFRT "MH2" 0 1 .0 Y0 "MH2" 0 1 0. Do not reproduce without written authorization.5232345 E_RPMXFLO "L2" 0 1 . Conduits typically will only be active in one layer.81646507 R_RGRDFLO "MH2" 0 1 0 R_RTOTIIF "MH2" 0 1 0 R_RNSURCH "MH2" 0 1 0 R_RMAXFLO "MH2" 0 1 20.4175 LEN "L2" 0 1 250.774960331 R_RMNINRT "MH2" 0 1 0 R_RTTLINF "MH2" 0 1 0 R_REVAPSF "MH2" 0 1 .0298508 DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA R_RRUNVOL "MH2" 0 1 21.0 NKLASSc "L2" 0 1 0 DESGN "L2" 0 1 P CF "L2" 0 1 0 SLOPE "L2" 0 1 0.86537012 E_RCSURCH "L2" 0 1 278.91535836 E_RMINORL "L2" 0 1 0 E_RFRICTL "L2" 0 1 2.6526 R_RINFILT "MH2" 0 1 2.7499999 E_RWOBBLE "L2" 0 1 4. Bold items are emphasized to show typical data and results for both Runoff and Hydraulics Layers.57781888 E_RLENDRT "L2" 0 1 2 E_RLENTMC "L2" 0 1 0 E_RTIMEPV "L2" 0 1 15.8821 E_RTNDITR "MH2" 0 1 13671 E_RNDINFL "MH2" 0 1 95144.642857 E_RCONTER "MH2" 0 1 . "" "" "" "" R_WSLOPE "MH2" 0 5 .6458161 R_RRAINFL "MH2" 0 1 23.2088426 E_RHYDRAD "L2" 0 1 .834334837 E_RTIMEPF "L2" 0 1 15.011764859 E_RFLDLSS "MH2" 0 1 17257.5 QINST "MH2" 0 1 0.5 E_RSRFELV "MH2" 0 1 940 E_RSRFARE "MH2" 0 1 12.430930394 E_RLENTSF "L2" 0 1 1 © XP SOFTWARE.928571 E_RTHDLSS "L2" 0 1 2.6202082 E_RMAXVEL "L2" 0 1 4.811 E_REGLELV "MH2" 0 1 940.8554 351566 134 "MH2" 1032686 351585 134 "MH4" 1032658 351825 134 "MH6" 1032628 352062 134 "MH10" 1032596 352319 134 "MH11" 1032583 352447 134 "MH3" 1033055 351811 134 "MH5" 1032946 352053 134 "MH9" 1032887 352311 133 "Pond" 1032982 352455.3461538 E_RSRFDTH "MH2" 0 1 8.10386049 E_RFREEBD "MH2" 0 1 0 E_RMNDITR "MH2" 0 1 2.59855540 E_RNSURCH "MH2" 0 1 134. "" "" "" "" R_WIDTH "MH2" 0 5 1050. Workshop Example 1 – Page 25 of 64 .

out i. This shareware version. The model can be solved with warnings messages. Since one error can cascade to create many problems work your way from the first to the last error by periodically rechecking the model by selecting solve. which is created.INI file and can be seen by selecting Tools=>Application settings. © XP SOFTWARE.EXE. Notepad Plus. The errors can be redisplayed by selecting the command Analyze=>Show Errors or by minimizing the error screen and switching to that window. Workshop Example 1 – Page 26 of 64 . the editor is NOTEPAD. These checks go beyond the checking performed when a dialog is closed with the OK button and ensure that no data is missing and that all of the dependencies are satisfied. we get a warning because we selected the station 34 for the left overbank location. The error and warning messages are comprehensive and tell the user which layer. Take a few minutes and look at the parameters included here.OUT. In this model. Any errors and warnings are displayed in the user-specified editor. Select the save button to select the output file. "YOURFILE. Repeat XPX export of your data if changes were made to the model to ensure you have a current set of backup data. For example. It is usually a good idea to save the model before you try to solve the model. We can close the editor and run the model. By default. so our warning tells us that XP-SWMM has interpolated the point using the cross section data we entered.e. all conduit inverts are checked against the invert elevations of the connecting nodes to ensure they are equal or higher. Do not reproduce without written authorization. Use the default file name of LEX.OUT. This editor is selected in the SWMXP. by using the current file name with the extension . is installed in the XP-SWMM directory and allows multiple and large files to be edited. We do not have a cross section point at station 34. but can not be solved with any errors. Many other model defaults are shown here.C) Solving a Model 1) Trouble Shooting Error Messages and Running the Model To solve a model the user must select the command Analyze=>Solve or select the Solve Icon (Space Shuttle) from the toolbar. which objects and an explanation of the problem. Before the Solve commences the entire database is checked for errors.

right mouse clicking on the graph and selecting the options icon on the Toolbar. and exporting data. Then mark the data points and zoom further to see only a few pieces of data. Zoom in on the tip of the graph where the HGL has reached the Surface Elevation. There are three locations or methods to access the commands. SELECT ONE GRAPH . exporting graphics.Click and drag with the mouse to create a window in the graph MARK DATA POINTS . including labels. You should now see that the HGL has reached a value equal to the surface elevation of 939.Use the arrow icons to go to the first or last or forward or ZOOM . Finally. These are double clicking on the graph. zooming in the graph. Capabilities of interest in this function include: changing titles.Right mouse-click on the graph and select Mark Data Points from the dialog SHOW DATA LABELS .Choose the options button and click OK on the next dialog SELECT A SPECIFIC GRAPH . Selecting MH 4 and then the Results=>Review Results command will show the HGL over time and that the HGL will reach the Ground Surface and remain at that level for some time.Right mouse-click on the graph and select Show Data Labels from the dialog © XP SOFTWARE. Do not reproduce without written authorization.D) Analyzing Model Results 1) Interpreting Flooding Using Review Results Each of these tools can be used to determine if flooding occurs. show the data labels.00 ft. marking data points. when and in the case of the output file the quantity. Workshop Example 1 – Page 27 of 64 .

and various annotations. rewind. stop. speed up. Workshop Example 1 – Page 28 of 64 . To select a series of links and nodes simply select the upstream or downstream node. then with the CTRL and SHIFT keys click with the mouse on the other end of the desired selection. Plotting elements other than conduits requires a length to be assigned for items such as orifices. The view below was selected from MH 1 to Pond. pan. move backward and forward step by step. pause. In this model we see the HGL at MH4 is at the ground and the flooded symbol appears so flooding is occurring. Do not reproduce without written authorization. Select a continuous set of links (branching is not allowed) and choose the Results=>Long Section command or the Long Section Icon from the Toolbar.2) Interpreting Flooding in the Long Section The Results=>Long Section command will animate the HGL within a selection of links. slow down. © XP SOFTWARE. zoom. Current water levels are shown in the color blue. weirs and pumps. Choose the Plot button in the multi-link dialog to plot through these objects. The Long Section command allows animation to play. The program will automatically select a preferred path between these points and highlight the objects. The Long Section graphics are designed to leave high water marks from the played simulation and are shown in the color magenta.

8547 0.4286 54.0000 0.8909 0. The Tables are numbered and a list of tables appears near the top of the output file.1944 46.0000 0.0000 0.3317 0.0000 0.3) Orientation to the Output File and Interpreting Flooding Using the command Results=>Browse File or clicking on the Notepad icon will allow the user to select the output file created from the Solve.4286 39.0686 0.9620 Stored in System Ponding Allowed Flood Pond Volume ----------------0.5928 3072.8988 0.0000 8.0000 0.0000 0. Listing of Runoff Tables Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 Physical Hydrology Data Infiltration data Raingage and Infiltration Database Names Groundwater Data Continuity Check for Surface Water Continuity Check for Channels/Pipes Continuity Check for Subsurface Water Infiltration/Inflow Continuity Check Summary Statistics for Subcatchments Sensitivity analysis for Subcatchments Listing of Hydraulic (Extran) Tables Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table E1 E2 E3a E3b E4 E4a E4b E5 E5a E6 E7 E8 E9 E10 E11 E12 E13 E13a E14 E15 E15a E16 E17 E18 E19 E20 E21 E22 Basic Conduit Data Conduit Factor Data Junction Data Junction Data Conduit Connectivity Data Dry Weather Flow Data Real Time Control Data Junction Time Step Limitation Summary Conduit Explicit Condition Summary Final Model Condition Iteration Summary Junction Time Step Limitation Summary Junction Summary Statistics Conduit Summary Statistics Area assumptions used in the analysis Mean conduit information Channel losses(H) and culvert info Culvert Analysis Classification Natural Channel Overbank Flow Information Spreadsheet Info List Spreadsheet Reach List New Conduit Output Section Pump Operation Junction Continuity Error Junction Inflow Sources Junction Flooding and Volume List Continuity balance at simulation end Model Judgement Section Listing of Sanitary (Transport) Tables Table Table Table Table Table Table Table T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 Transport Element Parameters Transport Continuity Check Quality Continuity Check Conduit Surcharge Summary Total iterations and maximum # of iterations Continuity Error in non-conduit elements Total flow through non-conduit elements Table E20 is of specific interest.8471 895.0000 0.2000 As shown in the above table. © XP SOFTWARE. Do not reproduce without written authorization. We will explore solutions to this problem later in the example.0000 0.0000 0.0000 62.0000 0.4860 0.6574 0.0000 23.0330 0. MH3 and MH4 are experiencing flooding and the loss of water from those nodes.1764 113.0000 30.0000 0.0940 0.0000 61.0000 0.0000 58.6389 32.1521 0.0000 0.0000 86.0000 0.0000 16. This table lists flooding and surcharging results for each node.0000 Junction Name --------------MH1 MH2 MH4 MH6 MH7 MH10 MH11 Pond Riser Outfall MH9 MH8 MH5 MH3 Surcharged Time (min) ---------34.0000 0. By looking at the long section.0000 6. Workshop Example 1 – Page 29 of 64 .6956 87.0000 0.0000 0.0000 31.0000 87.0000 0.0000 0.7143 74.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 22.0000 0.1667 50. Users should take some time and review each table to understand how the model is working and to see if the results are reasonable.0000 92.0000 750391.0000 0.0000 0.7143 Flooded Time(min) --------0.0000 0.7976 0. The output file is the most comprehensive simulation report and it contains summaries and tables for the entire simulation.4107 0.0000 0. we can see that both problems are the result of downstream pipe capacity problems.2778 48.0000 112. A sample is shown below: Out of System Flooded Maximum Volume Volume ----------------0.4331 0.

0161 0.1559 0.2112 304.3962 27600.67 7514 118 14 12 MH6 0 2.1827 0 MH6 -48.46 6936 15 11 3 MH11 0 2.9473 60142.1944 0.71 4817 0 5 0 Riser 0 1.0056 113.09936E+05 cubic feet Your mean node continuity error was Excellent Your worst node continuity error was Excellent In addition to checking Table E18.4) Reviewing Continuity Error at All Nodes Our model has excellent continuity error overall.2834 369486.---------. 39452 Efficiency of the simulation.0029 -28.. | | Omega Cng = Change of omega during iterations | | Max Itern = Maximum number of iterations | *=========================================================* Junction Not Convr Avg Convr Total Itt Omega Cng Max Itern Ittrn >10 -------------.7113 0 MH10 -29.0099 0. | | Avg Convr = Average junction iterations.0055 0.0098 1.16 6085 60 17 13 Total number of iterations for all junctions..0958 250536.--------.8981 0 MH9 43.0358 0.5175 32987.6364 0 MH11 635.5302 0.9 cubic feet The remaining total volume was 7. 88488 Minimum number of possible iterations. a closer look in Table E18 shows that there is only small error at all nodes and about 2% at the Pond.0012 50..---------..01 5660 34 19 1 MH5 0 1...0992 0.0014 0.-------.--------.1339 0.2659 0 MH2 -164.78 5006 4 17 1 MH8 0 2.1661 0.0124 0.1852 0 Pond 2348.1083 221581.9288 0.1690 0. Using Table E18 Junction <------Continuity Error -------> Remaining Beginning Net Flow Total Flow Failed to Name Volume % of Node % of Inflow Volume Volume Thru Node Thru Node Converge ---------------------..3457 0 MH7 -75.0374 225.28 9237 183 57 103 MH10 0 2.8169 0 Outfall -84.0630 0.0028 939.. Workshop Example 1 – Page 30 of 64 .49 4193 0 12 1 Outfall 0 2.65 7469 3 18 2 Pond 0 1.2943 -0.. reducing the time step will often reduce the number of nonconvergences and take the efficiency closer to 1 iteration per time step.0475 0. with 2 iterations per time step being optimum.3627 0.0279 81..3558 490088. This table is unique to XP-SWMM and allows users to have greater confidence in the model knowing that all of the components are reasonable.4669 30669...0546 0.3854 0.3388 296763.1949 27700...0620 193648.0168 0.--------.4936 0 MH8 50.87 5260 16 12 4 MH3 0 2.2705 0..2730 0.0015 43.7810 709321.2006 0.7077 0. 2.0034 -48.0040 -163..4927 147832.0044 903.71 7641 131 39 31 MH7 0 3.8101 0.2357 0.0015 -2.2122 147713.--------.0207 -0.--------MH1 0 2.4750 0 MH5 27.0016 27.33 6577 99 48 18 MH4 0 2.9372 0 MH4 7.4689 0.0020 3127.2423 0.03 5725 36 30 9 MH2 0 2..0182 0..--------MH1 189.0302 0... This feature is currently absent in EPA SWMM.2160 316423.0019 0.3306 0..1033 0.. Table E8 indicates that all of the nodes converged. Should you encounter models were one or more nodes fail to converge.5512 0 MH3 54. | | Conv err = Mean convergence error.0569 0.---------.0849 0.0026 0..7764 0.. *=========================================================* | Table E8 .0091 0.5049 -0. Do not reproduce without written authorization.1151 0 The total continuity error was 2841.0760 0.0249 0..6173 0.24 Excellent Efficiency Ittrn >25 --------2 3 0 1 23 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ittrn >40 --------0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 © XP SOFTWARE.4304 -0.2138 -0.1391 0.4691 48834.Junction Time Step Limitation Summary | *=========================================================* | Not Convr = Number of times this junction did not | | converge during the simulation.2423 140155.0252 0.0028 189.----------------.26 6368 1 7 0 MH9 0 1.6235 -0.8659 0 Riser -112.0144 0..---------.0025 -75.

20%...24 and there are no nodes with non convergence........01 and the overall continuity error went down to 0.......303 21...........Iteration Summary | *=========================================================* Total number of time steps simulated... Average Courant Factor Tf..Table E-7 can provide information to help choose the time step. 0.....out *==============================================================* | SWMM Simulation Date and Time Summary | *==============================================================* | Starting Date.... Efficiency of the simulation Most Number of Non Convergences at one Node Total Number Non Convergences at all Nodes Total Number of Nodes with Non Convergences ===> ===> ===> ===> Hydraulic model simulation ended normally.. 0. Average minimum Conduit Courant time step (sec).. 12:25: 4:79 | | Elapsed Time......... Your input file was named : C:\XPS\Training\lex.19% with the worst nodal error at 0.303 21.. ################################################### # Table E22..660 5.......... Compare the outputs from Tables E-7... © XP SOFTWARE. XP-SWMM Simulation ended normally..3309 percent 0...... Numerical Model judgement section # ################################################### Your overall error was Worst nodal error was in node Pond Of the total inflow this loss was Your overall continuity error was with 0. Workshop Example 1 – Page 31 of 64 .. Average number of iterations per time step... Our overall continuity error is 0.. 0...33% with the worst nodal error at 0. Number of times omega reduced........ Choose a time step close to the average time step shown in Table E-7.....013 21....482 30. Total number of time steps during simulation... 12:24:59:29 | | Ending Date...... Average minimum junction time step (sec)......303 700 Table E22 represents a summary of the numerical solution... 2002 Time.. 1440 4175 2818 1......... Total number of passes in the simulation....7819 percent Excellent Excellent Efficiency 2.. etc improved... Most models should have an overall continuity error of less than 2% and a worst nodal error of less than 5%.38%. we could reduce the time step to 30 seconds.24 0. E-8. Ratio of actual # of time steps / NTCYC......50000 seconds | *==============================================================* Our Lexington model is excellent shape....... Largest time step size(seconds). Therefore. The efficiency decreased to 2...957 1..... The efficiency is 2. Do not reproduce without written authorization. 2002 Time...455 60.3821 percent 0....... *=========================================================* | Table E7 .. Average time step size(seconds).09167 minutes or 5. November 5....000 35.. November 5. Smallest time step size(seconds). Average minimum implicit time step (sec).DAT Your output file was named : C:\XPS\Training\lex. the reduction in the time step improved the continuity of the model. E-18 and E-22 and see if the continuity. Change the time step to 30 seconds and rerun the model. In this case.

This will place all the current data including the conduit name into the Conduit#1 location. © XP SOFTWARE. this is the default of SWMM. we will need to convert the existing link L3 to a multiple conduit. Another alternative would be to use a natural section. In order to model this routing. Workshop Example 1 – Page 32 of 64 . Name the existing conduit “Pipe 3” and add the conduit "Street 3" to Location 2 and enter the data shown to the right. we will add an open channel to connect MH4 to MH6. Do not reproduce without written authorization. the HGL at MH4 and MH3 rises above the ground and spills out. in the street to MH6. To accomplish this simply right mouse-click on the link to bring up the pop-up-dialog shown below and select MultiConduit. A field inspection has discovered that during high flows the flooded water actually travels north on Allen Blvd. Since only one link can connect to nodes. We will use a trapezoidal channel to simulate the street. A diagram to illustrate this is shown below. Additional conduits can now be added to the multi-link. however a trapezoid is a good approximation when flow can be assumed simultaneous in both gutters. These lost flows are accounted for and do not directly affect continuity error locally or globally.E) Additional Features 1) Simulating Overland Flow (Dual Drainage) As we mentioned earlier in our example. This water is lost from the system and is not routed.

XP-SWMM allows the users to accurately simulate the restriction of flows through inlets. Do not reproduce without written authorization. Double-click on the node MH1 and then select the maximum capacity type. Much of the street flooding occurring in the real world is actually due to capture inefficiency rather than the limited hydraulic capacity of the storm sewers. This means if we were to add an additional 1 foot of depth in the street we would need to raise the node spillcrests an equal amount. add street sections to links L1 and L2. 2) Simulating Inlet Restriction Following the above procedure. If we perform a long section through a multi-conduit only one of the conduits can appear in the view. By selecting with the radio button the second row of the multi-conduit dialog we can obtain a view similar to that shown below which shows the street flow occurring between nodes MH4 and MH6.In order for the trapezoid to be able to fill we need to ensure the spillcrest levels of the upstream and downstream node to equal the top of the open channel which in our case is the top of curb. the problem is getting the flow in the sewers. Enter a value of 2 meaning that the most flow that © XP SOFTWARE. During high intensity events. In this case we used the curb heights as the spillcrest levels and the trapezoid inverts are the street level 1 foot below. Workshop Example 1 – Page 33 of 64 .

This loss of water is tabulated in table E20 of the output file and is called flooded loss within the graphical reporting tools. You may want to repeat the process at view the next downstream link. the peak flow in Pipe 1 exceeds 2.can enter the system at this location is 2 cfs. Workshop Example 1 – Page 34 of 64 . select the Review Results on the multilink L1 to see both the flow in the street and in the pipe. The balance will be forced into the street conduit and will travel to the next node. For node MH2 use the rated option and pick the slotted grate that already exists in the global database. The ponding default of SWMM is that when the HGL gets to the spillcrest level (usually this is the rim or ground level) any incoming flows that do not travel in the connected conduits are lost out the top and not routed through the sewer system. After solving the model. 3) Surface Ponding XP-SWMM allows advanced options for the HGL at a hydraulics node. The captured pipe flow will be limited to the 2 cfs. Pipe 1 becomes surcharged due to downstream pipe capacity. Do not reproduce without written authorization. Due the simulation. © XP SOFTWARE.0 cfs as the water stored in Manhole MH1 and Pipe 1 drains. In this case the approach flow will not only be the inflow to MH2 from the interface file (Runoff) but also the flow arriving in the channel from the conduit “street”. Therefore.

Do not reproduce without written authorization. Select the Stepwise Linear Storage Method in the upper right hand portion of the Storage Node Data Dialog. since the same equation applies to all locations as shown to the right. where the excess flow is stored then returned to the system when the HGL would drop.XP-SWMM allows the user to define an equation for the surface area vs. Then graph the data and make sure that your curve matches the curve shown below. Check the Spill Crest button in the Storage Node Data Dialog shown to the lower left below. This dialog box is located in the Hydraulic Layer Job Control under Junction defaults. We will use this method for Node MH7. Now would be a good time to save and backup your work. Another option is to use the ponding allowed option and define a specific stepwise linear storage for each node. double click on Node MH7 and turn on the Ponding Allowed button as shown to the right Then click on the Storage box in the bottom left hand corner of the HYD Node data dialog. Close the graph and the stepwise linear storage dialog box. Now run the model and look at the results at MH7 and compare to previous runs. depth. Enter the Depth and Area shown to the left in the Stepwise Linear Storage Dialog. © XP SOFTWARE. Workshop Example 1 – Page 35 of 64 . First. This method of ponding is suited to a situation where the ponding can be generalized.

This data can be entered in the Conduit Factors. © XP SOFTWARE. maintenance hole configuration etc.0 to the link "Culvert" for this tutorial. Also new to version XP-SWMM and greater is the Inlet Control using the FHWA HDS-5 procedure. It is good idea to enter an inlet type for all culverts to ensure that correct headwater is being calculated. The conduit "Culvert" will display friction and head losses. Since ponding allowed has been turned on the HGL has risen above the Spillcrest.4) Entrance/Exit Losses and Other Minor Losses XP-SWMM does not automatically include entrance/exit or other form losses in its hydrodynamic solution. 57 different inlet conditions are simulated. Table E20 will show a time flooded and no flooded losses.5 and an exit loss of 1. Workshop Example 1 – Page 36 of 64 . These losses will be calculated using the formulation of: KV2/2g The velocity at the exit will be used for exit losses and the approach velocity for the entrance losses. Add a 1. Also select Square edge with headwall as the inlet type. The maximum values shown here are the losses that occurred using the velocity at the time of maximum flow. the excess water has been stored at the surface and returned to the network. if these losses are significant the Manning's "n" is increased so that the friction loss equaled the loss due to friction. EXTRAN is regularly criticized for under-estimating headwater for culverts flowing under inlet control. XP-SWMM modelers can explicitly account for the entrance and exit losses by selecting the "K value" coefficients in the Special Conduit Factors Dialog. This is significant since maximum velocity may not always occur at the same time as maximum flow. Add an entrance loss of 0. the velocity used for friction losses are from the center of the conduit. entrance/exit. Do not reproduce without written authorization. then rerun the simulation and and review results at MH7. Rerun the model and check Table E13.0 ft sediment depth in conduit L5. however. These losses can be approximated this way. 6) Sediment Depth The hydraulics can be altered in a conduit by adding a static sediment depth in a conduit. Run the model and use Table E-13a to see how many minutes the culvert was under different outlet/inlet classifications. Performing a Long Section will allow you to see the depth that the water ponds at that location. Traditionally.

Therefore. In addition.year storms. Repeat and select the 10. the user can look at multiple storms for one node or link on the same graph. This continues for all of the global storms entered in the global storms. To set up and run global storms. The first file. The user can chose to look at other parameters such as velocity or levels and can look at the storms individually also by using the pull down menus on the screen. Using the rainfall global database. Remember to click on the empty box in the first column to run all three storms. using the configuration menu.out and lexS300. change the start time to January 1. lexS200. Type in the return period and Name for each of the storms. If you select either dynamic long section or dynamic section views. lexS100. 2001 and 0:0. XP-SWMM will automatically define three output files called lexS100. 2001 and the end time to January 1. Click ok twice to go back to the main screen. Workshop Example 1 – Page 37 of 64 . Leave the time step set at 30 secs.out. Click on the Rainfall area for the first storm and using the pull down menu select the rainfall global database called “1-HOUR 100-Year”. Select Link L4 and review results and you will see the flow for all three storms on one graph as shown on the following page. Repeat the above for the runoff layer.and 1. Save the data.out. This allows users to run multiple storms in both runoff and hydraulics. The user can also review multiple storms on one graph using review results.out contains the output for the 10-year storm. Select the Global Storms button to enter the global storms dialog shown below.7) Global Storms Global storms are new to Version 8. These storm events all use the starting data and time of January 1. Do not reproduce without written authorization. lexS200.5 of XPSWMM. Note that the Runoff timestep in the global database is in three minutes and change the transition and wet weather timesteps to 180 seconds. Select the insert storm button three times to add three storms. We are now ready to run the global storms. All of the output previously described is available when using global storms. select Job Control and then Runoff to get the screen shown to the right. © XP SOFTWARE. determine the correct date and times to enter into the Job Control for both Runoff and Hydraulics.out is the output for the first rainfall entered or in this case the 1-year storm. 2001at 6:00 am. Therefore. the user can look at each of the output files individually. job control and hydraulics. the user must go the Runoff Job Control Dialog box. Click on the Configuration menu. The second file. you will have to choose which of the three storms you want to display.

perhaps multi-generation in length (Crawford. 1993. 1992) To fully address sustainability issues of ecosystem. 1992. Do not reproduce without written authorization. Brundtland. It can be argued that 75-year simulations. ASCE. and design on the basis of return frequency of rainfall not runoff fuel the controversy (ASCE. project design life. the practice of assigning a particular design storm to a given frequency. © XP SOFTWARE. their transposition from one location to another. 1987. constitute a compromise between available datasets. prairie or wetland to agriculture. and long-term surface water quality impacts however. first in the transition from natural forest. and community living memory. and subsequently to urban sprawl and human population intensification in engineered environments. In many urban catchments the 3G time frame should clearly cover the degradation of natural aquatic habitats. Workshop Example 1 – Page 38 of 64 . 1992). Their study was motivated by the decline in many anadromous salmon stocks in the Pacific Northwest over long periods of time.F) Continuous Simulation The subject of the use and validity of design storms is controversial. Gore. about three generations (3G). Dose and Roper (1994) evaluated changing stream widths over a 56-year period for an Oregon watershed undergoing deforestation and road building. continuous storm water quality management modelling techniques and tools need to be developed for a time span appropriately longer. The lack of realistic and accurate definitions in design storms. engineering design credibility. neglect of antecedent catchment conditions.

when analysed as a time series (TS). There are three distinct and very important advantages of 3GM modelling: first. Southerland's research (1981) demonstrated that the assessment of nonpoint pollution control strategies require the concentration-frequency information that only continuous simulation can provide. (1983) found that the continuous modelling output from SWMM and HSPF. 1994). better estimates of initial conditions are required (Medina. Do not reproduce without written authorization. 1994). ecosystem impacts. velocities and constituents. and 5) ecosystems impacts. such as fluviological. the startup error extends into much of the run. In order to reliably assess the risks and downstream impacts. 1994). Hydrologic models such as SWMM and HSP-F contain code to conceptually model the processes that control the recovery of moisture deficits and of pollutant build-up for continuous simulations (James and Robinson. The implications of continuous simulation on the design of detention storage is presented by James and Robinson (1982). Continuous Simulation information is necessary for further studies listed previously. © XP SOFTWARE. Using the US EPA Storm Water Management model (SWMM) could aid in the conceptualisation of the following environmental impacts of urbanization: 1) number and duration of critical exceedences of flows. although generally at a greater effort. temperature and wind speed can be used once converted from their original formats to a format for SWMM. 1994). 2) number and duration of critical deficits of flows. reveals more information than do statistical models. The latter two time series are used for continuous snowmelt calculations. and the elimination of the vexing question and the error related to the arbitrary assumption of the start-up or initial conditions that is inherent in single-event modelling (Huber. velocities and pollutants. Continuous simulation may supplement the decision making process in the planning stages of Best Management Practice (BMP) options for protecting and restoring our watersheds (Ahmed. The extracted TS information such as frequency of exceedences or deficits and duration of critical exceedences or deficits is critical in assessing environmental impacts. evaporation. One very important advantage of continuous storm water quality management modelling (CSWQMM) is its ability to reflect decreasing mass loads from watersheds as a wet season progresses and diminished mass buildup between storms. and watershed planning and analysis studies. For water quality modelling the inter-event period is critical. Both the wet and dry periods in the hydrologic cycle impact pollutant loads and on this premise eco-sensitive design demands the adoption of continuous modeling (James. Long time series of rainfall. 1989). 3) fluviological impacts. the removal of the subjective choice by the modeler to decide on the antecedent moisture conditions. 4) habitat impacts. The transition from design storms to CS could be accomplished by using a continuous record of rain of say "n" years of data can be thought of as a "n" year duration design storm. the superior conceptualisation and information gained from an output time series analysis and third. Many authors have stated that the outputs from long-term continuous quality modelling are less subjective than the output from traditional design storm techniques (Huber. 1992). with the peak event in that "n" years being the storm with a "n" year return period. Workshop Example 1 – Page 39 of 64 . James. a short continuous event. and is especially important where storages and loss-rate processes are active. Continuous simulation with deterministic models such as SWMM is a necessary part of pollution control planning decisions and substituting the use of inferior design storm methods is unethical (James.Much of the data that is required for continuous modelling is readily available. second. Continuous simulation is SWMM is not much different then event modeling. the ability to model long term physical and water quality impacts on receiving water bodies. 1986). In short-event-modelling applications. Huber (1992) and Goforth et al. 1992. The costs of continuous simulation have been drastically reduced with the availability of continuous meteorological data and the advances in computing speed and technology. They identified the distinct advantage of continuous modelling to be its ability to provide antecedent conditions as an implicit component of the modelling.

00045 2001 9 1 35 0 U84295001.00045 2001 9 1 50 0 U84295001. Workshop Example 1 – Page 40 of 64 .KENTUCKY NWIS DATABASE PROVISIONAL DATA . Do not reproduce without written authorization. US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY .00045 2001 9 1 60 0 The rainfall above can be read by XP-SWMM using the User Input:Rainfall Data type.1) Reading External Data For this tutorial we have obtained some USGS data for Lexington. Create a Global Database record named “Online Data” and add it to the rainfall list.00045 2001 9 1 25 0 U84295001. It contained many stations including flow metering but has been reduced for this tutorial to just rainfall for downtown Lexington.00045 2001 9 1 45 0 U84295001.SUBJECT TO REVISION TIME SERIES RECORD NAME YEAR MONTH DAY MINUTE VALUE ---------------------------------------------------------------------------U84295001.00045 2001 9 1 30 0 U84295001.00045 2001 9 1 15 0 U84295001.00045 2001 9 1 5 0 U84295001. First we need to create a rainfall record to hold the data format and file name.00045 2001 9 1 10 0 U84295001.00045 2001 9 1 55 0 U84295001. The data was downloaded from ftp://wwwdkylsv.TXT is shown below.00045 2001 9 1 40 0 U84295001.00045 2001 9 1 20 0 U84295001.er. KY near our project site. Edit the record and then enter the start date and time and finally choose the Rainfall Data type. A sample of the file 84295001.usgs.gov/pub/LEXFCUG/. © XP SOFTWARE.

Change the record from “June 18. Choose September 1st.TXT from the work directory.Select the file 84295001. After this record has been created we need to update the rainfall record attached to each of the Runoff nodes. © XP SOFTWARE. 2001 and September 30th. Change the Runoff timestep to 300 seconds (5 minutes) to match the data in the Save your data. 1992” to “Online Data” at one node then copy and paste to the others following the procedure described on the bottom of Page 21. We are also introducing the time step since the hour and minute are missing. This file has a cumulative time in minutes in its place. In this tutorial we only need to change the Runoff and Hydraulics simulation start and end to reflect the entire month of data. The final step is to make any necessary changes in the Job Control simulation start and end. Note the first 11 lines of the file are discarded as they represent header information. Add a record named LFUCG Online Rain and edit the record. Do not reproduce without written authorization. Enter the formatting shown below. Enter the station number as 84295001 and then select the File Format global database records. 2001 for simulation start and end. Workshop Example 1 – Page 41 of 64 .

3000 etc. which alter the default operation of the program. Workshop Example 1 – Page 42 of 64 .000 points for the graphing.SYR . For this example we will use the configuration parameter MAXPTS=10000. select the engine and type 10.SYT and . The XP-SWMM help file has a comprehensive list of these variables. it is a plotting parameter not a simulation parameter. To access the dialog at the right simply select the command Configuration=>Configuration Parameters. a 1-5 minute interval is suitable for most models. The user enters a “Save Results Every” X seconds or minutes. Configuration Parameters are keywords.000 under MAXPTS. Using the pull down menu. This default can be over-ridden with the use of a configuration parameter. Typically. Either Configuration Parameters or Application Settings will change the graphing points. Another option is to change the Application Settings located under Tools and Application Settings (see to the right). Likewise we could have used a value of 1000. Do not reproduce without written authorization. For best performance of graphing and animation of the HGL the total number of points per object should not be more than 5000. The frequency of the graphing points in the Hydraulics layer is now controlled in the Job Control dialog. This is due to the fact the default for the graphing is to store up to 2000 points for each object in the .SYF files. Many more configuration parameters exist.2) Controlling the Resolution in Review Results During very long simulations the Runoff graphs can become quite coarse. you do not have to do both. © XP SOFTWARE. some will be discussed later and in other tutorials. which will store up to 10. Note: The simulation results are the same.

Make the node GWRecharge a free outfall and use the same spillcrest and invert as the pond node. These losses are normally driven by the total head in the pond and can be estimated or approximated by an equation. As can be seen in the graph. The multi-link will only have the Special=>Internal Rating Curve option selected on any row.3) Modeling Infiltration Losses in a Pond Typical detention ponds can loose a substantial amount of water through infiltration to the groundwater. Do not reproduce without written authorization. Workshop Example 1 – Page 43 of 64 . Solve the model and view the results for the multilink "Losses". The node will be a free outfall with the same invert and spillcrest as the pond. the flow tracks the depth with the relationship we have used. Label the new link “Losses” and the node “GWRecharge”. © XP SOFTWARE. In this tutorial we will simulate the losses by using a rating curve based on depth and flow. These losses are not normally significant in an event simulation but do affect the pond performance in a continuous simulation. The results for the rating curve are shown below. Label the diversion "Exfil" and enter the data as shown below. Use the multi-conduit tool and create in the hydraulics layer a link from the node Detention to the left to a new node. relating head to flow.

Perform a comprehensive sensitivity analysis on each parameter for all events. particularly in the Runoff Block. Hence. theoretical values or other model results. 1985). 4. Although the simulation of many of the urban runoff processes found in SWMM is physically based. It is important to note that detailed shorttime-increment pollutographs during a storm are seldom needed for the analysis of receiving water quality. many computational procedures within the model are based upon limited data themselves some highly empirical. total storm event loads or event mean concentrations for a number of typical storms is usually sufficient for quality calibration and verification. 5. Some of this relates to the fact that SWMM is a lumped model. for sensitivity analysis & calibration. copious output and a lack of measured time series. Construct/extract a series of synthetic/real storm events. SWMM is a lumped model and some of the parameters require calibration so that they represent the effective or average of a spatial or temporal parameter space. combined sewer overflow locations. especially surface quality predictions. SWMM has sufficient parameters that may be "adjusted". and sewage treatment plants.4) Calibrating the Model to Measured Peak Flows Model calibration is a mixture of science and art. initial quality estimates can be off by orders of magnitude if local data is not used (Huber. Plot or tabulate parameter sensitivity and the gradient. Catchment characteristics are only as spatially distributed as the level of discretion that is modelled. objective & evaluation functions. Calibration is the adjustment of model input parameters to obtain output that closely matches field results. two sensitive model parameters. and area and imperviousness data. In contrast. A full treatment of this subject is not possible in the scope of this workshop. such that calibrating the model against measured data for various storm types and processes is usually readily accomplished. Quantity (hydrograph) predictions are often "within the ball park" on the first try. Each experienced modeler has his own methods and bias to parameter adjustment. relative effects of pollution abatement alternatives may be studied if such data are not available. A tried and true method is listed below for calibrating Runoff: 1. © XP SOFTWARE. quality predictions are not credible without adequate site-specific data for calibration and verification. Identify/select process. the concept fails in practice because the input data and the numerical methods are not complete in their description of the modelled process. For each event type rank the parameters from most to least sensitive. Calibration and verification data are usually in the form of measured flows and concentrations at outfalls. As a result. Do not reproduce without written authorization. This is a result of the model being formulated with independent routines. Furthermore. given accurate and representative rainfall. 6. Some general comments about calibration: A continuous model cannot be calibrated efficiently in a continuous mode due to long run times. 3. however this short example can serve as a good foundation. Hence. A continuous model is calibrated by calibrating all of the “dominant” or active processes. 2. Workshop Example 1 – Page 44 of 64 . A comprehensive sensitivity analysis identifies the dominant processes. At best. However. Select corresponding measured response from existing TS or discrete sampling. historical records. the processes of a continuous model can be efficiently calibrated. it is essential that local site specific data be available for calibration and verification to lend credibility to the predictions of any urban runoff model. Most SWMM parameter sensitivity is nearly linear or linear throughout reasonable ranges. Verification is the testing of this parameter selection by using an independent input data set.

These observations can be water levels. respectively (shown below). Workshop Example 1 – Page 45 of 64 . The entry. DDPOW. QFACT) F) Pollutant Washoff (RCOEF. Then using the OK buttons. Verify with other events and the continuous TS using the optimized parameters. Go to link "L6" and select the Gauged Flow button on the Conduit dialog. IMPDEP) B) Routing Parameters (WIDTH.his file. Start with the most to least sensitive. Therefore if the gauged data is much larger in value than the computed response. IMPERN. exit back to the overall model screen with the nodes. then some of the gauged data may not display. A) Impervious Parameters (PCTZER.7.recheck events in A and redo B C) Pervious Parameters (Infiltration Parameters. Do not reproduce without written authorization. Choose Gauged Flow button (shown to the right) and select the file and station as L6. links and background images. By selecting the edit button. The file is fixed format ASCII text file and can be created and edited off-line in another program. pollutant concentrations or pollutant loads. Please note that in the current version of XP-SWMM the graph will automatically scale to the computed series and not the gauged data. It is a good idea to make sure that the data is being read by XP-SWMM. SLOPE) .recheck events in E and redo F 8. you can see the measured flow data from the l6. WASHPO) .HIS and l6. viewing or editing of this data is through the "Gauged Data" button on the objects first level dialog. 5) Using Measured Flows (Gauged Data) in Review Results At each node or link and in all layers the user is permitted to add a time series of observations. PERVN. flows. A sample of the file we will use is shown below. PERDEP) D) Recovery of Infiltration (REGEN) E) Pollutant Buildup (DDLIM. Restart from steps three with current parameters if calibration is unsatisfactory. With this file attached these values will display in the review results. Calibrate the following groups of parameters. © XP SOFTWARE. 9.

2001 6AM to 9AM #################################################### Total Flow Peak Flow Ratio to Base Ratio to Base Total Flow Peak Flow Watershed Watershed Flow Watershed Flow Classification Classification Parameter ============ ============== ============== ============== ============== ============== average 1. Workshop Example 1 – Page 46 of 64 .0 extra sensitive extra sensitive area increase + area-.25 0.232E-01 -0.000 not sensitive not sensitive perv n imp1+.000 0. XP-SWMM has the capability to perform an automated sensitivity analysis on the watershed parameters for the Runoff hydrology method.25 -0.000 0.25 -0.10 or 0.158 -0.000 0.328 -0.000 not sensitive not sensitive 2nd infiltr + imp2-.25 -24.25 0. Add the configuration parameter SENSE=0.0 extra sensitive extra sensitive impervious + imp-. In this example we see the computed response (model results) and the measured flows have a high degree of correlation. In order to improve upon the degree of fit we need to calibrate the model.25 0.25 2.000 not sensitive not sensitive 3rd infiltr + imp3-.182 -0.25 for a 10% or 25% adjustment in each parameter. 6) Performing a Sensitivity Analysis XP-SWMM can perform an automated sensitivity analysis using the parameter perturbation method for all the watershed parameters. Sensitivity anlysis for Subcatchments # September 4.25 and rerun the Runoff layer.25 -2.00 1.25 0.25 0.000 0.000 not sensitive not sensitive perv ds impn+. The automation of the sensitivity analysis is performed by using the configuration parameter SENSE=X where X = a numeric value such as 0.25 0. Each parameter is adjusted ± a fixed value while all others are held constant.25 0.25 -25. The resulting peak flows and volumes are compared to an "average" watershed.000 not sensitive not sensitive 1st infiltr imp2+.25 -0. we need to perform a sensitivity analysis.756E-03 less sensitive not sensitive width slope+.178E-03 less sensitive not sensitive width + width-.3 25.0 extra sensitive extra sensitive area decrease imp+. In order to determine which parameters to adjust and how much.2 -25.000 0. The results of the sensitivity analysis are contained in Table R10 of the output file. Note the file does not have to be resolved.314E-03 less sensitive not sensitive imprv n pern+. The results are shown below.000 not sensitive not sensitive 1st infiltr + imp1-.000 not sensitive not sensitive 2nd infiltr imp3+.8 -25.000 not sensitive not sensitive perv ds + perdep-.000 0.79 -0.000 0.0 extra sensitive extra sensitive impervious width+.170E-03 less sensitive not sensitive slope impdep+.563E-08 sensitive not sensitive imprv ds perdep+.77 0.000 not sensitive not sensitive perv n + pern-.280E-04 not sensitive not sensitive slope + slope-.8 25.25 25.25 0.00 base watershed base watershed base watershed area+. Do not reproduce without written authorization.691E-08 sensitive not sensitive impvr ds + impdep-. This average watershed is an average of all subcatchments.25 0.000 0.25 0.25 0.000 not sensitive not sensitive 3rd infiltr © XP SOFTWARE.000 0.255 -0. #################################################### # Table R10.270 -0.25 24.422E-03 less sensitive not sensitive impvr n + impn-. the gauged data is read on the fly from the off-line file.25 0.000 0.After entering this information choose review results to see the graph shown below.25 0.

25 1.20 very sensitive very sensitive 3rd infiltr - 7) Adjusting Model Parameters With the sensitivity results known.25 0.47 10. 2001.25 -3. For example if we needed a 15% increase in the peak flow for large storms we would adjust the 2nd infiltration parameter (Hydraulic Conductivity) by decreasing it 50% since a 25% decrease resulted in a 7% increase in peak flow.93 9. Do not reproduce without written authorization.2 to 0.46 very sensitive very sensitive impervious width+.45 7. Workshop Example 1 – Page 47 of 64 . we can select an appropriate parameter to adjust to calibrate the model.25 -5.39 very sensitive very sensitive 2nd infiltr + imp2-.00 1.25 -0.25 -2.9 34.25 0.59 5.25 27.229 -0.25 -9.25 -5.6 extra sensitive extra sensitive area decrease imp+.25 -3.18 -4.38 less sensitive sensitive slope impdep+.25 -1.750 less sensitive less sensitive impvr ds + impdep-.25 9.4 -28.382 not sensitive less sensitive imprv n pern+. © XP SOFTWARE. 2001 2PM to 4PM #################################################### Total Flow Peak Flow Ratio to Base Ratio to Base Total Flow Peak Flow Watershed Watershed Flow Watershed Flow Classification Classification Parameter ============ ============== ============== ============== ============== ============== average 1. What makes a parameter appropriate? First it must be sensitive.52 very sensitive sensitive 1st infiltr + imp1-.52 very sensitive sensitive 3rd infiltr + imp3-.27 sensitive very sensitive perv ds impn+. These parameters usually display a near linear sensitivity gradient in normal parameter ranges.01 sensitive very sensitive perv n imp1+. The peak flow has now increased from 11.25 8.25 -27.58 -2.76 sensitive sensitive width slope+. in light rain September 4. The 2nd infiltration parameter is dominant in large storms.824E-01 0. The area is not suitable since it is easily measured to a lot of accuracy. For example. second it must be able to be adjusted to a value within reasonable engineering limits.19 3.29 -8.25 6.19 very sensitive very sensitive 1st infiltr imp2+.25 2.87 -2.#################################################### # Table R10.50 less sensitive sensitive slope + slope-. A dominant parameter is a parameter with sensitivity for a certain type of event.98 sensitive sensitive perv ds + perdep-.18 sensitive very sensitive width + width-.230 0.0 extra sensitive extra sensitive area increase + area-.25 -7.35 7.00 base watershed base watershed base watershed area+.751 less sensitive less sensitive imprv ds perdep+. 2001 the impervious area parameters are the most dominant. From our list we can see that area and the 2nd infiltration parameter is the most sensitive for peak flows September 13.15 yields the new results are shown below.3 at link L6 as shown on the following page.25 0.53 -3.569E-01 -0. Sensitivity anlysis for Subcatchments # September 13. Therefore adjusting the hydraulic conductivity of the global database "Huntington “B”" from 0.55 5.771E-01 not sensitive not sensitive impvr n + impn-.81 -6.18 very sensitive very sensitive 2nd infiltr imp3+.54 -4.3 cfs to 12.60 sensitive sensitive perv n + pern-.25 4. is sensitive and is a single value representing the whole watershed yet it is not easily measured since a wide scatter of values would be obtained.54 -4. third it should be a parameter that is estimated or has a lot of error in its estimation and fourth it should be a dominant parameter.25 6.59 5.9 very sensitive extra sensitive impervious + imp-..25 2.

© XP SOFTWARE. This module allows the user to graph computed vs. Do not reproduce without written authorization. a Calibration Module for XP-SWMM can be purchased from XP Software. Workshop Example 1 – Page 48 of 64 . perform sensitivity analysis and calibration on any parameters using parallel processing on a network. This module uses a nonlinear parameter estimation software program called PEST. Several technical papers are also available. store parameter values as they are modified and commit the values to the database at the termination of the calibration (update the database).In addition to this sensitivity analysis. contact Anthony Kuch at XP Software to obtain copies. observed responses. to perform the sensitivity analysis and calibration. Inc. that also performs the same functions but for any model parameter. Interested users should contact XP Software for more information.

XPX if the coordinates are accidentally changed. all conduits with a maximum flow of 20 l/s or more can be shown in a specific color. We do not need to adjust the Frame Display. Spatial Reports is further described in Module 25. They allow annotation and the changing of graphical display attributes from data or results. Then turn on the check boxes for Nodes and Links and keep the radio button on All Objects. move the reports to a suitable location. Import the file GIS. For example. Format this field by using the default font information but edit the precision to 3 and the Mnemonic and units to Qmax and cms respectively. units are min. Be careful not to move the objects. choose the Display button on the Report attributes dialog. This is only a small sampling of hundreds of variables that can be used. Format these fields by using the default font information but use as Mnemonic Tf and Ts. In addition. select the Data Variables button for the Links and add the item HDR Max Flow to the list. we will use the defaults. Fifth. Fourth. First select the "Destination" button and choose "Screen". the maximum node HGL can be displayed for any number of nodes.G) Decision Support System (DSS) Tools 1) Screening the Model with Spatial Reports These two tools are accessed from the View pull-down menu. Choose Show to view the spatial reports. Second. Select the command Results=>Spatial Reports to access the function. This will automatically format the fields for the best results when sent to the screen. Workshop Example 1 – Page 49 of 64 . Third. We will use spatial reports to display the "time flooded" and "time surcharged" at nodes and the "maximum flow" for conduits for this model. © XP SOFTWARE. Do not reproduce without written authorization. select Data Variables button for the Nodes and add the items HDR Time Flooded and Time Surcharged to the list.

Do not reproduce without written authorization. the user will be able to view the options selected. then the button Load. A graphic below demonstrates the process and this tool. In the interest of time and to demonstrate the capability we will load a saved format for Graphical Encoding. Select Graphical Encoding from the View menu. To view the Graphical Encoding choose the Encode button. Using the appropriate selection we will mark all nodes for freeboard with the color red being used to signify the HGL at or close to the surface (within 2 ft). Workshop Example 1 – Page 50 of 64 . Select the command Results=>Graphical Encoding to access the function. yellow for HGL from 2 to 4 ft and green more than 4 ft.GEN to load the setup prepared for this tutorial. . The screen can be returned to normal view by using the command Results=>Graphical Encoding=>Restore. We will use graphical encoding for screening problem areas of our network. This tool is extremely powerful because of the number of attributes that can be modified and the number of variables that can be attached. © XP SOFTWARE.2) Screening the Model with Graphical Encoding Graphical Encoding is described in Module 26. Choose the file LEXINGTON. By clicking on the checked Visual Entity and the Legend buttons.

Now load the report definition file MAINTENANCEHOLE. © XP SOFTWARE. Workshop Example 1 – Page 51 of 64 .RDF. A CSV file is a comma delimited text file that can be used to interface with GIS or asset management database. These files are named CONDUIT. This button will generate the report based on the setup selected. Select the report CONDUIT.RDF and generate the report. In addition to the copy and paste.RDF and SUBCATCH. To use one of these files select the command Results=>Tabular Report=>Setup=>Load. These reports are enabled for copy and paste by highlighting all of the cells and using CTRL-C for copy they may be then pasted to any Windows application such as the Microsoft Office suite. MAINTENANCEHOLE.RDF as was done previously above. Select any of the files above and then select the Generate button. We will now add results to the report so that the table matches the image below.3) Generating User Defined Reports Several sample reports for this project have been provided to serve as samples and for you to easily check the data in the form of a spreadsheet.RDF. the user may export to text or CSV. This report is shown below. Do not reproduce without written authorization.

© XP SOFTWARE. This item is always a heading. Workshop Example 1 – Page 52 of 64 . This file is shown below. Select from the list of items the appropriate variable to match the description. Feel free to add more items time permitting. Node based reports which cannot include any conduit data or results and Link based reports which can include Node data and results for the US or DS nodes. Insert.To create the table as shown by using the Add. Close the Report function by selecting the command File=>Exit or selecting the "X" in the upper right hand corner of the dialog. After the tree is built define each of the new Items by highlighting the item that selecting the Define button. Select the command Results=>Browse file or the Notepad Icon to view the saved CSV file. and Indent buttons to create the Table tree shown. The resulting report is shown below. Note: Two types of reports are permitted. The final step in this portion of the tutorial is to export the final report to a . Do not reproduce without written authorization. Accept the default name or provide your own descriptive file name and select Save.CSV file. This is accomplished by selecting the CSV icon or using the command Export=>CSV File. The type of report is governed by the definition of the first item.

© XP SOFTWARE. Do not reproduce without written authorization. Select the play button and start the simulation review. Stop the simulation and u sing the handles on the shaded section of the top pane zoom to a portion of the network and replay the simulation. Select the stop button and use the scrolling thumbnail to advance several hours in the simulation. It operates on the entire network and not just a portion of the network. Select the play button again and observe the simulation. It is very similar to the Long Section with regards to the data shown and the commands and icons. The top pane of this window allows the user to zoom to a portion of a large network. Workshop Example 1 – Page 53 of 64 .4) Using the Plan Section Tool The final DSS tool to be learned through this tutorial is the Plan Section.

Open and Commercial. If the pollutant behaves similarly on each landuse then Buildup/Washoff records can be associated to more than one landuse. is to hold down the SHIFT key and click with the mouse. TSS and ZINC. Pollutant BOD TSS ZINC Residential Commercial Open n/a 70 mg/L 195 µg/L 10. 2) Entering Global Databases for Water Quality Modeling Most of the Global Database Record Types are associated with water quality data. In this tutorial we will estimate pollutant loads and concentrations to the pond by using event mean concentration EMC data for several land uses and three pollutants. These records describe the pollutant generation on each type of landuse for each pollutant. We will be using the Landuse. Edit them to ensure the correct concentrations are used. it is best to populate it first. Enter the values above in the Mean Concentration field. When editing the records select "None" for buildup and "EMC" for Washoff. A standard deviation of non-zero can be used for a continuous simulation so that for each new storm in the TS a new value for EMC is selected from a normal distribution.0 mg/L 101 mg/L 135 µg/L 9. We will use the following Table of mean EMCs for all sites that has been summarized from the total NURP database. These records may already exist because of the merging. This button will bring up water quality options.landuse name" i. © XP SOFTWARE. Do not reproduce without written authorization. This feature turns on the flag but does not open up subsequent dialogs. This will register the defaults of Dust and Dirt Buildup for each landuse. Workshop Example 1 – Page 54 of 64 . After adding the landuses edit the records and select OK. but these settings must be set in order to Solve the model. Select Water Quality by clicking with the mouse in the Runoff Job Control. and Buildup/Washoff record types. The dialogs are shown below for entering EMC data. 1) Setting the Job Control for Water Quality The XP-SWMM interface attempts to filter out the complexity of SWMM by disabling options when dependencies are not met. We will not be modeling Dust and Dirt. A faster alternative to clicking the button and then OK on the subsequent dialog. The final item for Runoff water quality Global Database is the Buildup/Washoff records.3 mg/L 69 mg/L 226 µg/L Add 9 records for the Buildup/Washoff use nomenclature of "pollutant name . Use a value of 1 mg/L for BOD-Open and remember to convert the values for ZINC to mg/L.e. Add the following pollutants to the database: BOD.H) Adding Water Quality to a Storm Water Model Now that we have a reasonable water quantity model we can add water quality modeling. Pollutant. Add the following landuses to the database: Residential. TSS-Open or ZINC-Residential for good organization. In the case of water quality we cannot enter pollutant data unless the Water Quality button in the Runoff Job Control is checked. Choose standard deviations of 0. but as our Global Database is blank. After adding the pollutants edit the records and select units of mg/L.

Workshop Example 1 – Page 55 of 64 . we must link the records together. All available landuses are located on the left and a Buildup/Washoff button allows the selection of any of those records. For each landuse the modeler is permitted to have the pollutant linked to snowmelt. Select a landuse on the left and then a buildup/washoff record to attach to it. This is the most complicated step since three global database records must be linked together to describe the behavior of each pollutant on each landuse. The procedure is straightforward. have a unique street sweeping efficiency and concentrations in the groundwater and precipitation.Now that we have entered the required data for pollutants. This association is for the pollutant named in the dialog title bar. In many WQ studies and modeling projects these pathways are significant especially those with long light rain seasons. © XP SOFTWARE. Select Pollutant as record type then edit each pollutant and for the corresponding landuse select the appropriate Buildup/Washoff record. Do not reproduce without written authorization. The dialog for BOD is shown below. This is accomplished in the Pollutant records.

Only the pollutants on the right hand side will be available when the model is solved. This is accomplished by selecting from the list on the left each pollutant and clicking the Add button. To do this we must return to the Water Quality dialog from the Runoff Job Control. © XP SOFTWARE. Workshop Example 1 – Page 56 of 64 . The dialog is shown below. Repeat for the landuses and add all landuses to the simulation. Select Pollutant List and add all of the pollutants in the Global Database to the Simulation. Do not reproduce without written authorization. which places the pollutant in the list on the right for the simulation. The dialog is shown below. Use the command Configuration=>Job Control=>Water Quality from the Runoff layer.3) Selecting the Pollutants and Landuses for the Simulation Now that the pollutant and landuse description is complete we can set up our water quality simulation.

For each node in Runoff.XP and resolve the model for the Runoff Layer. For example. You may also wish to create a backup set of data using XPX Export. All areas must add to 100% and no selected landuses can have a value of zero. The program will automatically create composite results for each pollutant based on the landuse assignment since the pollutant characterization is based on landuse and more than one landuse is used. To add the landuses to the subcatchment. For each landuse select the empty button on the left in the landuse section. Use the table below to complete the task for the remaining subcatchments.Subcatcment % Residential MH1 #1 90 MH2 #1 80 MH3 #1 50 MH4 #1 90 MH5 #1 30 MH6 #1 100 MH7 #1 80 MH8 #1 70 MH9 #1 80 MH10 #1 80 MH11 #1 60 Pond #1 30 % Commercial 0 0 0 5 0 0 20 30 0 0 0 30 % Open 10 20 50 5 70 0 0 0 20 20 40 40 © XP SOFTWARE. using the data from the Landuse table below. Then enter the percent area this landuse covers on the subcatchment.4) Defining the Landuses at each Subcatchment The XP database is now almost completely setup to perform water quality modeling in the Runoff layer. For node detention also turn on the flag print flows and concentrations so that the output file will generate a summary of total loads. The final step is to divide each subcatchment into landuses. select the applicable landuses and enter the landuse fraction. Upon completion of the data entry save the model under the name LexingtonWQ. Workshop Example 1 – Page 57 of 64 . Do not reproduce without written authorization. the subcatchment at node "MH1" is 90% residential and 10% open. then click twice on the subcatchment flag then select Water Quality. This dialog is shown below with the appropriate data for the subcatchment at "MH1". Table of Landuse for Lexington Watershed Node . double-click on the node.

levels and pollutant concentrations.5) Reviewing Water Quality Results The same decision support tools used earlier can show water quality results. In order to view pollutant loads as instantaneous or cumulative. with the exception of the long section. Each of these commands is accessed from the Tools pull-down menu. all other series have been disabled. the user can see the hydrographs and pollutographs of the node. © XP SOFTWARE. profile plot and plan section. Shown below is the TSS cumulative pollutant load. The default settings for review results will show flows. By selecting the node "MH2" and then the Review Results Icon. Workshop Example 1 – Page 58 of 64 . Do not reproduce without written authorization. the Options Icon must be selected and all relevant check boxes enabled.

470E-01 9 7 2001 3 0 0.0524 0.. Workshop Example 1 – Page 59 of 64 .. The review results can also export data.200 0.200E+00 1. The reporting time step for this times series is set in the Print Control as a factor of time steps.470E-01 9 15 2001 17 0 0.470E-01 ---------...480E+01 8.470E-01 9 7 2001 4 0 0.470E-01 9 15 2001 19 0 0..004 9..480E+01 8.000 9..480E+01 8.-------.575 9.-------.200E+00 1.-------.480 94.470E-01 9 7 2001 2 0 0.009 9. Note: Runoff has three time steps.470E-01 9 15 2001 22 0 0.SY? files.480E+01 8.480E+01 8.021 9.. 4.470E-01 9 13 2001 8 0 0. therefore the only way to guarantee a uniform reporting is to have all time steps use the same value.147 Flow wtd std devs.480E+01 8.200 0..200E+00 1.200E+00 1.200 0..0018 94. 0. 0.480E+01 8.-------.470E-01 9 3 2001 14 0 0... This print control is also used to create data to feed receiving water quality models. For example.200E+00 1.000 0.000 9.800 8.470E-01 9 3 2001 20 0 0.. Do not reproduce without written authorization..450E+03 2.000 0. however this data is an echo of the .480E+01 8.480E+01 8. **************************************************** * Summary of Quantity and Quality Results at * * Location MH2 Flow in cfs.Created by XP Software Lexington Model Date Time Flow TSS BOD ZINC Mo/Da/Year Hr:Min cfs mg/l mg/l mg/l ---------.800 8.001 9..006 9.007 9.000 Maximum value.-------Flow wtd means.------------.200E+00 1.001 9.200E+00 1. * * Values are instantaneous at indicated time step * **************************************************** LFUCG Default Database .480E+01 8..800 8. 2.. and as discussed earlier may already be a subset of all the computations.000 94.008 9.. 0.003 9.470E-01 9 13 2001 15 0 0.147 Minimum value. every fourth time step with a fifteen minute time step would result in results recorded every hour.470E-01 9 15 2001 18 0 0..633E+01 2.200E+00 1.278E+00 4..-------9 1 2001 2 0 0.480E+01 8.083E-02 Cub-Ft POUNDS POUNDS POUNDS © XP SOFTWARE.The output file can produce a summary and a time series of flow and pollutant concentrations and total volumes and loads.147 Total loads.200E+00 1..200E+00 1.200E+00 1.480E+01 8.200E+00 1..------------.

BOD and ZINC. In order to simulate pollutant removal options using SWMM Storage/Treatment then the Sanitary layer must be used to route the pollutants. To review the results of water quality routing select all the links and then choose the review results icon. Runoff is used to generate hydrographs and pollutographs of non-point sources and the flows and pollutographs saved on the interface file. If pollutants of these names are found on the interface file the pollutants will be routed with the flows. It shows flow. A series of graphs similar to that shown below will appear. The Hydraulics layer offers the best hydraulic solution and if the pollutants can be assumed to be conservative then they can be routed using convection.I) Water Quality Routing in the Hydraulics Layer Water quality constituents can be routed in the Runoff. Workshop Example 1 – Page 60 of 64 . Then this interface file is read and the flows and pollutographs are routed in either the Sanitary or Hydraulics layer. Sanitary and the Hydraulics layer of XP-SWMM. Rerun the model after turning on the Pollutant list and adding the pollutants TSS. Do not reproduce without written authorization. This feature is not currently available in Hydraulics. velocity and US and DS levels. The locations of pollutant input are the nodes that were common to Runoff and Hydraulics. To enable the concurrent routing of pollutants and flow in Hydraulics The Pollutant List check box must be turned on and the pollutants desired to be routed found in the Use Pollutant List. © XP SOFTWARE.

time. Workshop Example 1 – Page 61 of 64 . © XP SOFTWARE. This is because each node generated a unique hydrograph and constant concentration based on the area weighted land uses.Select the Options Icon from the toolbar and choose to show 1 graph. When using EMC and continuous simulations a more reasonable result is the cumulative load rather than the concentration vs. Click on the Pollutant load and Cumulative then the OK button. You will notice that the concentration is not constant even though an EMC was used. Then select the WQ icon on the toolbar to display the water quality results. To accomplish this select the options icon to get the dialog below. Do not reproduce without written authorization. These results exist equally for both nodes and links but in this example we have picked a link.

Workshop Example 1 – Page 62 of 64 .For the link “Channel” the cumulative TSS for the month is about 240 lbs. © XP SOFTWARE. Do not reproduce without written authorization.

2627 1. A partial table for links is shown below.0000 0.049 9.4 7.The end of the output file from a Hydraulics Water Quality run contains peak concentrations and total loads for all conduits and links.0000 0.51 6.0000 0.57 0.1619 112.1391 115.9 5.45 10.1891E-02 120.1735 7.90 1.0000 0.86 10.2969E-05 Decay(kgs) ----------0.0000 0.0000 0.3591E-02 124.30 12. Workshop Example 1 – Page 63 of 64 .376 12.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.1578E-02 0.0000 0.7 10.0000 0.067 1.19 9.4022E-02 2.0000 0. ################################### # Extran Water Quality Summary # ################################### Conduit ------L4 L4 L4 L5 L5 L5 L6 L6 L6 L7 L7 L7 L8 L8 L8 L9 L9 L9 Branch1 Branch1 Branch1 Channel Channel Channel culvert culvert culvert Pollutant ---------TSS BOD ZINC TSS BOD ZINC TSS BOD ZINC TSS BOD ZINC TSS BOD ZINC TSS BOD ZINC TSS BOD ZINC TSS BOD ZINC TSS BOD ZINC Peak Conc.0000 0. Total Load(kgs) --------------------------128.5571E-02 104.0000 0.1808 0.2 99.248 0.542 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.8 69.668 10.0000 0.290 0.1768 0.8790E-04 1.71 7.0 84.2175 2.0000 © XP SOFTWARE.6633 0.1929 1.1648 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.2139 2.6891 0.0000 0.40 12.013 0.5 14.1116 103.0000 0.76 0.367 0.6505 0.721 0.0000 0. Do not reproduce without written authorization.03 8.6 106.1797 0.0000 0.0657E-02 103.1 9.6029 9.

(1982). Heaney. 172 pp.F. W. United Nations Brundtland Commission 1987. August 1-5. WEF Manual of Practice FD-20. Why design Storm Methods have become Unethical. Design and Construction of Urban Stormwater Management Systems. and Roper. © XP SOFTWARE. Journal of Environmental Engineering. W. Brundtland. Dose. (1983).. Huber. NY (2):1203-1207. Martin eds. Heidelberg College. Inundaciones Y Redes de Drenaje Urbano. C. Dolz J. EPA SWMM Model for Analysis and Solution of Urban Drainage Problems. Continuous Models Essential for Detention Design. 8-11 April 1986. New York. A Continuous Simulation Modelling Approach to Nonpoint Pollution Management. H.P. Southerland. Maksimovic.C. Workshop Example 1 – Page 64 of 64 . (1992a). Pergman Press. (1994). M. pp. Radojkovic eds. Canales y Puertos. Experience with the U. The Utility of an Object-Oriented Software Tool for Planning Management Practices for Urban Stormwater in Ontario. pp. New York.. Oregon. and Robinson. Master of Science (Engineering) Thesis University of Guelph. Ontario. Gomez. G. B. Paper presented at the EPA workshop: Developing Dynamic Watershed Modelling Capabilities for the Great Lakes Tributaries. New York. Gore. Tiffin. James.. 1082-1098. ASCE.C. M.H. Design. and Huber. In: Urban Drainage Modelling. Continuous Deterministic Urban Runoff Modelling. 1993. Long-Term Changes in Low-Flow Channel Widths within the South Umpqua Watershed. (1994). and Robinson.References Ahmed.. J. NY.. A. Goforth. 347-378. N. 724 pp. 77. Houghton Mifflin Company. 109(5). Colegio de Ingenieros de Caminos. (1993). Comparison of Basin Performance of Modelling Techniques. (in press). W. M. 1994. 30(6): 9931000. May 1992. Operation and Maintenance. Our Common Future . E.World Commission on Environment and Development. J. W. New York.D Thesis submitted to Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University December. (1992). ASCE & WEF (1992). The Next Major Breakthrough. Ohio. 199-220. F.Ecology and the Human Spirit. and M.. W. and J.S. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Comparison of Urban Drainage Models with Real Catchment Data UDM '86 Dubrovnik. Buffalo.P.B. Earth in the Balance . 408 pp. of the National Conference on Hydraulic Engineering. August 4-6. Yugoslavia. Crawford. James. ASCE Manuals and Reports of Engineering Practice No. Ph. ASCE. (1981). Guelph. Proceedings of an Engineering Foundation Conference on Stormwater Detention Facilities Planning. American Water Resources Association. (1986). James...R. New York. In: Hydraulic Engineering '94. Do not reproduce without written authorization. 1981. Water Resources Bulletin. Proc. (1987). (1994).

Workshop Example 2 . Modeling Dry Weather Flows. Combined Sewers. Checking Imported Data. Advanced Topics © XP SOFWARE.Page 1 of 27 .Workshop Example 2 Sanitary Sewer Modeling Building a Sanitary Sewer Model from External Data. Do not reproduce without written authorization. Modeling I/I.

.............................................................................................. 20 3) Solving the Model for Dry Weather Conditions ........................................................................................................................................................ 19 3) Solving the Model for Dry Weather Conditions .............................................. 4 1) Starting a New Database .... 6 3) Importing Node and Coordinates ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 18 2) Entering the Diurnal Sanitary Flow Peaking Factors ............................................................ 22 1) Modeling Infiltration Based on Transport.......................................................................................................................................................................... 27 3) Statistical Processing of Overflow Events ...................................................................................................................................................... 27 © XP SOFWARE.................................... 10 8) Adding Wetwell and Outfall Data....... 20 3) Capacity Analysis............................................. 14 1) Network Overview ......................................................................................................................................... 18 1) DWF Generation Options....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 22 3) Generating Storm Flows (Runoff Hydrology) .................. 23 F) Combined Sewers ................................Table of Contents Workshop Example 2 ........................................................................................................................... 8 6) Importing the Conduit Data.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7 5) Importing the Node Data........................................................ 23 4) Capturing a Portion of the Storm Flows as Inflows ....................................... 15 3) Profile Plotting ....................................... Workshop Example 2 ............................................................ 16 4) Upstream Flow Test .................................................................................................................................... 4 2) Sources of Data for XP-SWMM2000 Sewer Models................................................................................................... 3 Files Needed ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 11 C) Checking Imported Data................................................................................................................................................... 24 1) General Network Setup ........... 25 G) Advanced Topics.............................. 24 2) Regulators and Real Time Control........... 3 B) Building a Sanitary Sewer Model from External Data ...................................................................... 17 D) Modeling Dry Weather Flows (DWF) .................................... 7 4) Importing the Conduits and Network Connectivity .......................Page 2 of 27 .............. 22 2) Modeling Infiltration from Known Flows...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Do not reproduce without written authorization........................................................... 1 A) Introduction .................................................. 14 2) Long Section ...................................................................................................... 26 2) Designing Single or Entire Set of Conduits in Hydraulics Layer....... 26 1) Simulating Basement Flooding ... 20 E) Modeling Infiltration and Inflows (I/I) .................................................................. 8 7) Adding Pump Data ........................................................................................................

the simulation of basement flooding and routing and treating water quality constituents.XPX – Profile Plot Defaults for US unit projects © XP SOFWARE.XLS – Excel spreadsheet with node coordinates.XLS – Conduit topography data including placeholders for results GLOBALS.TXT .SHP – ESRI Shape file of streets in the Greater Seattle area STREETS. and DWF data SEWERDATA. looped networks. It includes modeling capabilities for continuous or event simulations of the wet weather components such as the inflow and infiltration to sanitary sewers.A) Introduction XP-SWMM2000 comprehensively models the hydraulic components of sanitary and combined sewer systems. Numerous hydrograph generation methods exist to generate these flows and the software has the ability to handle large networks of closed and open conduits.DBF – ESRI Shape file of streets in the Greater Seattle area STREETS. force mains and multiple outfalls.XPX file of Manhole coordinates LINKOBJECTS. storage nodes.Page 3 of 27 .DWF pattern and pump curves in an XPX file for import PROFILEPLOT SETTINGS IMPERIAL. Do not reproduce without written authorization.SHX – ESRI Shape file of streets in the Greater Seattle area NODE_COORDINATES. Water quality routing and removal in is also easily added to existing networks. Files Needed STREETS. Workshop Example 2 .XPX – XPX file to create the links of the model MANHOLEDATA+COORDS.XPX . topography. This tutorial contains all of the popular components in a sanitary and combined sewer system and introduces the user to some advanced topics for conduit design.

XP Follow the wizard steps shown below to build the project with appropriate defaults and global databases. You will be lead through a wizard for the creation of the project. Workshop Example 2 . Do not reproduce without written authorization. Use the name SEATTLE_SEWER. © XP SOFWARE.B) Building a Sanitary Sewer Model from External Data 1) Starting a New Database Select the command File=>New or choose the New Icon from the toolstrip or use the Ctrl+N keyboard shortcut to create a new database for this storm water project.Page 4 of 27 .

Page 5 of 27 . Do not reproduce without written authorization. Normally DWG/DXF. Holding the mouse over the icon will display a bubble of the icon's purpose and a detailed description of the command is displayed in the lower left-hand corner of the program interface. It loads the dialog shown right.2) Using a Shape File as a Background The ability to use a shape file as a background in XP-SWMM is an extension to the existing file types through the XP-GIS module. The command to load all background types is found in the menus at: View=>Background Images=>New or use the Add Picture icon from the Toolstrip. If the background is not displaying it may not be checked to be shown. HPGL and photos such as . the real world coordinates will be read by XP and entered in the destination rectangle shown below: Fit the graphics to the screen with the command View=>Fit Window or us the Fit to Window Icon to place all of the background in the network window.JPG. . The following portion of the tool strip is used for backgrounds. © XP SOFWARE.TIF and . Workshop Example 2 . The first icon is the add picture tool previously used and the second is the Image Properties tool.BMP are the only background types. Use the file STREETS.SHP.

this data can be placed in a form suitable for XP-SWMM2000 or directly imported using the XP-GIS module. Since most municipalities have some form of asset management software or GIS database of the collection system. This is accomplished by importing XPX files for the creation of nodes and links and all pertinent data by including CSV files within an XPX file. However. all pertinent data can be imported into the model for this tutorial.XXX. Workshop Example 2 . © XP SOFWARE. Without the GIS module spreadsheets cannot be read directly in their current form. Do not reproduce without written authorization. If the file you wish to find uses another extension then select all files for file type or type in the string *.Page 6 of 27 . A small portion of the original spreadsheet is shown below.3) Sources of Data for XP-SWMM2000 Sewer Models Most large sewer models are built in XP-SWMM2000 through the capability of importing existing electronic databases. Each of these files is described in more detail as they are imported. where XXX is the extension of the file. To import any of these files select the Special=>Import Data :XPX=>Select command to locate the file and then select the Import button on the Import dialog. The data we will use in this exercise has been delivered from a GIS department and the data brought into a spreadsheet. The Select command will search for file with the extension XPX.

459 831770.3. Nodes in the Hydraulic Layer of XP-SWMM usually represent manholes.5301 NODE 134.Page 7 of 27 .XPX to populate the database of the manhole names with their coordinates.MR002 LINK 136. Import the file LINK_OBJECTS.907 831427.MR001A. LINK is a keyword to create a link from an US Node to a DS Node 136 is a shape factor where 136 will create single conduits and 138 will create multi-links.338 831605. Do not reproduce without written authorization.XPX to populate the database of the link names from the existing US node to the existing DS node.NODE_NAME.MR001A 1600577. Workshop Example 2 .MR001 1601316.MR002.6482 NODE 134.MR003 After the XPX files for the nodes and links have been imported.1. The file uses the syntax of: NODE 134 "Node Name" X-coordinate y-coordinate where.MR002 1600534. A small portion of the file is shown below.X_COORD. If the links are dashed (multi-link or diversion) then they may represent many conduits between the same nodes or several different types of diversions such as orifices. The file is shown below.MR001A LINK 136. © XP SOFWARE.MR001. "Link Name" can be up to 10 characters alphanumeric (quotes required for names with spaces) "US Node" is the name of the upstream node (quotes required for names with spaces) "DS Node" is the name of the downstream node (quotes required for names with spaces) LINK 136.4) Importing Node and Coordinates using XPX Before attempting to import the data set the current layer to Hydraulics. Existing is emphasized because links cannot be created unless the nodes already exist into the database they are being imported or the NODE commands preceed them in the same XPX file. Import the file NODE_COORDINATES. NODE is a keyword to create a nonexistent node or move an existing node 134 is a shape factor where 134 or 0 will create a red circle "Node Name" can be up to 10 characters alphanumeric (quotes required for names with spaces) X-coordinate is the real world or grid coordinate for the node in the Easting direction Y-coordinate is the real world or grid coordinate for the node in the Northing direction /* .2. The file uses the syntax of: LINK 136 "Link Name" "US Node" "DS Node" where. Nodes may also represent ponds or other storage devices if the storage option is checked and outfalls if that option is selected and the node is at a terminating point. regulators etc.Y_COORD */ NODE 134. weirs. execute the command View=>Fit Window or Fit Window Icon so that the current window contains the data.6976 5) Importing the Conduits and Network Connectivity using XPX Links in the Hydraulic Layer of XP-SWMM usually represent single or barreled (barreled conduits have the same geometric data) open channel or closed conduits.

where. For the case of Node data we will import the fields for invert and Spill Crest (rim or ground elevation).302.78.1..zp2. The file uses the syntax of: $TABLE .286.27.290.13.rough. instance.zp1.013. 7) Importing the Conduit Data Using CSV Files Import the file CONDUITDATA.CSV to populate the database of the node inverts and spill crest.1. Field1.297.0.287.18.CSV.291.1 '3'. . Do not reproduce without written authorization.1.013.nklass.Page 8 of 27 .1. $TABLE is a keyword to signify the beginning of a CSV Table in an XPX file Field1. The variables ZP1 and ZP2 are the conduit US and DS inverts..18..171.013. Field2.1.292.291.50.27. Although XPX files can be used to upload pump and outfall data this model only has a few of these and this data will be entered in dialogs.1. .0.290. .27 'MR003'.... z.DEEP '1'..1.27.290.0.300. FieldX is an XPX variable field name such as Z or DEEP for node Invert or conduit diameter .292.88.0..296.1.Len..0.1.1 $TABLE_END.18 'MR001A'.09 $TABLE_END..6) Importing Manhole Data Using CSV Files XPX files can contain tables of comma separated variables (CSV) data. A small portion of the file is shown below. .1...53 'MR004'. Manning's roughness and diameter while NKLASS is the conduit shape. LEN.0.53.288.0. grelev 'MR001'. is the delimeter 'Object Name' is the name of the Link or Node (single or double quotes are always required for Tables) instance is zero for single conduits and 1 through 7 for multi-conduits count is always one in a table.. . The variable names for Invert and Spill crest are Z and GRELEV.69.1.13..013. The invert and spillcrest fields are the minimum data requirements for a node. © XP SOFWARE. A nklass of 1 is used for circular conduits. value1.0. All of the basic collection system data has been entered.286... Import the file MANHOLEDATA.09. $TABLE.301 'MR002'..81. Other field names can be queried by selecting the field with the mouse and selecting the "Info" icon in the upper right hand corner of the dialog. This is an efficient method of importing several pieces of data for a number of objects. count.288.0.0.25. value2 $TABLE_END. Workshop Example 2 .1 '2'. and DEEP are the length..1 '4'.0. ROUGH.25.1.1. These are the minimum data requirements for a link.0..0.291. Field2 'Object Name'. After importing the table review a few nodes to see the data that has been imported. signifying one value per field $TABLE_END is a keyword to signify the end of a CSV Table in an XPX file $TABLE. which contains the conduit inverts and geometric data.

1.1..9.Page 9 of 27 .8.25.5.1.00 25.00 7.1.2.3.2.5.1.1.4.00 20. you will need to change the file type to all files are use the wild card *.8) Importing Global Data Global Data such as pump curves and temporal flow patterns are also used in this sample project.. Do not reproduce without written authorization.20. They can also be imported by an XPX file.00 5.1. Import the XPX file called globals.txt from the File->Import Data->XPX.8.00 13.1..1.1.10.1.15.3.6.2.1.1.1.40 DATA T_HV "" 1 24 .6.2..1.0.4 /* Pump Curve */ GLDBITEM "Pump Ratings" "Pump 505-TS" GLDBDATA PRATEX "Pump Ratings" "Pump 505-TS" 7 32.00 © XP SOFWARE.00 15. Workshop Example 2 .3. The contents of this file is shown below: /* Dry Weather Flow Pattern */ GLDBITEM "Temporal Variations" "DWF Pattern" DATA T_DV "" 1 7 1.1..0.4.1.00 0.20.00 10.1..1.1.txt to locate the file.00 17.3.00 12.00 18.1.3..1.00 30.5.70..00 GLDBDATA PRATEY "Pump Ratings" "Pump 505-TS" 7 0.

These ratings reflect impeller data. and type of pump. Alternatively the pump rating could be entered in the global database by selecting the command Tools=>Global Database. After the link is converted. © XP SOFWARE.9) Adding Pump Data Link "44" is the location of the lift station. After entering the control data click and add the Pump Rating shown below. In order to add pump data to this link it must be a multi-conduit or diversion link.Page 10 of 27 . The actual pump data is stored in a global database record type named "Pump Ratings". Workshop Example 2 . The process of changing a single conduit to multi-conduit placed the existing conduit data into conduit 1. based on manufacture charts. It has a starting and stopping elevation 1 foot higher than the first pump. Repeat the process to enter the second pump in the lift station. Select pump #1 and add the data shown below. The pump speed factor can be used to represent motor efficiency and type. Do not reproduce without written authorization. The first dialog is the control information for the pump such as on/off levels. disable the conduit that is located in the multi-link. If it is a single conduit link then right mouse click and select multi-conduit from the popup menu to accomplish this.

Free outfall with the depth criteria being the minimum of the critical or normal depth. The wetwell will have a constant storage area of 100 ft2.10) Adding Outfall and Wetwell Data All model data can be imported using XPX files including comma delimited data or the GIS module components. Do not reproduce without written authorization. Add the following outfall data to the last node MR065 and the following storage data to node MR043 to create the pumps wetwell.Page 11 of 27 . when only a few pieces of data is necessary to describe an element such as the pump previously or an outfall it is usually more efficient to enter this small amount of data in the dialogs. © XP SOFWARE. However. Workshop Example 2 .

xls and sewerdata. Do not reproduce without written authorization. Start by selecting the new button the selecting the file manholdata+coords.Page 12 of 27 .xls. For this tutorial we will import data from the Excel files manholedata+coords.xls © XP SOFWARE. data import and data export. Workshop Example 2 .D) Using XP-GIS to Import Data 1) Linking to the External Database XP-GIS allows the easy link to external databases for object creation.

3) Importing/Exporting the Data Once the mapping has been completed simply click on the connection and then the import or export button. Workshop Example 2 . © XP SOFWARE.Page 13 of 27 .2) Setting Up the Variable Mapping After preceding screens have been followed the final steps involve assigning the columns of data to variables in XP-SWMM. Use the variable selections shown below for the node and link spreadsheets. Do not reproduce without written authorization.

The red box that represents the current view extents is updated whenever the view is changed. firstly by employing the Expert system checks when solving and by using the available DSS tools. For example. Do not reproduce without written authorization. Workshop Example 2 . Zoom in with the Network Overview by right mouse clicking and dragging to the left. which shrinks the red box. The reality is that much of the data in GIS for sewer networks has errors. Placing the data in a model like XP-SWMM2000 allows data checking.D) Checking Imported Data 1) Network Overview When dealing with moderately sized model such as this one or larger it is often difficult to inspect the data without a great deal of difficulty. use the zoom tools and pan tools and watch the changes in the network overview. This box can be expanded or moved by right mouse clicking and dragging or left mouse click and drag within the network overview. Note: The extents of the shape file in this example render the Network Overview ineffective since the coverage of the network is such a small amount of the total area. The dialog can be resized or minimized and shows the current view extents in red. Move the red box up and down the network to look for any connectivity problems. © XP SOFWARE. To turn on the Network Overview dialog select it from the View Menu.Page 14 of 27 . For large networks it is useful to have a birds eye view of the network to navigate and discover any breaks in the network.

it is only used for profile plotting. Select the main trunk and use the long section to visually check the inverts of the system. Workshop Example 2 .2) Long Section The long section will allow the user to visually inspect diameters and inverts of the imported network. Zooming in enough will allow the pump to be displayed as symbol. This is accomplished by first selecting the Plot button on the lower right hand corner of the dialog. and then selecting the Pump radio button and entering a length for the pump to be plotted. Do not reproduce without written authorization.Page 15 of 27 . This length does not affect the calculations. Use the zoom icons all the Toolstrip to isolate just a small section of the network. © XP SOFWARE. Click and drag the mouse to pan to check invert problems or survey errors. Use a length of 30 feet for that object. You will need to enable the multi-link with the pump to allow plotting through the pump. This is necessary since the pump does not have a length associated with it for profile plotting purposes.

3) Profile Plotting Profile plotting allows a selection of links and nodes to be exported to DXF or printed or plotted. Then select the OK button to proceed to the Profile Plot Parameters dialog. Use the scale to fit or appropriate scale factors and Preview the plot. Do not reproduce without written authorization. The checked items will be shown on the drawing and the numbering refers to the row and position on that row. This plotting allows annotation and the plotting of an envelope of maximums such as maximum flow or HGL. Then select the Profile Plotting tool by selecting it from the Tools menu and the dialog below will be displayed. © XP SOFWARE. Select the Setup button to view the default profile plot settings that were selected in the new project wizard. Select one of the branches of the sewer system.Page 16 of 27 . Workshop Example 2 .

Typical velocities are approximately 2-5 ft/s so for every 1000 feet of sewer so allow about 10 minutes of simulation time for the flows to reach that much distance. Do not reproduce without written authorization. Then run the model long enough so that these flows can reach the outfall.Page 17 of 27 . Workshop Example 2 . After the simulation has finished highlight all nodes and links and choose Review Results from the Tools menu. Any conduits without flow may indicate a break in the network or a problem with invert elevations. Hydrographs should be present in all conduits. © XP SOFWARE.4) Upstream Flow Test In order to determine that a large model is properly connected one test that can be done is to add a constant inflow to all the most upstream ends of the branches of the model. For this tutorial it takes a bit less than 1 hour for the flow entered at the most upstream node to reach the outfall. In very complicated networks this is one of the most effective methods of ensuring a network is completely connected and no flows are lost.

DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA HDR_SEWAGE "MR010A" 0 1 0. These peaking factors are contained in the global database as a temporal variation. The census based method is being used in this tutorial and the data imported from the spreadsheet using XP-GIS. Workshop Example 2 . Do not reproduce without written authorization. consumer price index and empirical constants from Baltimore. the area in acres and population density in persons per acre. The Direct Flow only requires the Sewage Flow Rate data which represents the average amount of DWF in CFS or three other unit options for that node. MD. The latter two pieces of data are often available from landuse coverages in GIS and when multiplied with the per capita flow yield a unique average flow rate for this node. The Unit Flow Rate option requires the modeler to enter in the " Flow Rate" field to contain the per acre production of dwf and the area in acres or hectares if modeling in metric units. As an alternative the average dry weather flows are contained in an XPX file called DRYWEATHERFLOWSHDR.Page 18 of 27 .XPX to be used with the direct flow method.116 /* DRY_WTH "MR010A" 0 1 1 /* HDR_DWF_MTD "MR010A" 0 1 0 /* HDR_KLAND "MR010A" 0 1 0 /* HDR_DWF_UN "MR010A" 0 1 0 /* HDR_PFAC "MR010A" 0 1 1 /* HDR_TMPV "MR010A" 0 1 "DWF Pattern" /* Flow Rate */ Turn on dry weather flow */ Direct Flow Method */ Residential Landuse */ Units as cfs */ Peaking Factor */ Temporal Variation Record */ These average flows are multiplied by the appropriate peaking factors for the hour of the day or day of the week. © XP SOFWARE. These options are in addition to the EPA SWMM solution for deterministically predicting dry weather flow by data using antiquated data such as number of garbage grinders. The Census-Based method requires a flow rate as a per capita production of wastewater in gallons/person/day. This file contains the following DATA commands to import dry weather flows for each node.D) Modeling Dry Weather Flows (DWF) 1) DWF Generation Options Several methods of dry weather flow generation are now possible in the Hydraulics layer of XP-SWMM.

Workshop Example 2 . In either case a record can be added and edited.Page 19 of 27 . © XP SOFWARE. These fields should average 1. We are using the record “DWF Pattern” that was imported by the file globals. Select the Global Database from the Configuration pull-down menu. although average values more than 1 are permitted.txt. Select the global database record type of Temporal Variations and edit the record "DWF Pattern".2) Editing the Diurnal Sanitary Flow Peaking Factors The DWF temporal pattern can be entered directly in the global database or by selecting the field in the dry weather flow dialog of the Hydraulics layer. Edit this record to view the daily and hourly factors shown below. A value more than 1 could represent a seasonal or regional factor. Do not reproduce without written authorization.

A fraction less than one means that the maximum flow is less than the capacity of the sewer. To test © XP SOFWARE. A fraction more than one means that the maximum flow in the simulation is more than the full flow predicted by Manning's. Use the variables Design Full Flow. Maximum Flow and Maximum Flow/Design Flow Fraction and create a user-defined report. this conduit is flowing under pressure. It is possible to obtain surcharged flows less than design flow if there is a downstream restriction or undersized conduits. Saturday and Sunday have much lower flows than the typical work production days. These items show the maximum flow predicted by Manning's equation.3) Solving the Model for Dry Weather Conditions Solve the model in the Hydraulics layer for a period of one day to generate a continuous DWF hydrograph such as that shown below. A daily pattern is repeated but scaled based on the daily peaking factor.Page 20 of 27 . 3) Capacity Analysis Using the Report generation and the Graphical encoding we can prepare in report format and demonstrate in a graphical format areas of the network that have a lot of available capacity and others which have no available capacity for further development without some system modifications. Do not reproduce without written authorization. the maximum flow measured and the ration of these variables. The preceding paragraph is a valid test when no backwater effects are present. The resulting DWF graph is shown below. Workshop Example 2 .

Page 21 of 27 . These suggested steps could be repeated for our future model. Next use the variable Maximum Flow/Design Flow Fraction and change the conduit color with Graphical Encoding. and a graduated set of colors for numbers from 0 to 1. infiltration and inflows. If the upstream node was surcharged (a value greater than zero for US Node surcharge time) and the ratio of flows for the conduit was less than 1 then surcharge due to backwater from downstream conduits occurred. © XP SOFWARE. it includes wet weather inputs. which have fraction more than 1. if the ratio of flows was more than 1 and there was no surcharge in the US node then the conduit was flowing in supercritical flow regime. After encoding the plan view identify regions of the network with capacity to accept more flows. Finally. Then the user can present capacity analysis for dry and wet weather conditions. Select a color of red for all conduits. Workshop Example 2 . Create a link-based report and select the ratio of maximum flow/design flow and upstream node surcharge time. Export the report to a spreadsheet and create a new column with the logic that if the upstream node was surcharged (a value greater than zero for US Node surcharge time) and the ratio of flows for the conduit was more than 1 then surcharge due to hydraulic capacity of the conduit occurred.for both cases (surcharge due to hydraulic capacity or surcharge due to backwater) a combination of node surcharge and conduit capacity would need to be checked. Do not reproduce without written authorization.

This allows portions of the network to have more or less infiltration flows added to the dry weather flows. To add them to a model simply import them by using XPX files.Page 22 of 27 . One program known to this author is PSCRAT a utility developed by CH2M Hill and others for use by the Northwest US municipalities. Workshop Example 2 . Do not reproduce without written authorization. © XP SOFWARE. to a resulting amount of measured infiltration. 2 days. A more sophisticated and reasonable method is to add unique infiltration values to Hydraulics nodes as constant inflows or user defined hydrographs. 2) Modeling Infiltration from Known Flows If infiltration flow values have been deciphered from flow monitoring. 6 hours. 5 days. This forces routing in the Sanitary layer and does not allow aging sewers to have more infiltration. etc. a science and art in itself. Use QO for constant inflows.E) Modeling Infiltration and Inflows (I/I) 1) Modeling Infiltration Based on Transport The Sanitary layer has the capacity to take total sums of infiltration and divide it among conduits based on diameter and length. TEO for the time of the user defined hydrograph and QCARD for the paired flow values. These infiltration values can represent up to 50% or more of some poorly maintained sewers. Frequently. The dialog below from the global database shows the locations for entering total sums of infiltration from various sources. Programs have been written to perform these calculations and prepare XPX files or interface files for XP-SWMM2000. as mentioned above they can be used by entering them as constant or user defined hydrographs. consultants will generate a regression equation that relates the amount of rain in the previous 1 week.

so the inflow is timed very closely to the rainfall. This requires that any nodes in Runoff that would have storm flows generated. Then by adjusting the parameter zero detention percentage from 0 to 100% this value represents the amount of rainfall that is converted to inflow. There are basically two strategies. 4) Capturing a Portion of the Storm Flows as Inflows One of the least understood or documented capabilities of SWMM is adjusting the amount of inflow captured from the storm water hydrograph generated in Runoff. The first strategy is to adjust or calibrate the area of the subcatchment so that the runoff hydrograph is proportional to the amount of inflow desired.3) Generating Storm Flows (Runoff Hydrology) For a single simulation of inflows from a storm event. A fourth strategy involves selecting a runoff routing method that generates less runoff than rainfall with a slow response and long recession limb. However. slope or Manning's roughness. Do not reproduce without written authorization. in order to test many storms or to run a continuous simulation of rainfall data the Runoff layer should be employed and linked to the Sanitary Layer through interface files which will then be routed in Hydraulics.Page 23 of 27 . This is typical done by using the SCS hydrology method with long time of concentration (>60 minutes). A high degree of calibration can be achieved using multiple subcatchments employing this strategy. Second Method The second method to capture a portion of the storm flows is to construct flow dividers or other hydraulic structures that restrict the amount of Runoff that enters the sanitary sewer system manholes which save flows on the interface file for Hydraulics. the user can produce a long recession limb in the hydrograph to represent the inflow. As mentioned above additional changes to the model can increase the lag for this hydrograph. This method does not generate very much lagging in the hydrograph. Additional lag time could be represented with a conduit or adjustments in width. If 15% of the hydrograph is inflow then 15% of the area will generate the desired amount of flow. First Method The first method can be accomplished by employing 4 different strategies. hydrographs can be entered as user-defined flows just as they can represent infiltration values at any number of nodes. © XP SOFWARE. be active in the Runoff layer and the Sanitary layer so that these flows could pass from Runoff through Sanitary and be present on the interface file that will be read by the Hydraulics layer. A second strategy is to modify the catchment so that it is 100% impervious and has a large impervious detention storage so that all the rainfall is captured. A third strategy is to modify the catchment so that most of the runoff is captured by infiltration and by using a small subcatchment width and the groundwater module. The first deals with simulating only a representative area of the surface catchment so that a portion of the hydrograph becomes inflow to the sanitary sewer. In this method it is important that the conduits that are used to split the flows are active only in the Runoff or Sanitary layer and that the conduits downstream nodes where interface file flows are stored are active in the layer to receive flows as well the layer where the conduit is active. small hydrograph shape factors (<256) and low pervious area curve numbers (<30). Workshop Example 2 .

This requires the flows to be generated by other programs or methods and sometimes the combined measured flows are used in this type of simulation as inputs to the model.F) Combined Sewers 1) General Network Setup The general setup of a combined sewer is to model the entire network that is connected so that all of the storm water and sanitary components that drain in common are modeled together. while one or more unit hydrograph methods such as SCS are used to develop long and lagged hydrographs to represent the inflow and infiltration into the sewer. Do not reproduce without written authorization. © XP SOFWARE. In this case. Workshop Example 2 . However. Below is a typical node employing the strategy described above. Within the Runoff layer the user can model several components of flow by employing a strategy of developing several hydrographs from the same subcatchment. Then management strategies. which deal with any of these components. However. It is important that the sum of the unit hydrographs that represent the infiltration and inflow together with the hydrograph representing the storm flows produce the total response and that the total runoff for the unit hydrograph for infiltration into the sewer does not exceed the infiltration total from the storm water hydrograph. It is important that the components of the combined flow are correct so this requires that the dry weather flows are calibrated and the storm water flows be calibrated separately. Catchments 2 and 3 are using the SCS methodology to create long responses to represent infiltration and inflow.Page 24 of 27 . several consultants have also created and or manipulated interface files outside of SWMM and routed these flows through the Hydraulics layer. the area of the catchment can be repeated or portions of the area can be used. This guaranties that the total surface infiltration is the only source for the infiltration into the pipes. One of the Subcatchments at the node represents the storm water runoff component. Catchment 4 represents the surface runoff being captured by the combined sewer. All three layers are employed in this type of modeling. if conduits are buried below the groundwater table then this additional source can be modeled. will reflect the correct portion of the total flow.

2) Regulators and Real Time Control
Regulators can be constructed in the model as static items or structures with real time control intelligence. The former is usually accomplished by simply constructing the combination of storage nodes and conduits, orifices, weirs that are found in the regulating structure. Using a rating curve from the multi-conduit dialog can even mimic more complex hydraulics. This element requires the user to develop a head-discharge relationship. The depth field is the difference between the US and DS head. Another method is to regulate the flow in conduits by using a regulator link. This RTC item uses a flow multiplier based on the depth at any node in the model. This means that using a multiplier of zero could represent the closing of a gate, or a one could represent the complete opening and a number between zero and one some portion of the gate is open. The model will continuously check the level in the designated node and adjust the flow in the regulated conduit. All of these items mentioned are in the multi-conduit dialog of Hydraulics layer in the Special column.

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G) Advanced Topics
1) Simulating Basement Flooding
Adding conduits and storage nodes that represent floor drain leads and basements can simulate basement flooding. In a sanitary or combined sewer model the basement flooding can be shown in the DSS tools by using several nodes that represent the sum of basements at various inverts and locations. These storage nodes would be connected with conduits that represent basement floor drain leads. For example, consider a subdivision with 50 homes and 10 of them are at a low elevation that has basement flooding. The basements of these 10 homes can become a storage node or several storage nodes that have areas equal to the area of the basement at every elevation. If all basements where 20' by 30' and 8' deep and they were at the same elevation then they could be represented by a storage node that had an invert equal to the floor drain elevation a constant area equal to 6000 square feet (10 homes x 20' by 30') and be connected to the sewer with a single conduit of 6" diameter that has the number of barrels field in the conduit factors dialog changed to 10.

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2) Designing Single or Entire Set of Conduits in Hydraulics Layer
XP-SWMM2000 includes a routine in the hydraulics layer to allow surcharged conduits to be increased in nominal pipe size allowing the flow to pass just under full flow. Throughout the simulation whenever a conduit is calculated as flowing under surcharge it will be increased in size by steps equal to nominal pipe sizes. The Hydraulics Layer Job Control has a flag to Design Undersized Conduits that would allow all conduits to be increased in size if required. In addition, any number of conduits can be designed by turning off the global flag in the Job Control and turning on the Design undersized Conduit flag in the Conduit Factors dialog. This would allow the design of new conduits into an existing system. By copying and pasting to several conduits a whole proposed branch could be flagged for design. After a solve has been completed the new conduit sizes are automatically loaded into the conduit dialogs. The output file contains a history of any conduit changes that were made during the simulation. If numerous peaks were contained in the input hydrograph then the resulting design would be the largest conduit that prevents surcharge. The design algorithm only increases conduit size and does not optimize or reduce the “DEEP” parameter of the conduit. Select a branch of the network that has surcharge. Using copy and paste change the checkbox for design to on for all of the conduits in the branch. Rerun the model and recheck the conduit diameters after the solve has completed.

3) Statistical Processing of Overflow Events
The Statistics module can analyze flows on an interface file. It will divide the flows on an interface file similar to the Rain utility by breaking the TS into events. The utility can work on one location at a time so if several combined sewer outfalls exist then the utility will have to be repeated for subsequent locations. Effectively the utility will generate for the user from a continuous run the number of overflow events, the volume, duration, and inter-event duration (time of no flow) and rank these events and yield return periods on the ranked events. By employing the utility and a continuous simulation using measured rainfall, management strategies can be tested and shown to reduce overflow volume, frequency and pollutant load to receiving water bodies.

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Workshop Example 3 XP-SWMM2000 GIS Module
PCSWMM GIS for XP-SWMM
Launching XP-SWMM2000 GIS, Creating a New Database, Importing Map Files, Importing Node Data, Importing Links and Link Data, Aggregating Conduits, Exporting XPX Files from GIS Module, Importing to XP from the GIS Module

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Workshop Example 3 - Page 1 of 16

Table of Contents
A) Introduction to the XP-SWMM2000 GIS Module........................................................................................................3 1) Files Needed ..............................................................................................................................................................3 B) Launching the GIS Module and Creating a New Database...........................................................................................4 1) Launching the GIS Module........................................................................................................................................4 2) Creating a new Database............................................................................................................................................4 3) Overview of the GIS Module Interface......................................................................................................................4 4) Modeling Data ...........................................................................................................................................................5 C) Importing Map Files......................................................................................................................................................6 1) Map File Definition....................................................................................................................................................6 2) Importing the Map File ..............................................................................................................................................6 3) Reviewing Node Names and Coordinates..................................................................................................................7 D) Importing Node Data ....................................................................................................................................................9 1) Importing the Node Data............................................................................................................................................9 E) Importing Links and Link Data ...................................................................................................................................11 1) Importing the Conduit Data .....................................................................................................................................11 F) Aggregating Conduits..................................................................................................................................................12 G) Exporting XPX Files from GIS Module .....................................................................................................................14 H) Importing GIS Module Data into XP-SWMM2000....................................................................................................15

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Workshop Example 3 - Page 2 of 16

A) Introduction to the XP-SWMM2000 GIS Module
The primary application of XP-SWMM2000's GIS module (PCSWMM GIS for XP-SWMM) is to link your GIS with the XP-SWMM2000 software program. This is accomplished through a three-step process: 1 2 a practical model. 3 Create XPX files for input into XP-SWMM2000. It includes capabilities for; utilizing GIS images such as aerial photos, a tool for aggregating network elements, the ability to import from most data sources, and can export to XP-SWMM2000 the necessary data to create model networks. The GIS module can be used standalone, without XP-SWMM2000 or an existing GIS source. New data can be entered graphically or through its database tables, and/or imported from existing EPA SWMM input data files, GIS databases and other common sources. This GIS module has been developed by CHI and XP Software Inc. It can be purchased through XP Software Inc. by contacting the sales department at 1-888-554-5022 or email sales@xpsoftware.com. The module has been designed to allow economical customization for a total modeling solution. Please contact XP Software to discuss customization options for your group. This tutorial contains an overview of the GIS module and a small example of importing data from a set of Excel spreadsheets, aggregating some of the elements to reduce model complexity and exporting the data to XP-SWMM2000. It is based on the same network as the sanitary tutorial Example 2. Note: The Runoff, Transport and Extran layers in the GIS Module correspond with the Runoff, Sanitary and Hydraulics layers of XP-SWMM2000. Import data from the underlying database of the GIS into the GIS Module. View the data and reduce the complexity and allow massaging of the data into

1) Files Needed
NODES.MAP - EPANET Version 1.X Map File MANHOLEDATA.XLS - An Excel Spread Sheet of Manhole Names with Invert and Spill Crest Elevations CONDUITDATA.XLS - An Excel Spread Sheet of Conduit Names with Required Conduit Data

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Workshop Example 3 - Page 3 of 16

B) Launching the GIS Module and Creating a New Database
1) Launching the GIS Module
The module can be launched from XP-SWMM2000 by selecting the menu item Tools=>GIS Link. Additionally, the module can be launched from a shortcut on your desktop or select the program from the Windows Start Menu.

2) Creating a new Database
Select the command File=>New Database to create a new database for this sanitary sewer system project. Use the name GISSEWER.MDB for the database. Note: the .MDB extension will be automatically appended to the name GISSEWER. When prompted for database update, select the OK button to allow the database to be created or updated to the latest format.

3) Overview of the GIS Module Interface
The main screen of the GIS module is shown below.

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Workshop Example 3 - Page 4 of 16

On the left-hand side a separate frame allows the selection of layers and the toggling of layers "On" or "Off" by clicking on the checkboxes. The large pane is the current view of the network. It is currently blank since we have created a new database. The menus on the top and the toolstrip below access most of the commands. The location of the mouse is dynamically shown in the lower left-hand corner of the interface. The help menu contains all the detail necessary to use the program including access to several multimedia tutorials. The toolstrip shown below contains the most common commands for manipulating the view. From left to right they are:

Object Selector: Used to select one or more nodes and/or conduits, or to move nodes. Add Conduit: Creates conduits and/or nodes in the current layer. Zoom In: Zoom in to a specific window of the displayed view. Zoom Out: Zoom out or increase the displayed view area. Pan Map: Move the current display window to a new portion of the network in the direction you wish. Adjust Conduit Display Size: Cycles the conduit line width through 3 thickness. Adjust Label Display Size: Cycles the font size of node and conduit labels through 3 increasing sizes. Lock or Unlock SWMM Layers: Locks the node positions so that they cannot be accidentally nudged when selecting objects. View Profile: Displays the dynamic hydraulic gradeline for the selected pathway. Works only in conjunction with the Extran layer. There must be an EPA SWMM input file associated with the Extran layer for which an output file exists containing intermediate output. View Graph: Not available in this release.

4) Modeling Data
Most large sewer models are built in XP-SWMM2000 through the capability of importing existing electronic databases. Since most municipalities have some form of asset management software or GIS database of the collection system, this data can be placed in a form suitable for XP-SWMM2000. This has primary involved the manual manipulation of text files, the customization of GIS software or the creation of new tools. The GIS module is a new tool, it automates this process and allows the users to view and edit the data before it is sent to the model. The data we will use in this exercise has been delivered from a GIS department into a spreadsheet. A small portion of one of the spreadsheets is shown below. The variable names (XP field names) are described in other documentation. There is also a map file for node coordinates described later.
Name 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 USNode MR001 MR001A MR002 MR003 MR004 MR005 MR006 DSNode MR001A MR002 MR003 MR004 MR005 MR006 MR007 zp1 292.18 291.13 290.27 288.25 286.88 284.93 283.88 zp2 291.13 290.27 288.25 286.88 284.93 283.88 281.74 Len 81 78 171.69 50 87.6 79.7 160.87 rough 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 nklass 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 deep 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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Workshop Example 3 - Page 5 of 16

C) Importing Map Files
1) Map File Definition
A map definition file may be used to import nodes into the GIS module. The map definition file also brings in coordinates for the nodes. The map definition file is the same format as the EPANET Ver. 1.x map files, however only the COORDINATES section is read. They are space delimited ASCII text files. The node coordinate section should be headed with “[Coordinates]”; and must contain no blank lines until the end of the section. Comment lines are allowed at any point and all common comment symbols are recognized. A sample of the map definition file used in this tutorial (NODES.MAP) is shown below. The syntax is: Node_name x-coordinate y-coordinate The node name may be alphanumeric and up to 10 characters. The coordinates may be real world or schematic. [COORDINATES] MR010A 18974.102 24640.559 MR011 18863.828 24374.844 MR012 18803.246 24240.791 MRF02 17974.617 23954.693 MRF03 17838.402 23753.584 MR056 19942.379 16229.629 MR057 20036.74 16024.288 MR060 20174.275 15854.109

2) Importing the Map File
Next we will import to the Extran layer the file NODES.MAP that contains the manhole names and their real world coordinates. To import the map file select the command File=>Import Data…to view the Import Wizard Dialog. Select the Map File radio button and then choose the next button. On the next dialog enter or select the file NODES.MAP provided with this tutorial and select the Finish button. At this point the NODES.MAP file is read and the nodes are created. A progress monitor shows the process occurring and the process is terminated with the display of the Nodes table. This table is shown on the next page.

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Notice that the above table shows the node labels and the Northing and Easting values, but all other values are blank. The map file does not contain any data. However, the GIS module will import data to existing objects, as we will see later in this tutorial.

3) Reviewing Node Names and Coordinates
Select the command View=>View Extent=>Extran Layer to view the imported nodes.

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Workshop Example 3 - Page 7 of 16

Double-click on the node "MR025" and the Extran Attributes for Node dialog appears. This dialog is shown below. The left side includes a form of the data contained in the underlying database of the GIS Module. Only the coordinates are showing up as non-zero because thus far we have only imported a map file, which contained the node name and the coordinates. To the right the dialog has a graphic that will show a representation of the data type selected on the left. Click on one of the data fields such as Invert Elevation and look at the graphic on the right.

In addition to this graphical dialog, the Node Table can be shown by selecting the command View=>Nodes Table. By selecting a row in the table the same object is highlighted in the plan view display. Select the row MR022 and notice the node become green and the text bold.

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Workshop Example 3 - Page 8 of 16

Do not reproduce without written authorization. dBASE. Select the External Data radio button and then choose the next button. Then select the Next button again. Select the Next button. We will save this configuration at the end of the import process. which include MS Access.Page 9 of 16 . On the next dialog enter or select the file MANHOLEDATA.0. On the next dialog in the wizard select "Create new configuration".XLS file is read for column headers that may be appropriate for node and link data. Paradox. In addition you may want to see the entire list of available formats.D) Importing Node Data 1) Importing the Node Data Again select the command File=>Import Data… to view the Import Wizard dialog. Workshop Example 3 .XLS provided with this tutorial and the database type as Excel 5. This dialog is shown below. The data must now be mapped from the source file to the internal database of the GIS Module. It is at this point the MANHOLEDATA. TEXT and many more. © XP SOFTWARE.

Double-click on the node MR026 to see the data in the form view. © XP SOFTWARE. The image to the right shows this mapping of variable names. Click on the Finish button to launch the import process. Do not reproduce without written authorization. Next the user will be prompted for link mapping. At the end of the import process the Node table will be displayed showing the imported elevations.Page 10 of 16 . Since no data for links exist in the source file simply select the Next button to bypass this dialog. Workshop Example 3 . This will map the columns headed by Field .Select the "manhole$" string from the Source Table/Query drop down list. The last step allows the user to save the mapping in a profile file. A progress monitor shows the process occurring and the process is terminated with the display of the Nodes table.1 "z" and "grelev" to the appropriate locations in the GIS Module. Save the current database import profile as XPGISTUTORIALNODEDATA. Select in the source fields on the right "F1" for ID "z" for InvertElev and "grelev" for GroundElev.

In this import the connectivity was contained because Node 1 is the upstream node and Node 2 is the downstream node.E) Importing Links and Link Data 1) Importing the Conduit Data The same process as for the nodes will be used in the importing of the conduits and conduit data.Page 11 of 16 . The file to be imported is CONDUITDATA. © XP SOFTWARE.XLS provided with this tutorial. No node data exists so the only mapping to be set is for the source table "conduitdata$". Workshop Example 3 . The Source field mapping is shown in the dialogs below. We essentially imported the object and its data with one import selection. We also could have imported the nodes and their coordinates if all of the data had been in the same source table or query. Save the configuration profile as XPGISTUTORIALLINKDATA. After the import process is complete the Conduits table can be viewed as shown below. Do not reproduce without written authorization.

Select the aggregate command and return to the plan view display to see the resulting simplified model. Configurations for various aggregation scenarios can be stored and recalled instantly.F) Aggregating Conduits This command allows you to easily aggregate two or more conduits into a single conduit. The image to the right shows the Aggregation dialog.. © XP SOFTWARE. Selecting the node “MR001” and selecting the node “MR007” while holding down the shift key accomplish this. Modify the equation for the roughness so that the maximum roughness in the seven conduits will be the roughness for the aggregated prototype. Attributes of the resulting conduit are computed from customizable equations specific to each attribute. The source objects selection shows the list of objects to be aggregated. Select the section highlighted in the image above. By selecting on the fields in the left the aggregation equation for that variable will be displayed.. Then Choose the command Edit=>Aggregate.Page 12 of 16 . from the to aggregate the selected conduit pathway. Do not reproduce without written authorization. Workshop Example 3 .

To view the details of the aggregated conduit simply double-click on the link 1.Page 13 of 16 . This is a very desirable feature since large models (many objects) take longer to simulate and may not be worth the extra effort. Modelers must always decide on the optimal level of complexity since more objects is more data and more data takes more money to model. © XP SOFTWARE. Workshop Example 3 .The image below shows the aggregated network. Do not reproduce without written authorization. Take advantage of the note field and enter a description of the fact that this conduit is representative of many.

A representative sample of the file is shown below.246 24240. and choose the command File=>Export Extran Layer to XPX file. At this point the user is greeted with the dialog shown below. To export the data to an XPX file simply select the layer to be exported (Extran should already be selected. Do not reproduce without written authorization.102 24640.88 DATA ROUGH "48" 0 1 0.61 DATA Z "MR010A" 0 1 274. /******************************************************/ /* Generated by PCSWMM GIS for XPSWMM */ /* Database: gissewer */ /* Layer: Extran */ /* Entities: All entities (80 nodes.22 DATA ZP2 "48" 0 1 196. The module has allowed us to import. view. Enter the name GISTUTORIAL.791 /* Conduit Entities */ LINK 136 "8" "MR007" "MR008" LINK 136 "9" "MR008" "MR009" LINK 136 "10" "MR009" "MR010" /**************/ /* Attributes */ /**************/ /* Node MR010A */ DATA GRELEV "MR010A" 0 1 284. The GIS Module will then retrieve the current database and create an XPX file that can be imported into XP-SWMM2000. 79 conduits) */ /* Date: 6/21/99 5:15:50 PM */ /******************************************************/ /************/ /* Entities */ /************/ /* Node Entities */ NODE 134 "MR010A" 18974.828 24374.Page 14 of 16 . Workshop Example 3 .844 NODE 134 "MR012" 18803.86 © XP SOFTWARE. edit data and even change the level of discritization (aggregation of conduits) of the model.G) Exporting XPX Files from GIS Module This final step within the GIS Module is the goal of the exercise.XPX in the File name field.61 DATA QINST "MR010A" 0 1 0 DATA Y0 "MR010A" 0 1 0 /* Conduit 48 */ DATA NKLASS "48" 0 1 1 DATA LEN "48" 0 1 167.5 DATA WIDE "48" 0 1 0 DATA ZP1 "48" 0 1 201. That is to export a file for the XPSWMM2000 software from the GIS data.559 NODE 134 "MR011" 18863.013 DATA QO "48" 0 1 0 DATA AFULL "48" 0 1 0 DATA DEEP "48" 0 1 1.

To complete these start XP-SWMM2000 and create a new database.XP as shown below. The user will see a warning message that alerts you to the fact that an import will overwrite existing data. Workshop Example 3 . Select US Customary Units when prompted by the interface. Use the filename GISTUTORIAL. Select the command Special=>Import Data=>XPX. Do not reproduce without written authorization. Select OK from this dialog and a progress monitor will show you that the process is working.H) Importing GIS Module Data into XP-SWMM2000 The remaining portion of this tutorial is the importing of the file created by the module into XP-SWMM2000.Page 15 of 16 . © XP SOFTWARE. Then select the Import button to perform the import process. Select the file exported by the GIS Module as is shown below.

The future capabilities of this module will be greatly influenced by the customization projects with users. © XP SOFTWARE. Workshop Example 3 . Do not reproduce without written authorization. Please feel free to suggest new ideas. Although this tutorial has only covered a straightforward example of using the GIS Module it should familiarize you enough with the process for you to productively use this tool.When the import has finished select the Fit window icon from the toolstrip of XP-SWMM2000 to see the entire network. or questions to SWMM Solutions or directly to XP Software Inc. This view is shown in the image below.Page 16 of 16 .

Note: If the Projects option is enabled in the SWMXP.Module 1: Basic Runoff Layer Example Synopsis This example introduces you to the basic data requirements to simulate the surface water runoff in the Runoff layer of XP-SWMM2000. Create the new model by using this dialog and the New… command.S. In this module you will learn the following items: • How to draw a network in XP-SWMM2000 using the object tools. • The data requirements in the infiltration database type.INI file then a Project will need to be created first. Select U. then the database "BASIC1. Launching XP-SWMM2000 and Creating a New Database Your opening screen after either using a desktop icon or the start menu of Windows 95. • How to review the output file and view the time series graphs. customary units for this model when asked by the interface. Module 1: Basic Runoff Layer Example .Page 1 . 98 2000 or NT is shown below.XP" file can be created as a member of the project. • How to connect the rainfall and infiltration global databases to the physical data of the watershed. This new opening screen also allows you to load previous models. • How to enter rainfall data in XP-SWMM2000's Global Database.XP as the name of this XP database (the . The user details of this screen will tell you the user name and serial number for the software. • The Runoff layer Job Control data including time control. • How to solve a model. You should use the name BASIC1. browse your drives for XP files or create a new database. print control and evaporation data. • The basic physical data required to model a watershed.XP signifies an ASCII file containing all of the data you have entered either through file import or data dialogs).

In the lower right hand corner on the information bar you will have a confirmation of the current layer as well as the X and Y coordinates of the cursor. You may change the name of this watershed by using the data attributes under the Edit menu. By default the software starts on the Hydraulics layer (Hdr). Module 1: Basic Runoff Layer Example .XP file. The databases for rainfall and infiltration will be entered later in global data and tied to the physical data for basin 1. Enter the physical data shown below for this basin in the appropriate dialog boxes. Information for any of the dialog boxes can be found by highlighting the dialog box by drawing a box with the mouse and then clicking on the "?" symbol to the right. or by highlighting the node and then double clicking with the left mouse button on the name of the node (you can do the same thing to a link in XP-SWMM2000).Page 2 .Building the Model As this model will contain data in Runoff change to the Runoff Layer (Mode) by selecting on the “Rnf” Icon on the tool strip. The first node will be called node 1 because it is the first item created in the new . Entering Object Data Start entering the physical data for subcatchment 1 of node 1 after double clicking with the mouse on the node representing the basin. Use the node tool to create one watershed in the Runoff layer.

otherwise. Enter the data shown below in the variable time interval data dialogs. These databases are defined by going to the Configuration Menu and selecting the global data option. Please make sure the start time and start date overlap the runoff simulation start and end times in job control. A record name is entered in the middle dialog and added to the record name list. Module 1: Basic Runoff Layer Example . Use the graph command to look at any list of numbers in XP-SWMM2000. it is necessary to define the rainfall database and the infiltration database that node 1 will use in the simulation. The variable time interval is good for measured storm events because zero rainfall intervals can be omitted. The multiplier is applied to all values in the rain column. Select a database type of Rainfall and add the name small storm to the record name fields as shown in the picture on the next page. The constant time interval is good for design storms. you will generate either no flow or reduced flow in your model. The precipitation database may be five different types as shown in the figure below. The picture below shows the graph of the rainfall data just entered in the variable time interval dialog.Global Database: Entering Rainfall Data Now that the physical data for the basin has been entered for node 1. We will use absolute depth option for rainfall and the time intervals are in hours. You should verify that the rainfall you entered looks like the data shown below. The rainfall interface file is used for continuous simulation.Page 3 .

You can get help by using the help or "?" icon on any screen. Enter the global data for the infiltration by selecting with the mouse the EDIT button. The infiltration data includes the roughness. Enter the data shown in the bottom figure and select the Green-Ampt infiltration equation.Global Database: Entering Infiltration Data Now return to the global database section of XP-SWMM2000 and enter the record name Green-Ampt for the first infiltration database.Page 4 . and depression storage for the pervious and impervious areas of the basin. Module 1: Basic Runoff Layer Example . Enter the three numbers shown below for the three Green-Ampt infiltration parameters. Once you have entered the name click with the mouse on the ADD button to add it to the record name list.

the selection of a routing method. Note: Periodically save your work to the . a rainfall database can be created using the Add button or modified through the EDIT option. Once the two database record names have been selected then the data is complete for basin 1.Page 5 . If the databases are not selected then an error will be reported when solving the model indicating missing data. The minimum data requirements for a basin in the Runoff layer are the physical data entered in the opening Runoff Node screen. and the selection of the database names.XP file by using the "Save" icon. For example. or to create a new database record for the particular database type. The selection process involves clicking on the rainfall field box and the infiltration field box and using the SELECT option from the menu options.Linking Global Databases to Runoff Nodes Select the rainfall database small storm and the infiltration database Green–Ampt at node basi 1. Any selection field also involves the ability to edit any global database already created in global data. Module 1: Basic Runoff Layer Example .

transition which is used when the watershed has surface storage but the precipitation has stopped.SYR file which is used by the Review Results time series graphing tool. Use the checkbox to save all results for review from the Runoff layer. Years may be entered either as 2 digits or 4 digits. The Job Control for the Runoff layer will be different than the job control for the Sanitary (Transport) and Hydraulics (Extran) layers. It is important to be consistent when using more than 1 layer.Page 6 . Time control information is entered in the time control dialog. The Runoff layer has three time steps: wet which is used the when precipitation is occurring. The same date should be used for the Runoff layer starting date and the rainfall starting date. If this box is not checked only those nodes or conduits with individual save boxes checked on will be saved to the binary .. and dry which is used for the inter-event times of the simulation. Go to the Job Control dialogs in the Configuration menu. Module 1: Basic Runoff Layer Example . always use 2 or 4 digits.Runoff Job Control Now we need to enter the job control information. The years may be between 1 and 9999 AD. for any given model. with all 2-digit years assumed to be 1900s.

Page 7 . Use the default value of 0. Individual node and conduit time series will be printed in the .1 inch/day in the Evaporation dialog in the Runoff layer job control.The Print Control dialog controls the level of detail in the output file from the Runoff layer. The warning message simply states that the model during the simulation will use the default evaporation rate. If you do not select the default evaporation or enter the direct evaporation then a warning message about the evaporation will be generated when you try to solve the network. Module 1: Basic Runoff Layer Example .OUT file if selected in the print control and in the node and conduit dialogs.

The program is launched using the "Solve" icon (the "Solve" icon looks like a space shuttle). Close the windows by clicking on the "X" icon. The mode properties are selected in the Configuration menu. the model can be solved. The solve mode selected in mode properties should be the Runoff layer. Accept the default name which is your XP file name with the extension .Solving the Runoff Model Now that the Job Control information has been entered for the Runoff layer. A summary of the simulation results can be seen in the Solve window.OUT If you do not click on SAVE the data file will still be exported from XP-SWMM2000 and could be used later in a batch file simulation. Continuity error can be fixed by lowering either the wet time step and/or the transition time step. Module 1: Basic Runoff Layer Example . After selecting the Solve command save the output file name in either the current directory or a selected directory.Page 8 . For the Runoff layer you should have a continuity error less than 1 percent. A Solve command is also available in the Analyze menu or by selecting the F5 key.

00000 Percent Impervious.694 0... Module 1: Basic Runoff Layer Example .021 0. The transition time * * should not be much greater than the wet time step... Subcatchment. There are two types of impervious areas in SWMM runoff: impervious with and without depression storage.The Runoff Output File ************************************************************ * Table R5...38093 Total Losses (in).. 2.Infiltration * *Evaporation .00000 Pervious Area Total Runoff Depth (in) 0.. 1..003 2. cubic feet 1.00000 Total Area Total Runoff Depth (in) 0.. ################################################## # Table R9.229914E+04 Inches over Total Basin 2.OUT by using the "Notepad" icon...00000 Peak Runoff Rate (cfs)...512500E+02 5. The error in continuity is calculated as *************************************** * Precipitation + Initial Snow Cover * * . 1#1 Area (acres)..........815000E+04 2.06894 Total Impervious Area Total Runoff Depth (in) 2.969558E+03 2.11907 Remaining Depth (in)...Snow removal * *Surface Runoff from Watersheds * *Water in Surface Storage * *Water remaining in Snow Cover * *-------------------------------------* * Precipitation + Initial Snow Cover * *************************************** Percent Continuity Error.. 0.Page 9 ..844359E+04 1. -------Infiltration + Evaporation + Surface Runoff + Snow removal + Water remaining in Surface Storage + Water remaining in Snow Cover.58755 Peak Runoff Rate (cfs).500 1.63863 A summary of the flows from the impervious area and pervious area are listed in Table R9..118 1..229914E+04 1... * ************************************************************ Total Precipitation (Rain plus Snow) Total Infiltration Total Evaporation Surface Runoff from Watersheds Total Water remaining in Surface Storage Infiltration over the Pervious Area. 1.815000E+04 1. Search for Table R5 in the output file and compare your numbers to the numbers shown in the box above.618 Look at the output file BASIC1.50000 Max Intensity (in/hr). 2....822 0...... CONTINUITY CHECK FOR SURFACE WATER * * Any continuity error can be fixed by lowering the * * wet and transition time step... 20....00000 Peak Runoff Rate (cfs).27726 Unit Runoff (in/hr).... 3. Total Precipitation + Initial Storage. Summary Statistics for Subcatchments # ################################################## Note: Total Runoff Depth includes pervious & impervious area Pervious and Impervious Runoff Depth is only the runoff from those two areas....... 1.. 3.00000 Total Rainfall (in).. 0..82225 Peak Runoff Rate (cfs).500 -1.20832 Impervious Area with depression storage Total Runoff Depth (in) 2. 2.364835E+01 1...58755 Peak Runoff Rate (cfs)..540 2. 2.20832 Impervious Area without depression storage Total Runoff Depth (in) 0....

28 cfs. and • the Runoff layer job control (Time Control.Page 10 . PCTZER). % Impervious. Width. Module 1: Basic Runoff Layer Example . In summary the minimum data requirements for a watershed in the Runoff layer consist of: • the physical data for the watershed.Reviewing Hydrographs The surface runoff from watershed 1 may be seen by using the "Review Results" icon after highlighting node 1. • the watershed infiltration database (3 Infiltration. • the evaporation data. Slope) • the watershed rainfall database (Hyetograph). and Print Control). 2 surface roughness. (Area. Your peak flow should be about 3. 2 depression storage parameters.

• How to review the output file and the time series review results graph. S. • How to solve a model in the Sanitary layer. Creating a New Sanitary Database Make a new file called BASIC2. print control and design options. • The basic theory of Sanitary layer hydraulics. Use the link tool and draw a conduit on the screen as shown below. Module 2: Basic Sanitary (Transport) Example – Page 1 . • How to draw a Sanitary network in XP-SWMM2000. after selecting the Sanitary layer by clicking on the "San" icon in the toolstrip. You will automatically make two nodes called 1 and 2 and a conduit named 3 in the Sanitary layer.Module 2: Basic Sanitary (Transport) Example Synopsis This example introduces you to the basic data requirements to simulate the flow hydraulics in the Sanitary layer of XP-SWMM2000. In this module you will learn the following items. customary units.XP that uses U. • The Sanitary layer job control data including time control. • The basic physical data required to model a conduit in Sanitary.

There are four options and we will pick the manhole option by choosing the manhole radio button. Node 2 is simply a manhole. Sanitary does not have outfall boundary conditions. Sanitary only routes flow downhill uses the non-linear kinematic wave equation in the conduits.0 must be entered and the check box must checked for the constant flow of 2 cfs to be exported. The inflow will be a constant flow of 2 cfs. No other data needs to be entered for this manhole. The inflow to this Sanitary model will occur at node 1.Defining Node Data First define the node type for node 1. If two or more conduits are downstream from this node you should use either a flow divider to separate the flow or use the default option in XP-SWMM2000 that divides the flow based on the downstream area of full flow. There is not a nodal depth calculated in the model unless a storage node is simulated. Module 2: Basic Sanitary (Transport) Example – Page 2 . The outflow from a manhole equals the inflow in the Sanitary layer. Also select the adjacent Temporal Variation button to the right of the constant inflow value. The flow value is entered in the Sewer Inputs dialog under constant flow. The 2 or 2. Simply select the node and close the Sanitary Node dialog to accept the defaults.

Entering Conduit Data in Sanitary Layer Double-click with the mouse on conduit 3. The data requirements for a conduit in Sanitary consist of the conduit characteristics and the conduit slope (elevations are not used in Sanitary). The conduit diameter. The slope is entered in this dialog. The other blank number boxes are used for elevations in the nodes and conduits of Hydraulics. This conduit will be a circular conduit with a diameter of 2 feet. and roughness are entered after clicking on the Circular Data dialog. Sanitary will ignore the conduit and node elevations of this dialog whereas Hydraulics would ignore the slope field. roughness and conduit length are entered in the model is shown below. The dialog in which the diameter. This slope does not have to correspond to the slope as calculated using the conduit length and invert elevations. After the conduit physical data is entered click on the OK button and go to the conduit profile dialog. Sanitary will use only the slope entered in the slope field of this dialog. length. Module 2: Basic Sanitary (Transport) Example – Page 3 .

dry weather sewer inflow patterns. water quality. and multi-barreled culverts. Module 2: Basic Sanitary (Transport) Example – Page 4 . Sanitary Job Control Now that the network is entered we need to enter the Sanitary job control data. This dialog controls the usage of infiltration data.The Conduit Factors dialog in Sanitary can be used to simulate minor losses in a conduit. evaporation. The check box (Save all Results for Review) should be turned on. and design features. vertical roughness changes.

The following pipe sizes will be used 6 inches. Using a smaller time step. 12 inches. 30 inches and then subsequent size increases by 6 inches for larger pipes. simulation time step. Print control information controls the detailed printout in the Sanitary layer of XP-SWMM2000. 8 inches. This tells the model the simulation length. 15 inches. smaller convergence tolerance. and larger maximum iterations can minimize continuity errors in the Sanitary layer. Module 2: Basic Sanitary (Transport) Example – Page 5 . 24 inches. The design mode is activated in the Options dialog of the Sanitary layer job control. and convergence control. There is a design mode feature in Sanitary that will resize surcharged pipes when the pipe is surcharged. This time series detailed printout is in the output file. 18 inches. 10 inches. 21 inches.The first thing to enter is the time control information in the Sanitary layer.

The Solve mode is selected in the mode properties dialog under the Configuration menu. The continuity error for the Sanitary simulation is shown on the Solve screen. Module 2: Basic Sanitary (Transport) Example – Page 6 . You may choose to solve one. two or three layers in one run. You should try to have an overall error less than 1 percent. Control the error by adjusting the time step. You should always choose which layer you will solve in your model. convergence tolerance and maximum number of iterations. Solving the Sanitary Layer Solve the model by using the launch icon.

The peak conduit flow in conduit 3 is slightly different from the inflow of 2 cfs because the flow is routed downstream and there are two flows in a conduit: one at the upstream end and one at the downstream end of the conduit. which was the inflow to this node. The peak flow in node 2 is 2 cfs.Reviewing the Results After solving the model the model .highlight the whole network and review the model results by clicking on the Review Results icon. Module 2: Basic Sanitary (Transport) Example – Page 7 .

20E+03 0. Sum of INITIAL VOLUME + Inflows.200E+03 4. Percent flow continuity error.742E+01 4. 0.0000 1.------.Sanitary Output File #################################### # Table T2. Transport Block # # Flow Continuity # #################################### Sum of WET WEATHER Inflow..0000 0.9835 0.000E+00 0.0000 Excellent 0..00E+00 Table’s T6 and T7 list the individual node continuity errors and node and conduit flows during the simulation. INITIAL VOLUME IN CONDUITS.....23E+03 0..9913 1..01E+00 Upstream TotFlow-cf --------0.23E+03 Downstream TotFlow-cf --------0. Continuity errors less than 1 percent are called excellent. Sum of FINAL SURCHARGE STORAGE..23E+03 You should check the output file BASIC2..------0.. Continuity Error in non-conduit elements# ##################################################### Element Number ------1 2 Total Flow-cf --------7...748E+01 0..0043 0.00E+00 0.000E+00 0... The new pipe diameter is shown in the output file..00E+00 2 0. There was no surcharge in this model because the design mode increased the pipe diameter during the simulation..228E+03 7.. Sum of DRY WEATHER Inflow.000E+00 0.23E+03 Peak Flow(cfs) --------2.00E+00 Dry Weathr Inflow-cf --------0.. Total iterations and maximum # of iterations # ########################################################## Element Name ---------3 Total Number of Iterations ---------60 Maximum Number of Iterations ---------1 Maximum Maximum Maximum Minimum Mean Error Flow-cfs Slope Slope Slope --------..000E+00 7....00E+00 Your average node continuity error was Excellent Element Number ------Interface Inflow-cf --------0.00E+00 0.0000 1..00E+00 Total Cont Error-cf --------0.... REMAINING VOLUME IN CONDUITS.0000 0.------. Sum of TRANSPORT Outflows..000E+00 0...0131 0.00E-02 1..00E+00 0.OUT by using the notebook icon and compare the numbers in Table’s T2 and T5 of the output file to those numbers in the tables shown above.00E+00 2.0000 0.01E+00 1..389 cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic feet feet feet feet feet feet feet feet feet feet feet feet feet 0. Sum of MANHOLE CONSTANT Inflow... Sum of FINAL WET WELL VOLUME..0000 0..00E+00 0..20E+03 7.00E+00 Constant Inflow-cf --------7.0000 inches inches inches inches inches inches inches inches inches inches inches inches inches ######################################################### # Surcharge did not occur in this Transport simulation. Sum of REMAINING VOLUME + Outflow Sum of Flow to Ultimate Disposal Sum of Flow remaining in BMP.00E+00 7..276E+03 0. # ######################################################### ########################################################## # Table T5. Module 2: Basic Sanitary (Transport) Example – Page 8 ..... ##################################################### # Table T6.00E+00 Continuity Continuity Error-% Error Class ----------------0..-------.00E+00 Infiltratn Inflow-cf --------0.00000 2.247E+03 7.0000 Excellent ##################################################### # Table T7.000E+00 0.00E+00 0...20E+03 0.00E-02 Total Flow-cf ------7..0131 0. Sum of INFILTRATION Inflow..00E+00 7. Total flow through non-conduit elements # ##################################################### Total Total User Defnd Inflow-cf Outflow-cf Inflow-cf ------------------------1 7.00E+00 0...00E-02 1.000E+00 7..9965 2..

Use the link tool and draw a conduit on the screen as shown below. after selecting the Hydraulics layer by clicking on the "Hdr" icon in the toolstrip. S. • The basic physical data required to model a conduit in Hydraulics.XP that uses U. print control and routing options.Module 3: Basic Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Example in XP-SWMM2000 Synopsis This example introduces you to the basic data requirements to simulate the flow hydraulics in the Hydraulics layer of XP-SWMM2000. customary units. • The basic theory of Hydraulics layer hydraulics. Building a Hydraulics Network Make a new file called BASIC3. Module 3: Basic Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Example in XP-SWMM2000 – Page 1 . You will automatically make two nodes called 1 and 2 and a conduit named 3 in the Hydraulics layer. • The Hydraulics layer job control data including time control. This is the same sequence you performed in module 2. • How to review the output file and the time series review results graph. In this module you will learn the following items: • How to draw a small network in XP-SWMM2000. • How to solve a model in the Hydraulics layer.

Entering Hydraulics Node Data First define the node data or junction data or manhole data in node 1. so we will have to enter more data in the outfall dialog boxes. Hydraulics will use the nodal depth to divide the flow in downstream conduits based on the nodal continuity equation and the depth of water in the conduits. In this example you should enter a ground elevation of 110 feet. Module 3: Basic Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Example in XP-SWMM2000 – Page 2 . flow and storage information is not required to simulate a node in Hydraulics. Outfall. This node will be an outfall node. A Hydraulics node requires a ground or spill crest elevation and an invert elevation. The ground elevation is 100 feet. the invert elevation is 99 feet and there is no inflow to node 2. Now define the data for node 2. an invert elevation of 100 feet and a constant inflow of 2 cfs.

This conduit will be a circular conduit with a diameter of 2 feet. Module 3: Basic Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Example in XP-SWMM2000 – Page 3 . The Special Conduit Factors dialog contains the in which can be used to simulate minor losses in a conduit. conduit elevations and node elevations (The conduit slope is not used in Hydraulics). The data requirements for a conduit in Hydraulics consist of the conduit characteristics. The conduit diameter. and roughness are entered after clicking on the circular conduit dialog. Double-click with the mouse on conduit 3. vertical roughness changes. There are seven types of outfalls possible in Hydraulics with and without a tide gate.The outfall will be a free outfall (type 1) that uses a minimum of Yc (critical) or Yn (normal) as the depth of water at the downstream end of the outfall conduit. length. The dialog box for selecting Yc or Yn is accessed by clicking on the type of outlet dialog box. and multi-barreled culverts.

After the conduit physical data is entered click on the OK button and go to the Conduit Profile dialog. Hydraulics will ignore the slope information from this dialog. Module 3: Basic Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Example in XP-SWMM2000 – Page 4 . the boundary conditions. The date is 1/1/92 and will last for 1 hour at a 60 second time step. The conduit invert elevations are entered in this dialog. and the inflow to the network. The first thing we will do is to enter the beginning and ending simulation time and the maximum time step. we can now enter the job control information for our model.SYF file. containing each time step flow. This is the time step that will be saved to the . The model may use a smaller internal time step based on the slowest conduit time step. head and velocity. Job Control Now that we have entered the physical data for the network. or binary file.

two or three layers in one run. You may choose to solve one. The junction defaults dialog contains the default manhole area and the default surface pond area.The Routing Control dialog controls the important factors governing the model stability. You should always choose which layer you will solve in your model. and model continuity error. Module 1 Module 3: Basic Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Example in XP-SWMM2000 – Page 5 . For example. Adjusting the head tolerance can also control continuity errors in your model. model speed. The SWMM layer to be solved during this simulation is governed by the your selection under mode properties. continuity error can be controlled by adjusting the courant time step factor (smaller internal time step) and the maximum time step iterations. This is located under the Configuration menu in the XP-SWMM2000 interface. A tighter head tolerance will control any continuity error. A larger flow tolerance may speed up your model by decreasing the number of iterations used in the model. This dialog also contains the selection for dynamic wave solution or the different version 4 solutions.

You should try to have an overall error less than 1 percent.5. and tolerance. minimum courant time step factor. An efficiency goal should be between 1. The continuity error for the Hydraulics simulation is shown on the screen. Control the error by adjusting the time step. The interface will prompt you for the name of the output file.5 and 2.Solving the Hydraulics Layer Solve the model by clicking on the "Solve" icon in the interface. maximum number of iterations. Module 3: Basic Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Example in XP-SWMM2000 – Page 6 .

The peak flow is higher because the upstream conduit depth increases to push the flow through the conduit.0000E+00 Outflow Junction -------1 2 Outflow Volume.2003E+03 Cu Ft | |=====================================================| | Total system outflow = 7.5358E+01 Cu ft | | Evaporation = 0.Reviewing the Results After solving the model the model .-----------. Percent = -0.0859E-01 1. After the initial head increase the flow stays at 2 cfs which is the inflow in node 1.8321E+03 Average Outflow.2230E+03 Cu ft | | Volume left in system = 4.2000E+03 Cu Ft | | Inflow + Initial volume = 7.068 | | + Error means a continuity loss. cfs -------. Outflow or Street Flooding | | Error = Inflow + Initial Volume .3000E-01 Cu Ft | | Total system inflow volume = 7.9092E+02 6.8978E+00 *=====================================================* | Initial system volume = 3.2684E+03 Cu ft | *=====================================================* *===============================================* | Total Model Continuity Error | | Error in Continuity.Outflow .Final Volume | *===================================================================* Inflow Inflow Average Junction Volume.------------1 7.ft^3 Inflow.ft^3 -----------3. cfs -----------1. Searching the Hydraulics Output File *===================================================================* | Table E21. The peak flow in conduit 3 should be 3.a gain | *===============================================* Module 3: Basic Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Example in XP-SWMM2000 – Page 7 .0000E+00 Cu ft | | Outflow + Final Volume = 7. ft^3 = -68.59 cfs.highlight the whole network and review the model results by clicking on the Review Results icon. . Extran continuity balance at the end of the simulation | | Junction Inflow.94534 | | Error in Continuity.2000E+03 2.

Extran Iteration Summary | | Table E8 .Junction Inflow Sources | | Table E20 .6495 percent Excellent Good Efficiency 3.Natural Channel Overbank Flow Information | | Table E15 . 1. Efficiency of the simulation Most Number of Non Convergences at one Node Total Number Non Convergences at all Nodes Total Number of Nodes with Non Convergences Table E22 will tell you the seven important numbers you should be concerned with in analyzing your Hydraulics output and is shown above. *==========================================================* | HYDRAULICS TABLES IN THE OUTPUT FILE | | These are the more important tables in the output file.Extran continuity balance at simulation end | | Table E22 . You can search for the Table number using the FIND command in the notepad editor. This table will list the input and output from the model along with the overall continuity error and is shown on the previous page.75 | | | | Table E1 . Numerical Model judgement section # ################################################### Your overall error was Worst nodal error was in node 1 Of the total inflow this loss was Your overall continuity error was with -0. ################################################### # Table E22.Area assumptions used in the analysis | | Table E12 .Junction Continuity Error | | Table E19 .3552 percent 2. courier font. and margins of 0.Junction Summary Statistics | | Table E10 .Junction Time Step Limitation Summary | | Table E9 .Junction Time Step Limitation Summary | | Table E5a .Junction Data | | Table E4 .Pump Operation | | Table E18 .Look at the output file and search for Table E21.Conduit Factor Data | | Table E3 . a size of 8 pt.61 2.New Conduit Output Section | | Table E17 . The important tables in the Extran output are listed in the beginning of the output file.Conduit Connectivity Data | | Table E5 .Final Model Condition | | Table E7 .Conduit Explicit Condition Summary | | Table E6 .9453 percent 1.Junction Flooding and Volume List | | Table E21 . | | This output file can be imported into a Word Processor | | and printed on US letter or A4 paper using portrait | | mode.Conduit Summary Statistics | | Table E11 . | | You can use your editor to find the table numbers. | | for example: search for Table E20 to check continuity.Spreadsheet Info List | | Table E16 .Model Judgement Section | *==========================================================* Module 3: Basic Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Example in XP-SWMM2000 – Page 8 . 2.Channel losses(H) and culvert info | | Table E14 .Mean conduit information | | Table E13 .Basic Conduit Data | | Table E2 .

XP using the File=>Save As command. We will add surface storage node data to node 1 and a user defined inflow hydrograph to node 1. • How to review the output file and the time series review results graph. In this module you will learn the following items: • How to modify a small network in XP-SWMM2000.XP you already created in module 3. • The basic physical data required to model a storage node in Hydraulics.Module 4: Surface Ponds in Hydraulics Layer Synopsis This example introduces you to the basic data requirements to simulate a surface pond in the Hydraulics (Extran) layer XP-SWMM2000. Module 4: Surface Ponds in Hydraulics Layer – Page 1 . Make a copy of this file called BASIC4. Open the file named BASIC3. • How to enter user defined hydrographs in a Hydraulic node. The basic data for this network will be the same as in Module 3.

0001 1 0.Defining Storage Data Now define the storage node data for node 1. A constant storage node would be used to bypass the default manhole area defined in the Hydraulics layer Job Control.1 21 32 44 Graph the data you just entered using the graph button. Depth (feet) Area (acres) 0 0. Click on the Storage button to access the Storage dialog box and select Stepwise Linear as the type. Enter the following data in the Stepwise Linear Storage data dialog. Enter 110 (the surface elevation) for Node surcharge elevation. Module 2 Module 4: Surface Ponds in Hydraulics Layer – Page 2 .

Now that the user defined hydrograph and stepwise linear storage data has been entered the node dialog should have two checkboxes activated.5 2 0.8 0 1 2 Graph the inflow hydrograph in node 1 by selecting the GRAPH button. The inflow to this model will be the constant inflow of 2 cfs plus the userdefined inflow. Time (hours) Flow (cfs) 0 0 0.4 0 0.6 0 0. Module 4: Surface Ponds in Hydraulics Layer – Page 3 .7 2 0.2 0 0.3 2 0.1 2 0.Adding a User-Defined Hydrograph Enter the following data as the user-defined hydrograph in node 1.

Node Outflow | | Total Flow = absolute (Inflow + Outflow | | Intermediate column is a judgement on the node continuity error.1616E+05 12 3. 1.354 4. *=============================================================================* | Table E18 .333 5. and Table E20 and the storage node summary.4520E+05 13 4.4858E+04 9.6667 2905.330 The total continuity error was -3522.Junction Continuity Error.333 1.3078E+04 6. 5 1.3333 1455.333 1.2 cubic feet The remaining total volume was 4866.000 4.4 cubic feet Your mean node continuity error was Great Your worst node continuity error was Poor Junction Name ------Net Flow Thru Node ---------1.844E+03 0. 5810. Division by Volume added 11/96 | | | | Continuity Error = Net Flow + Beginning Volume .667 1.9 2180.1478E+04 1. Look at the data echo and see the storage node section.000 243.2536E+05 1.6138E+04 4.000 4.2600E+04 10 3.000 8.343E+03 0.115 22.667 3.00 2 -21.Ending Volume | | ------------------------------------------------| | Total Flow + (Beginning Volume + Ending Volume)/2 | | | | Net Flow = Node Inflow . *==================================* | Variable storage data for node | *==================================* Data Depth Area Point ft ft^2 ===== ====== ==== 1 0.9 0. 3 0.0492E+04 7 2.667 7.500E+03 15. | | | | Excellent < 1 percent Great 1 to 2 percent Good 2 to 5 percent | | Fair 5 to 10 percent Poor 10 to 25 percent Bad 25 to 50 percent | | Terrible > 50 percent | *=============================================================================* Continuity % Error in Remaining Beginning Error Node Contn Volume Volume -------. The XP-SWMM2000 software will triple the number of data points used in simulating the storage node by using linear interpolation. Compare these numbers to those found on the next page.2 969.8080E+04 9 2.356 2 0.6892E+05 2. 4 1.3560E+04 8 2.000 4356.-----------------------1 -3.2216E+05 Examine the output file using the NOTEPAD icon.3796E+04 2.8 0.Solving the Model and Reviewing the Output File Now solve the model by using the "Solve" icon and make sure that you have a continuity error less than 2 percent.7424E+05 Volume ft^3 ====== 0. Now find Table E18 and look at the nodal continuity summary.565 Module 4: Surface Ponds in Hydraulics Layer – Page 4 . Table E19 and the inflow summary.7424E+04 6 1.7120E+04 11 3.000 1.

00 1. the fifth is the| | sum of the flooded volume over the entire simulation| | Units are either ft^3 or m^3 depending on the units.00 2 0.00 9.00 0.00 0. This is the max | | volume at any time.00 Module 4: Surface Ponds in Hydraulics Layer – Page 5 .00 0. | | The maximum volume is the total volume | | in the node including the volume in the | | flooded storage area.000 Interface Inflow to Node ---------0.00 0.| *===================================================* Junction Name ------1 2 Constant User Inflow Inflow Inflow to Node to Node ---------.413E+03 0.Junction Inflow Sources | | Units are either ft^3 or m^3 | | depending on the units in your model. | | The fourth column is instantaneous.200E+03 3660.*===================================================* | Table E19 .00 9.00 0.---------7.00 Outflow Evaporation from Node from Node ---------.---------------------------------------1 0.502E+03 0.00 *=====================================================* | Table E20 .---------0. The volume in the | | flooded storage area is the total volume| | above the ground elevation.Junction Flooding and Volume Listing. where the | | flooded pond storage area starts.| *=====================================================* Out of System Stored in System Junction Surcharged Flooded Flooded Maximum Ponding Allowed Name Time (min) Time(min) Volume Volume Flood Pond Volume ---------------.00 0.000 0.00 0.94 0.

Select conduit 3 and review the results of the simulation. The peak flow is higher on the first inflow hydrograph cycle as the system is warming up to the initial flows. Module 4: Surface Ponds in Hydraulics Layer – Page 6 . The subsequent hydrograph cycles have peak flows above 3 cfs.

EXTRAN receives hydrograph input(s) at specific nodal locations by interface file transfer from an upstream mode (e. EXTRAN was developed for the City of San Francisco in 1973 (Shubinski and Roesner. parabolic and natural channels as well as many others (Table 5-2). Types of channels that can be simulated include circular. The Hydraulics Layer will simulate branched or looped networks. Open Channel Flow Closed Conduit Flow Surcharged Pressure Flow Subcritical Flow Supercritical Flow Tidal Surges Roll Waves 8.Module 5: XP-SWMM2000 Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Theory Introduction XP-SWMM2000 developed by XP Software Inc..4 of the EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). particularly in the way the flow routing is performed under surcharge conditions. XP-SWMM2000 will provide graphical output of water surface elevations and discharge at all system locations. and XP Software Pty. calling it the Extended Transport Model “EXTRAN” to distinguish it from the Transport block developed by the University of Florida as part of the original SWMM package. 6. XP-SWMM2000 will allow for the complete system modeling of force mains and gravity lines for combined and separate storm sewer systems. XP-SWMM2000 provides a real-time unsteady flow analysis and allows for inflow hydrographs inputs. The model performs dynamic routing of storm water and/or sanitary flows throughout the major storm drainage system to the points of outfall to the receiving water system. orifices and pumping facilities. Weir flow. backwater due to tidal or non-tidal conditions. 3. It also includes the XP graphical user interface (GUI) with graphical pre and post processing features. normal. the model has been refined. 12. reverse. It generates both textual and graphical output. Since that time.g. The Hydraulics mode uses input hydrographs and optionally utilizes input from the other modes (Runoff and Sanitary). Dresser & McKee (CDM) and XP Software. free-surface flow. Sanitary (Transport and Storage Treatment Blocks). 11. 4. 2. The Hydraulics mode of XP-SWMM2000 (EXTRAN of the original SWMM) is where dynamic flow routing and complex hydraulics functions operate. is used for free surface open channel. Many of the changes in SWMM since 1990 and the majority of changes since 1992 have been carried out Camp. Simulation output from EXTRAN takes the form of water surface elevations and velocities and discharges at selected system locations. and submerged condition Dynamic head pumps with multi-point curves Internal rating curve conduits User-defined weirs Pumps rated by wet well volume or depth Stage history boundary conditions Flow history boundary conditions Module 5: XP-SWMM2000 Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Theory – Page 1 . The module of the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) that can be used to model sanitary sewer systems is EXTRAN. 13. XPSWMM2000 is the result of 12 years of continuous development of the SWMM model with enhancements including substantial modifications to the EXTRAN module solution method and to the water quality algorithms of all modules. the Runoff Block) and/or by direct user input of the hydrograph. EXTRAN is a hydraulic flow routing model capable of simulating open channel and/or closed conduit systems as well as simulating the operation of many other flow diversion structures and flow regulators (Table 5-2). horseshoe. egg. 10. 1975). In 1974. XP-SWMM2000 consists of three layers or modes: Runoff. Background/Development XP-SWMM2000 is based on version 4. trapezoidal. 1973. flow transfer by weirs. SWMM has had a continuous history of usage and development over the last 28 years as shown in Table 5-1. At that time it was called the San Francisco Model and (more properly) the WRE Transport Model. and storage at on-line or off-line facilities. and baskethandle pipes. and Hydraulics corresponding to the Extended Transport or EXTRAN block of SWMM. 14. closed conduit flow modeling and pressure flow networks.. flow reversals. Kibler et al. EPA acquired this model and incorporated it into the SWMM package. 7. 5. pressure flow or surcharge. XP-SWMM2000 can model all of the above conditions as well as the following flow situations: 1. rectangular. 9. Ltd.

15.R. and Ground Elevation Head Loss Coefficients. XP Software XP Software XP Software Oregon State University. CDM University of Florida.3 XP-SWMM 1. Hydraulic CONSTANT PROPERTIES Invert. WP XP Software University of Florida. Inc.05 SWMM 4. Crown.23 SWMM 4.0 SWMM 4. Module 5: XP-SWMM2000 Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Theory – Page 2 .0 XP-SWMM32 6. Rating curve boundary conditions Module 3 YEAR OF DISTRIBUTION 1969-1971 1973 1975 1977 1981 1988 1989 1990 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Table 5-1: Chronology of the XP-SWMM2000 and EPA SWMM VERSION NAME AND NUMBER SWMM 1 WRE Transport SWMM II Interim Release SWMM 3 SWMM 4 SWMM 4. CDM.13 XP-SWMM2000 (7) XP-SWMM2000 Release 2 (7.44 XP-SWMM 2.4 XP-SWMM32 5.04 SWMM 4. W.E. CDM XP Software XP Software XP Software XP Software XP Software Figure 5-1: Conceptual Representation of the Hydraulics Layer Table 5-2: Properties of Nodes and Links in The Hydraulics Layer COMPONENT Nodes Links (Conduits) CONSTRAINT ΣQ – change in storage Qin = Qout PROPERTIES COMPUTED AT EACH TIME STEP Volume.5) PRINCIPAL DEVELOPERS Metcalf and Eddy. and HGL Cross-sectional Area. CDM University of Florida.0 XP-SWMM 6. Surface Area. CDM University of Florida University of Florida University of Florida. now CDM University of Florida University of Florida.2 XP-SWMM 1.

Each conduit has two regions of roughness. Velocity Pipe Shape. a higher roughness when the depth is less than a pre-defined depth.Radius. Variable orifice discharge coefficient and orifice area over time. Output summaries and input error checking substantially improved. parabolic. Discharge. Surcharged weirs are included in the surcharge algorithm. (12) Irregular shaped closed conduits. (7) A demand curve for outfalls (Q vs. The approach velocity is accounted for in the side flow weir equations. (11) The depth at an outfall may be calculated in one of three ways: • Outfall depth fixed at the normal depth. Two additional flow solutions were included in the model. XP Software accomplished the majority of these changes. (14) Junction losses have been incorporated into the model... input as stage-area data. Calculation errors in rectangular conduits were fixed. Optional flap gates at interior conduits. Optional metric or American standard units. The enhancements and error corrections include: Rating curve boundary conditions for outfalls have been added. Power function cross sections for conduits (e. Variable-sized storage junctions (ponds). This permits a restart of EXTRAN from the "middle" of a previous run. using either selected HEC-2 data lines or user-generated input lines (in HEC-2 format). Inclusion of data group identifiers on data input lines and free format input. t) has been implemented.g. (9) Vertically differentiated roughness in closed and open channels. These include: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) Input and simulation of channels with irregular cross-sections. "Hot start" input and output using saved files.0 was released in 1981 (Roesner et al. Length. This applies especially to natural channels. Slope and Roughness Changes from EXTRAN Version 3 Several enhancements to EXTRAN have been accomplished since SWMM 3. (13) Error analysis has been improved. An additional solution technique that improves stability has been added. and normal roughness from this pre-defined depth to the crown. Minor editing of prior EXTRAN input files would be necessary to run previous SWMM 3 data. Shock losses caused by the transition from subcritical to supercritical flow are now accounted for. Module 5: XP-SWMM2000 Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Theory – Page 3 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) . 1981). Optional alphanumeric conduit and junction names (instead of pure numbers). • Outfall depth fixed at the critical depth • Outfall depth is the minimum of the normal depth or the critical depth based on the conduit flow. Use of different boundary conditions at each system outfall. (10) Natural channels now have automatically defined "floodplains". The number of available conduit types has been increased to 26. elliptical and arch pipes have been added. Interpolated stage time series boundary condition at an outfall. Surface Width. The Hydraulics Layer now has the ability to interface with itself. Changes in XP-SWMM2000 from EXTRAN Version 4 Many enhancements to SWMM have been accomplished since SWMM 4. (8) Ponded floodwater at a node may be (optionally) returned to the system. hyperbolic and elliptic channels). Pump operating curves.0 was released in 1989. This allows finer discretization of pipe networks.

Model Specific Limitations The Hydraulics layer was designed to route hydrographs through the network of pipes. (9) Improve error analysis. and (2) Flow depths and water surface elevations at selected junctions in printed and plotted form.000 to 5. (11) Add a user-defined weir to the available diversion structures. manholes. Output from the Hydraulics layer takes the form of: (1) Discharge hydrographs and velocities in selected conduits in printed and plotted form. The Runoff Mode is often used for the simulation of overland and small pipe flow in the upper regions of a gravity system where the nonlinear reservoir assumptions of uniform flow hold. This would improve stability and reduce overall model size. This will allow the time history of stage to be tied to the stage history of a previous hydraulic simulation. pumps. (4) Allow the overland diversion of floodwater from one node to any other node in the Hydraulics layer. manholes (pipe junctions). For example. To accurately simulate and numerically model a complex system of gravity and manifold force mains it will be necessary to address some or all of the following restrictions and limitations: (1) Improve the transition between open channel flow and pressure flow at weirs. (6) The generation of vertical pipes to simulate manholes should be automatic. pumps. (5) The connection between closed conduits and open conduits should be better defined to improve stability. junctions. and outfall structures. (3) Implement an internal boundary condition such as a stage time history similar to the out fall boundary condition. Module 5: XP-SWMM2000 Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Theory – Page 4 . pumps. (8) Improve stability. These elements and their associated properties are summarized in Tables 5-2 and 5-3. (2) Allow more than one pipe to be connected to an outfall. General Model Characteristics The specific function of the Hydraulics layer is to route inlet hydrographs through a network of pipes. (12) Streamline the solution technique to improve performance for large networks.000 nodes) (14) Improve interface to Geographic Information Systems to allow import of ARC-Info infrastructure data. (10) Increase definition of pump curve from 3 to not less than 10 points to allow better definition of pump characteristics. (13) Increase program size to allow modeling of larger networks (1. The Hydraulics layer simulates pipes. and tide gates. orifices.(15) Numerous "bugs" in the original code have been corrected. orifices. XP-SWMM2000’s Hydraulics layer has however been successfully used to model sanitary networks consisting of all conduits 2 inches (50mm) in diameter or larger. Hydraulics (EXTRAN) must be used whenever it is important to represent severe backwater conditions and special flow devices such as weirs. the outflow hydrograph for a CSO go be analyzed for the statistics of overflow events from a continuous simulation. weirs. (7) Pipes that are too long should be automatically equivalenced or internally divided into shorter pipes. It should be noted that the boundary between the Runoff (or Sanitary) and Hydraulics layers is dependent on the objectives of the simulation. storage basins. weirs and orifices comprising the main sewer system to the treatment plant interceptors and receiving water outfalls. storage basins. these conditions occur in the lower reaches of the drainage system when pipe diameters exceed roughly 20 inches (500 mm) in diameter. Normally in storm sewer systems. particularly for large networks. These computed hydrographs may be used for further analysis by a subsequent computational procedure using the output interface file. and flow diversion structures of the main sewer system to the treatment plant interceptors and receiving water outfalls.

As shown in Figure 5-1. Nodes are the storage elements of the system and correspond to manholes or pipe junctions in the physical system. In the early development of the Hydraulics layer. assumed to be constant over a time-step. HGL. H (elevation to water surface -invert elevation + water depth). (16) Improve output for presentation of results and transfer back to GIS. a constant velocity approach was used. Velocity and the cross-sectional area of flow (or depth) are variable in the link. head. Conceptualization of the Transport System The Hydraulics layer uses a link-node description of the sewer system which facilitates the discrete representation of the physical prototype and the mathematical solution of the gradually-varied unsteady flow (St. The volume of the node at any time is equivalent to the water volume in the half pipe lengths connected to anyone node. The change in nodal volume during a given time step. which is assigned to be changing in time but constant throughout anyone time step. such as inlet hydrographs. and surface area. The last three properties are functions of the instantaneous depth of flow. (17) Water quality in simulation should be considered to allow modeling of outfall quality. length.) Inflows. The variables associated with a node are volume. permit representation of the entire pipe network. The primary dependent variable is the head. forms the basis of head and discharge calculations as discussed below. hydraulic radius. (A plot of head versus distance along the sewer network yields the hydraulic grade line. take place at the nodes of the idealized sewer system. Properties associated with the links are roughness. ∆t. Links transmit flow from node to node. The solution is for the average flow in each link. The specific properties of links and nodes are summarized in Table 5-2. such as weir diversions. The primary dependent variable in the links is the discharge. and outflows. taken together.(15) Increase definition of pump curve to not less than 10 points to allow better definition of pump characteristics. the conduit system is idealized as a series of links or pipes which are connected at nodes or junctions. Links and nodes have well-defined properties which. and surface width. but this was found to produce highly unstable solutions. Q. Venant) equations which form the mathematical basis of the model. the link-node concept is very useful in representing flow control devices. Table 5-3: Classes of Elements Included in the Hydraulics Model Element Class Conduits or Links Diversion Structures Types Circular Rectangular User-Defined or Irregular Closed Conduit Egg-Shaped Horshoe Gothic Catenary Semielliptic Basket Handle and Modified Basket Handle Semi-Circular Rectangular Triangular Bottom Rectangular Round Bottom Vertical and Horizontal Ellipse Arch Trapezoidal Power Function Natural Channel (HEC-2 Irregular Cross Section) Circular and Rectangular Orifices Transverse and Side Flow Weirs Pumps Rated by Well Volume Module 5: XP-SWMM2000 Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Theory – Page 5 . Moreover. crosssectional area.

This type of storage facility is not allowed to surcharge. Bendable Weirs. pumps. When the hydraulic head at junction J exceeds ZCROWN (J). Rating Curves On-line. The special flow regulation devices treated by the Hydraulics layer include: weirs (both side-flow and transverse).Storage Basins Outfall Structures Pumps Rated by Depth in Node Dynamic Head Pumps with or without discharge pipes Regulators. Arbitrary Stage-Area or Stage-Volume Relationship Surface Ponding By Equation or Arbitrary Stage-Area Relationship Transverse Weir With or Without Tide Gate Side Flow Weir With or Without Tide Gate V-Notch or User-Defined Weirs Fixed Backwater With or Without Tide Gate Outfall With or Without Tide Gate Rating Curve (Elevation-Flow or Depth-Flow) Outfall Flow Control Devices The link-node computations can be extended to include devices that divert sanitary sewage out of a combined sewer system or relieve the storm load on sanitary interceptors. and outfalls. Inflatable Weirs Hydrobrakes.g. the junction goes into surcharge. Figure 5-2: Conceptual Storage Junction in the Hydraulics layer Module 5: XP-SWMM2000 Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Theory – Page 6 . Routing is performed by ordinary level-surface reservoir methods. Note that the only difference is that added surface area in the amount of A STORE is added to that of the connecting pipes. Enlarged Pipes or Tunnels On-Line Or Offline.. Each of these is discussed in the paragraphs below. An arbitrary stage-area-volume relationship may also be input. User Defined Weirs. Note also that ZCROWN (J) is set at the top of the storage tank. orifices. Storage Devices In-line or off-line storage devices act as flow control devices by providing for storage of excessive upstream flows thereby attenuating and lagging the wet weather and/or dry weather flow hydrograph from the upstream area. Flumes. e. all diversions are assumed to take place at a node and are handled as inter-nodal transfers. to represent detention ponds. In the Hydraulics layer. The conceptual representations of a storage junction and a regular junction are illustrated in Figure 5-2.

customary units and 5. The standard orifice equation is: Q o = C o • A (2 • g • h) 1 2 where.Orifices The purpose of the orifice generally is to divert sanitary wastewater out of the storm water system during dry weather periods and to restrict the entry of storm water into the sanitary interceptors during periods of runoff. A = cross-sectional area of the orifice. (m/n)AR 2/3 S1/2 = C o • A(2 • g • h)1/2 where. m = 1.0 for metric units.e. the program equates the orifice discharge equation and the Manning pipe flow equation. i) Figure 5-3: Typical Orifice Diversions in the Hydraulics layer (5-2) Module 5: XP-SWMM2000 Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Theory – Page 7 . and 2) a side outlet orifice. a pumping station or an off-line storage tank. Co = discharge coefficient (a function of the type of opening and the length of the orifice tube).. and h = the hydraulic head on the orifice. and S = slope of equivalent pipe. g = gravitational acceleration. i. To convert the orifice to a pipe. Figure 5-3 shows two typical diversions: I) a dropout or sump orifice. The orifice may divert the flow to another pipe. The conversion is made as follows.49 for U.S. The Hydraulics layer simulates both types of orifice by converting the orifice to an equivalent pipe. (5-1) The user specifies values of Co and A.

Weir diversions provide relief to the sanitary system during periods of storm runoff. h will be the height of the water surface above the orifice centerline while H. Manning's n is then computed according to equation 4-3.01 ft (3 mm) lower than the invert on the inlet side. In addition. will be the distance of the water surface above critical depth (which will occur at the discharge end) for the pipe.The orifice pipe is assumed to have the same diameter. D. the pipe invert is set by the program at 0. is written as H/L where L is the pipe length. For practical purposes. Thus. H will be identically equal to h when the orifice is submerged. Weirs A schematic illustration of flow transfer by weir diversion between two nodes is shown in Figure 5-4. When it is not submerged. the user specifies the height of the orifice invert above the junction floor. for a sump orifice. n = m ( D 4) 2/3 C o /C o (2gL)1/2 The length of the equivalent pipe is computed as the maximum of 200 feet (61 meters) or 1/2 (5-3) L = 2t(gD)1 2 (5-4) to ensure that the celerity (stability) criterion for the pipe is not violated. it is assumed that H = h for this case also. letting S = h/L and substituting R = D/4 (where D is the orifice diameter) for circular conduits into equation 5-2 and simplifying gives. Flow over a weir is computed by: Module 5: XP-SWMM2000 Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Theory – Page 8 . This algorithm produces a solution to the orifice diversion that is not only as accurate as the orifice equation but also much more stable when the orifice junction is surcharged. S. If the slope. For side outlet orifices. the invert on the discharge side being set 0. as the orifice and to be nearly flat.96D below the junction invert so that the orifice pipe is flowing full before any outflow from the junction occurs in any other pipe.

All equations in the weir section remain the same except that Y1 and Y2 are switched so that Y1 remains as the "upstream" head. Also. For side-flow weirs. no input coefficient for surcharged weirs is required. V = approach velocity. (5-5) Both Cw and Lw are input values for transverse weirs.Yc ) 3/2 (5-6) where CSUB is a submergence coefficient representing the reduction in driving head. The submergence coefficient. but the program does not provide for this because of the difficulty in defining the approach velocity. and CSUR = weir surcharge coefficient. CSUR. Yc). where CRATIO is defined as: C RATIO = (Y2 . 3/2 for transverse weirs and 5/3 for side-flow weirs.Yc ) (5-7) and all other variables are as previously defined. Normally. the driving head on the weir is computed as the difference h = Y1 – Yc where Y1 is the water depth on the upstream side of the weir and Yc is the height of the weir crest above the node invert. Cw should be a function of the approach velocity. V.Q w = C w L w [(h + V 2 2g ) a . Lw = weir length (transverse to overflow). reference unavailable) by interpolation from Table 5-4. Y2 to exceed the upstream depth. flow reversal at a side-flow weir causes it to behave more like a transverse weir and consequently the exponent “a” in equation 5-5 is set to 5/3. Thus. h = driving head on the weir. CSUB' is taken from Roessert's Handbook of Hydraulics (in German. CSUR is computed automatically at the beginning of surcharge. If the weir is surcharged it will behave as an orifice and the flow is computed as: Q w = CSUR L w (Ytop . Ytop = distance to top of weir opening shown in Figure 5-4. Y1. However. Cw = discharge coefficient. the Hydraulics layer detects flow reversals at weir nodes that cause the downstream water depth. h = Y1 = maximum (Y2. Figure 5-4: Typical Weir Diversions in EXTRAN Module 5: XP-SWMM2000 Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Theory – Page 9 .Yc )/(Y1 .Yc )(2gh)1 2 where. For this same reason. if the downstream depth Y2 also exceeds the weir crest height. Finally. (5-8) The weir surcharge coefficient. the weir is submerged and the flow is computed by: Q w = CSUB C w L w (Y1 . When the weir begins to surcharge. the preceding weir discharge just prior to surcharge is equated to Qw in equation 5-6 and equation 5-8 is then solved for the surcharge coefficient. The Hydraulics layer computes the values of CRATIO and CSUB automatically and no input data values are needed. which is programmed into the weir solution.(V 2 2g ) a ] where. and all other variables are as defined above. is set to zero prior to computing Qw. and a = weir exponent.

00 Module 5: XP-SWMM2000 Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Theory – Page 10 .( 4 g)V • exp( −1.68 0.00 0.97 0.98 0.99 0. Flow across the weir is restricted by the tide gate.10 CSUB 1.30 0.96 0.40 0.60 0. This is accounted for by reducing the effective driving head across the weir according to an empirical factor published by Armco (undated): 2 12 (5-9) h' = h .91 0.50 0. which may be partially closed at times.80 0. Table 5-4: Values of CSUB as a function of Degree of Weir Submergence CRATIO 0.80 0.95 0.Weirs with Tide Gates Frequently.00 0.94 0.00 0.15 • V/h ) Where h is the previously computed head before correction for flap gate and V is the velocity of flow in the upstream conduit.95 1.40 0.85 0.20 0.70 0. weirs are installed together with a tide gate at points of overflow into the receiving waters.85 0.90 0.

The pumping rule curve is based on the volume of water in the storage junction. The program automatically steps down the pumping rate by the operating rule of (2) as inflows and wet-well volume decrease. Alternatively. the pump rate is based on the water depth. Pumping rates are specified as input data for each station. the pump rate is reduced below rate Rl until it just equals the inflow rate. Y. The step-function rule operates as follows: 1. For an in-line lift station. If the wet-well goes dry. Module 5: XP-SWMM2000 Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Theory – Page 11 . 4. The step-function rule is as follows: Pump Rate = R1 for R2 … Rn 0 < Y < Y1 Y1 ≤ Y < Y2 Y2 ≤ Y < Yn (5-10) For Y=0. 5. If Vn is exceeded in the wet-well. the inflow "gates" are opened. When the inflow rate again equals or exceeds Rl. a weir. Wet-well volumes are specified as input data for each pump station: V1 < V2 < Vn where Vn is the maximum capacity of the wet well. the pump rate is the inflow rate to the pump junction. from which the contents are pumped to another node in the system according to a programmed rule curve. the pumping rate goes back to operating on the rule curve. A schematic presentation of the pump rule is shown in Figure 5-5. A mass balance of pumped outflow and inflow is performed in the wet-well during the model simulation period. either in-line or off-line pumps may use a multi-point pump curve (head versus pumped outflow).Pump Stations A pump station is conceptually represented as either an in-line lift station or an off-line node representing a wet-well. V. The pump rate is selected automatically by the Hydraulics layer depending on the volume. 2. When the inflow falls below the maximum pumped flow. in the wet-well. the inflow to the storage node is reduced until it does not exceed the maximum pumped flow. The influent to the wet-well node must be a free discharge regardless of the diversion structure. at the pump junction. or a pipe. Inflows to the off-line pump must be diverted from the main sewer system through an orifice. as follows: Pump Rate = R1 R2 … for 0 < V < V1 V1 ≤ V < V2 V2 ≤ V < Vn (5-11) Rn 3.

iterations are performed until the dynamic head difference between the upstream and downstream nodes on either side of the pump corresponds to the flow given on the pump curve.6: Typical Pump Curve in the Hydraulics layer Module 5: XP-SWMM2000 Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Theory – Page 12 .Figure 5. Figure 5. the pump curve replaces equation 5-23.5: Typical Pump Diversion in EXTRAN A conceptual head-discharge curve for a pump is shown in Figure 5-6. When this method is used for either type of pump. In other words.

otherwise known as the St. Friction Slope 5. Runoff Hydraulics.2 ft/sec2. The base elements are either links such as closed conduits. or the cross sectional area of the channel. Bed Slope 6. and 10000 outfalls. storage nodes. open channels. Venant equations in the Hydraulics layer are the conduit continuity equation: ∂A ∂Q =0 + ∂x ∂t and the conduit momentum equation: (5-13) ∂ Q ∂ (Q 2 / A ) ∂y + + g • A• + g • A • (S e + S c + S f + S o ) = 0 ∂t ∂x ∂x where. The two St. y. The model assumes a constant flow (Q) in links. St. 10000 storage elements. = the distance along the conduit (ft). = gravitational acceleration. Venant Equations The equations as used in the Hydraulics layer utilize as primary variables Q. and A. Runoff Hydraulics. Manning's equation supplies the momentum friction slope and the continuity equation is substituted for the flow gradient term in the momentum equation. manholes or point junctions. Sanitary Hydraulics. and diversions or nodes such as outfalls. 10000 weirs. 32. but varies the hydraulic radius (R). Table 5-5: Momentum Equation Terms used in XP-SWMM2000 Momentum Equation Term 1. The Hydraulics layer is presently sized to simulate drainage systems of up to 10000 channels. Sanitary. The terms in the momentum equation used in the Hydraulics layer module of XPSWMM2000 are shown in Table 5-5 as well as a comparison to the terms used in the Runoff and Sanitary modules of XP. The basic differential equations for the sewer flow in conduits/channels comes from the gradually varied. l0000 orifices. and head (H) at the upstream and downstream ends of the conduit. Pressure Slope 4. Entrance/Exit Losses 7. Expansion/Contraction Term Symbol Application Modes Hydraulics Hydraulics Hydraulics. or the channel depth. Sanitary ∂Q ∂t ∂ (Q 2 / A) ∂x ∂y ∂x Sf So See Sec The Hydraulics layer solves a nodal continuity equation and a combination momentum equation and continuity equation in the conduits. Venant or shallow water equations (Lai. 10000 pumps. = the time (seconds). Sanitary. = the flow in the conduit (cfs). Local Inertia 2.Base Algorithms The base algorithms in the Hydraulics layer are derived from the continuity and momentum equation for flow in conduits and the continuity equation for the water surface elevation at a node. cross-sectional area (A). Sanitary Hydraulics. and Module 5: XP-SWMM2000 Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Theory – Page 13 (5-14) . onedimensional unsteady flow equations for open channels. Convective Inertia 3. or the channel flow. A Q t x g = the conduit cross sectional area(ft2). 1986). 10000 junctions.SWMM2000.

(5) a gradient head (H) substitution combining the pressure and bed slope (So) terms of the momentum equation. − 2 ⋅V ⋅ ∂A ∂A ∂V = 2 ⋅V 2 ⋅ + 2⋅Q ⋅ ∂x ∂t ∂x (5-17) (4) a friction slope (Sf) substitution is based on Manning's equation. n2 Sf = 2 •Q• Q A • R4/3 where. the momentum equation is combined with the continuity equation to yield a single equation solved along each link at each time-step. n = Manning's roughness coefficient. ∂H ∂y ∂h ∂y = −So + =− + ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x (5-19) (6) the entrance/exit loss term in the momentum equation has a slope (See) defined by: K ee ⋅ V 2 S ee = 2 ⋅ g ⋅ ∆x (5-20) (7) a gradient head (H) substitution combining the pressure and bed slope (So) terms of the momentum equation. in which V is the velocity in the conduit (ft/sec). So = are defined in Table 5-5. Module 5: XP-SWMM2000 Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Theory – Page 14 . As used in the Hydraulics layer module.Se. (5-18) Note that the use of the absolute value sign on the velocity term in equation 5-18 makes Sf a directional quantity and ensures that the frictional force always opposes the flow direction. Q = V•A (5-15) (2) the conservative linearized form of the convective inertia momentum term (the linear terms are the velocity difference and flow difference along the conduit). Sc. To create that combined momentum/continuity equation the following identities are used or substituted in the momentum equation (514) (1) the flow identity. a value of 2Vis multiplied on each side. and R = the hydraulic radius. Sf. ∂Q ∂V ∂ (Q 2 / A) ∂ (Q • A) +V • =Q• = ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x (5-16) (3) a continuity equation substitution for one of the flow difference in the linear form of the convective inertia term (this is required since only one flow is calculated in the Hydraulics layer at the center of the conduit).

n. R. However. The FDE is then used to solve for the conduit flows at each time step of the simulation. The FDE used in XP-SWMM2000 to solve for the conduit flow is: Qt + ∆t = Qt − +α ⋅ g ⋅ n 2 ⋅ V ⋅ Qt + ∆t R4/3 Qt + ∆t [1 / Aup − 1 / Adn ] L ⋅ ∆t − α ⋅ V ⋅ ⋅ ∆t − g ⋅ A ∆A ⋅ ∆t ∆T [ H dn − H up ] L ⋅ ∆t (5-23) where. t+∆t = the sum of the current time step plus the last time step t = the current time step (seconds) Finite Difference Algorithm for Normal Flow Equation 5-23 is the equation used in the Hydraulics layer under most conditions. g. Hdn = water surface evaluation at the downstream end of the conduit. Hup = water surface evaluation at the upstream end of the conduit.K ec ∂ (Q / A) 2 ⋅ S ec = ∂x 2⋅ g (5-21) After making the above substitutions into equation 5-14 the combined momentum/continuity partial differential equation as used in the ETRAN module is: 2 ∂Q g ⋅ n ⋅ Q ⋅ V ∂A Q 2 ∂A gA∂H + − 2 ⋅V ⋅ − ⋅ + ∂t ∂t A 2 ∂x ∂x R4/3 A ∂V 2 K ee ⋅ Q ⋅ V + K ec ⋅ ⋅ + =0 2 ∂x 2 ⋅ ∆x (5-22) Finite Difference Algorithm for Dynamic Flow To be useful in a simulation model equation 5-22 must be further modified to form the basis of a finite difference equation (FDE). A = are defined in Table 5-5 or equation 5-18. Adn = cross section area at the downstream end of the conduit. when the following criteria are met: Q>0 ∆ H < ∆Z Qnorm < Q (5-24) Module 5: XP-SWMM2000 Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Theory – Page 15 . Aup = cross section area at the upstream end of the conduit. t = the current time step. L = length of the conduit (ft or m) α = non-linear weighing factor based on the conduit Froude Number. t+ ∆t = the new time step.

Points where pipe slope changes significantly. storage point. Outfall and discharge point(s). Equations 5-23 and 5-25 are used in conjunction with the Hydraulics layer junction continuity equation as defined by: n +1 n ∂H θ ⋅ ∑ Q + (1 − θ ) ⋅ ∑ Q = ∂t θ ⋅ ∑ A n +1 + (1 − θ ) ⋅ ∑ A n (5-26) where. 7. The Hydraulics layer then will use the normal flow equation based on Manning’s equation: Qnorm = g ⋅ S o ⋅ Aup Rup Q 23 (5-25) Aup and Rup are the cross sectional area and hydraulic radius at the upstream end of the conduit. and n+1 = the counter for the new time step which in its FDE form solves for the junction depths at each time step of the simulation. Q is the flow as calculated in equation 5-23. lake. n = counter for the last time step. 5. A = junction surface area. Normal flow is labeled with an asterisk in the intermediate printout and the conduit summary lists the number of minutes the normal flow assumption is used for each conduit. Finite Difference Algorithm for Nodal Continuity Equation Junction or manhole points in the Hydraulics layer should be identified at each: 1. Pump station. Qnorm is the flow calculated y equation 5-25 and So is the bed slope of the conduit. Upstream terminal point(s) in the system. This convergence criterion used for junction depths at each time step is: n +1 Y θ ⋅ ∑ Q n+1 + (1 − θ ) ⋅ ∑ Q n −Y − ≤ SURJUN θ ⋅ ∑ A n+1 + (1 − θ ) ⋅ ∑ A n n (5-27) The conduit convergence criterion for flow at each time step is: Module 5: XP-SWMM2000 Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Theory – Page 16 .e. Points where pipe inverts are significantly different. orifice and weir diversion.the flow is “normal”. and ∆H is the water surface slope. θ = time weight parameter. Ocean. and 9. 3. user defined hydrograph input or from Runoff). 6. and parameter SURTOL for conduit flows. Pipe junction. H = junction head. The new time step solution is found when all the estimated conduit flows and junction depths satisfy the convergence criterion as given in the Hydraulics Job Control Parameters (SURJUN for depths. Junction where inflow hydrographs will be input (i. 2. Q = junction inflows and outflows. 8. Points where pipe size/shape changes significantly. pond or river boundaries 4.

Q n +l ≤ 1. the parameter DELT is the maximum allowable lime step the program should use during the simulation. a feature of the Hydraulics layer is the automatic adjustment of small conduit lengths to allow larger internal time steps. The courant time step for enclosed conduits is: ∆t = ∆x V + g⋅D (5-30) and the courant time Step for open conduits is: ∆t = ∆x A V + g⋅ T (5-31) All unsteady flow models must satisfy the implicit model time step limitation: ∆t = ∆x V (5-32) Equivalent Conduit Length Since small conduits govern the selection of the time step. The parameter ITMAX defines the number of iterations that are allowed before convergence fails. However. If a conduit with an extremely large cross sectional area (> 10000 ft2 or 1000 m2) is connected to a small conduit smaller values of SURTOL will be required. see equation 5-29. The courant numbers is calculated differently for enclosed conduits and closed conduits. The Hydraulics layer has an equivalent Module 5: XP-SWMM2000 Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Theory – Page 17 . The program will select the current lime step based on the smallest conduit courant number at the beginning of each long lime step (DELT).0010 for most simulations. The model then determines the number of equal length small time steps required to equal the large time step DELT. The time step the user enters in the Hydraulics layer Job control. 10 ⋅ Q n +l/2 Q n +l ≥ 0. This controls possible oscillations or instabilities in the flows.90 ⋅ Q n +l/2 (5-29) values for SURTOL are 0.Q n+1 − Q n Qref ≤ SURTOL (5-28) At each iteration there are bounds placed on the estimate of Qn+1. ~ before the value of ITMAX is reached the underrelaxation parameter omega changes value as calculated in the following set of equations: 1st Iteration Qn+l = Qn 2nd Iteration Qn+l = Qn+l/2 Qn+l = ωQn+l + (1-ω) Qn+l/2 Time Step Selection XP-SWMM2000 uses a variable time step during the simulation.0025 and 0.

V = average conduit velocity. Module 5: XP-SWMM2000 Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Theory – Page 18 . the time step may be lowered to achieve the same ends.conduit generator that lengthens short pipes to enhance the stability of the modeled system and allow longer time steps. g = gravitational acceleration. D = current pipe depth. The user of the model can control the length of all conduits and created V pipes with the use of one input parameter "MODIFY CONDUITS" in the Hydraulics Job Control. The conduit is lengthened with a smaller Manning's "n". This table lists the average courant number C# time step for each conduit and the length of time in minutes DELT exceeded the C# for each conduit. and T = width of the conduit An additional aid in the selection of an appropriate time step is the diagnostic conduit summary now printed at the end of a Hydraulics simulation. A = conduit cross-sectional area. is: (5-34) (5-35) Le = 2 ⋅ ∆t ⋅ gD Le = 2 ⋅ ∆t ⋅ g A T (5-36) And the new equivalent roughness (ne) ne = n p ⋅ Lp Le (5-37) where. Alternatively. respectively. L = pipe length. This is accomplished by relating the Manning's equation for the prototype and the new equivalent conduit: (1 / n p ) ⋅ Ap ⋅ R p Ae = Ap Re = R p 2/3 ⋅ S p = (1 / ne ) ⋅ Ae ⋅ Re 2/3 ⋅ Se (5-33) The following assumptions are made to yield a predictive equation for the new conduit length and roughness: Se = S p = H L / L (1 / n p ) ⋅ S p = (1 / ne ) ⋅ S e The new equivalent conduit length for enclosed and open conduits. Sensitive conduits will have the smallest time step and may be modified by using an equivalent pipe to enhance stability and increase the time step. The Hydraulics layer will create equivalent longer conduits that have the same cross sectional area and head loss to mimic the head loss and function of the short conduits.

Special Pipe Flow Considerations The solution techniques discussed in the preceding paragraphs cannot be applied without modification to every conduit for the reasons listed in Table 5-7. Module 5: XP-SWMM2000 Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Theory – Page 19 .

Figure 5-4 shows each of the possibilities and describes the way in which surface area is assigned to the nodes. These options are listed in Table 5-8. Critical depth upstream. Flow computed exceeds flow at critical depth. flow regulator or user defined weir equation.0001 (ft or m). Half of surface area assigned to each node. Assign all surface area to downstream node.1 2 3 4 5 Table 5-7: Special Pipe Flow Considerations in Hydraulics (EXTRAN) The invert elevations of pipes which join at a node may be different since sewers are frequently built with invert discontinuities Critical depth may occur in the conduit and thereby restrict the discharge. power function conduit. The Hydraulics layer now prints a summary of the special hydraulic cases shown in Table 5-8. (3) critical upstream. Once these depth and surface area corrections are applied. (2) normal. Normal depth may control. Subroutine OUTPUT prints the time in minutes that a conduit was: (1) dry (depth less than 0. Set flow to normal value. and (4) critical downstream. Flow computed from motion equation. Use critical depth. Assign surface area in usual manner as in case Dry pipe. Critical depth downstream. the computations of head and discharge can proceed in the normal way for the current time-step. or combination of cases. The Hydraulics layer detects these automatically in Subroutine HEAD. If any surface area exists. It should be noted that these designations refer strictly to the assignment of upstream and downstream nodal surface area and conduit depths. Use lesser of critical or normal depth downstream. Assign all surface area to upstream node. Venant equations may be superceded by either a rating curve equation. the flow must be computed by special techniques. Note that any of these special situations may begin and end at various times and places during simulation. The pipe may be dry. Pipe Flow Cases in Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Normal case. assign to downstream node. The St. Module 5: XP-SWMM2000 Hydraulics (EXTRAN) Theory – Page 20 . Set flow to zero. Through use of Configuration Parameters the program may supercede the second through fourth situations and the model will only use the first situation. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Table 5-8. In all of these cases listed in Table 5-7.

• The new output tables analyzing the surface storage results. same outlet boundary condition. and node 1b is a sealed manhole. and A sealed or bolted manhole that will use the default surface area of a node as the nodal area when the hydraulic grade line is above the ground elevation. • The three options in Extran for simulating the flood loss through the top of a manhole: – – – A flood loss out of the top of the manhole that is accounted for in the continuity check of Hydraulics.Module 7: Surface Flooding in XP-SWMM2000’s Hydraulics layer Synopsis This example shows how to use the default surface ponding area in Hydraulics (Extran) and the sealed or bolted manhole option. A surface pond that will store the excess water until the hydraulic grade line allows the water to reenter the subsurface system. The only difference in the three networks is how surface flooding is handled in the model at the inflow nodes (1. Module 7: Surface Flooding in XP-SWMM2000’s Hydraulics layer – Page 1 . As shown in the picture below node 1 is a regular Extran manhole. Open the file named FLOOD. node 1a is a surface pond manhole.XP located in your workshop directory. You will learn: • How to use the new sealed or bolted manholes. This file consists of three small networks with the same inflow. 1a and 1b). A bolted manhole will cause the flow in the downstream pipes to increase because of the increased water depth at the upstream end of the conduits. and the same network physical characteristics.

You can see this hydrograph by double-clicking on one of these nodes graphing the data under the user-defined hydrograph. The peak flow is 50 cms and lasts for one hour. In this example. Nodes 1. Module 7: Surface Flooding in XP-SWMM2000’s Hydraulics layer – Page 2 .Controlling Surface Flooding The three options for controlling surface flooding are located in each node dialog. 1a and 1b each have the following user defined hydrograph. they are already selected for each node. You decide by selecting the appropriate radio button.

The water surface at node 1b reaches 115+ meters because the increased head at node 1b routes the excess flow downstream. An equation such as: Area = 5000.Junction Defaults The Junction Defaults dialog contains the default surface area for a flooded node: Area = Coefficient • e [exponent • Ponded Depth] An equation with values such as: Area = 500.0• e [1e-09 • Ponded Depth] means you are using a cylindrical shape for the flooded node.0• e [1. Module 7: Surface Flooding in XP-SWMM2000’s Hydraulics layer – Page 3 . The water surface at node 1a reached 115+ meters because the excess water filled up the surface storage area. 1a.0 • Ponded Depth] means you are using a saucer shape for the flooded node. and 1b and review the results. Solve the model and review the model results in two stages: First highlight nodes 1. This would be the best shape for controlling any continuity errors generated using the surface ponds. The peak elevation of 110 meters at node 1 means that the water surface has reached the ground elevation. The excess water is lost out of the top of the manhole.

000 8 2a 110.000 2 2 110.000 0. 100. 101. No Ponding 3 4 40.000 3 4 110. Module 7: Surface Flooding in XP-SWMM2000’s Hydraulics layer – Page 4 . *===================================================* | Table E3a . Flooded Ponding 8 2a 39.2 459. No Ponding Initial Depth-mt -------0. Sealed Manhole 5 2b 40. 98. No Ponding 6 4b 60. 98. 101.8 498. 101.0 0.0 0. 0.000 *===================================================* | Table E3b . You may need to view separately the conduits labeled sub and trap within the multi-link.000 0.000 0. invert elevation. the x-y coordinates. 100.000 0. 99. instantaneous inflow. 99. and the type of manhole. 100. review the flow in conduits 3.000 0.000 6 4b 110. 99.000 0.10 476.0 479.000 0. 100.3 439. The head at the flooded node is restricted to the ground elevation even though the water surface elevation is much higher.5 458.5 478.0 0.0 0.--------. 0.000 5 2b 110. 0.-------------.000 7 1a 110.-------1 1 110.0 457.000 9 4a 110.-------------------1 1 -1. 102. 101.0 439.0 0. Coord.0 0. and 3b. 102.000 Type of Inlet -----------Normal Inlet Normal Inlet Normal Inlet Normal Inlet Normal Inlet Normal Inlet Normal Inlet Normal Inlet Normal Inlet Maximum Capacity ---------------- Table E3 in the output file will list the ground elevation.110 meters. 100. No Ponding 9 4a 60.--------.000 4 1b 110. Type of Manhole --. 98. 100.Junction Data | *===================================================* Inp Junction Ground Crown Invert Qinst Num Name Elevation Elevation Elevation cms --. 3a. No Ponding 4 1b 20.---------------. No Ponding 2 2 19.Junction Data | *===================================================* Inp Junction X Y Num Name Coord.000 0. The flow in conduits 3 and 3a are the same because the upstream head is the same in both conduits .Secondly. No Ponding 7 1a 19.

6891 1.0000 0.10 1.333 9.70 0.674 0 5 0 100.2857 0.0000 0.5784 13.000 4.16 495.0000 0.0667 71.99 0.049 5.56 625.333 7.3571 0.8437 3.0 1.94 499.0000 0.57 0.5 1.8 1.2339 0.706 0 8 0 100.0000 0.0000 0.*=====================================================* | Table E20 .0000 Junction Name ------1 2 4 1b 2b 4b 1a 2a 4a Surcharged Time (min) ---------0. G.6742 2.125 6.4178 0.636 0 11 0 101.667 6.35 0.| *=====================================================* Out of System Flooded Volume --------75224.7331 2.2000 65.9 1.189 6.0667 68.4 1.77 0.8 1.200 0.3571 0. where the | | flooded pond storage area starts.200 1.2000 2.0000 4684.3305 0 2 0 100.000 2.0000 0.0000 98. L. This is the max | | volume at any time.0853 2.387 8.000 7.0000 101.6 1.200 0.77 582.0000 0.0000 18016.------------.Junction Flooding and Volume Listing.92 Junction:1a Hr:Mn:Sc Elevation Depth Totl Area Node Area Volume Inflow Outflow -------.9667 0.0000 Stored in System Ponding Allowed Flood Pond Volume ----------------0.200 1.56 0.200 1.4666 13.27 1. the amount of storage in the surface pond (node 1a).27 483.200 0. *========================================================* | T i m e H i s t o r y o f t h e H.00 Time Max Crown Elevation: 101. | | The fourth column is instantaneous.970 0 13 0 101.------0 1 0 100. This table can be copied and pasted into a spreadsheet for further analysis.21 1.2000 69.346 0 6 0 100.200 1.87 496.200 0.333 5.046 0 7 0 100.305 0 15 0 101. and the storage in the sealed manhole (node 1b). Module 7: Surface Flooding in XP-SWMM2000’s Hydraulics layer – Page 5 .333 3.0000 8.70 570.9910 4.0000 17226.322 8.4000 2743.200 0.87 0.637 0 14 0 101.667 8.0000 0.000 5.4000 Table E20 will inform you the amount of water lost from the manhole (node 1).200 0.200 1.0000 Maximum Volume --------12.2000 2. square meters and cubic meters depending on the type of units in your model.3912 0.0000 1990.6 1. The units will be either feet.430 0 3 0 100.200 1.971 0 10 0 100.2 1.200 0.6667 0.94 0. the fifth is the| | sum of the flooded volume over the entire simulation| | Units are either ft^3 or m^3 depending on the units.6 1.200 1.61 0.5 1.83 492.35 540.83 0.2 1.3008 0.21 490. the inflow to the node and the outflow from the node.7 1.257 7.971 The time history of the depths and elevations in a node now include the total area.7 1.57 1206.05 1.275 0 9 0 100.0000 98.-------------.200 1.333 1. square feet and cubic feet or meters.--------. (meters) | *========================================================* Max Ground Elevation: 110.667 4. the total volume.4000 18.7143 0. the nodal area.2201 0.--------.667 2.10 498.0000 0.9231 4. The volume in the | | flooded storage area is the total volume| | above the ground elevation.99 500.00 9.455 9.16 1.05 500.1378 0.0000 Flooded Time(min) --------96. 1. | | The maximum volume is the total volume | | in the node including the volume in the | | flooded storage area.521 10.0000 101.140 0 4 0 100.61 552.302 0 12 0 101.

Module 7: Surface Flooding in XP-SWMM2000’s Hydraulics layer – Page 6 .Using the Plan Section The plan view will show the flooding and conduit flows for the whole network. Going to the Results menu accesses the Plan View decision support tool or select the F10 key.

The only difference in the three networks is how surface flooding is handled in the model at the inflow nodes (1. This module is a continuation of module 7. same outlet boundary condition.XP located in your workshop directory. This file consists of three small networks with the same inflow. 3a. In addition you will add in overland flow conduits to each of the downstream links. node 1a is a surface pond manhole. and 3b. Module 8: Overland Flow Routing in the Hydraulics Layer – Page 1 . Hydraulics (Extran) solves a continuity equation for the depth of water in a node and a combined continuity-momentum equation for the flows in a conduit. and the same network physical characteristics. Open the file named FLOOD. 1a and 1b).Module 8: Overland Flow Routing in the Hydraulics Layer Synopsis This example shows how to use the default surface ponding area in Extran and the sealed or bolted manhole option. and node 1b is a sealed manhole. As shown in the picture below node 1 is a regular Hydraulics manhole. You will modify this file by adding an overland flow conduit to links 3. The flow separation between the subsurface conduits and the overland flow conduits is based on the depth in the upstream and downstream nodes of the conduit. The overland flow conduits are part of a multi-link conduit in XP-SWMM2000.

Each of the trapezoids is 0. Module 8: Overland Flow Routing in the Hydraulics Layer – Page 2 .5 meter deep.Simulating Street Flow in Hydraulics Activate the overland trapezoidal channel in links 3.5 meters to 109 meters. 100 meters long and have conduit inverts dropping from 109. 3a and 3b by turning on the number 2 checkbox in a multi-link conduit as shown below.

5 meters or the maximum depth of the conduit. 3a.Solve the model and review links 3.5 meters. and 3b. Look at the flow in two links at a time. Module 8: Overland Flow Routing in the Hydraulics Layer – Page 3 . There will be flow in all six conduits as shown below. The flow in conduit subb will be under pressure from the sealed manhole while the flow depth in trapezoid trapb will only reach 0. The flow in the overland trapezoids will not start until the water surface elevation reaches 109. The flow in conduits sub and trap mimic the shape of the inflow hydrograph because the excess inflow is lost through the top of manhole 1.

00000 98.8143 100.461863 14.58725 5b 44.0000 220.| *=========================================================* Conduit Maximum Name Flow ------.0000000 ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## Junction Name -------1 2 4 1b 2b 4b 1a 2a 4a Invert Elevation --------100.6 334433.| | The values in the review results may only be the | | maximum of a subset of all the time steps in the run.00000 100.3 321362.5380 100.5480 105.09580 sub 21.18 274870.94104 trapa 5.0000000 0.SPREADSHEET INFO LIST | | Conduit Flow and Junction Depth Information for use in | | spreadsheets.6 Maximum Velocity -------8.740829 6.9 45805.0 42607.76113 9.00000 100. | | Note: These flows are only the flows in a single barrel.25817 Total Flow --------232883.--------5 26. The maximum values in this table are the | | true maximum values because they sample every time step.00000 98. This table will contain a sample of each time step so it is the correct maximum value during the simulation.119017 FREE # 1 26.0000 99.The flow in suba and trapa are steady because the water surface elevation in node 1a had not gone below the ground elevation before the simulation ended.70869 5a 34.6 187138.601415 11.85170 9.70869 FREE # 3 34.22937 10.11513 suba 30.00000 98.0000 Module 8: Overland Flow Routing in the Hydraulics Layer – Page 4 .44 279484.9570 110.315688 0.0000 100.0000 99.0000 103. *=========================================================* | Table E15 .229734 9.70453 FREE # 2 44.3 334457.0000 99.26 232926.94853 trapb 16.0 80720. Each output file has a Table E15 that contains the maximum flow in the conduits and the maximum water surface elevation in each of the junctions.42931 trap 6.8 321357.00000 Maximum Elevation -------110.0000 115.0000000 0.356542 subb 36.850474 5.

Open up a runoff layer file named SENSITIV. width. The variables used in the automatic sensitivity parameters are: area. and the three Horton and Green Ampt infiltration parameters.XP.25 or 25% parameter perturbation (change parameter ± 25 percent). pervious depression storage. impervious. where #. pervious roughness. impervious depression storage. The automatic sensitivity is performed by using the SWWM configuration parameter SENSE=#.##. This example has one runoff watershed on which we will perform an automatic sensitivity analysis using the SWMM configuration parameter SENSE=0.## is the fraction you want the model to perturb the 11 sensitivity variables. impervious roughness. Module 10: Automatic Sensitivity Analysis in Runoff – Page 1 .Module 10: Automatic Sensitivity Analysis in Runoff This example shows how to use the automatic sensitivity analysis in the Runoff layer of XP-SWMM2000.

183 pern-0.25 6.8 width+0.13 less sensitive less sensitive width + -1.25 -0.835E-01 slope-0.873 less sensitive less sensitive slope -0.25 -0.2 extra sensitive extra sensitive impervious 1.25 1.674 perdep-0. Twenty two new watersheds are created by the model with the only difference being either a 25 percent increase or a 25 percent decrease in one parameter from the data in watershed water.996E-01 impdep-0.7 sensitive extra sensitive 2nd infiltr + 13.25 25.8 imp-0.25 0.25 -25.25 1.598 not sensitive less sensitive slope + -0. and the sensitivity value following the equals sign in the word.229 slope+0.00 base watershed base watershed base watershed 26.25 0.63 Peak Flow Ratio to Base Total Flow Peak Flow Watershed Flow Classification Classification Parameter ============== ============== ============== ============== 1.71 less sensitive less sensitive perv ds + 1.25 -0.58 less sensitive sensitive 3rd infiltr - Module 10: Automatic Sensitivity Analysis in Runoff – Page 2 .40 less sensitive less sensitive perv n + 1.11 less sensitive less sensitive perv ds -0.25 -0.894 imp3-0.25 0.25 -0. A value of 0.91 less sensitive sensitive 1st infiltr + 3.138E-01 pern+0.690E-02 impn-0. in the above table the most sensitive parameter for both total flow and peak flow is the area of the watershed.108E-12 not sensitive not sensitive imprv ds -1. The sensitivity is ranked based on the total flow and the peak flow from a watershed.5 extra sensitive extra sensitive impervious + -15.25 -0.833 impn+0.113E-02 not sensitive not sensitive impvr n + 0.225 imp1+0. Table R10 summarizes the results of the automatic sensitivity analysis run by the model. For example.67 imp2-0.85 less sensitive less sensitive width 0. Sensitivity anlysis for Subcatchments # #################################################### Total Flow Ratio to Base Watershed Watershed Flow ============ ============== water#1 1.25 0.25 means that each of the 11 watershed parameters are modified by + and –25 percent.25 0.2 area-0.71 imp3+0. #################################################### # Table R10.40 less sensitive less sensitive perv n -3.25 23.112 impdep+0.989E-01 perdep+0.9 very sensitive extra sensitive 2nd infiltr -3. which means to perform the sensitivity analysis.165 width-0.2 imp+0.00 area+0.4 extra sensitive extra sensitive area decrease 14.868E-13 not sensitive not sensitive impvr ds + 0.4 extra sensitive extra sensitive area increase + -26.25 -0.The context for the SWMM configuration parameter is simply the word SENSE.92 less sensitive sensitive 3rd infiltr + 3.25 -23.63 imp2+0.25 0.25 -0.57 less sensitive sensitive 1st infiltr -18.892 imp1-0.25 -2. The second infiltration parameter is more sensitive for the peak flow.288E-03 not sensitive not sensitive imprv n -1.

The file ALLRUN.XP from your workshop directory. Each subcatchment may use a different method.XP looks like the network shown below. The Sub-Catchment dialog allows the selection of the Runoff generation (routing) method. The Unit Hydrograph allows a further selection of Unit Hydrograph methods shown later in this tutorial.Module 11: All Runoff Methods Load the file ALLRUN. Module 11: All Runoff Methods . All of the watersheds have the same physical data in this example.Page 1 . We will look at the surface runoff methods possible in XP-SWMM.

Module 11: All Runoff Methods .the runoff coefficient.The SBUH method uses the CN (from 1 to 100) to estimate the rainfall excess that is routed through the inflow outflow equation of the SBUH. where S is calculated based on the CN.Page 2 . The CN is entered here. The infiltration loss is 1 . The SCS unit hydrograph will use a CN and a shape factor that ranges from 50 to 950 to route the rainfall excess through a unit hydrograph. The flow is predicted based on the storage. The initial abstraction may be either a depth or calculated as a fraction * S. The unit hydrograph may have a curvilinear or triangular shape. You will have to enter an infiltration database that is ignored in the Rational method hydrology. Any infiltration method may be used with the Laurenson method. The program ignores the infiltration database for this method. The Laurenson method uses ten cascading storage boxes to estimate the flow from a watershed. The Rational method uses the runoff coefficient to calculate the runoff using a triangular unit hydrograph twice the width of the time of concentration.

You can see the general shape of the predicted hydrograph in these graphs.Page 3 . Module 11: All Runoff Methods .Solve the model and review the results.

.08823 372...20569 6.93743 7. 42.. 15.73235 Impervious Area with depression storage Total Runoff Depth (in) 0....00000 111....72208 0.00000 Total Rainfall (in).00000 15.00000 1..00000 0....62943 2..56246 7.85307 Remaining Depth (in). 0..97384 Impervious Area without depression storage Total Runoff Depth (in) 0.Page 4 .96279 112.15879 5..38668 194.00000 36.65718 1.54351 Total Impervious Area Total Runoff Depth (in) 2.02578 12..06257 0.13483 Total Losses (in).00000 15...83529 148.95336 Peak Runoff Rate (cfs).79297 28.00000 Percent Impervious..58362 0.84502 3.01209 Peak Runoff Rate (cfs).23201 116..13713 7. 105..27586 Unit Runoff (in/hr)..81839 Module 11: All Runoff Methods .00000 5.98697 Peak Runoff Rate (cfs).34282 7.00000 0...15498 2.################################################## # Table R9. 40..96640 Peak Runoff Rate (cfs).75851 Total Area Total Runoff Depth (in) 5. 0.. RUNOFF#1 timearea#1 SCS#1 LAURENSON#1 Area (acres). Subcatchment.37497 7. 28.00000 40.47255 24.00000 8..46225 Peak Runoff Rate (cfs).. 8.62831 67...00000 0.00000 1.75086 0. 63...00000 8.33448 44.25294 223..00000 58.00000 40.90736 0.00000 Max Intensity (in/hr). 2.79297 28.99752 7.00000 5.. 0.00000 19.00000 15.79297 28.. Summary Statistics for Subcatchments # ################################################## Note: Total Runoff Depth includes pervious & impervious area Pervious and Impervious Runoff Depth is only the runoff from those two areas. 7.00000 8.79297 Pervious Area Total Runoff Depth (in) 3.00000 40..15467 78.

The physical data of the runoff watershed is now connected to three global databases: infiltration. The subsurface flow at node GW is connected to the conduit channel. Module 12: Runoff Groundwater Flow Mounding – Page 1 . The check box for groundwater should be turned on to simulate the groundwater.Module 12: Runoff Groundwater Flow Mounding Synopsis In this module we look at a small example file containing the subsurface flow generation mechanism of the runoff layer. it is located in the workshop directory.XP. The file to load is called GWNODE. rainfall and groundwater.

pipe or out of the model. node. The unsaturated zone may fill up and cause the infiltration from the surface layer of the watershed to stop. The flow equation is a power function. and (2) an unsaturated zone that uses infiltration from the surface runoff. percolation to the saturated zone and evaporation. Module 12: Runoff Groundwater Flow Mounding – Page 2 .The rainfall is located in a variable rainfall database and looks like the graph shown at the top. The groundwater data consists of two zones: (1) a saturated zone with a flow connection to a channel.

.089016E+07 1...089000E+07 6.....790791E+06 6...164241E+05 5.394 0.994 1.. Total Precipitation + Initial Storage..Infiltration * *Evaporation . * ************************************************************ Total Precipitation (Rain plus Snow) Total Infiltration Total Evaporation Surface Runoff from Watersheds Total Water remaining in Surface Storage Infiltration over the Pervious Area.. CONTINUITY CHECK FOR SURFACE WATER * * Any continuity error can be fixed by lowering the * * wet and transition time step. The 5. cubic feet 1..182907E+05 9.285 0. The transition time * * should not be much greater than the wet time step.002 Module 12: Runoff Groundwater Flow Mounding – Page 3 . -------Infiltration + Evaporation + Surface Runoff + Snow removal + Water remaining in Surface Storage + Water remaining in Snow Cover.Snow removal * *Surface Runoff from Watersheds * *Water in Surface Storage * *Water remaining in Snow Cover * *-------------------------------------* * Precipitation + Initial Snow Cover * *************************************** Percent Continuity Error..790791E+06 Inches over Total Basin 6... The infiltration data is similar to the Green-Ampt infiltration data in the surface layer of the watershed...The other main portions of the groundwater are the infiltration and evapo-transpiration data.036 0.000 -0.286 5..089000E+07 9.465938E+04 5.3 inches of infiltration are not lost from the system but infiltrate to the unsaturated zone in the groundwater layer.. The error in continuity is calculated as *************************************** * Precipitation + Initial Snow Cover * * ...000 5..000 6. ************************************************************ * Table R5.. Solve the model and look at the output using the NOTEPAD icon.

948 93.418682E+05 1..670826E+08 1.. **************************************************** * Table R7..075 93.....not the sum of the surface flow and groundwater flow. Upper and Lower Zone ET. Module 12: Runoff Groundwater Flow Mounding – Page 4 .227368E+05 3..607244E+08 1. The storage increased due to the infiltration gain and a small flow of 1. The flow in node GW is only the surface flow .394 0..679442E+05 1.Deep Percolation * * -------------------------------------.* * Infiltration + Initial Storage * ****************************************** Percent Continuity Error..553 92..661 0.790791E+06 1.227368E+05 Inches over Subsurface Basin 5.Final * * Storage ..679442E+05 1. Groundwater Flow.015116E+06 1.. 9. Deep Percolation ****************************************** * Infiltration + Initial Storage ..Upper and Lower Zone ET * * Groundwater Flow .009 Review the results of the simulation.The mass balance of the groundwater layer is in table R7 of the output file.103 0.093 0.66 inches out of the system..068 1.057 0..956 -0..078 88. Continuity Check for Subsurface Water * **************************************************** cubic feet Total Infiltration Total Upper Zone ET Total Lower Zone ET Total Groundwater flow Total Deep percolation Initial Subsurface Storage Final Subsurface Storage Upper Zone ET over Pervious Area Lower Zone ET over Pervious Area Infiltration + Initial Storage Final Storage.

If the flow had drained to node GW. Module 12: Runoff Groundwater Flow Mounding – Page 5 . then the surface and subsurface flow would have been added together as the outflow of node GW.The flow in conduit channel is the sum of the surface flow and subsurface flow from node GW.

The flow will look unstable on the later part of the recession curve.To show the sensitivity of the groundwater flow equation. Module 12: Runoff Groundwater Flow Mounding – Page 6 . change the value of A1 to 0. Solve the model and review the results of the conduit channel.05 in the flow equation power function.

0. initial loss continuing loss.Module 13: Other Infiltration Options Load up the file infil. The only value used in proportional loss is the max infiltration rate. In this example 20 percent of the rainfall ends up as infiltration. Proportional Loss Proportional loss is modeled as Horton infiltration with a decay rate of 1.xp to see other infiltration options. We will look a proportional loss. initial loss – proportional loss. Module 13: Other Infiltration Options – Page 1 .

Continuing Loss This loss is modeled as Horton infiltration with a decay rate of 2.Initial Loss . The only values used are the max and min infiltration rate. SUBCATCHMENT DATA # # Rainfall and Infiltration Database Names # ############################################################ Subcatchment Number Name =============== 1 IC ABSLOSS#1 2 PROP LOSS#1 3 ICPROPLOSS#1 Gage Infltrn No Type ==== ====== 1 IC Abs Los 1 Proportion 1 IC Prop Lo Routing Type =========== SCS curvilinear SCS curvilinear SCS curvilinear Rainfall Database Name ================= SCS Type II SCS Type II SCS Type II Infiltration Database Name ================ IC Loss Proportional Loss IC Loss. Output file table R3 for the infiltration data. In this example 20 percent of the rainfall ends up as infiltration after the first 5 inches of rainfall satisfies the initial loss. Initial loss – Proportional This loss is modeled as Horton infiltration with a decay rate of 3. In this example 0.0.0. The only values used in initial loss proportional loss is the max and min infiltration rate.2 in/hr of the rainfall ends up as infiltration after the first 5 inches meets the initial loss. ############################################################ # Table R3.1 Module 13: Other Infiltration Options – Page 2 .

XP.Module 14: Calibration using “Calibrate” Node Synopsis This module shows how to use a hydrology only calibration feature in XP-SWMM2000. Module 14: Calibration using “Calibrate” Node – Page 1 . The name must be specifically called “Calibrate”. Load the file HDR1. The second sub-catchment has multipliers on the Impervious and Pervious depression storages and roughness. The “Calibrate” node should have 3 active sub-catchments. You should find attached to this network a node called “Calibrate”. This calibration option is invoked by using a fictitious node attached to the network called “Calibrate” and allows the calibration of the SWMM hydrology parameters. It should be attached to the network by an inactive link. Imp%. The inactive link prevents any hydraulic connection from this fictitious node to the rest of the network. The values in these sub-catchments are multipliers times the Runoff parameters. The third sub-catchment has multipliers for the 3 infiltration parameters. Shown on the next page is a very small multiplier “effectively” eliminating the infiltration on the pervious area since a zero value is not allowed. Width and Slope as the fields show. however the node must be attached graphically in order for program to find the calibration factors. The first sub-catchment values are for multipliers on the Area.

90000 Total Rainfall (in)... 0.99720 3.28915 0.18220 Max Intensity (in/hr)...29049 Peak Runoff Rate (cfs).16622 3.....18432 Peak Runoff Rate (cfs).. 0. if you want to model on subsequent runs no infiltration and normal infiltration simply change the values in the calibrate node from 1 to very small values such as is shown above...75168 Unit Runoff (in/hr).07930 Total Impervious Area Total Runoff Depth (in) 1. 0...00439 Remaining Depth (in).00857 0.84650 Peak Runoff Rate (cfs).16940 0. 0...13699 Peak Runoff Rate (cfs)...41809 Total Area Total Runoff Depth (in) 1..25428 Impervious Area without depression storage Total Runoff Depth (in) 0.10984 0..99349 Total Losses (in). 102#1 101#1 Area (acres). 3. 0. 1....32951 1...04766 1.13468 1... 3..04501 Peak Runoff Rate (cfs). 31.72687 2...18220 1.67238 Impervious Area with depression storage Total Runoff Depth (in) 0.So. Subcatchment..00423 0...35200 1.. Below is a portion of the output file showing you that the losses on the pervious area are negligible for the case when small values are used as multipliers on infiltration variables. 0...99720 Pervious Area Total Runoff Depth (in) 1.00000 35..24259 Module 14: Calibration using “Calibrate” Node – Page 2 ...15700 Percent Impervious.31314 3.43935 1.84552 0. 0. 1.

C = Runoff Coefficient. Using this method allowed a simple spreadsheet or tabular implementation but it is unable to take in to account storage effects of conduits and ponds etc. Method 1: Rational Formula Unit Hydrograph: The Rational formula as typically implemented is shown below: Q = CIA Where. Module 15: Rational Formula Method in XP-SWMM .Page 1 . Two modified rational method approaches are implemented in XP to create a ramped or constant hydrograph with a peak equaling the Rational formula method and the duration equal to a user defined value. dimensionless I = Intensity from a Rainfall Intensity Frequency Duration Graph (IDF Curve).Module 15: Rational Formula Method in XP-SWMM Synopsis This module shows how the single valued critical flow of the rational method has been implemented in XPSWMM. acres or hectares This formula yields the maximum flow expected at the point in the network with contributing area A upstream. XP-SWMM is a dynamic program and routes hydrographs. in/hr or mm/hr A = Area of the drainage basin. a fraction between 0 and 1. The intensity is selected from a given return period curve using the time of concentration to the point for the duration on the graph. Historically storm water design has been accomplished using the Rational method ensuring that each segment of the system can carry the flow of a return period that matches the time of concentration to that point.

The implementation of the Rational method in XP-SWMM uses only the Area from the Runoff Node dialog and the width parameter as the duration of the generated hydrograph. The second method discussed in this tutorial will outline the automation of using the rational method with IDF curves and automatically calculating Tc for a given return period. all other values from this dialog are ignored in the analysis.Page 2 . in order to satisfy the requirements of the expert system that checks data entry there must be valid values for the other fields. The infiltration parameters of the Infiltration Global Database record are not used with this method so a record called “Not Applicable” has been used so that no confusion arises with any other record used here.Load the file Rational Formula Hydrology. Therefore the record should contain the intensity required for a given return period and time of concentration. Module 15: Rational Formula Method in XP-SWMM . The rainfall record entitled “Rational Intensity” is shown on the next page. Graph the rainfall to see the intensity and duration.0 and later the configuration parameter OLD_RAT must be included in the configuration parameters dialog. I for the rational formula. The time of concentration entered in the Unit Hydrograph dialog is no longer used to index into the rainfall record as it did pre version 9. Using a value of 0 for % Impervious and 1 for Slope is typical and will suffice for satisfying the requirement of valid values in these fields.0. Note: In order to obtain the results in version 9. Clicking on the Sub-catchment flag will display the dialog below which allows the selection of hydrology method and the rainfall and infiltration global database records. However.XP. The Rainfall record entitled “Rational Intensity” is where the program will read the intensity. Double-click on the node “N1” to see the data required.

Module 15: Rational Formula Method in XP-SWMM .Page 3 .

3 inches per hour and A is 12. It is a more comprehensive solution generating a ramped hydrograph with peaks equal to the rational formula.Page 4 . Solve the model by selecting the Space Shuttle icon or Solve from the Analyze menu. The conversion factor is actually 1. The graphic below shows the resulting hydrograph produced by XP-SWMM.In this case C is 0. F5 a keyboard equivalent can also be selected. It automatically determines the rainfall intensity from IFD/IDF tables or equations and TC values. The next few pages outline some of the features of the new Rational Method added to XP-SWMM and XPStorm Version 9.819 because of the conversion with units using cfs for flow and inches per hour for rainfall and acres for area. Using an interface file or the new Simultaneous solving of Runoff and Hydraulics will allow these flows to be passed to the Hydraulics layer for an automated pipe design. I is 4.68.0. Review results on the node to see the hydrograph generated.819 cfs.25 acres which yields a value of 35.00833 and is normally omitted in hand calculations using the formula but included in the precision used by XP-SWMM. The hydrograph is not exactly 35. Module 15: Rational Formula Method in XP-SWMM .

This method of Rational Formula is activated by selecting Rational Hydrology in the Runoff Job Control.Page 5 . Module 15: Rational Formula Method in XP-SWMM . The selection of intensity-duration method and runoff coefficient method is a Rational Method global database. Open the file Rational Formula Method. Selecting edit will show the selection of methods allowed and the data used in this example. Select Rational Formula from the Runoff Job Control. In this example we will show an IDF Table and Direct method for calculating runoff coefficients. Many methods are supported including some regional methods for Australia and Alameda County in the USA.XP.Method 2: Rational Formula Method: Only a very brief example is presented in this module showing a comparison of this method the one shown previously.

No Rainfall or Infiltration records are required as shown on the next page.The rainfall intensity table and direct selection of runoff coefficient used here are shown below: In the previous method the duration of the hydrograph was controlled by the number of minutes entered in the Width field. Select the Rational Formula routing method in the Subcatchment Dialog. Module 15: Rational Formula Method in XP-SWMM . In this case it is ignored along with all the fields excluding the area. The duration of the hydrograph is defined in the Rational Formula dialog with the remaining parameters.Page 6 .

The Rational Formula Hydrology is calculated by determining the time of concentration Tc from the input below and then using that value to obtain the critical rainfall intensity for the selected return period. Module 15: Rational Formula Method in XP-SWMM . The resulting hydrograph is shown on the next page.Page 7 .

Module 15: Rational Formula Method in XP-SWMM . The duration is equal to the lessor of the Runoff duration or the entered time of constant flow from the previous dialog (1440 minutes).Page 8 .The resulting hydrograph ramps up to a steady value over a period equal to the calculated Tc.

The Create XP-SWMM Interface File option is used to create an XP-SWMM2000 Interface file from CUHP Hydrograph (HYD) Files but again. The Create XP-SWMM XPX Inflow File option is used to create an XP-SWMM2000 XPX file from CUHP Hydrograph (HYD) Files where the file name is different from the Network file name. Select Run and an XPX file will be created. This XPX file has inflow hydrographs for use in the hydraulics layer of XP-SWMM2000. Module 16-1 . this option will normally not be used and XP-SWMM2000 will be used to generate the CUHP flows. By default it is installed in the C:\XPS\XP-SWMM2000 directory. The CUHP Hydrograph File option is used to create an XP-SWMM2000 XPX file from CUHP hydrograph (HYD) files. It will normally not be used and instead XP-SWMM2000 will be used to generate the CUHP flows which are stored more efficiently as interface files. The second step is to load XP-SWMM2000 and create a new XP file (the data can also be imported into an existing XP file. Run the utility CUHPTOXPXW. Select the file pin-test.chi and turn on the checkbox “Create XP-SWMM XPX Network File”. Select Import Data from the file menu and select the file pin-test.xpx.EXE) that creates an XPX file from a CUHP data file and then importing this XPX file into XP-SWMM2000. The program should be accessible from the Start menu under XPS.Module 16: Colorado Urban Hydrograph Procedure (CUHP) Synopsis This module shows how to import and run existing CUHP data files in XP-SWMM2000. This is a two step process that involves running a conversion utility (CUHPTOXPXW.

Select Import and the result will appear as shown below. All the nodes and links are part of the HRD layer. Module 16-2 .

Make sure the CUHP button is on (depressed). The model can now be solved.INI file.The nodes only. If the CUHP button is not available check to ensure the line CUHP=ON is in the [config] section of the SWMXP. must be added to the RNF (runoff) layer. Module 16-3 . To do this change to the RNF select all nodes and add to the current layer.

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These constant flows can then be routed in the hydraulic network. XP-SWMM is a dynamic program and routes hydrographs. A rational method approach is implemented in XP to create a rising hydrograph with the peak equaling the value from the Rational formula method and the time to peak equaling the time of concentration. Historically storm water design has been accomplished using the Rational method ensuring that each segment of the system can carry the flow of a return period that matches the time of concentration to that point. Using this method allowed a simple spreadsheet or tabular implementation but it is unable to take in to account storage effects of conduits and ponds etc. dimensionless I = Intensity from a Rainfall Intensity Frequency Duration Graph (IDF Curve).Module 17: Rational Formula with IDF Curves in XP-SWMM Synopsis This module shows how the single valued critical flow of the rational method can be computed based on a IDF curve in XP-SWMM. C = Runoff Coefficient. in/hr or mm/hr A = Area of the drainage basin. Tc. acres or hectares Module 17: Rational Formula with IDF Curves in XP-SWMM . a fraction between 0 and 1. This hydrograph is then held constant for a duration set by the user in the Time of Constant Flow field.Page 1 . The Rational formula as typically implemented is shown below: Q = CIA Where.

XP. The options chosen are an IDF Table for the Intensity-Duration method and a direct calculation of the runoff coefficient. the C value to use for impervious surfaces. Load the file RationalFormulawithIDF. The intensity is selected from a given return period curve using the time of concentration to the point for the duration on the graph.Page 2 . and the return period to analyze. This dialog allows the selection of the Rational Formula method. Select the Rational Formula as shown below and you will see the Rational Formula Settings dialog also shown below.This formula yields the maximum flow expected at the point in the network with contributing area A upstream. Got to the Runoff Job Control by selecting Configuration->Job Control->Runoff. Edit the Rational Formula record labeled “City of Edmonton”. Module 17: Rational Formula with IDF Curves in XP-SWMM .

However. This internal table is used to extract using linear interpolation the required intensity for the calculated or directly entered time of concentration. Double-click on the node “N1” to see the data required at the node level. Using a value of 1 for Width is typical and will suffice for satisfying the requirement of valid values in these fields. Module 17: Rational Formula with IDF Curves in XP-SWMM . These records are not required for the Rational Formula method. Clicking on the Sub-catchment flag will display the dialog on the next page which allows the selection of hydrology method and the rainfall and infiltration global database records. in order to satisfy the requirements of the expert system that checks data entry there must be valid values for all of the fields.Page 3 .Editing these settings reveals the IDF table and the impervious area runoff coefficient The values of each of these choices is shown below. XP-SWMM uses the data in the IDF table above to produce an internal table of intensity for return periods from 5 minutes to 4320. This new implementation of the Rational method in XP-SWMM uses the Area . % impervious and slope fields (Tc calculations only) from the Runoff Node dialog and the width is ignored in the analysis.

Selecting the Rational Formula brings up the dialog where the time of concentration can be calculated by many methods or directly entered as in this tutorial and the pervious area runoff coefficient C. The next page shows the resulting hydrograph produced by XP-SWMM and a second graph showing the result from a 100 year return period for the same input data. These resulting hydrographs can then be read into a Hydraulics run for conduit design or analysis.Page 4 . Module 17: Rational Formula with IDF Curves in XP-SWMM . Then review results on the node to see the calculated rainfall intensity and peak flow calculated by the program. Solve the model as is to view the hydrograph for the 50 year return period as outlined above.

Module 17: Rational Formula with IDF Curves in XP-SWMM .Page 5 .

Short Duration Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency Data for Edmonton. Alberta 1000 100 2-yr Intensity.Below is the rainfall data that was used for the creation of the IDF Table presented in an Excel graph. mm/hr 5-yr 10-yr 25-yr 50-yr 100-yr 200-yr 10 1 1 10 100 Duration.Page 6 . minutes 1000 10000 Module 17: Rational Formula with IDF Curves in XP-SWMM .

You will need to restart the application. This toolbar needs to be tagged in the job you would like to use the LACH Procedure. Module 18: Using the LA Procedure in XP-SWMM . To activate the LA County Hydrology [LACH] Procedure you need to ensure: (a) You have a valid license that allows you to use the LACH Procedure (b) To set XP-SWMM to be able to use LACH Procedure you will need to access the Application Settings [Tools \ Application Settings] and turn the LA County Procedure Active.Module 18: Using the LA Procedure in XP-SWMM Activating the LACH: Ensure that the LA County Hydrology Procedure is active in your XP-SWMM. a toolbar with the LACH Procedure status will be displayed on starting the application. The key is LAC_HYDROLOGY.Page 1 . (c) Once you have done the above.

Step 2 Create a new XP File (Use Setup Wizard) and accept the default data. Module 18: Using the LA Procedure in XP-SWMM . The simulation details will be important when using XP-SWMM’s hydraulic layer. The simulation end times are not applicable to a LA storm as it is analyzed as either a 24Hr or 4 Day storm. The simulation start is relevant for a LA storm (graphing purposes). Step 1 Set the current mode to RNF and ensure that the LA Procedure is Active by tagging the LACH toolbar item to ON.Worked Example 1 This exercise illustrates how to create a hydrology simulation using the LA Procedure. IT assumes that you have an existing MORA location file [corresponding rain and soil file database supplied].Page 2 .

You can then select the rainfall. Also import the table setting for data viewing and input. soil databases.Page 3 . There are also options to setup default data but ignore these for the moment. Module 18: Using the LA Procedure in XP-SWMM . These files will be shipped in the templates directory.

Step 3 Edit the RNF Job Control Dialog The default simulation is for a 24 hr Run with 100% of the rainfall used. 85% for the third day and 185% for the fourth day. The day percentages are accumulated. Module 18: Using the LA Procedure in XP-SWMM .Page 4 . 50% for the second day. For the 4 day simulation run the rainfall percentages are 10% for the first day. The rainfall and soil database have been preloaded by using the wizard to create the job.

Page 5 .Module 18: Using the LA Procedure in XP-SWMM .

On reading the file the all the data read will be displayed in spreadsheet view Creating the network will import all the location points and connections into the XP database. As the network is imported with no co-ordinate information the locations of all the basins and pipes will not be correct.Page 6 . Module 18: Using the LA Procedure in XP-SWMM .Step 4 Now load the LA Location file which contains all the 005/006 cards. This is usually the main MORA input file.

Module 18: Using the LA Procedure in XP-SWMM . XP offers direct connection to Dbase (used by Arcview 3. Subarea data can be created at any node element. Choose the option “Import Data Only” and the choose “Update Existing Objects only”.Step 5 (optional) The correct location points can be read in from most GIS databases and any ODBC compliant database as long as you have the drivers loaded on your system. and in this case “COMNAME” is the field where all the names are stored.x).Page 7 . MS Excel and MS Access. The section “Import/Export External Databases” in the XP-SWMM help outlines the procedure to import data from external databases. Select the nodes dbase file and choose import only. Map the x and y co-ord to XP fields Press Import to import all the co-ordinate information Step 6 The data for sub areas can viewed by double-clicking the appropriate node sub area.

Module 18: Using the LA Procedure in XP-SWMM .Page 8 . Similarly the diversion can be viewed by double-clicking the appropriate diversion element (dash line object).The data for confluences can be viewed by double-clicking the appropriate link element.

Page 9 .The data can also be viewed and modified in the predefined tables Module 18: Using the LA Procedure in XP-SWMM .

You may still have some object co-ordinates not located correctly. You could manually correct this in XP or fix the external database information and re-import the co-ordinates. You can now save and solve the model and view the requested hydrographs.Page 10 . These hydrographs are also now available to be used the hydraulics layer (via the interface files) Module 18: Using the LA Procedure in XP-SWMM . The internal LA ids are generated when the model is analysed.Step 7 The data should essentially be now all imported and ready for analyse.

Module 18: Using the LA Procedure in XP-SWMM .Page 11 .

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The software will display up to 16 graphs per page and use multiple pages if more than 16 are selected. The first thing you will see in review results is a series of graphs showing the water surface elevation at all of the nodes selected. Last Page. Zoom. Sanitary. Open up the file FLOOD. Using the mouse draw a box around conduit 3 including nodes 1 and 2. If you have correctly selected the link and nodes mentioned above you should see two graphs of stage vs. After selecting nodes 1 and 2 and conduit 3.XP from your workshop directory. Hydraulics. or Water Quality Results. Print Dialog. The Hydraulics Layer produces time series of flows in conduits and water surface elevations at the nodes. Orifices). which is shown below.Module 20: Review Results Synopsis In this module we will learn how to use the Review Results Tool of XP-SWMM2000 to view the time series produced from a Hydraulics Layer simulation. Forward One Page. select the Review Results Icon. The Icons from left to right are: First Page. Note: You can only view those links and nodes that you have highlighted. Show Nodes. time for the nodes since two nodes were in the selection set. Show Conduits. and the remaining 4 icons are to Show Runoff. The Review Results portion of XP-SWMM2000 has its own Tool Strip. Module 20: Review Results – Page 1 iew . Weirs. Back One Page. Options Dialog. Show Diversions (Pumps.

A conduit graph will show the time series of flows and velocities in the bottom portion of the graph and the time series of the upstream and downstream node water surface elevations in the upper portion of the graph.Selecting the Options Icon will allow the user to select from several user-defined choices for the number of graphs per page. Use the icons on the tool strip to control the object viewed and to page through the graphs. Module 20: Review Results – Page 2 . Click on the conduit icon to view the flows in the conduits.

Use the command View=>Options or the Options Icon on the Toolstrip to load the Options Dialog shown below. The select Text/Data Only and Clipboard radio buttons to see the two dialogs shown below. List. Use a right-mouse-click and select the Export Dialog item from the pop-up menu. More controls for Graphing can be found by Right-Mouse-Clicking on the Graph to obtain the following popup dialog: This dialog allows you to control the appearance of the plotted data and the graph such as the appearance of points and labels for every data point or formatting a grid as well as a link to the Export Dialog shown below. This dialog allows the user to export the graph as a graphic of user defined size or export the data that has been used in the production of the graph. Module 20: Review Results – Page 3 . fonts. and Current precision as shown in the dialog on the previous page. This is where you can control the number of graphs and filter the information shown. Data and Labels. Tab Delimited. Select the Export button with All data. colors etc. Double-Clicking on a graph brings up the main Customization of the graphs for items such as titles.

Switch to an application such as Excel or other spreadsheet that can accept the clipboard contents and choose paste. This means that simulations with more than 500 time steps will not have every simulated time step show in the Review Results graphs and when the data is exported it will also contain up to 500 points. This is a result of the sampled set not capturing the time step that generated the maximum. 10000. The maximum displayed by Review Results is from its sampled series.e. Users should be cautioned not to use a very high number for large models since the files stored will become very large and the performance of the graphing routine will be compromised. Special Note: XP-SWMM2000 has a default of up to 500 data points to be stored for Review Results and Long Section Plotting (see Module 21). where X is a user defined number greater than 500 i. This is only a graphing anomaly and does not effect the computations of the simulation. For simulations with more than 500 points the software will store every 2nd point or every 3rd or 4th … Nth point to ensure a uniform step in the graphing. Typically up to 5000 or 10000 points for models fewer than 200 objects is manageable. The resultant formatted list is shown below in Microsoft Excel. Module 20: Review Results – Page 4 . This allows up to "X" points to be stored and displayed. Users can override the amount of data stored by using the Configuration Parameter MAXPTS=X. 2000. It is possible for the software to display a maximum from the sampled set in the graph that does not correspond exactly with the output file or other reporting methods in XPSWMM2000.

No branching can be displayed and only one conduit or diversion at a time from a multi-conduit can be shown and animated. velocities and water levels at each stored time step. Select the multi-conduit "3" from nodes 1 to 2 section of the network. This is the icon for Long Section Plotting tool. Open up file FLOOD.Page 1 .Module 21: Long Section Plotting Synopsis In this module we will learn how to use the Long Section Plotting Tool of XP-SWMM2000 to view an animated HGL profile from a Hydraulics Layer simulation. Module 21: Long Section Plotting . This tool may also be invoked by selecting the menu Tools=>Long Section Plot The Long Section Plotting tool can only plot a single series of conduits and diversions. We will use this project for demonstrating the Long Section Plot tool of XP-SWMM2000. Using the flows and velocities in conduits and water surface elevations at the nodes that is produced by the Hydraulics Layer the Long Section Plotting Tool will animate the HGL and report the flows.XP again from your workshop directory.

click with the left mouse button on node 4. From left to right the icons are: Rewind to the Beginning Time Step. Fit Window. First dialog box you will see after clicking on the long section icon. This should highlight all objects between nodes 1 and 4. Then holding down the ctrl-shift keys together. Show Velocity. It allows the user to insert an optional title and define the initial station and if the plot is oriented upstream or downstream.The long section plotting of multi-conduits has two "Plot" buttons that define which row and which column will be plotted. Play. Zoom In. Zoom Out. Flow Time Series.Page 2 . Pause. The plot button at the bottom right determines which column will be plotted. The long section plotting can only plot a straight series of connected conduits. The Long Section Plot tool has its own toolstrip. Stop. Speed Up. Slow Down. Show Flow. Show/Hide Data. which is shown below. and Toggle Sound Effects. The Plot dialog defines the column to be plotted and the length for the graphical representation the length of a a pump. Show Diameter. The radio button "Plot" to the left defines which row will be plotted. Overview. Module 21: Long Section Plotting . Dynamic Cross-Section. Time Thumb. This length is not used in the model calculations. orifice or weir. Show/Hide Grid. Redraw. Back One Step. Forward One Step. Highlight node 1 on the screen.

which is the same as a pan. High water marks are left on the screen in magenta. The tool has an extra window by selecting the Overview Icon for easy zoom and pan. The hatched rectangle represents the current view and the entire pane the complete selected set of the network. Closed conduits show as a gray color with crown and invert shown. Clicking and dragging on the handles of the rectangle can resize it. The HGL that is drawn in the Long Section Plot tool is plotted by connecting the water elevations at the US and DS ends of the conduits by a straight line. Use caution when inferring water elevations at a specific point along a conduit. The ground elevation is marked in brown as is the entire depth of open channel conduits.Page 3 . which is the equivalent of a zoom. Dynamic Long Section and Dynamic Cross Section remain synchronized when the animation is running. This tool has 3 primary windows plus the Overview window. from invert to ground elevation. All three windows for Flow vs. The water surface elevation is based on the elevations at the nodes it is displayed as a blue line. and flows and velocities at the midpoint of conduits. Note: SWMM calculates and reports water elevations at nodes. Pan and Zoom can also be accomplished by using the mouse and dragging and SHFT+ drag for zoom. Time. Clicking and dragging inside of the rectangle can move it.Use the arrow icons to move through time in the replay of the simulation or slide the thumb. Module 21: Long Section Plotting . The clock icons speed up and slow down the replay while in play mode.

Controls for customizing the Long Section Plots are contained under the command File=>Customize, which loads the dialog shown below.

Module 21: Long Section Plotting - Page 4

Module 22: Plan Section Plotting
Synopsis
In this module we will learn how to use the Plan Section Plotting Tool of XP-SWMM2000 to view the water levels in nodes and the flows in conduits from a Hydraulics Layer simulation. The Plan Section Plotting tool will animate the network changing the node and link colors based on flows, velocities and water levels at each stored time step in a plan view. There is no icon for Plan Section Plotting - it is accessed through the command Tools=>Plan Section. The view is a top down view with the flows or velocities and depths being shown by a graduation of colors. Load up the file FLOOD.XP again and select Plan Section from the Tools menu.

The Plan Section tool loads up with all of the network elements. The interface for this tool is similar to the Long Section Plot tool with arrow icons to move the replay forward or backward in time. The clock icons either speed up or slow down the replay. The magnifying glass icons either magnify or shrink the view on the screen. The remaining icons toggle the items displayed between flows or velocities and water level.

Module 22: Plan Section Plotting - Page 1

Start the replay of the simulation plan view by clicking on the arrow icon; speed up the replay with the plus clock icon and stop the simulation with the stop replay icon. Colors show the magnitude of the flow and water surface elevation. Surface flooding is shown at node 1a by a wavy series of blue lines and a siren sound effect.

User controls consist of a user defined freeboard level, and modification of the color scheme colors shown on the screen can be customized by using the command File=>Customize. The Plan Section Configuration dialog is shown below.

Module 22: Plan Section Plotting - Page 2

Module 23: Global Data Editing
Synopsis
Global data is an important part of the XP-SWMM2000 database. Examples of global data are: rainfall, infiltration, pollutants, buildup-washoff, dry weather flow, and pump curves.

Open up the file MASTER.XP in your work directory. The global data dialogs are accessed through the command Configuration=>Global Data. How to add a new database name to the record name list: 1. Select a Data Base Type by clicking on it; 2. Enter the name in the user entry box in the middle of the dialog below the Record Name list; 3. An optional description can be added in the description box; 4. Click on the ADD button to add the name to the Record Name list; 5. Click on the EDIT button to enter the global data for that record. The duplicate button copies the global database record in a new record name. For example, if you duplicate the database Chicago Storm the interface will make a new database called Chicago Storm.1. Later you can change the name using the Rename button. The copy button is used to copy a database between XP files. The procedure is to copy the database in one XP file. Close the current XP file; open up a new XP file; paste the global database into the new XP file using the PASTE command in the EDIT menu list. Module 23: Global Data Editing - Page 1

Edit the data by clicking with mouse on the EDIT button. There are five types of rainfall formats: 1. Rainfall data from the rainfall utility as an interface file; 2. Measured and design storm data in the constant time interval rainfall section; 3. Measured and design storm data in the variable rainfall section; 4. Tipping bucket raingage information; and 5. Rainfall Data of a user defined format on an external file.

The design storms in the MASTER.XP database are based on 1 inch or 1 mm of depth. Using the multiplier the user can get a desired depth that represents a rainfall depth for a given return period.

Module 23: Global Data Editing - Page 2

Module 24: SWMXP.INI and SOLVE.BAT Files
Synopsis
There are two important files with the XP-SWMM2000 interface: the SWMXP.INI and the SOLVE.BAT file. These files allow customization of the software on load and also on a solve command. The details of the SWMXP.INI file are explained in the Customizing XP-SWMM2000 section of the Help file. However, there are a number of important and commonly used modifications made to the file that are mentioned in this module. An echo of some of the items from the main and config sections of the SWMXP.INI file can be shown in the License Details dialog by selecting the command Help=>License. This dialog is shown below.

By toggling the check box for Projects and System Color the user can turn on and off these options in lieu of editing the SWMXP.INI file. For these changes to take effect the software must be restarted. The Limits and License Options section of the dialog comes from the SWMXP.CNF file. This file is not editable and contains your specific licensing information. By editing specific lines in the SWMXP.INI file the user can make the following useful changes: Section Main Config Line Description

EDITOR=NOTEPAD Change the default editor for browsing output files and viewing an error message. Default is NOTEPAD.EXE in XP-SWMM directory. SOLVE=DOS DOS: The model will use SWMM95R.EXE for solving, DLL: The model will use the SWMENG.DLL for solving, Note: use DOS option for the Calibration module. dd/mm/yy is the default. Users in the US can switch to mm/dd/yy from the international format.

Config

DATEFORMAT=

Module 24: SWMXP.INI and SOLVE.BAT Files - Page 1

Now open up the file SOLVE.BAT using NOTEPAD. This batch file program will select the name of the .EXE file you want to use when the SOLVE=DOS option is selected in the swmxp.ini file.

XP-SWMM2000 can be customized to perform many commands at the time of a model solve by editing the SOLVE.BAT file. For example, at the end of a model solve a backup procedure could be implemented by adding a copy command after the swmm95r.exe line or another software program could be called to extract or manipulate XP-SWMM2000 results. Updates for the analysis engines (SWMM95R.EXE or SWMENG.DLL) can be obtained from XP Software or periodically by downloaded from the XP-SWMM2000 web site www.xp-swmm.com/. It is important to recognize that the SWMM95R.EXE is called from the batch file and that the SOLVE.BAT file is only used when the command SOLVE=DOS is present in the SWMXP.INI file and not disabled with a "#" comment indicator.

Module 24: SWMXP.INI and SOLVE.BAT Files - Page 2

Module 25: Spatial Report Generation
Synopsis
This example shows how to use the graphical encoding feature of XP-SWMM2000. Graphical encoding allows you to change the node color and size, the link color and size, and the node and link label size based on one data variable. Open up the file all3lay.xp that you used in module 25 and go to graphical encoding under the VIEW list of menus. In this example we will use the node freeboard to resize the node and change the color of the node. The beginning graphical encoding dialog is shown below. You should click on the variable selection box for node color to begin. Select the variable EXT: Freeboard from the EXTRAN Results list of variables. Once selected the variable name will be listed in the variable box. Also select this same variable as the Node Size variable.

Go to the visual entity box of both Node Color and Node Size and use the suggest button. We will use these colors and node sizes.

Module 25: Spatial Report Generation - Page 1

The selection box for graphical encoding should now look like the dialog shown below. We are using the same variable for both Node Color and Node Size and using the suggested sizes and color ranges for the Visual Entity. We can save our selections to a file and then load then into a new .XP file using the SAVE and LOAD commands.

Use the Fill Nodes option and select the Legend dialog box. We will use a legend size of 0.1 inches along with the other options shown in the dialog below. If the legend size were too big then it would obscure the network.

Now that the variables have been defined and the legend activated click on the Encode button and you should see a similar screen to that shown below in which the big nodes have a larger freeboard value This page is left intentionally blank.

Module 25: Spatial Report Generation - Page 2

Module 26: Graphical Encoding
Synopsis
This example shows how to use the graphical encoding feature of XP-SWMM2000. Graphical encoding allows you to change the node color and size, the link color and size, and the node and link label size based on one data variable. Open up the file all3lay.xp that you used in module 25 and go to graphical encoding under the VIEW list of menus. In this example we will use the node freeboard to resize the node and change the color of the node. The beginning graphical encoding dialog is shown below. You should click on the variable selection box for node color to begin. Select the variable EXT: Freeboard from the EXTRAN Results list of variables. Once selected the variable name will be listed in the variable box. Also select this same variable as the Node Size variable.

Go to the visual entity box of both Node Color and Node Size and use the suggest button. We will use these colors and node sizes.

The selection box for graphical encoding should now look like the dialog shown on the next page. We are using the same variable for both Node Color and Node Size and using the suggested sizes and color ranges for the Visual Entity. We can save our selections to a file and then load then into a new .XP file using the SAVE and LOAD commands.

Module 26: Graphical Encoding - Page 1

Use the Fill Nodes option and select the Legend dialog box. We will use a legend size of 0.1 inches along with the other options shown in the dialog below. If the legend size were too big then it would obscure the network.

Now that the variables have been defined and the legend activated click on the Encode button and you should see a similar screen to that shown below in which the big nodes have a larger freeboard value.

Module 26: Graphical Encoding - Page 2

Module 27: Tabular Reports
Synopsis
This example shows how to use the Tabular Report feature of XP-SWMM2000. Tabular Report allows you to design a table based on selected data and result variables. Open up the file all3lay.xp that you used in module 25 and 26 and go to report under the Results menu. We will use the node name, ground elevation, invert elevation, maximum simulated elevation, and freeboard in our designed table. We will first go to the Setup button in the Report Generation dialog.

Module 27: Tabular Reports - Page 1

We design the table by naming a heading or column. however a Link based report can show node and link variables. and then defining what variable is associated with the column. Node based reports can only show node data. Module 27: Tabular Reports . This heading label is Heading Only and it is associated with the data in a node. adding it to the list. The first thing in the list is a heading for the output table.Page 2 .

Page 3 . csv file. Generate the report using the generate button after clicking OK on the General Format dialog and on the Report Setup dialog.Now add the column headings Node Name. Module 27: Tabular Reports . All the label types will be Data Column and the data will be associated with a node. The report is generated to your screen and can be saved to a text file. Now once all the data variables have been associated with the column headings. Next use the General button and define the general format of the table. or printed to a printer or plotter as can be seen on the next page. Invert Elevation and Freeboard and associate them with a data variable. Just use the defaults in the general table definition. Ground Elevation.

Module 27: Tabular Reports . Next open up Excel or any other spreadsheet and past the data into the spreadsheet by using CTRL-V for paste.Page 4 .Highlight the whole table and copy to the clipboard by using CTRL-C. You should see the screens shown below.

Page 1 . You should see this message shown left: The previous copy/paste combination was an example of Module 28: Copying. pasting and editing in XP-SWMM2000. Next go to the copy command in the Edit menu or use the CTRL-C keyboard command or simply use the right mouse button and select copy from the pop-up menu.xp or any . You should see this message shown right: Highlight a new node by again drawing a box with the mouse. Next go the paste command in the Edit list of menus.Module 28: Copying.xp file to learn the basics of copying. paste. The commands we will examine in this module are copy. and delete objects. The edit commands are found in the Edit list of menus in the interface. Pasting and Deleting Data . Pasting and Deleting Data Synopsis Open up file allrun. Highlight any node by drawing a box around it with the mouse [hold the left mouse button down to draw the box].

Pasting and Deleting Data . return to the interface. the mouse draws a box around the item to be copied and then the copy icon is used to copy the data to a buffer. After pasting highlight the new node and go to Delete Objects in the Edit list of menus or select the Delete key. Once you have copied the single item.Page 2 . Note: Deleting nodes with conduits attached will also delete the conduit since a conduit cannot exist without an US and a DS node. Highlight this node and use the paste command in the Edit list of menus. Delete objects command cannot be undone. Individual elements can also be copied by using the copy command in the dialog box. Module 28: Copying. Make a new node using the node tool. Copy Icon You should see this message if you copied the data correctly.whole element copying and pasting. everything in the node for the current layer was copied or pasted. This node should disappear from the screen. The same mechanism is used as before. You should see one message about the number of items and number of nodes or conduits pasted into.

S. If metric is specified * substitute meters. unless a * card identifier is needed. The examples * use feet. including both hydrograph/pollutograph * time series.DNT. hectares. this file last updated by WCH. * * SWMM uses both U. *============================================================================ * NBLOCK JIN(1) JOUT(1) JIN(2) JOUT(2) etc. Alphanumeric data * should be enclosed in single quotes.out is the output from the combine run The following text is the EPA documentation for the Combine Block. * * This file may be run as input to SWMM as long as interface files * RUNOFF.out where.exe comb. The XP-SWMM2000 analysis engine SWMM95R. * You must have a value for every data column even if the program * will not actually use a given value. This almost always means that these * remaining parameters will equal zero. * * What's new and important? Option ICOMB = 7.Module 29: The Combine Block in XP-SWMM2000 Synopsis XP-SWMM2000 will run the Combine Block the same as the Combine Block of EPA SWMM. acres.dat is the ASCII input file for the Combine Block comb.Page 1 . and a second * output file (# 10) from the third run of Combine that creates * an ASCII file (ICOMB=4). * All lines with an asterisk in column 1 are comment lines and are * ignored by the program. * * Input data are free format and may be up to 230 columns wide. * <<<<<<<< SWMM 4.3 COMBINE BLOCK DATA FILE >>>>>>>>> * * Note. swmm95r. RUNOFFCB.3 Combine Block * for collating. customary units and metric units. * Interface files are ordinarily written in binary mode. The syntax for executing the Combine Block in XP-SWMM2000 is: swmm95r. * no output from the second run of Combine (ICOMB=5). * There is one output file (#9) from the first run of Combine. SW 4 8 9 9 0 9 10 20 21 Module 29: The Combine Block in XP-SWMM2000 .DOC.DNT. millimeters and millimeters/hour. *============================================================================ * The SW card sets up the interface files to be used or created. These * two special cases (ICOMB=4 and =7) are the only instances * in which an interface file can be viewed and read using a DOS * editor. cms. 1/24/97 to agree with updated * RUNOFF.DNT are present.dat comb.exe is the SWMM calculation executable comb. * This is an input data file to the SWMM 4. inches and inches/hour.EXE is executed from the command prompt and not from the interface. a slash (/) * may be used to indicate "no data entry" or null-input for remaining * parameters on a line. and precipitation time series from the Rain Block. combining and providing readable versions of * SWMM interface files. * * Caution! Data lines that are "wrapped around" (continued on * two or more lines) should have a blank in column 1. A fourth run of Combine demonstrates * the generation of an ASCII file (ICOMB=7) from a Rain Block * interface file. Althernatively. and RAINDOC. There must be at least one * space or comma between every input value. cfs.

DOC file RUNCOMB. * = 6.DNT may be created by running RAIN. * = 0.DOC.DNT.ASC' *============================================================================ * $ANUM Alphanumeric labeling of node names is used. * RAINDOC. *============================================================================ $COMBIN Call the COMBINE Block with a '$' in first column. * Caution. * This option must be used if Combine is operating on * interface files created by earlier SWMM blocks using * the $ANUM option. the collated output file * will contain flows that are double those on the the input files.DNT' @ 1 'RUNOFFCB. Enter * all requests for node numbers with names in quotes.Page 2 .DNT is a copy of RUNOFF. * = 5. Merge two interface files (JIN * and NSCRAT(1)). file RUNOFFCB. JOUT. The format of the @ command is as follows: *============================================================================ * RUNOFF. Read the file headers of file JIN. Combine option.DNT. *============================================================================ * NITCH NSCRAT(1) NSCRAT(2) NSCRAT(3) NSCRAT(4) NSCRAT(5) NSCRAT(6) NSCRAT(7) MM 7 1 2 3 11 12 13 14 *============================================================================ * In the example below. Module 29: The Combine Block in XP-SWMM2000 .*============================================================================ * The MM card opens the scratch files to be used by different subroutines. This * file can be manipulated for plotting using * a spreadsheet. for example.DNT * and is simply a copy of RUNOFF. * For locations with identical IDs. retaining all location IDs. * The meaning of the values listed on each line are as follows: *============================================================================ * A1 Line : * ICOMB : Program control. * = 1. sum flows * and loads on new output interface file. Calculate the simple statistics (totals) of flow * and/or water quality on interface file JIN. * A certain number (1 for COMBINE) may be required for each block. Sum all flows and loads on * interface files JIN and NSCRAT(1) and combine * on output interface file JOUT at location * NODEOT given in data group B2. *============================================================================ * The 'A1' line defines the Combine Block program control. * RUNOFFCB.INT' @ 20 'RAINDOC.ASC' * @ 9 'RUNCOMB.DNT' @ 10 'RUNCOMB.DNT is the same file as RUNOFF. *Column 1 Unit number of the Name of the interface * interface file saved file (any valid DOS filename) * or utilized * @ 8 'RUNOFF. Extract (and optionally renumber) * from a single file (JIN). Calculate the simple statistics (totals) of the * precipitation interface file JIN. * = 4.DNT' @ 21 'RAINDOC. Thus. *============================================================================ * The @ command is used to permanently save an interface or * scratch file.DNT may be created by running RUNOFF. * After running this COMB. * = 3. * = 2. Collate option. The maximum product of number of * locations x (1 + number of pollutants) must * be <= 220.ASC is viewable with a * DOS editor. This line should be placed before the first SWMM * block call. File is created * on unit JOUT and must be saved using @-line. Create a formatted ASCII (text) file from * the unformatted interface file (JIN).DOC.

Page 3 . Use all locations. INTERFACE FILE FROM RUNOFF. *============================================================================ B1 ' COMBINE BLOCK COLLATE EX. *============================================================================ * C1 Line : * NUMX : = 0. *============================================================================ * Create title lines for the simulation. *============================================================================ * B3 Line : * NPOS1(1) : Constituent 1 position on file 1.DNT and RUNOFFCB. *============================================================================ * B1 Line : * TITLE : Title. * cfs x mg/l or cms x mg/l) as the default option. *============================================================================ * Collate interface files RUNOFF. 6 or 7. File is created on * unit JOUT and must be saved using @-line. renumber according to data group C3.g..) *============================================================================ * NUMX NUMR C1 0 0 Module 29: The Combine Block in XP-SWMM2000 . . enter node name in quotes * * and use '' for zero. Titles are enclosed in single quotes. * NPOS2(1) : Constituent 1 position on file 2. * = NUMX. number of locations (nodes) to be * extracted from one or two files. NUMR can equal total number of * nodes. Perform functions for ICOMB = 6 and also make * a formatted ASCII (text) file from the * unformatted Rain Block interface file (JIN).DNT. *============================================================================ * NODEOT NPOLL B2 0 5 *============================================================================ * Use the B3 to define the water quality interface file locations * if NPOLL > 0 on line B2. There are two title lines * for the Combine Block. * NPOS2(NPOLL): Constituent NPOLL position on file 2. NPOLL will be reset to its proper * positive value. * .DOC' B1 ' COLLATE WITH IDENTICAL INTERFACE FILE FOR THIS EXAMPLE' *============================================================================ B2 Line : * * NODEOT : Node number on output file for combined location. * NPOLL : Number of quality constituents to be placed on * new interface file. * If $ANUM option is used. 5. * NUMR : = 0. See text for more information. * ICOMB A1 0 * Note : End of input to the Combine Block if ICOMB = 3. * * Note. * NPOS1(NPOLL): Constituent NPOLL position on file 1. B3 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 * The C1 line defines the extraction/renumbering options. Enter zero if collating (ICOMB = 0). * > 0. then * concentrations will be placed on the ASCII file * instead. * If NPOLL is input as a negative number. * similarly to ICOMB=4.* = 7. do not renumber any locations. *============================================================================ * NPOS1(1) NPOS2(1) NPOS1(2) NPOS2(2) etc. option for ICOMB=4 and NPOLL > 0: * * Pollutants written on ASCII version of interface * file have units of flow x concentration (e. 2 lines to be placed as first title on * output file (maximum of 80 characters per line). * (If NUMX = 0.

* . but be sure JIN/JOUT parameters are coordinated * with proper @-lines. *============================================================================ * COULD EXTRACT NODE NUMBER 3 * NODEX(1) * C2 3 *============================================================================ * Define the Numbers to be Assigned to Extracted Nodes * if NUMR > 0 on data group C2. 5 B3 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 * NUMX NUMR C1 0 0 *============================================================================ * Additional Combine Block example to illustrate creation of ASCII file * from Rain Block interface file. * NODER(NUMR): Number for last renumbered node. not concentrations. *============================================================================ $COMBINE * ICOMB A1 4 * Title B1 'ASCII file generation from output of earlier Combine' B1 'ASCII file should be on DOS file: RUNCOMB. * NODEX(NUMX) : Last node number. *============================================================================ * Additional Combine Block example to illustrate creation of ASCII file * from Runoff Block interface file.*============================================================================ * Define the locations (nodes) to be extracted if NUMX > 0 * on data group C1 using data line C2. * * NPOS1(1) NPOS2(1) NPOS1(2) NPOS2(2) etc. *============================================================================ * Not required if NUMR = 0 in data group C2.ASC' * NODEOT NPOLL B2 0 5 * Note. * * C2 Line : * NODEX(1) : First node number. *============================================================================ * COULD RENUMBER NODE NUMBER 3 TO 3333 * NODER(1) * C3 3333 *============================================================================ * Additional Combine Block example to illustrate simple statistics option. *============================================================================ * End your input data set with a $ENDPROGRAM. . because NPOLL > 0 above. *============================================================================ $COMBINE * ICOMB A1 7 * No more input required.Page 4 . will be listed * on the interface file. *============================================================================ * Not required if NUMX = 0 in data group C1. loads. $ENDPROGRAM Module 29: The Combine Block in XP-SWMM2000 . * * C3 Line : * NODER(1) : Number for first renumbered node. . *============================================================================ $COMBINE * ICOMB A1 5 * No more input required for this run. * .

325. 0. .dat is the data filed exported from XP-SWMM2000. .125. 1E+025. XP-SWMM2000’s many new features.0.. 0. 48. The converter is a DOS command line program. 1.0.315789473684211.4.0. Pages 1 and 2 of this module illustrates the output of EPACONV for the water quality model in the Runoff and Transport layers of SWMM. F1 0. * Ropt D1 2. 19. 0.. 1.725. 0. 0. 1. 2. and xpfile.. 1. 2.0.2.3. * Interface file unit number and name @ 21 ’blooming. 1. 86400. EPACONV is the XP-EPA conversion program. 1. 300. 11.EXE some third party converters have been developed and may be available from other vendors. 0. In addition to EPACONV. and is used in the following way: EPACONV xpfile.55.00000 175. 1. 1E25. 0. 2.275.20000 80. 1. * Input and Output Files SW 2.01400 .00000 .0. 0. .. * METRIC ISNOW NRGAG INFILM KWALTY IVAP NHR NMN NDAY MONTH IYRSTR B1 0. bug fixes and improved algorithms will create comparable models only and it is unlikely that the answers from one model to the next will be anything but similar.9. 1. 0. 21.0.0. * WET WET/DRY DRY LUNIT LONG B3 300. 0. 0. 2. 93. 1. * Scratch Files MM 7.10.0.Module 30: XP-SWMM2000 to EPA SWMM Conversion Synopsis This example shows how to use the XP-SWMM2000 to EPA SWMM converter. .0.375. 0. 2.0.2.13. H1 1 ’Cent Lakes’ ’Cent Lakes’ 3000. .35500 .. 1. * LNAME METHOD JACGUT DDLIM DDPOW DDFACT CLFREQ AVSWP DSLCL J2 ’Industrial’. 0.0. 1. 0.0. 366.0. In addition.Page 1 . * KTYPE KINC KPRINT KTHIS KTIME KPREP NHISTO THISTO TZRAIN E1 0. * Pctzero Regen B4 0.11.30000 .. 2. 0. 1. 10. although the XP-SWMM2000 is based on EPA SWMM. 2.03000 . 0. 1. 1. 0.11. The EPACONV program will make an EPA-SWMM data file named xpfile.. Module 30: XP-SWMM2000 to EPA SWMM Conversion . 2.55.int’ * $ANUM ..12. 0. 2. 0.. 0. 1. 0.75.dat where. 2. 22. Note: Due to the transient nature of both the XP-SWMM and EPA SWMM software and periodic changes to the data file structure some files may not convert in their entirety and some manual changes may be necessary.Alphanumeric conduit and junction names $ANUM * Runoff layer of SWMM $RUNOFF A1 ’ ’. 1.17000 4.2.00000 . 1. 0.00115 JJ 1. 0. E3 1.int’ * Interface file unit number and name @ 22 ’blooming. .0. 1. 1. 1. * IPRN(1) IPRN(2) IPRN(3) IRPNGW B2 0. 0.0.epa automatically.0. * LNAME METHOD JACGUT DDLIM DDPOW DDFACT CLFREQ AVSWP DSLCL J2 ’residential’. 0. 2. Pages 3 and 4 of this module illustrates the output of EPACONV for an Extran layer model with pumps.025.275. A1 ’ ’.0. natural channels and storage nodes.0.425.0.0.. 0.0.01000 . * NQS JLAND IROS IROSAD DRYDRY CBVOL DRYBSN RAINIT REFFDD KLNBGN KLNEND J1 2.45.975. . 0. E3 . 0. 0. 0.075.3. .

1. 2..000 ’ ’ * KPOL PNAME PUNIT NDIM DECAY SPG PSIZE(2) PGR(2) PSIZE-3 PGR(3) PSIZE(4) PGR(4) PSIZE(5) PGR(5) PSWDF F1 0 ’TP’ ’mg/l’ 0 .0.001.900 .500E-01 1.00000 148.900 .000 .192.000 .900. 5.00 . * NAMEW ERODAR ERLEN SOILF CROPMF CONTPF * NAMEW ERODAR ERLEN SOILF CROPMF CONTPF K1 ’Cent Lakes#1’.000 .0. * NAMEW KL BA GQ PSHED(1) PSHED(2) L1 ’Cent Lakes#1’ 1 . 1. 1. .08.000 .000 J3 ’TP’ ’mg/l’ 0 4 3 0 0 . 100. 1. 5.000 .110 * NPRNT INTERV M1 0. * NDT NINPUT NNYN NNPE NOUTS NPRINT NPOLL NITER IDATEZ METRIC INTPRT B1. 0. 1. 0. 0.00 .500E-01 .’ ’ A1.000 148. 0.000 . 2.000 J3 ’TSS’ ’mg/l’ 0 4 3 0 0 . 0.* PNAME PUNIT NDIM KALC KWASH KACGUT LINKUP QFACT1 QFACT2 QFACT3 QFACT4 QFACT5 WASHPO RCOEF CBFACT CONCRN REFF J3 ’TP’ ’mg/l’ 0 4 3 0 0 .000 . * NCNTRL NINFIL NFILTH NDESN B3.000 . 1.000 . 0. 1. 0.0.000 .00 .000 . 2. C1.0.000 .000 . 10 * DT EPSIL DWDAYS TZERO GNU TRIBA B2.000 4. 1. $ENDPROGRAM Module 30: XP-SWMM2000 to EPA SWMM Conversion . * Transport layer of SWMM $TRANSPORT A1. 70.00000 .Page 2 .000 / J1. 1.0. 0.150E-01 .08E-5.500 .000 . 4.000 .00 1..000 1. 930101.00 1. 1.890 . 0. 1.500 .000 5.000 . 0.000 .110 * KTO KFROM F1 J4 1.000 .’Cent Lakes’.’ ’ * ISLOPE ITRAP IFLIP INFLEW B0.’Cent Lakes’. * NOE NUE(1) NUE(2) NUE(3) NTYPE DIST GEOM1 SLOPE ROUGH GEOM2 BARREL GEOM3 KGEOM E1 ’Cent Lakes’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ 19 . J2.0.000 .000 / * KPOL PNAME PUNIT NDIM DECAY SPG PSIZE(2) PGR(2) PSIZE-3 PGR(3) PSIZE(4) PGR(4) PSIZE(5) PGR(5) PSWDF F1 0 ’TSS’ ’mg/l’ 0 .000 .000 * NAMEW KL BA GQ PSHED(1) PSHED(2) L2 .00 .110 * PNAME PUNIT NDIM KALC KWASH KACGUT LINKUP QFACT1 QFACT2 QFACT3 QFACT4 QFACT5 WASHPO RCOEF CBFACT CONCRN REFF J3 ’TSS’ ’mg/l’ 0 4 3 0 0 .000 . 0..000 .0.000 148.000 .00 1.000 . 0.

.5.000 20.200 7.000 .000 . -2 / E2 50.000 500.000 20. 0..000 * IPTY NJUNC NJUNC NPRATE PRATE1. 12.12.000 2. 0..000 15. 0. 100.000 * XNL XNR XNCH NC 0.. 0. 5. 0.0. 50. 10.000 10.... 30. 500.000 C1 ’tunnel’ ’lake A’ ’lake B’ .000 . 100.000 1.VRATE(NPRATE) VWELL PON POFF Module 30: XP-SWMM2000 to EPA SWMM Conversion .0.0 D1 ’lake A ’. 8.0 / * JSTORE ZTOP ASTORE NUMST E1 ’lake A ’.. * $ANUM ..0 D1 ’lake B ’. 130.2000. 0. 0.000 1..0.PRATE(NPRATE) VRATE1.000 5 90. 1. * METRIC NEQUAL AMEN ITMAX SURTOL B2 0 10 .VRATE(NPRATE) VWELL PON POFF H1 3 ’lake A’ ’reserv’ 3 10.000 . 20.0.Page 3 . 0.000 25. *SECNO NUMST STCHL STCHR XLOBL XLOBR LEN PXCECR PSXE X1 1. 0..000 .10000E+00 * NHPRT NQPRT NPLT LPLT NJSW B3 0.. 6 / E2 1. 0.000 10. 8. 1.000 3. 99.. 0.000 20. * EL1 STA1 EL2 STA2 EL3 STA3 EL4 STA4 EL5 STA5 GR 15.0 * JSTORE ZTOP ASTORE NUMST E1 ’reserv ’. 0.000 ..000 C1 ’spill’ ’reserv’ ’o/flow’ .000 10.. 10. 0.000 16.000 35.PRATE(NPRATE) VRATE1. 68. 10..0.0.000 ..0. 3.000 .. 50. 0.000 .5 D1 ’ds ’. 10.14.00000E+00 30 .0 D1 ’o/flow ’. * JUNCTION GRELEV Z QINST Y D1 ’reserv ’.200 6.. 10.11. 0. 150..3.9 / * IPTY NJUNC NJUNC NPRATE PRATE1. 120.. 15.. 0.000 . 5.. 60. 103. 0. 10.0050 . 1. -1.0..000 500. * EL1 STA1 EL2 STA2 EL3 STA3 EL4 STA4 EL5 STA5 GR 6.0.000 10.000 .0.000 10....000 . 0. 100.000 .000 . 50. 150. 7.000 .000 C1 ’river’ ’lake B’ ’ds’ .. 100.0050 1.10. 12.. 0.2000. 0.000 100.000 .000 50. 95. * JSTORE ZTOP ASTORE NUMST E1 ’lake B ’.* Input and Output Files SW 1.0200.000 500. 68. 100.000 50.. 0.000 1..PRATE(NPRATE) VRATE1. 103.. 0. 0.2. 0. 0.002 .000 . .0.000 7 .000 6 . 0. 130..000 3.0. 0..000 . 50. 1. 100.000 100..000 8 90.000 40..0000 1. 0. 100.000 21. 100.13.0 D1 ’irrig ’. 59. 0. 1.000 . 0.VRATE(NPRATE) VWELL PON POFF H1 3 ’lake A’ ’reserv’ 3 10.. * Scratch Files MM 8.000 . 1 * NCOND NJ1 NJ2 QO NKLASS AFULL DEEP WIDE LEN ZP1 ZP2 ROUGH STHETA SPHI ENTK EXITK OTHERK C1 ’chan1’ ’reserv’ ’irrig’ .000 * IPTY NJUNC NJUNC NPRATE PRATE1..000 .Alphanumeric conduit and junction names $ANUM * Extran layer of SWMM $EXTRAN A1 ’Example 2 ’ A1 ’ ’ * ISOL KSUPER [KREDO TOLCS1 QLOWCS TOLCS2] B0 0 0 * JELEV JDOWN IPRATE BB 0 0 1 * NTCYC DELT TZERO NSTART INTER JNTER REDO IDATZ B1 7040.000 .000 .0200 2. 100.000 50..000 40..000 1.

000 80.000 1.000 100.000 1.000 50.VRATE(NPRATE) VWELL PON POFF H1 3 ’lake A’ ’reserv’ 3 10.000 60.000 1.000 62.000 50.VRATE(NPRATE) VWELL PON POFF H1 3 ’lake A’ ’reserv’ 3 10.PRATE(NPRATE) VRATE1.Page 4 . 3 J1 1 J1 1 J1 1 * User defined inflow hydrographs to extran K1 1 K2 ’lake A ’ K3 0.200 10..000 50. 0 K3 1.000 50.000 4. 24 K3 13.. 1 I1 ’o/flow ’.000 * IPTY NJUNC NJUNC NPRATE PRATE1..000 50..000 * Extran outfall nodes I1 ..000 4. 100 K3 3. 980 K3 10.000 40..000 100.free I2 .000 * IPTY NJUNC NJUNC NPRATE PRATE1. 0 $ENDPROGRAM Module 30: XP-SWMM2000 to EPA SWMM Conversion .200 8. 2 I1 ’ds ’.000 100. 480 K3 11.000 75. 120 K3 12. 800 K3 5.PRATE(NPRATE) VRATE1.000 40.gates I1 ’irrig ’.. 1 K3 24.000 6.H1 3 ’lake A’ ’reserv’ 3 10..200 9.000 60.

The format of each data line should be: ‘node name’ [instance] [number of values] [values…] The node name must be in single or double quotes so that the . Module 31: XPX Import . Use Excel and open the file t1table. All of the data associated with a node can be imported into XP-SWMM2000 using the tabular format.xls. This information should be the first data brought into XP. In the screen below we can see the format of the node XY coordinates in the first block and in the second block the format of the conduit and node linkages.CSV exported file can be imported XPSWMM2000. imported into EXTRAN without any external changes.Module 31: XPX Import Synopsis In this module we will learn how to construct an XPX import file in Excel that can be exported as a .Page 1 .CSV file from Excel.

CSV file. The format of the line is: “name of node” [ instance ] [number of values ] [ the value ] Conduit Table: ZP1 (Upstream invert).Page 2 . WIDE (width).xp Module 31: XPX Import . INQ is the User Inflow Data Flag. create a new file called t1.User defined inflow data: Time (TEO) and Flow Values (QCARD) in the User Defined Hydrograph.CSV exported file can be imported XP-SWMM2000 Save the data as a . ROUGH (roughness). Now open up XP-SWMM2000. or comma-delimited file. LEN (conduit length). TPHI (left side slope of a trapezoid). ZP2 (Downstream invert). TTHETA (right side slope of a trapezoid). The format of each data line should be: ‘link name’ [instance] [number of values] [values…] The link name should be in single quotes so that the . DEEP (diameter of pipe). NKLASS (type of conduit).

Use U.S. customary units, change to the EXTRAN layer, and go to the Import Data section under the File Menu. Choose XPX import, pick the .CSV file you just created, and select the XPX options “No Action” shown below for this import. Click on the import button to bring in the .CSV file. Selecting Reporting will create a text file with a .LOG extension about all data made active or all successful imports.

The data imported into the model will be reported in the Import Data Diagnostics. Check to see if you had any data errors.

Module 31: XPX Import - Page 3

After the data has been successfully imported; use the FIT WINDOW command from the VIEW menu or the Fit Window Icon from the Tool strip. This will bring the XP window to the center of your imported network.

The .CSV File that has been imported is shown below: node,134, ’mh a1’,0,200,, node,134, ’mh a2’,100,200,, node,134, ’mh a3’,100,100,, node,134, ’mh a4’,100,0,, node,134, ’mh a5’,200,0,,/* The XY coordinates go first */ node,134, ’mh a6’,300,0,, node,134, ’outlet’,400,0,, node,134, ’mh b1’,400,100,, node,134, ’mh b2’,300,100,, node,134, ’mh b3’,200,100,, link,136, ’LA1’, ’mh a1’, ’mh a2’,, link,136, ’LA2’, ’mh a2’, ’mh a3’,, link,136, ’LA3’, ’mh a3’, ’mh a4’,,/* The conduit linkage should come next */ link,136, ’LA4’, ’mh a4’, ’mh a5’,, link,136, ’LA5’, ’mh a5’, ’mh a6’,, link,136, ’LA6’, ’mh a6’, ’outlet’,, link,136, ’LB1’, ’mh b1’, ’mh b2’,, link,136, ’LB2’, ’mh b2’, ’mh b3’,, link,136, ’LB3’, ’mh b3’, ’mh a5’,, Module 31: XPX Import - Page 4

The format of the Tables in our .CSV file: Notice that the single quotes from the spreadsheet are still in the names of the conduits and nodes. Tabular data can be used for nodes, conduits, and user defined hydrographs. The format of the Tabular data is as follows: $TABLE 1st line The name of the XPX Variables 2nd line The actual data subsequent lines $TABLE_END the last line $TABLE,,,,,, , , ,GRELEV,Z,, ’mh a1’,0,1,138,124.6,, ’mh a2’,0,1,135,118.3,, ’mh a3’,0,1,155,114.5,, ’mh a4’,0,1,125,102.8,, ’mh a5’,0,1,120,102,,/* The node data */ ’mh a6’,0,1,111,101.6,, ’outlet’,0,1,100,89.9,, ’mh b1’,0,1,137,128.2,, ’mh b2’,0,1,130,117.5,, ’mh b3’,0,1,125,111.5 $TABLE_End, , , , $TABLE,,,, , , ,INQ, ’mh a1’,0,1,1, ’mh a3’,0,1,1, ’mh b1’,0,1,1, $TABLE_end, , ,, $TABLE,,,, ,,,TEO,QCARD ’mh a1’,0,1,0,0 ’mh a1’,0,2,0.25,5 ’mh a1’,0,3,3,45 ’mh a1’,0,4,3.25,45 ’mh a1’,0,5,12,0 ’mh a3’,0,1,0,0 ’mh a3’,0,2,0.25,5 ’mh a3’,0,3,3,40 ’mh a3’,0,4,3.25,40 ’mh a3’,0,5,12,0 ’mh b1’,0,1,0,0 ’mh b1’,0,2,0.25,5 ’mh b1’,0,3,3,50 ’mh b1’,0,4,3.25,50 ’mh b1’,0,5,12,0 $TABLE_end, , ,,

Module 31: XPX Import - Page 5

$TABLE,,,,,,,,,,,, , , ,ZP1,ZP2,LEN,DEEP,ROUGH,WIDE,TTHETA,TPHI,NKLASS, ’LA1’,0,1,124.6,118.3,1800,4,0.015,0,0,0,1, ’LA2’,0,1,118.3,114.5,2075,4.5,0.015,0,0,0,1, ’LA3’,0,1,114.5,102.8,5000,5,0.034,0,0,0,1, ’LA4’,0,1,102.8,102,500,6,0.015,0,0,0,1, ’LA5’,0,1,102,101.6,300,9,0.015,1,3,3,6, ’LA6’,0,1,101.6,89.9,4500,9,0.016,0,3,3,6, ’LB1’,0,1,128.2,117.5,5100,4.5,0.015,1,0,0,1, ’LB2’,0,1,117.5,111.5,3500,4.5,0.015,0,0,0,1, ’LB3’,0,1,111.5,102,5000,5.5,0.0154,0,0,0,1, $TABLE_END, , , ,,,,,,,,, INQ is the User Inflow Data Flag. The format of the line is: “name of node” [ instance ] [number of values ] [ the value ] Time (TEO) and Flow Values (QCARD) in the User Defined Hydrograph. Conduit Table: ZP1 (Upstream invert), ZP2 (Downstream invert), LEN (conduit length), DEEP (diameter of pipe), ROUGH (roughness), WIDE (width), TTHETA (right side slope of a trapezoid), TPHI (left side slope of a trapezoid), NKLASS (type of conduit). DATA YZERO, ’ ’,0,1,96,/* Start year */ DATA MZERO, ’ ’,0,1,1,/* Start month */ DATA DZERO, ’ ’,0,1,1,/* Start Day */ DATA HZERO, ’ ’,0,1,1,/* Start Hour */ DATA MZERO, ’ ’,0,1,0,/* Start Minute */ DATA SZERO, ’ ’,0,1,0,/* Start Second */ DATA YSL, ’ ’,0,1,96,,/* Duration Year */, DATA MSL, ’ ’,0,1,1,,/* Duration Month */, DATA DSL, ’ ’,0,1,1,,/* Duration Day */, DATA HSL, ’ ’,0,1,8,,/* Duration Hour */, DATA SSL, ’ ’,0,1,0,,/* Duration Second */, DATA DELT, ’ ’,0,1 60,,,/* Time step = 60 secon,ds */ DATA NSTART, ’ ’,0,1,45 DATA INTER, ’ ’,0,1,1000 DATA JNTER, ’ ’,0,1,1000 DATA CNTLH, ’ ’,0,1,0,/* Hot Start Off */ DATA CNTLJD, ’ ’,0,1,0,/* Junction Defaults Off */ DATA CNTLNS, ’ ’,0,1,0,/* Echo Nat Surface Off */ DATA CNTLT, ’ ’,0,1,0,/* Simulation Tolerances Off */ DATA CNTLR, ’ ’,0,1,0,/* Routing Control off */ DATA CNTLMC, ’ ’,0,1,0,/* Modify Conduits Off */ DATA FLGOUTF, ’outlet’,0,1,1,/* Switch Outfall Flag on */ DATA NTIDE, ’outlet’,0,1,1,/* Free Outfall */ DATA DEPC, ’outlet’,0,1,1,/* Use min of Yc & Yn */ DATA GATE, ’outlet’,0,1,0,/* Switch Tide Gate off */ The Extran job control data in XPX format. Usually you would not import this data since it is easy to go directly to the job control dialogs and enter the data. Module 31: XPX Import - Page 6

Module 32: EPA SWMM Import
Synopsis
In this module we will import an EPA SWMM data file (Version 4.X) and explore opportunities to create a real world schematic of the network. First make a new file call mod31.xp as shown below using the NEW command in the FILE menu. The units will be U.S. customary. Next shift over to the EXTRAN layer by clicking on the Ext icon in your tool strip on the top of XP-SWMM2000 interface. We will go to the Import Data menu in the FILE menu as shown in the picture below.

We are importing an EPA SWMM data file, so the EPA-SWMM Data File radio button should be turned on. The name of the data file is extran.dat and it is located in your WORK directory. We import by clicking on the IMPORT button - not the OK button. Once you have clicked on the IMPORT button you will see a warning screen - click OK on the warning screen and the XPX import will begin. You will see a progress monitor as the import process is taking place. If there are any error or warning messages then an error.log file will appear on your screen. Scrutinize these messages and then close the error.log file.

Module 32: EPA SWMM Import - Page 1

The import of the EPA-SWMM data has been successful, except for two errors concerning the data field. You will notice that the data has been imported without any XY coordinates as they are missing from EPA SWMM and that the network has a “spaghetti” appearance. XP-SWMM2000 has a tidy network feature that will create straight branches in the network so that it is more easily navigated and understood. To invoke this command use the Tidy Network command from the View Menu. The result is shown below. At this point we could import an XPX file containing the coordinates of the nodes so that the network is scaled to real world coordinates or is a more accurate schematic. However, the Node locations have no bearing on the model connectivity or the results, it just looks more reasonable.

Module 32: EPA SWMM Import - Page 2

Module 33: Calculating Conduit Lengths from Drawn Lengths
Synopsis In this example we will learn how to use the SWMM Configuration parameter USE_XYINFO to calculate the conduit length for us before the start of the simulation. This parameter is often used with the configuration parameter MAKE_XPX to allow the import of the calculated lengths.
We will use the file EDSYPHON.XP in the WORKFILE directory. Open up EDSYPHON.XP and go to the Configuration menu. The database conduit lengths will be exported by the interface to the .dat file. The analysis engine changes the conduits lengths and prints them in the .out file and the .exp file if the configuration parameter MAKE_XPX is also used (Module 34). The .exp may then be imported back into the interface using the XPX file import command.

Module 33: Calculating Conduit Lengths from Drawn Lengths - Page 1

Special command line arguments for XP-SWMM2000 are entered in the Configuration Parameters section under the Configuration menu. These parameters adjust the default way in which the model works. In this case we will use the command USE_XYINFO to make the model calculate the conduit lengths based on the XY coordinates of the upstream and downstream nodes and the invert elevations of the upstream and downstream nodes. Of course this assumes that you have imported the correct elevations and inverts or that your network is drawn to real world coordinates.

. As can be seen in the snippet of output file below, the drawn lengths determine the conduit lengths and not the length recorded in the database. The following formula is used in the calculation of these lengths: Length = [ [ X up - X dn ]^2 + [ Y up - Y dn ]^2 + [ Z up - X dn ]^2 ]^0.5 The next module instructs how to import these lengths to the database.
*==================================================* | Table E1 - Conduit Data | *==================================================* Inp Conduit Length Conduit Area Manning Num Name (mt) Class ( m^2) Coef. ---- ------------- -------------------1 pipe1 42.27 Circular 7.07 0.01400 2 pipe2 48.55 Circular 7.07 0.01400 3 syphon 52.27 Rectangle 2.40 0.01400 4 down1 41.98 Circular 3.14 0.01400 5 up1 33.31 Circular 3.14 0.01400 6 down2 65.37 Circular 3.14 0.01400 7 syphon2 100.94 Rectangle 2.40 0.01400 8 up2 52.82 Circular 3.14 0.01400 Total length of all conduits .... 437.5050 meters Length of all conduits calculated from xy coordinates by using the configuration option USE_XYINFO Max Width (mt) --------3.00 3.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 Depth (mt) ----3.00 3.00 1.20 2.00 2.00 2.00 1.20 2.00 Trapezoid Side Slopes -------

Module 33: Calculating Conduit Lengths from Drawn Lengths - Page 2

Module 34: XPX Export using MAKE_XPX
Synopsis
In this tutorial you will learn to create an XPX file from a Solve command. In addition, you will be introduced to the SWMM Configuration Parameters dialog and the configuration parameter MAKE_XPX. You will also alter some data that has been exported and import the changes. This example requires the use of a Spreadsheet program preferably Microsoft Excel, since all pictures show Excel examples.

Configuration Parameter Dialog
Open up the XP file FLOOD.XP and go to the SWMM Configuration Parameters section in the Configuration menu. We will learn how to use the command MAKE_XPX to make a tabular XPX file from the Hydraulics input data of file FLOOD.XP. The tabular XPX file will have the extension ".EXP". Solve the model and use the NOTEPAD to look at the file FLOOD.EXP. You should see the data shown on page 34-2.

Format of the EXP File
This file is in four sections. The first section contains the node name and the X and Y coordinates. The second section contains the elevation data and type of manhole for all of the nodes. The third section lists the conduit and node linkages and also the type of conduit (136 for solid line) and (138 for multi-link line). The fourth section contains conduit information. The exported file FLOOD.EXP is shown on the next page. This is an ASCII text file that can be imported directly into a spreadsheet. The ruler line allows the data to be parsed correctly.

Module 34: XPX Export using MAKE_XPX – Page 1

/*ruler.line... ############### ########### ########### ########### ########### ########### ########### ########### ########### ########### ########### ########### ########### ########### ########### ########### ###########*/ node 134 ’1’ -1.182 476.798 node 134 ’2’ 19.325 456.967 node 134 ’4’ 39.999 439.495 node 134 ’1b’ 19.829 498.987 node 134 ’2b’ 39.999 479.158 node 134 ’4b’ 59.999 459.832 node 134 ’1a’ 19.831 478.315 node 134 ’2a’ 39.999 458.315 node 134 ’4a’ 60.337 439.495 /* Node X Y Coords */ /* End of data */ $TABLE GRELEV Z QINST SFLOOD Y0 ’1’ 0 1 110.000 100.000 .000 0 .000 ’2’ 0 1 110.000 99.000 .000 0 .000 ’4’ 0 1 110.000 98.000 .000 0 .000 ’1b’ 0 1 110.000 100.000 .000 2 .000 ’2b’ 0 1 110.000 99.000 .000 0 .000 ’4b’ 0 1 110.000 98.000 .000 0 .000 ’1a’ 0 1 110.000 100.000 .000 1 .000 ’2a’ 0 1 110.000 99.000 .000 0 .000 ’4a’ 0 1 110.000 98.000 .000 0 .000 $TABLE_END /* Node data */ /* US and DS Node */ link 138 ’3’ ’1’ ’2’ link 136 ’5’ ’2’ ’4’ link 138 ’3b’ ’1b’ ’2b’ link 136 ’5b’ ’2b’ ’4b’ link 138 ’3a’ ’1a’ ’2a’ link 136 ’5a’ ’2a’ ’4a’ /* End of data */ $TABLE ZP1 ZP2 LEN DEEP ROUGH WIDE AFULL TTHETA TPHI NKLASS PLC GEOFF ECC RDEP RRAT BARREL ’5’ 0 1 99.000 98.000 100.000 2.000 .0019 2.000 4.000 .000 .000 6 .000 .000 .000 .000 1.000 1.000 ’5b’ 0 1 99.000 98.000 100.000 2.000 .0019 2.000 4.000 .000 .000 6 .000 .000 .000 .000 1.000 1.000 ’5a’ 0 1 99.000 98.000 100.000 2.000 .0019 2.000 4.000 .000 .000 6 .000 .000 .000 .000 1.000 1.000 ’3’ 0 1 100.000 99.000 100.000 2.000 .0140 2.000 3.142 .000 .000 1 .000 .000 .000 .000 1.000 1.000 ’3b’ 0 1 100.000 99.000 100.000 2.000 .0140 2.000 3.142 .000 .000 1 .000 .000 .000 .000 1.000 1.000 ’3a’ 0 1 100.000 99.000 100.000 2.000 .0140 2.000 3.142 .000 .000 1 .000 .000 .000 .000 1.000 1.000 $TABLE_END /* Conduit data */

Reviewing and Modifying the .EXP File
Open up Excel or another spreadsheet program and open the file FLOOD.EXP in the Excel program. The program will detect that it is a text file.

Module 34: XPX Export using MAKE_XPX – Page 2

There is a ruler line at the top of the .EXP file to aid in the import of the text file. The first two columns of the .EXP file are 15 characters wide; all subsequent columns are 12 characters wide. Excel will suggest a fixed width as the best import type. Click on the NEXT button to move to the next dialog. Alter the column breaks by following the directions in the text import wizard. Set the column breaks at the end of ### symbols in the ruler line. Only the first 4 or 5 column breaks will be found by Excel - you will need to create the other column breaks by scrolling to the right and clicking with the left mouse button. This is your finished column breaks in step 2 of the import process. Click on the NEXT button to move on in the import process. In step 3 click on the FINISH button after accepting the defaults.

Now each of the data columns should be in one column of Excel. Verify this by looking at the conduit data in rows 35 to 41. You will notice that the node data and the conduit data have a similar format: 1st line - $TABLE 2nd line - Names of the XPX variables next lines - the actual data last line - $TABLE_END

Module 34: XPX Export using MAKE_XPX – Page 3

Next insert a new worksheet by going to the INSERT menu and inserting a new worksheet in Excel. Copy the part of the column containing the conduit roughness using the < ctrl c > command.

Modifying the Exported Data
Paste the data into the new worksheet by using the < Ctrl-V > command. Create a new column of data that is twice the value of the data in the copied roughness column. Create the formula in cell B2, copy the formula, and paste it the other cells in column B. Next, copy the new column of modified data using the < Ctrl-C > command and go back to the flood worksheet. Use the PASTE SPECIAL as shown on the next page to paste the value, not the formula, to the flood worksheet.

Paste the value not the formula using the paste command. .

Module 34: XPX Export using MAKE_XPX – Page 4

If everything worked okay you should see the messages shown below. You will need to close this file before importing it into XP-SWMM2000.not have the interface create implied data flags. Next go back to XP-SWMM2000 and import as a XPX file the FLOOD.CSV file you just created.The new roughness data has now been pasted to the worksheet. Under the dialog box XPX Options use the radio buttons and choose No Action and Report Successful data imports. We will use No Action because we just want to import the data . Save your worksheet as a . For example. Import Data Diagnostics NOTE: Node ’1’: Field GRELEV imported successfully NOTE: Node ’1’: Field Z imported successfully NOTE: Node ’1’: Field QINST imported successfully NOTE: Node ’1’: Field SFLOOD imported successfully NOTE: Node ’1’: Field Y0 imported successfully NOTE: Node ’2’: Field GRELEV imported successfully NOTE: Node ’2’: Field Z imported successfully NOTE: Node ’2’: Field QINST imported successfully NOTE: Node ’2’: Field SFLOOD imported successfully NOTE: Node ’2’: Field Y0 imported successfully NOTE: Node ’4’: Field GRELEV imported successfully NOTE: Node ’4’: Field Z imported successfully NOTE: Node ’4’: Field QINST imported successfully NOTE: Node ’4’: Field SFLOOD imported successfully Module 34: XPX Export using MAKE_XPX – Page 5 .CSV file. since we have trapezoidal side slopes for all conduits the trapezoidal flag would be turned on if No Action was not chosen.

...1b' '....142 .110.99.. link 136..98..99..98.........000.000 .. link 138.142 .99.000 .2.WIDE.327..1' '.. $TABLE...0 1.000 1.2b' '.19...0 1..39.000 3.0.0 $TABLE_END.000 ..0....100..'4'...4a'. $TABLE... 3..142 . link 136. /* Node X Y Coo.0.99.2.99....000 1.400.'4a'.110.495.'4b'....831..98.'1a'..*/.NKLASS.. . /* End of data... .2b'.83. link 136..439.000 1...*/.0... node 134..0 '4'. node 134.000 ..4b'..439..99.Z.0 1..19.498.66.19. node 134.de */.0140 2.2.978.. .0.000.458.ZP1.0.2a' '..0140 .0 1.000 .478.0 1...000 1..0 1.000 .000 .'3a' '.100.59.'5a' '...799.ROUGH.000 3.142 ......Y0 '1'.000 .0 1.RRAT.000..SFLOOD..000 1.ZP2.110..0 1.000 ...000 1 '5a'.GRELEV..110.'2'.110.99.83.000 .99.'2b'.000..000 1.0...RDEP.200.. node 134.200..0 '2a'........PLC..000 .2......2a'..0 '2b'.....456..000 1 '3a'.'2a'......TPHI....0140 2.0140 2...... '3b'..98..000 1 .481....400.39...000 1. '3'.0 1.1a' '.....0 1..'3' '.'5b' '.142 . /* End of data.000 . '5b'.'3b' '...GEOFF.182.... link 138..-1.000 ..rds */..200.0.000 1..000 1..798..000 ...100..000 .0.0..100. link 138.100..98.0 1.000 3. Module 34: XPX Export using MAKE_XPX – Page 6 .ECC..000 ..60...0 1..000 ..477.142 .000 .0140 2...000 3.2'..000 .146..999.. node 134.....2' '.000 .156..000 1 '5'.CSV file from Excel after the ruler line which has been commented out by using /* and */......000 3.110. /* US and DS No.110...000.39...0 1.000.99. node 134.A copy of the exported .459. $TABLE_END.0 '1b'.146.0..000 1 .4'.000 ...000 1.0 1. node 134.2..100...000 1..AFULL...110.DEEP...*/.2. node 134.0 '4b'.0 '2'..'1'.0.2.0..0.327.337...0.*/...TTHETA.0 '4a'.. XP-SWMM2000 will ignore the extra commas in each line..BARREL .LEN.0 '1a'....110.1...000 ..000 .476.000 ..000 1. /* Node data...'5' '.QINST.98.0 1.0140 2...200.000 1 ...0.'1b'. node 134. /* Conduit data.999.000 2.

We will learn the format of this exported .xp and go to the Export Data section under the File menu. Open the file flood. In addition all variables or a selection of variables and the filtering of Nodes and/or Links are available as options to the user. Users can export Selected Only or All Objects by using the radio button shown below.XPX file in this module.Module 35: XPX Export using the XP-SWMM2000 Interface Synopsis In this module we will explore using the XPX export commands to backup your model or exchange data between different versions of XP-SWMM or even multiple users. Module 35: XPX Export using the XP-SWMM2000 Interface – Page 1 .

If the Select button is chosen by the user then a dialog allowing the selection of variables and the creation of a selected list appears as shown below. Module 35: XPX Export using the XP-SWMM2000 Interface – Page 2 . The default for this filename is the project name with an XPX extension. Upon Selecting Export from the XPX Export File dialog the user is prompted for a filename to save the export.XPX for the extension. Any name is allowed but it is good convention to use .

Continuity Check for Surface Water | | Table R6 . Module 36: Output File Tables – Page 1 .Groundwater Data | | Table R5 .Continuity Check for Subsurface Water | | Table R8 .Continuity Error in non-conduit elements | | Table T7 . | | These are the more important tables in the output file. By searching for these strings within the chosen editor for XP-SWMM2000 you can easily navigate the output file to obtain the information desired.Sensitivity anlysis for Subcatchments | *==========================================================* *==========================================================* | TRANSPORT TABLES IN THE OUTPUT FILE | | These are the more important tables in the output file.Conduit Surcharge Summary | | Table T5 . | | You can use your editor to find the table numbers. *==========================================================* | RUNOFF TABLES IN THE OUTPUT FILE.75 | | | | Table T1 . courier font. interface files and other files without a pathname will be saved. Sanitary and Hydraulics layers of XP-SWMM2000.OUT file you will find these indexes. Current Directory: C:\XPS\XP-SWMM2000 The name of the executable file that is being used in this simulation.Total flow through non-conduit elements | *==========================================================* Your XP database file: Input File : C:\XPS\XP-SWMM2000\WORK\BASIC3.Transport Element Parameters | | Table T2 . | | This output file can be imported into a Word Processor | | and printed on US letter or A4 paper using portrait | | mode.Quality Continuity Check | | Table T4 .75 | | | | Table R1 . courier font.XP The current directory into which all output files.Continuity Check for Channels/Pipes | | Table R7 . and margins of 0. At the beginning of each layers output in the .Module 36: Output File Tables Synopsis In this module we will look at the output file table indexes for the Runoff.Transport Continuity Check | | Table T3 . | | for example: search for Table T3 to check continuity. Executable Name: C:\XPS\XP-SWM~1\SWMM95R. a size of 8 pt.Infiltration data | | Table R3 . | | for example: search for Table R3 to check continuity. a size of 8 pt. | | You can use your editor to find the table numbers.cfg.Physical Hydrology Data | | Table R2 .Raingage and Infiltration Database Names | | Table R4 . and margins of 0. These are parameters you entered in the SWMM Configuration.EXE The information read from the interface generated swmmcom.Summary Statistics for Subcatchments | | Table R10 .Total iterations and maximum # of iterations | | Table T6 .Infiltration/Inflow Continuity Check | | Table R9 . Read 1 line(s) and found 1 items(s) from your cfg file. | | This output file can be imported into a Word Processor | | and printed on US letter or A4 paper using portrait | | mode.

a size of 8 pt.0000 0.Iteration Summary | | Table E8 .0000 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 2 3 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 2 1 1 2 4 7 11 21 24 28 29 31 33 40 42 55 59 62 63 70 77 97 142 154 161 164 290 294 295 Module 36: Output File Tables – Page 2 .Conduit Explicit Condition Summary | | Table E6 .0000 0.0000 0.Junction Time Step Limitation Summary | | Table E9 . $powerstation $perv $oldegg $as $noflat $oldomega $oldvol IMPLICIT $oldhot $oldscs $flood $nokeys $pzero $oldvol2 STORAGE_97 $oldhot1 PUMPWT $ecloss $exout NEWROUTE $oldbnd $nogrelev $ncmid NEW_NL_97 OPTIMAL97 NEWBOUND 0.0000 0.75 | | | | Table E1 .Continuity balance at simulation end | | | Table E22 .0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.Channel losses(H) and culvert info | | Table E14 .Conduit Summary Statistics | | Table E11 . | | You can use your editor to find the table numbers.0000 0.Junction Inflow Sources | | Table E20 . | | for example: search for Table E20 to check continuity.| HYDRAULICS TABLES IN THE OUTPUT FILE | | These are the more important tables in the output file.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 10.Spreadsheet Info List | | Table E16 .Pump Operation | | Table E18 .Natural Channel Overbank Flow Information | | Table E15 .Area assumptions used in the analysis | | Table E12 .Junction Data | | Table E4 .New Conduit Output Section | | Table E17 .Model Judgement Section *==========================================================* SWMM Configuration Parameters including those that are hardwired are listed in the Output File.0000 0.Junction Time Step Limitation Summary | | Table E5a .0000 0.0000 0. This is printed near the beginning of each XP-SWMM2000 output file.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.Basic Conduit Data | | Table E2 .Conduit Connectivity Data | | Table E4a .Junction Flooding and Volume List | | Table E21 .Final Model Condition | | Table E7 .0000 0.0000 0. courier font.Conduit Factor Data | | Table E3 .0000 0.Junction Summary Statistics | | Table E10 .Dry Weather Flow Data | | Table E5 .0000 0. and margins of 0.0000 0. | | This output file can be imported into a Word Processor | | and printed on US letter or A4 paper using portrait | | mode.Junction Continuity Error | | Table E19 .Mean conduit information | | Table E13 .0000 0.

DWG or .DWG or a . The destination rectangle items do not need to be edited since they will be replaced by the coordinates built in to the .DGN files are not yet supported.xp and use US customary units. Currently.DXF in the Input File field along with selecting XP Metafile as the option for file type. Enter the name of the CAD file in the Get Background Dialog Box.DXF file option as . Go to the Get Background section in the View menu. Module 37: CAD Drawing Graphical Import – Page 1 .DXF file.Module 37: CAD Drawing Graphical Import Synopsis In this module we will learn how to bring in a background picture from any CAD package that can generate a . Start by making a new XP file called newfile. MicroStation users must use the .DXF file. which for this tutorial is YARRA.

Choose a Fit Window command from the View Menu so that the entire drawing is displayed in the Plan View Window. Holding the mouse over the icon will display a bubble of the icon's purpose and a detailed description of the command is displayed in the lower left-hand corner of the program interface. Now the background is still referenced to your XP file but does not display. To hide the display of the background for better redraw performance select the picture by picking the first tool from this tool strip and click on the background. Simply deselect the Show Picture check box and then click the O. This dialog is shown below. Then with the drawing covered in hatched lines confirming selection choose the last tool on the tool strip.K button and select the pointer tool. Module 37: CAD Drawing Graphical Import – Page 2 . which is picture properties. The following tool strip is used to manipulate backgrounds.

An ASCII file containing spatial reports and graphical encoding information.SYF The XP database is saved in the .DAT ALL3LAY. solve your model and review the results of your model.XP ALL3LAY.SYT ALL3LAY.BAK ALL3LAY.xp.XP ALL3LAY. XP-SWMM2000 Files Associated with ALL3LAY. import your data. The output file from the analysis engine.XP file. The data file exported from the interface and used by FORTRAN analysis engine. This module discusses the more important files associated with XP-SWMM2000.OUT ALL3LAY. For example. May be imported into a database or GIS.SYR ALL3LAY.XP file created when you solve the model.SWMM2000 when you enter your data.Module 38: XP-SWMM2000 Files Synopsis Many files are generated or used by XP. A binary file containing the graphical results from the Runoff layer. The XP database is saved in the . Backup of the . A binary file containing the graphical results from the Hydraulics layer.XP file.MUT ALL3LAY. the list below is all of the files associated with the XP file all3lay. Module 38: XP-SWMM2000 Files – Page 1 .RES ALL3LAY. A binary file containing the graphical results from the Sanitary layer. You can use the program EPACONV to convert this to an EPA SWMM data file.

An ASCII file containing the tabular XPX format. An ASCII file containing information used in printing the time history information for heads and flows in the output file.XLS ALL3LAY.EXP Module 38: XP-SWMM2000 Files – Page 2 .CDM ALL3LAY. Created using the Configuration Parameter HGLMEAN. Created using the Configuration Parameter PUMPMEAN. ALL3LAY. An ASCII file containing information on EXTRAN pumps.RIZ ALL3LAY. Created using the Configuration Parameter NEWCDMFILE. An ASCII file containing information on EXTRAN pumps.DES An ASCII file containing the ending heads and flows from the simulation.PBS ALL3LAY. This is in XPX format so that it could be reimported into XP-SWMM2000. Created using the MAKE_XPX Configuration parameter. An ASCII design file containing the changed conduit depths from using the design feature inside the Transport layer.Other files that can also be generated include: ALL3LAY.

000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0. At the completion of a solve the .000000000000000E+000 0. It is written at the time of writing the output file and contains a summary of the same results. Sanitary and Hydraulics.RES file is loaded into the interface to support the generation of reports.000000000000000E+000 0.551252936940083 6.000000000000000E+000 0. graphical encoding and other functions requiring results from a run. $swmm $runoff_conduits $END_OF_LIST $runoff_nodes Catchment 110.000000000000000E+000 $END_OF_LIST Module 39: .999999999999983 8.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.283191781515640 0. the current and complete documentation of the order of variables can only be obtained by contacting XP Software as this file changes from time to time.RES Files Synopsis The .000000000000000E+000 0.RES Files – Page 1 .489451476793263E-002 0.000000000000000E+000 0. However.000000000000000E+000 3.Module 39: . Sample .154813333333336E-001 1.551252936940083 7.000000000000000E+000 6.088607594936717 0.486008659065142E-001 4.RES file from a run of all three modes Runoff.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.RES file contains a summary of results generated by the analysis engine during a solve.000000000000000E-001 0.000000000000000E+000 2.RES file. The interface does not read the output file it reads the .000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0. The results file is suitable for import to spreadsheets or other databases since it is fixed format.

000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 4.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.823818802400872 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 pipe 8.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.123197136627399 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 20.$transport_conduits Catchment 117.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.991663665323611 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.534742599166151 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 10.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.RES Files – Page 2 .000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.814244429916542 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 Conduit 113.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.444827457374178 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 Pond 8.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 2.123197136627399 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 $END_OF_LIST Module 39: .894739587217856 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 outfall 8.000000000000000E+000 0.

000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 Pond 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 outfall 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 pipe 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.$transport_nodes Catchment 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.RES Files – Page 3 .000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 Conduit 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 $END_OF_LIST Module 39: .000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.

000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 444.089698308700978 0.000000000000000E+099 -9.000000000000000E+000 0.666666666666673 3.017181868641782 12.000000000000000E+099 -9.000000000000000E+000 7.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E-003 1.000000000000000E+000 0.076379192192690 127303.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+099 -9.000000000000000E+000 -9.566000000000001 23.000000000000000E+099 -9.195212330429260 6.000000000000000E+000 298.000000000000000E+099 -9.359095608570755 16.666296240610306 1.RES Files – Page 4 .000000000000000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 $END_OF_LIST $extran_nodes Version 9.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.628423137892600E-001 0.493367220994880 -1 FREE # 1 55.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 -9.000000000000000E+099 -9.660824857629223 5.000000000000000E+099 -9.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+099 -9.869369369369369 0.506889189859139 0.666666666666673 0.000000000000000E+000 0.448717948717952 7.000000000000000E+000 0.887191122508128 0.472778250405099 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 Conduit 118.000000000000000E+099 -9.000000000000000E+099 -9.000000000000000E+099 -9.758778026180948 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+099 -9.000000000000000E+000 0.356820850367512 4228.262277193184634 12.000000000000000E+000 298.076642973784079 12.000000000000000E+000 1.814349101991411 5.000000000000000E+000 10.000000000000000E+099 -9.758778026180948 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+099 -9.197065147463326E-001 0.000000000000000E+000 8.000000000000000E+099 16.000000000000000E+000 0.783110310901039 115.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.526390671829088 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+099 -9.000000000000000E+099 -9.000000000000000E+000 0.250000000000000 3.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 208 outfall 1.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.182784736753643 2.000000000000000E+000 0.297297297297298 485.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.200232583965978 7.000000000000000E+099 -9.000000000000000 2.032602839073920 8.237770560222017 1.237770560222017 47.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+099 -9.000000000000000E+000 0.297297297297298 346.980112930358128 47.000000000000000E+000 203 Pond 2.000000000000000E+099 12.000000000000000E+000 3.000000000000000E+000 0.493110810140861 12.608235778258905E-001 5.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 1274.000000000000000E+000 0.062605935922598 209 pipe 55.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.455530477528859E-001 0.$extran_conduits Version 9.625000000000256 4.000000000000000E+099 -9.000000000000000E+000 0.937160905662322 115.000000000000000E+099 -9.000000000000000E+000 0.356820850367512 30.000000000000000E+099 -9.000000000000000 0.000000000000000E+099 -9.660824857629223 1.000000000000000E+000 3.566000000000001 76.000000000000000E+000 0.017181868641782 3.793090954815682 11.655405405405405 0.000000000000000E+000 0.937722806815366 0.017181868641782 16.000000000000000E-003 0.000000000000000E+000 4.982818131358218 0.00 204 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.434824214848856E-001 5.132244289755907E-001 6.967397160926080 8.000000000000000E+000 $END_OF_LIST Module 39: .000000000000000 2.000000000000000 0.000000000000000E+000 -9.658593897541786E-002 0.000000000000000E+000 8.000000000000000E+099 -9.000000000000000E+000 0.250000000000000 236.666666666666673 0.000000000000000E+000 0.062605935922598 11.000000000000000E+099 0.000000000000000E+000 0.799384404661906 0.000000000000000E+000 0.199298428299459 0.000000000000000E+000 0.799767416034022 7.000000000000000E+000 4228.000000000000000 1.594769409454841 6.893110810140861 11.000000000000000E+000 514740.062277193184634 94746.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+099 -9.000000000000000E+000 0.982818131358218 3.000000000000000E+000 3.00 202 Catchment 6.571859604446217 12.000000000000000E+000 14.139992399896197E-001 10.233790316208697 9.000000000000000E+000 1179.000000000000000E+099 -9.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+099 -9.000000000000000E+000 0.000000000000000E+099 -9.

502778 7. 4th column . These output files can be imported into a spreadsheet or database for later processing.201127 5.058333 3.886039 5.391667 1.23133 Output of the .886039 5.260026 5.427998 5. Three extra output files containing information on the nodal heads.280556 5.RIZ file and .CDM file: DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA Y0 Y0 Y0 QO QO Catchment 0 1 2. The three files are the yourfilename.427813 5.927083 5.225000 2.358651 5.428654 5.xp.090000 5.446925 5.336111 3.358220 5.RIZ Files Synopsis In this module we will make an external files in XPX format that can be imported back into XP-SWMM2000. The .558333 5.348886 5.271340 5. 3rd column .29432 outfall 0 1 1.373865 5.329407 5.342886 5.395418 5.358220 5. 6th column .415293 5.PBS file (shown below) J487 J487 J487 J487 J487 J487 J487 J487 J487 J487 J487 J487 J487 J487 J487 J487 J487 J487 J487 J487 J487 J487 J487 J487 1.427998 5.351608 5.273664 5. The configuration parameter HGLMEAN makes the .245114 5.947222 7.411314 5.353908 5.366945 5.433175 5.428654 5.456239 5.206763 5.CDM .725000 5.090000 5.169444 4.PBT file.67548 pipe 0 1 27.PBT .578733 5.454848 5. The file we will use is all3lay.304611 5. The configuration parameter PUMPMEAN makes the .PBT.RIZ Files – Page 1 .PBS file.480229 5.11408 Pond 0 1 2.400735 5.226415 5.instantaneous elevation at the end of the last time step using the pump check valve elevations Module 40: .090000 1st column .295407 5.446929 5. pump flows and other information is exported from XP-SWMM2000 if you use the SWMM configuration parameters PUMPMEAN and HGLMEAN and perform your simulation in the Hydraulics layer of XP-SWMM2000.432284 5.502778 2.780556 5.380004 5.RIZ and yourfilename.439669 5.669444 1.090000 5.896394 5.245913 5.CDM file can be imported back into XP-SWMM2000 through the XPX import facility.526527 5.356148 5.090000 5.PBT .PBS .429047 5.429213 5.836111 6.336838 5.407500 5.356148 5. Enter this parameter in the Configuration Parameters dialog from the Configuration menu.225000 7.PBS.891667 4.454962 5.459869 5.PBS .398320 5.Name of the node 2nd column .947222 2.43306 Conduit 0 1 18.363213 5.428982 5.366138 5.613889 3.381440 5. Below is a sample .295407 5.273664 5.Module 40: .average elevation over the last time step.228172 5.440093 5.163545 5.113889 6.average elevation over the last time step using the pump check valve elevations.435915 5.instantaneous elevation at the end of the last time step.CDM . yourfilename.389838 5.397522 5. Format of the .426958 5.896394 5.366014 5.669444 6.468649 5.312309 5.002778 5.401813 5.310436 5.090000 5.CDM file is NEWCDMFILE.438308 5. 5th column .480229 5.379091 5.421158 5.446925 5.CDM file stores the ending node depths and ending conduit flows.927083 5.447222 4.Time in hours since the beginning of the simulation.090000 5.526527 5.420054 5.578733 5.148000 5.389838 5. The Configuration Parameter name for the .348886 5.780556 3.233609 5.386812 5.391667 6.351608 5.446929 5.404944 5.

01 12.0000 9. 2nd column .43 13.0000 .131 .23 12.0000 . 6th column .1667 .0000 .1667 .the average head loss through the pump based on downstream .instantaneous dynamic head loss.15 12.33 12. 0.9444E-02 8. Format of the .0000 .67 12.2361 8333 PUMP J333 .0000 . 9th column .0000 59.1667 . 1. 0.0000 5.93 61.0000 4.45 .0000 .0000 .0000 .1028 8333 PUMP J333 .68 .38 13. 1.0000 90. 8th column .2778E-02 6.2194 8333 PUMP J333 .0000 .561 8.1861 8333 PUMP J333 .9444E-02 8333 PUMP J333 8. 0.70 13.818 .0000 . 0.0000 33. 7th column .50 13.0000 .0000 .Time in hours since the beginning of the simulation.593 . 1.3333 .00 minutes 8333 PUMP J333 1. 0.21 13.0000 .0000 90.0000 .6111E-02 5. 7th column .0000 .1861 . 3rd column .791 .31 12.CDM .58 12.Total time (hours) the pump was turned on during the last time step.33 12.0000 . Time On Total Static Dynamic (min) Q Head Head .1667 .91 12.1361 .58 12.0000 .0000 . 0.31 .85 12.0000 35.5000 .00 minutes 8333 8333 8333 8333 8333 8333 8333 8333 8333 8333 8333 8333 8333 8333 8333 PUMP PUMP PUMP PUMP PUMP PUMP PUMP PUMP PUMP PUMP PUMP PUMP PUMP PUMP PUMP J333 J333 J333 J333 J333 J333 J333 J333 J333 J333 J333 J333 J333 J333 J333 1. 0.01 71.2194 .0000 .instantaneous flow when the pump turned on. 0.1667 .instantaneous static head loss.46 .94 12. Module 40: .08 12.0000 .The name of the link containing the pump. 1. .Name of the pump 3rd column . 0.2528 0.93 13.0000 .74 . 1.91 42.0000 .15 12. 0.3333 .70 12.49 .0000 .Time in hours since the beginning of the simulation.91 12.58 13.1528 .0000 .886 7.1361 8333 PUMP J333 .1194 .Name of the multi conduit 2nd column . 1.0000 133.0000 . 0.4 15.1528 8333 PUMP J333 . 0.0000 47. 0. 5th column .0000 3.the total flow through the pump during the last time step. 1.50 13.77 13.2361 .1667 .2028 .PBT file (shown below) Conduit Pump DnstreamNode Time(hours) On TimeOn(min) InstnQ InsStatic Head Dynamic Hd Hd Summary Interval = 1.2028 8333 PUMP J333 .66 13.34 13. 1.43 13.3333 .58 1st column .1028 .0000 .0000 .08 12.1667 .0000 .2778E-02 8333 PUMP J333 6.63 13.301 13.3333 .RIZ Files – Page 2 . 1.0000 17.24 12.2528 0.PBS .17 .66 13.36 .55 .The name of the upstream node to the pump.93 43.70 .71 13.PBT .1694 8333 PUMP J333 .0000 .RIZ file (shown below) Conduit Pump Dnstream Time On Node (hours) Hd Summary Interval = 1.0000 4.3333 .1194 8333 PUMP J333 .0000 90.0000 .Format of the . 9th column .1667 .5000 .0000 .9444E-02 8333 PUMP J333 3. 4th column .33 13.0000 .upstream head.28 12.1694 .72 . 1.70 13.55 1st column . 0.9444E-02 3.20 15.0000 17. 0.81 InsTotal 13.6111E-02 .67 45.23 12. 6th column .58 13.61 .0000 33.The name of the pump in the link.3333 .Time in minutes the pump was turned on during this interval.the average dynamic head loss through the pump discharge pipe.Name of the downstream node 4th column . 0.0000 17.Times the pump turned on during the last time step. 1.Number of times the pump turned on during this interval. 8th column .6111E-02 8333 PUMP J333 5.6111E-02 8333 PUMP J333 .0000 47. 5th column .0000 . 1.0000 .

S. standard units.XP using U. We will use the Rainfall Utility to analyze the rainfall data and create the interface file. First we will make a new XP database called CONTRUN. The rainfall input dialogs are in the Utilities section in the Tools menu. Module 42: Using Continuous Rainfall Data – Page 1 .Module 42: Using Continuous Rainfall Data Synopsis In this module we will use the rainfall block to read in a long-term rainfall record and save it as a rainfall interface file.

1 ...These two dialogs determine the type of rainfall. Florida.*2154356001012002002003003002003002005003002003001003102 *2154356001021002001001002004002002002001. 1964 (NWS Post 1980Fixed) * *HPD08021100HPCPHI19640400270011900 00002 &&& *HPD08021100HPCPHI19640400270012000 00004 &&& *HPD08021100HPCPHI19640400270012100 00003 &&& *HPD08021100HPCPHI19640400270012200 00001 &&& *HPD08021100HPCPHI19640400270012300 00012 &&& *HPD08021100HPCPHI19640400280010100 00005 &&& *HPD08021100HPCPHI19640400280010300 00001 &&& * * IFORM = 1. Minneapolis.... Remember that asterisk in column 1 is * necessary to maintain comment lines in this RAIN...1 .1 .. the name of the input rainfall file and the name of the created interface file.... This is USRN.1 ...DAT refered to in text. 1960 (NWS Card Deck 488) * *2154356001011. April 27-28....1 ....1 ......1 . * * IFORM = 0..000105 * * IFORM = * *14922 80 *14922 80 *14922 80 *14922 80 *14922 80 *14922 80 *14922 80 *14922 80 *14922 80 3.. (User Defined) 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 01 01 01 01 01 01 23 23 23 00 00 14 15 18 19 12 12 15 00 30 00 00 00 00 30 45 00 .. 1987 (NWS Post 1980 Variable) * *HPD12425900HPCPHI19870100010020100000000 2500000000 *HPD12425900HPCPHI19870100020050300000001 0600000001 0700000002 0800000002 2500000006 *HPD12425900HPCPHI19870100090131300000003 1400000009 1500000004 1600000008 1700000010 2500000061 *HPD12425900HPCPHI19870100100031900000001 2400000001 2500000002 *HPD12425900HPCPHI19870100110020100000001 2500000001 *HPD12425900HPCPHI19870100140021300000003 2500000003 * * IFORM = 2.*2154356001022. Appalachacola..*2154356001042. Hypothetical user-defined. Indianapolis. the rainfall station number..1 .. Indiana. Minnesota..... January 1-14.DOC file.... The next two pages show some example rainfall formats.001.1 Module 42: Using Continuous Rainfall Data – Page 2 ..... Sample Data Formats * * Brief examples of data formats. January 1-4.001704 *2154356001041.

0........0.......2709......10..........39.........................10...0......30.......0.............0....01.. .......10...0 *4..............0.in.....01....01/07/1970..10....01........ *OR................... 1986...0........in....0.............. Eugene..........1. current AES format..........14.......04................0....08..............’0’ *9....’ ’ *8..9581.0............. * *615HMAK9861001123000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000015 000017 000000 *615HMAK9861002123000002 000003 000000 000006 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000004 *615HMAK9861003123000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000003 000002 000000 000000 000000 000002 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 *615HMAK9861004123000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000003 000017 000005 000008 000008 000002 000000 000002 000000 000000 000000 000000 *615HMAK9861005123000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000006 000024 000002 000000 000000 *615HMAK9861006123000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000002 000002 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000010 000019 000004 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000008 000032 000010 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 Module 42: Using Continuous Rainfall Data – Page 3 ....313630................01/08/1970....10.....’0’ *8..... E..80.....10....... July 1-12.............10..............1.........10......0.............10..........1...........’0’ *8.0.3.10............02......0...0.............948..........02...10.............313630........ *OR.......................’HPD’ *2........0........07.................10....0...in.... Unknown Canadian station......................... .......20.....1.. rain = 2..0..........0.10.....04..’0’..01......................1948.’GREENSBORO.......10. second day..20............1.........0..... .....................0....0....2709...0..... ...........10.......01....... January 1-9.1..........11....... North Carolina.11/06/1980...... *OR..2709.........0......1............. *OR...0.......’0’ *9.............................HIGH P.....0.....10.....10............. first hour..............10......9581.0........12 *5. NC’ *3.................00.. ..............’ ’....in.... rainfall in tenths of mm..................0.1..2....0...............50...0..............’0’... Unidentified Canadian station 61060009.........12......11/03/1980...0............. 1948 (NWS Diskette Rainfall Data) * *1.......1.......01......9581.......0..0....25.....g........* IFORM = 4...03.................. * * IFORM = 10.10........ * * IFORM = 9...5.’0’ * * IFORM = 5.........10...0..........0....13.......7.. Greensboro-High Point......10.0...........0....0..........0.................01/01/1970.................0... ......948...........0...9581.2.......10........11/01/1980. November 13-18.... ......40....7..in....0... ..’0’ *9..1.....0........in...........................0....1....’0’ *9..in.11/05/1980................00...0...........0....9581............. Oregon.....00....... Oregon...0....in................... 10.11/07/1980.......................0...’HI’................10 ........1.............1.... Rainfall in tenths of mm/hr.0...’0’...........4.... .......10..1952...................0.........0...... Yaquina Bay...70..........’0’.... * *61060009781113123000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000200150007002400370031 *61060009781114123002200170006000300000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 *61060009781115123000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 *61060009781116123000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 *61060009781117123000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000130019002800220013000900260024004600460002 *61060009781118123000200040005000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 *OR.........0....0.. .........0..0...948..0............10. *OR..........0.11/02/1980.... 0............0.0.......... .’ ’......02....10..........10.......0................’ ’...................... *OR...’HI’.in.0...10......10................ ...2709..........................2 *9...2..........2......0.17.................... .........10..9581.......’HPCP’....... *OR.. November 1-7.......... 1980 (Earth Info ASCII 15 minute data) * *OR.10..............10....13.10.10..08.10...’0’..........3 *9....................7.......................0........25.0......0.0..........20.. 1970 (Earth Info ASCII hourly data) * * * IFORM = 13...in.....2 mm/hr.........0.0...... *OR.........................’0’.................0....25....................0...... 1978 (Older Canadian AES data) * Note....’HI’.0...............10.... ......0.....0........... ................................................... (Newer Canadian AES data) * October 1-7......02.........01/03/1970............2 *9.04...’0’.. .....0.................

the station number is 215435. After entering the name of the input data and interface file name click on Select File to add the current directory (path) to the file name. We will use 9 hours as the interevent time for this rainfall data.PRN is NWSDSK. Select the interface file name created by the rainfall utility as CONTRUN. Module 42: Using Continuous Rainfall Data – Page 4 . Click on the More button and enter the data shown above to name the rainfall report file. The synoptic analysis divides the hourly rainfall data into storm events for the output statistical summary.Clink the rainfall utility button. or NWS Diskette format. The format of the input file HPCP8587. otherwise the file will go in a different directory.RIN. Again select "Select File" to add the path.

000 62.000 0.570 1. The average year storm and the number of individual storm events found in the rainfall data.003 1. Rainfall Statistics by Avg yr(for period of record) Number Total Minimum Maximum Average Coef-Var ----------------------------------Duration 3. CONTRUN.148 The number of delta events may be less because of undefined periods.000 62.870 Use the "Notepad" icon to edit the output file.010 10.444 1.344 2.196 0. 2110. 100.00 1.50 0.187 Delta 3.00 10.186 Volume 3. 26247.50 0.333 1.000 2916. 2110. 14.000 11.167 1.003 1. 26247.010 10.000 234.OUT.010 10.Click on the Run button.000 7.00 10.13 0.667 0. The above tables will tell you the total amount of rainfall.667 1. not the solve icon to perform the rainfall analysis.00 1. Module 42: Using Continuous Rainfall Data – Page 5 .264 Volume 292.000 11. 100. Rainfall Statistics by Storm (for period of record) Number Total Minimum Maximum Average Coef-Var ----------------------------------Duration 292.214 Years 3.226 1.13 0.210 Intensity 3. The program will read all of the rainfall data and create a rainfall interface file that will be the driving force in a Runoff layer continuous simulation. 14.048 2. 100.50 0.167 1.183 Intensity 292.500 550. ######################################## # Precipitation Summary # ######################################## Rainfall summary for station Total missing hours Total hours of meter malfunction Total rainfall Total number of years 215435 0 0 100.50 3 hours hours inches years The number of delta events may be less because of undefined periods.215 Delta 291.500 550.000 90.

Volume 105.696 0.161 Mo/Dy/Yr -------7/23/87 7/20/87 6/28/87 7/30/87 6/21/86 8/ 8/87 7/ 5/86 8/16/86 8/28/85 8/12/85 Rank ---147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 in/hr -----0.333 Return Period -----0.72 0.555 Delta 103.920 2.OUT.696 0.066 2.00 10.889 0.940 2.323 0.031 105. 36.000 1.333 2.000 2. intensity.840 Months 12.500 82.000 297. The return period for the larger storms is printed for volume.The number of delta events may be less because of undefined periods.052 0.000 7.000 1.680 2.356 1.004 0.485 0.021 0.173 0.00 1.422 0.173 0.03 0.021 0.022 0.038 1.421 0.00 1. 32.003 1. 32.889 0.445 104.667 0.100 0.988 87 Duration 84.000 3.110 0.757 0.884 0.510 2.021 Rank ---1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 in/hr -----1.100 0.000 62.72 0.021 0.110 0.090 17.021 0. 8796.372 0.010 3.010 10.023 0.022 0.16 0. Intensity 4.021 0.000 0. 36.021 0. duration.251 0.228 Duration 105.000 85.372 0.110 0.345 0.110 0.116 Volume 103.300 0.231 0.153 Intensity 84.131 1.000 6. Rainfall Statistics by Year (for period of record) Total Minimum Maximum Average Coef-Var Number ----------------------------------85 867.022 0.890 5.333 2. 8617.215 0. 728.000 8.000 104.000 47.720 Mo/Dy/Yr -------7/23/87 7/20/87 6/21/86 4/26/86 8/ 8/87 8/12/85 8/16/86 10/ 3/85 9/21/86 5/10/86 Rank ---147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 Inches -----0.212 0.232 The average storm event by month and year are also printed out in the file CONTRUN.022 0.62 0.231 0.021 0.112 Delta 84. 31.302 1.420 0.021 0.021 Rank ---1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Inches -----10.120 0.024 0.023 0.021 0. Return Period (years) for Volume Return Period -----5.070 1.333 Return Period -----0.000 0. 8833. 31.810 2.022 0.023 0.955 Months 12.020 6.110 0.59 0.804 Months 86 Duration 103.021 0.023 0.50 11.500 550. 5.16 0.022 0.021 0.100 Mo/Dy/Yr -------2/25/86 9/18/87 10/23/85 6/16/85 4/22/87 12/15/85 7/30/85 6/23/86 8/12/87 5/21/87 Return Period (years) for Intensity Return Period -----5.022 Mo/Dy/Yr -------1/16/85 5/ 5/85 2/ 9/85 7/ 8/86 2/28/87 6/10/87 11/19/86 11/21/85 7/30/85 7/11/87 Module 42: Using Continuous Rainfall Data – Page 6 .720 0.110 0.103 Intensity 103.62 0.010 2. 4.022 0.022 0.021 0.090 2. and interevent duration.914 Volume 84. The top portion of two of these tables is shown below.500 332.571 0.52 0.50 12.068 1.000 43.571 0.00 1.120 2.383 3.420 2.257 1.045 1.690 3.861 0.022 0.003 0. 515.753 Delta 11.022 0.421 0.667 0.800 3.300 0.485 0.

Use file CONTRUN. The Global Data is accessed under the Configuration menu. Setting Up Interface Files for Continuous Simulation Open up the file you created in module 42. CONTRUN.INT as the output interface file.INT will be used by the Statistics Utility in Module 44. The interface files for all layers are accessed under the Configuration menu. We will modify this file for module 43 and module 44. Proceed to step (1) and enter a rainfall data base name in global data as shown below and then click on the EDIT button. and (3) define the runoff layer job control.RIN as the rainfall input and CONTRUN.Module 43: Continuous Runoff Simulation Synopsis In this module we will use the created rainfall interface file to simulate the surface runoff at one runoff node for 3 years. In the creation of this continuous simulation we have three main steps: (1) define the global data. Module 43: Continuous Runoff Simulation .Page 1 . (2) define the network.

Module 43: Continuous Runoff Simulation . Now define the global data for infiltration. in.Entering Global Data for Continuous Simulation Select Rain Interface File. [mm] of water is perhaps the most difficult parameter to quantify. Change the depression storage to 0. The following table summarizes several published values. and EDIT the data. The average capillary suction. Call the record name “Soil Type A”.05 inches for the impervious area and 0. ADD it the record name list. select the rain station number by clicking on the Select button.Page 2 . This parameter can be derived from soil moisture conductivity data if available. We will use Green Ampt infiltration. The rainfall global data is now defined and it should look like the screen shown below. Typical values for Soil Texture Capillary Suction (inches): Sand 4 Sandy Loam 8 Loam 8 Clay Loam 10 Silt Loam Clay 12 7 The graphic on the next page shows the values to use and the order of the dialogs.25 inches for the pervious area.

Select the rainfall global data and the infiltration global data you just entered in global data.01 ft/ft (1%). Module 43: Continuous Runoff Simulation . a percent impervious of 20 percent. Click on the node with the right mouse button. and a slope of 0. Clicking on the #1 sub-catchment check box to accesses this dialog. a width of 2087 feet (square root of the area). create a node in Runoff by using the "Node" icon. Finally.Now we have defined our global data. Enter an area of 100 acres. use the Fit Window command to center the small network. go to Edit=>Attributes and make the text size 1-inch and the node size 1inch.Page 3 . Next.

The evaporation you enter in Runoff is the lake evaporation estimate or the pan evaporation times the pan coefficient. Use the print control dialog to define the print intervals for the continuous simulation. We now go to the Runoff layer Job Control.Now we have completed task (2). 3600 seconds for the transition time step. daily and annual totals. The simulation will run from 1/1/85 to 12/31/87. The simulation time steps will be 3600 seconds for the wet time step. and 86400 seconds for the dry time steps. We will print the monthly. Module 43: Continuous Runoff Simulation . Enter the data shown above for the monthly evaporation rate.Page 4 . Click on Save all Results for Review.

Highlight node 1 by dragging a box over the node using the left mouse button. The SWMM Configuration Parameters dialog is located in the Configuration menu. The peak flow is in 1987. This is accomplished by using the configuration parameter MAXPTS=10000. Zoom in the area of the peak flow by dragging a box around the peak flow using the left mouse button. MAXPTS=X. Module 43: Continuous Runoff Simulation . Use the review results icon and look at the plot of the flows for the three year period. only the number of points for graphing.Page 5 . However.Solve the Continuous Simulation In order to achieve a reasonable resolution in the review results it is important to override the number of default data points for graphing. saving too many points for a large number of objects will affect performance. The MAXPTS=X does not affect the simulation results. will allow the user to change the default from 500 to a much larger number. Select Runoff as the Solve Mode and click on the "Solve" icon.

0 1.77749 Peak Runoff Rate (cfs).24011 October 1 100.0 0. Percent Impervious.13000 0... 1#1 Area (acres). Subcatchment.0 3..... (2) impervious area with depression storage.01958 March 1 100.11175 April 1 100. ################################################## # Table R9. CONTINUITY CHECK FOR SURFACE WATER * ************************************************************ Total Precipitation (Rain plus Snow) Total Infiltration Total Evaporation Surface Runoff from Watersheds Total Water remaining in Surface Storage Infiltration over the Pervious Area.11213 February 1 100.35993 July 1 100.69000 2.00000 Peak Runoff Rate (cfs). 1. 54....00000 Total Area Total Runoff Depth (in) 20..0 17...21554 98... -------Infiltration + Evaporation + Surface Runoff + Snow removal + Water remaining in Surface Storage + Water remaining in Snow Cover...71352 September 1 100. and (3) impervious area without depression storage...935 5...668 3.. Remaining Depth (in).0 0..07000 0..90000 5..28000 0. Pervious Area Total Runoff Depth (in) Total Losses (in).942 The above table shows the runoff for each sub-catchment broken into three components: (1) pervious area.500 74.67000 0.77224 94.00000 100.0 0.95000 0.648150E+07 101. *********************************************** * Summary of Quantity and Quality results for * * 1987 * *********************************************** Month Inlet Area Rain Flow acres Inch Inch ------------------.. Peak Runoff Rate (cfs)..648150E+07 2.002 93..72793 Peak Runoff Rate (cfs).91584 Overall continuity error is in Table R5. 54...782 20. Pervious and Impervious Runoff Depth is only the runoff from those two areas.0 1.098868E+06 7...0 1..524240E+06 6. 152..28446 0.00000 98.64000 0..25000 0. Summary Statistics for Subcatchments # ################################################## Note: Total Runoff Depth includes pervious & impervious area.88000 0.08277 Impervious Area without depression storage Total Runoff Depth (in) 0.447 100.. Percent Continuity Error.60000 0..682510E+07 3..37238 December 1 100.00000 20. Total Impervious Area Total Runoff Depth (in) 100.63000 0.720131E+07 2.16000 0....50000 2..32122 June 1 100...728 0....0 2.77749 Peak Runoff Rate (cfs).. ************************************************************ * Table R5.52855 Module 43: Continuous Runoff Simulation ...30973 August 1 100. Continuity error <1 percent in the runoff layer is recommended.. Total Rainfall (in).0 1.. Total Precipitation + Initial Storage.. Max Intensity (in/hr).Page 6 . 0.Output File Monthly Summary..02099 May 1 100..16000 7.0 0.85500 Unit Runoff (in/hr)..500 -0.0 32. cubic feet 3...720131E+07 Inches over Total Basin 100..08277 Impervious Area with depression storage Total Runoff Depth (in) 94.23040 Year 1 100.-January 1 100.888068E+02 2...0 0...10412 November 1 100.

Use an inter-event time of 12 hours to separate the flow events.Page 1 . We define the interface file to analyze and the report file name in the Statistics File section. The general data is similar to the data used in the Rainfall Utility. You should make sure the pathname is included to ensure the reading or creating of the proper file. Module 44: Statistics Utility .Module 44: Statistics Utility Synopsis This module is a continuation of Modules 42 and 43. Highlight one node or in this case node 1 and use the statistics option in the Utility Group of the Tools menu Use the options as shown on the following pages to define the data for the Statistics utility. We will analyze the results of our continuous runoff simulation using the Statistics Utility of SWMM.

20 96.97 8 8 0 850129 3.00 5.026E+03 .7 .02 92.25 8.6 .00 9 9 0 850130 3.677E+03 1.00 7.80 10 10 0 850202 18.126E+03 1.06 25.02 .15 12.25 116.98 14 14 0 850219 8.00 4.93 4 4 0 850114 3. .---.00 5 5 0 850116 6.25 1.25 2.98 13 13 0 850218 3.----.01 . . .8 .03 20.05 16.15 192.04 .95 11 11 0 850205 9.25 20.00 3 3 0 850109 8.25 129.00 3.03 18.00 56.5 .00 7.02 .4 .90 .74 .03 80.5 .25 110.02 . ************************************************************ * Total Flow at location 1 is 6.01 .25 70.00 5.38 .25 9.25 25. There is no graphical output of the Statistics module and the user is restricted to text output as shown below.----.15 13.17 46.00 6.00 136.4119E+06 feet^3 * ************************************************************ ########################### Sequential Series of Events ########################### Total Flow Rain Flow Peak Mean Event Interevent Event Event Event Time Volume Flow Flow Duration Duration Numbr Numbr Numbr Date (hour) (ft^3) (cfs) (cfs) (hours) (hours) ----.050E+04 .01 .25 48.02 58.01 4.-----.01 .01 .85 Module 44: Statistics Utility .11 25.25 9.00 68.97 12 12 0 850209 13.----.00 6 6 0 850117 15.----------1 1 0 850101 2.Solve the model by clicking on the Run button n the Utility menu.00 2 2 0 850106 18.958E+03 .00 8.00 .07 47.Page 2 .25 20.---------.25 12.01 .83 7 7 0 850124 2.41 .07 128.

Module 47: Water Quality Theory Sources of Storm Water Runoff 1. Highways (including parking lots and airports). µg/l Zn. mg/l COD. 1993) Pollutant TSS. mg/l Total Phosphorus.5-3 5-40 Highway Runoff 30-60 25-60 1-2 0. mg/l Total Nitrogen. Residential Areas 4. 1991) Oxygen Demand 3% Salinity 3% Toxics 3% Habitat Alteration 4% Sediment 22% Pesticides 1% Acidity 4% Pathogens 2% Nutrients 58% Module 47: Water Quality Theory – Page 1 . mg/l Pb. µg/l Urban Runoff 30-100 40-60 2 0. Industrial Areas 5. Roof Areas 3. Open Areas and Agricultural Areas Storm Water Runoff Concentrations (Mikkelson et al. percent 19 70 23 40 30 7 Attached to Suspended Solids. percent 75 50 70-80 30-40 70 30-40 Primary Types of Non-Point Source Pollution in Lakes in the United S tates (USDA. µg/l Cd.5 50-150 300-500 0.. µg/l Cu. 2.2-0.5 50-125 125-400 5-25 Roof Runoff 5-50 Less Less Less 10-100 100-1000 10-100 Atmospheric Deposition.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program (NURP) to provide a significant and reliable data source for assessing urban runoff. and examine the effectiveness of control practices in removing pollutants found in urban runoff. or EMC • EMC Washoff or Rating Curve Washoff 2. Dissolved Constituents: EMC. Metals attached to Solids: Potency Factors as shown in the dialog below.Matching Available Storm Water Quality Data to SWMM Methodologies XP-SWMM2000 Non-Point Source Water Quality Modeling options for metals are: 1. The NURP study was conducted from 1978 to 1983. The program’s objectives were to quantify the characteristics of urban runoff. assess the impacts of urban runoff on the water quality of receiving waters. Exponential Washoff 2. the U. Rating Curve. Multiple Storm Samples with Time Dynamics (Varying Dry Times) • Time dependent Buildup with Exponential Washoff The Nationwide Urban Runoff Program In 1978. Module 47: Water Quality Theory – Page 2 . 1. Locations of NURP projects across the nation are shown on the map on the following page. In doing so. an average of 28 storms for each of the 81 representative outfalls in 28 metropolitan areas was monitored. Storm water composite samples.S. Automatic Samplers or Storm Grab Samples • Rating Curve Washoff 3.

TN EPA NURP Project Name/Location Region Code V IL1 IL2 MI1 MI2 MI3 WI1 AR1 TX1 KS1 CO1 SD1 UT1 CA1 CA2 OR1 WA1 Champaign-Urbana. CO Rapid City. SD Salt Lake City. TX Kansas City. WI Little Rock AR Austin.300 storms monitored were analyzed for the following pollutants: Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) Total Copper Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) Total Lead Dissolved Phosphorus Total Phosphorus Nitrite plus Nitrate Nitrogen Total Zinc Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen Total Suspended Solids Module 47: Water Quality Theory – Page 3 . WA (Seattle Area) VI VII VIII III IV Storm samples from all of the 2. MD Tampa. NC Myrtle Beach. OR Bellevue. FL Winston-Salem. IL Lake Ellyn (Chicago Area) Lansing Michigan SEMCOG (Detroit Area) Ann Arbor. NH Long Island (Nassau and Suffolk Counties) Lake George Rochester WASHCOG (Washington DC Metropolitan Area) Baltimore. Utah Coyote Creek. CA Fresno. CA Springfield-Eugene. KS Denver. SC Knoxville.EPA NURP Project Name/Location Region Code I II MA1 MA2 NH1 NY1 NY2 NY3 DC1 MD1 FL1 NC1 SC1 TN1 Lake Quinsigamond (Boston Area) Upper Mystic (Boston) Durham. MI Milwaukee.

Samples from a limited number of storms were also analyzed for additional priority pollutants. mixed residential and commercial. Site Median Total P EMC Concentration Probability Density Functions for Different Land Uses Median Storm Water Pollutant Concentrations for all Sites by Land Use. From the analytical results. the Event Mean Concentration (EMC) – defined as the total constituent mass divided by the total runoff volume – for each of the above listed constituents was determined for runoff from residential. commercial. NURP Module 47: Water Quality Theory – Page 4 . and open/non-urban land uses.

TN 89 5. OH 80 5.5 21.5 15.0 Greensboro.3 3. AZ Rapid City. LA 77 6.1 Boston.0 7.4 Detroit.0 Minneapolis. SC 80 7. OH ___ ___ 81 6.0 Toledo.6 Gainesville.6 Davenport. OR Seattle.1 Canesville.9 Washington. NY 87 6.8 ___ 6.1 Mean Denver. CA Phoenix. UT Mean Portland. ME 80 6. MI 108 7. DC 77 6.1 4.6 Tampa.2 8. SD Salt Lake City.9 Memphis.0 Atlanta. FL 70 5. NY 79 7.7 Chicago. FL 62 5.9 New Orleans.0 Kingston.7 New York City. IL 72 5. MN 89 6. OH 93 3.7 Louisville. IA 57 4.8 Mineola. WA Mean 9.0 Steubenville.Average Storm and Time Between Storms for Selected Locations in the USA Location Average Annual Values in Hours Storm Duration Time Between Storm Midpoints 94 8. CO Oakland. IL 68 4.8 Caribou.5 Columbia.5 ___ 18. AL 68 6. SC 98 6. MA 55 5.1 Champaign-Urbana.5 144 320 286 127 133 ___ 202 83 101 ___ 92 Module 47: Water Quality Theory – Page 5 . GA 85 7. KY 89 6. NY 76 6.2 Birmingham.

Stormwater runoff characterization data 4. 4. Fecal Coliforms. 6. 1. system. Monitor 5 to 10 Outfalls identified in Part 1 of the NPOES Three storms at each outfall with 0. 3. illicit discharges. Sampled pollutants should include the following: Organic Pollutants. Fiscal analysis and information on funding sources. Fecal Streptococcus. EMC's are to be determined from flow weighted composite samples. NH3+ORGN. TP 5. Module 47: Water Quality Theory – Page 6 . Demonstration of adequate legal authority to control industrial discharge. 7. at least 72 hours of dry weather before the storm. enters into interagency agreements. A Stormwater Management Plan (SMP) for the first five-year permit. An estimate of annual stormwater loads for 12 constituents. 3. Identification of industrial discharges to municipal storm sewers. 2. Estimates of the pollutant loads reductions resulting from the SMP 9. application. 2. 8. Cyanide. Oil and Grease. pH. insure compliance. TDS. NPDES Part 2 Application Estimate the cumulative annual pollutant load for entire drainage 7. and conduct inspections.1 inch of rainfall. 6. Toxic Metals. A proposed follow-up monitoring program. and at least one month between collected storms.NPDES Sampling Program 1. BOD5 NO2+NO3. Total Phenols. TKN. Estimate annual load for each outfall. TSS. COD. 5. Develop a monitoring program to measure storm water discharges at representative outfalls. SRP. A schedule for providing loads and EMC's from all major outfalls.

Insufficient Discretization – Not enough data samples. Uncertainty of Water Quality Data 1.0 for Particulates A Washoff Exponent of 1.0 = constant concentration. 2. 4.e. 1993. 3.After Urbonas. Most STORM calibration procedures can be used in SWMM. Laboratory Analysis (error in measurement). Rating curve washoff parameters are best calculated from the total runoff and total load for many storm events Poff = RCOEF • WflowWashpo 3.0 means a constant concentration for every event. EMC is the mean of many (at least 3) storm events.0 for dissolved species (i.5-3. EMC is randomly generated from lognormal distribution at the start of each event. 5. 2. Sampling Procedures (representativity of sample. EMC Standard Deviation of 0. Buildup/Washoff Options Water Quality Data Analysis 1. Washoff Exponent is < 1. Washoff Exponent is 1. collection error). Module 47: Water Quality Theory – Page 7 . less concentration for higher flow).

4. 2.104 mg/sec Module 47: Water Quality Theory – Page 8 . Only need detailed pollutograph (concentration vs.104 Thus RCOEF = 88.Water Quality Data Analysis 1. How to Use a Rating Curve with Regression Data A log fit to the data with Q in cfs is (R2 = 0.3 Q1. flow and concentration measurements to have any confidence in water quality predictions. User needs local rain. Do not need detailed predictions of the time history of concentration during the storm event.9 Q1.81): C(mg/l) = 88.76Q0.3 = 2511. time) when evaluating the performance of control alternatives and the violation of acute water quality objectives.104 Rating Curve Equation is then L = 2511.3 l/cu-ft = =load = 88.76 x 28. Need adequate data for model usage – any model.104 Note: SWMM requires the load (mg/sec) vs. Need only calibrate and verify the total storm loads or event mean concentrations for receiving water impact prediction. What do we need to model? Need only total loads for most receiving water impacts. User needs to be familiar with generative quality mechanisms 3. cfs so: Q x C 28.9 and WASHPO = 1.76 x 28.

Module 47: Water Quality Theory – Page 9 .Buildup data reported by Sartor and Boyd Hypothetical buildup rates according to alternative buildup formulations.

1974). Simple to model. Not a good method for predicting dissolved species. 5.2) Pollutant Buildup has Three Functional Forms and Three Dependencies Potency Factors for Pollutants 1. 2. Predict TSS and connect all other constituents to the TSS prediction. Pollutants are associated with TSS by using potency factors or fractions. For example 5 percent of TSS is BOD5 3. Originated from STORM model (Roesner. 4. Basis of SWMM 2 Washoff – Remains in current versions of SWMM. Module 47: Water Quality Theory – Page 10 .

Page 1 . Module 48: Runoff Water Quality Example . Create a new file called WQEXAM1. Switch to the Runoff layer by selecting the “Rnf” icon on the toolstrip. Runoff water quality is used to generate the non point source (NPS) pollutant loads and also allows the simulation of catch basins. street sweeping and erosion.Module 48: Runoff Water Quality Example Synopsis This is an example tutorial showing the water quality features of the Runoff layer. Select “US Customary” units when prompted.XP.

Module 48: Runoff Water Quality Example . That data will be entered later after we have entered global databases.Now that the current layer is Runoff. select the node tool and digitize a node anywhere in the plan view. The attribute dialog will allow you to change the name of the node from the default to the name “Watershed”. Go to the Configuration menu and select Job Control.Page 2 . Then hold down the Shift key and click on Water Quality. Select the pointer tool and using a right-mouse click choose Attributes from the pop-up menu. Hold down the shift key while selecting the subcatchment flag and you will not have to enter that dialog and click the OK button. which represents an inlet in the Runoff layer. This will place a node. Before entering the pollutant data in the Global Database section of XP-SWMM2000 you must first activate the Water Quality Flag in the Runoff Job Control. After changing the name of the node double-click in order to enter the physical catchment data as shown below.

Select the Global Data from the Configuration menu. Infiltration. The Global Database is a subset of the . Use the data as shown in the dialogs below.Page 3 . Enter a commercial and residential landuse in the global data by entering a name in the small rectangular field and then selecting the add button. Module 48: Runoff Water Quality Example . Evaporation and Print Control to be set. We will start with the Landuse global data.The Job Control of Runoff requires Time Control. Buildup/Washoff and Pollutants. The bulk of the water quality data is entered in the Global Database. Landuse.XP file and must be populated for the simulation data Rainfall.

We will not be using this option and it is also not recommended since much more rigorous methods are available.After entering both then edit each of the land uses and select the okay button to initialize the record.Page 4 . The data in the Land Use record is only for the “Dust and Dirt” buildup method. Module 48: Runoff Water Quality Example . Edit each of the records and use the data as shown on the next page. Now enter an emc and rating curve Buildup/Washoff record to the Global Database.

Using a standard deviation other than zero allows the model to select a new EMC for each storm using a normal distribution. The Rating curve may or may not have a buildup limit.EMC data uses a mean concentration and a standard deviation. Rating Curve Washoff has its concentration based solely on the flow.Page 5 . Now we will add a Runoff Pollutant in the Global Database named TP. After the Pollutant is added edit it and select the units as shown below. Module 48: Runoff Water Quality Example .

Now that the water quality data is entered in the global database we need to make it available for this simulation. The flexibility of the Water Quality is SWMM is substantial since it allows a unique B/W for every pollutant and for each landuse.Connect the commercial landuse to the “emc” Buildup/Washoff (B/W) and the residential landuse to the “rating curve” B/W records by selecting the appropriate land use then the corresponding B/W record. Also the pollutants can have unique street sweeping efficiencies on each landuse. Module 48: Runoff Water Quality Example . To enable specific landuses and pollutants for our simulation we need to access the Pollutant and Landuse buttons in the Water Quality section of the Runoff Job Control. In addition it can be seen from the dialogs above that the pollutants can be linked to snowmelt and have unique concentrations in groundwater and precipitation.Page 6 .

Module 48: Runoff Water Quality Example .Return to the Global Database and enter the following infiltration and rainfall records.Page 7 .

Module 48: Runoff Water Quality Example . The last bit of information remaining to set up in the model is to assign the Global Database records to the node and give a landuse breakdown. Right-mouse clicking on the graph will allow it to be exported as a graphic into a report or the actual data can be exported as a list or table. To access the data for the node “Watershed” double-click on it.After entering the rainfall data shown below it can be graphed for verification.Page 8 . These Global database records are selected by: 1) clicking on the Global Database buttons then 2) picking the record and choosing the Select button from the Select dialog. Then double-click on the subcatchment flag to get to the Sub-Catchment dialog shown on the next page. which enters the selected record name on the button.

Page 9 .Module 48: Runoff Water Quality Example .

Solve the model by depressing the F5 key or clicking on the Space Shuttle icon on the Toolstrip.Page 10 .The model has all of its data now and can be solved. Lets first save the model then in the Configuration menu we can select the Mode Properties command and choose as the Solve mode either the current mode (which is Runoff) or deselect the Current mode check box and select the Runoff checkbox. At the completion of the “solve” right-mouse click on the node and select Review Results to see the detailed 1-month hydrograph and pollutograph. Module 48: Runoff Water Quality Example . If there are errors these must first be sorted out before being able to solve.

Page 11 . The spatial reports are then activated by selecting the Display button. Module 48: Runoff Water Quality Example . The report is already prepared and can be loaded by selecting the Load button as shown below.In order to see the spatial reports as shown on page 1 of this tutorial select the Spatial Reports tool from the Results menu. which takes you to the dialog on the next page.

To turn off the spatial reports select the Spatial Report Settings option from the Results menu then select Hide as opposed to Show.Page 12 . Module 48: Runoff Water Quality Example . The spatial report is shown below.Choose the Object filter as nodes. the object selection as whole network and then use the show button to turn the spatial reports on.

EXE – Page 1 . Locate the DD2XPSWMM. Convert the DDSWMM ASCII file by using the DD2XPSWMM. XP Software provides a conversion utility DD2XPSWMM. Make sure the node names match the names on the DDSWMM ASCII interface file before proceeding. Load the corresponding network DDSWMM_example. Module 51: Converting DDSWMM Interface Files with DD2XPSWMM.EXE Synopsis DDSWMM is a computer program based on SWMM Runoff and it computes the amount of flow captured by inlets and the amount of street flow or overland drainage.EXE file with Windows Explorer and double click on it to launch the application. A sample of the DDSWMM. This file is representative of the underground network that is fed by the inlet and overland flow system modeled in DDSWMM.Module 51: Converting DDSWMM Interface Files with DD2XPSWMM.EXE that converts the ASCII interface file from DDSWMM into the binary interface file. The node names in XP must match the names that are exported on the DDSWMM ASCII interface file in order for the flow to be transferred.TXT interface file is shown later in this module.XP in XP-SWMM2000 in the hydraulics layer.EXE converter.

By default the file will be the same name with the . Module 51: Converting DDSWMM Interface Files with DD2XPSWMM. Then select a file name for the generated binary interface file that can be used in XPSWMM2000.txt file. Double click on the file or click the file then the open button to select the file.INT for the extension is good convention.INT as the extension. Using the dialog controls navigate to the directory that contains the ddswmm.EXE – Page 2 . Select any appropriate name. using .The conversion utility will then ask for an input ASCII interface file that you wish to be converted.

The software will ask for the starting year.5 for 1:30 PM. Use the select button to navigate to the correct directory. and time in decimal hours such as 13. For this tutorial use 98. 0 to start the interface file at midnight January 1. 2 digit days or months with or without leading zeros from 1-9. This is because this version of the DDSWMM interface file does not contain these values but is sequential only with a constant time step. 01. Use the section “Read Existing File in Hydraulics Layer”. Go to the Configuration=>Interface Files menu to select the converted file. Double-click on the file or click the file then the open button to select the file. day and hour of the simulation. 01. month. 1998 to match the Job Control settings.EXE – Page 3 . The values can be entered as 2 or 4 digit years. Module 51: Converting DDSWMM Interface Files with DD2XPSWMM. These values need to match the simulation start date and time entered in the Hydraulics Job Control.

Module 51: Converting DDSWMM Interface Files with DD2XPSWMM. A hydrograph such as that shown below will indicate a successful read of the flows into the XP-SWMM model.EXE – Page 4 . The software will prompt with a dialog to save the results into.out. use the default name of DDSWMM_example. After solving the model right-mouse click on the link 10123 to view the results.Choose the F5 key or select the Analyze=>Solve menu item to route the flows in the hydraulics layer.

0000 68373. 98001 0...0000 0.0000 477 0...0000 0...0000 0.0000 0...0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0..0000 0.2902 1139....0000 hours Start date/time of the simulation was....0000 0....3202 2942..0000 0.9901 0..0000 0..0000 0.2902 1524..DDSWMM Initial Julian date (IDATEZ).8502 2215..31467 ######## Important Information ######## Start date/time of interface file was..0000 0.0000 0..0000 0.9401 856.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0. The column of interface file inflows is the flows read from the converted DDSWMM interface file..0 62 0 1. No.0000 0.0000 0.0601 2050. *===================================================* | Table E19 ..| *===================================================* Constant Inflow to Node ---------0.0000 0.0000 1430.... No..0902 924.0000 Junction Name ------109 111 113 115 119 121 123 127 789 9109 59 61 463 63 Outflow from Node ----------0.0000 0...0000 Interface Inflow to Node ----------1353.0000 0..0000 0..0000 0.0000 0..0000 0.7902 699.0000 474 0. 98001 0..0000 0.9372 0.0000 0.7002 1982...0000 0...0000 0. ########################################### # Header information from interface file: # ########################################### Title from first computational layer: Title from immediately preceding computational layer Name of preceding layer:. ..0000 0..Junction Inflow Sources | | Units are either ft^3 or m^3 | | depending on the units in your model..0000 331.0000 0..0000 475 0..0000 0..5763 0..0000 0. It lists all of the model inflows..0000 0. Transfered input locations.0070 0.0000 0..EXE – Page 5 ...0000 0.0000 hours Same date/time found in interface file and model Another confirmation of the reading of the flows is provided in the output file in table E19. Truncated list .7501 2711.0000 0..0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.. Transfered pollutants.7801 2628. It lists all of the model inflows points found on the interface file along with some other information.0000 Evaporation from Node ----------0.0000 0. 473 0....0000 0.0000 0.0000 0....0000 0. Size of total catchment area (acres).0000 1909..0000 Module 51: Converting DDSWMM Interface Files with DD2XPSWMM.8502 2930.0000 0....... Multiply by: 35.....0000 0.9201 1922..0000 0....0000 ..0000 0.0000 0...0000 0.0000 0.0000 0...6201 1042..7153 927...0000 0.0000 0.0000 0...0000 0..Confirmation of the reading of the flows is provided in the output file.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0..00 Conversion factor to cfs for flow units on interface file.0000 0.4801 DWF Inlow to Node ----------0.0000 0.0000 0...0000 0.....0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.4501 62032.0000 0..3702 1179.0000 0... Initial time of day in seconds (TZERO)..0000 476 0.0000 0..0000 0.0000 0..0000 0.0000 0.0000 User Inflow to Node ----------0.. ################################################# # Element numbers of interface inlet locations: # ################################################# 9109 123 89 9061 2305 275 472 9081 45 109 2123 85 8061 67 79 471 9051 9047 111 127 81 463 69 477 371 9305 49 113 2127 8081 63 9069 476 271 9515 355 115 789 9059 9063 71 475 171 51 155 119 3127 59 65 73 474 9171 53 9105 121 888 61 9065 75 473 9079 43 98001 0......0000 0.

512 8.010 0.495 0.077 0.139 0.000 0.011 0.040 0.173 0.000 0.3 17 0.297 0.000 0.620 8.127 0.422 0.081 0.026 0.028 0.0 0.032 0.137 0.229 0.515 0.100 0.0 0.TXT ASCII Interface File Module 51: Converting DDSWMM Interface Files with DD2XPSWMM.023 0.006 0.000 0.000 0.038 0.000 0.088 0.50 0 0.692 1.049 0.097 0.198 0 5400.640 1.106 0.017 0.051 0.337 0.0 300.535 0.000 0.000 0.000 81 8081 9059 59 65 9065 2305 67 79 477 476 475 171 9171 9079 90 81 45 9047 49 355 0.019 0.051 0 8100.000 0.007 0.115 0.535 0.007 0.0 300.238 0.375 0.019 0.535 0.000 0.174 0.042 0.055 0.013 0.016 0.048 0.056 0.127 0.000 0.317 0.140 0.011 0.535 0.046 0.000 0.0 0.297 0.138 0.561 8.284 0.025 0.158 0.000 0.129 0.535 0.098 0.158 0.281 0.495 0.199 0.119 0.011 0.238 0.051 0.0 300.416 0.013 0.019 0.015 0.115 0.139 0.35 7 0.317 0.059 0.0 0.045 .142 0 2400.620 8.0 0.031 0.070 0.019 0.238 0.220 0.000 0.115 0.515 0.000 0.000 0.338 0.199 0.158 0.0 300.097 0.120 0.495 0.000 0.535 0.033 0.028 0.317 0.057 0.0 300.0 0.416 0.007 0.190 0.216 0.010 0.357 0.000 0.031 0.081 0.317 0.158 0.219 0.080 0.000 0.041 0.009 0.740 2.000 0.000 0.139 0.071 0.026 0.248 0.500 0.026 0.000 0.0 0.062 0.000 0.416 0.107 0.377 0.021 0.099 0.000 0.0 0.000 0.022 0.173 0.297 0.080 0.066 0.017 0.495 0.080 0.202 0.515 0.620 8.000 0.055 0.069 0.199 0.053 0.212 0.175 1.016 0.0 0.495 0.530 0.000 0.357 0.424 0.0 0.158 1.EXE – Page 6 0.0 300.0 300.028 0.084 0.056 0.120 0.535 0.000 0.0 0.529 8.198 0 4500.0 57 0.0 0.101 0.0 300.0 300.000 0.297 0.056 0.326 0.000 0.000 0.158 0.013 0 9600.198 0 5100.063 0.098 0.0 300.011 0.430 1.158 0.099 0.025 0.000 0.043 0.000 0 900.000 0.0 0.000 0.238 0.195 0.009 0.515 0.087 0.000 0.000 0.011 0.078 0.120 0.120 0.124 0.034 0.406 0.0 0.238 0.139 0.482 2.038 0.184 0.171 0.238 0.035 0.535 0.000 0.156 0.297 0.535 0.370 0.017 0.011 0.257 0.317 0.158 0.017 0.120 0.316 0.053 0.113 0.292 0.495 0.0 31 0.297 0.238 0.041 0.343 0.297 0.202 0.092 0.297 0.264 0.000 0.360 0.241 0.317 0.0 0.076 0 7800.416 0.000 0.0 300.208 0.190 0.207 0.238 0.364 0.317 0.199 0.216 0.495 0.019 0.133 0 3600.000 0.158 0.014 0.025 0 8700.000 0.0 300.495 0.199 0.158 0.515 0.000 0.587 8.0 0.060 0.238 0.013 0.035 0.522 5.032 0.095 0.088 0.139 .000 0.198 0 6300.026 0.002 0.297 0.000 0.000 0.199 0.512 8.0 0.034 0.028 0.083 0.000 0.158 0.000 0.317 0.061 0.055 0.011 0.198 0 6600.120 0.158 0.0 300.000 0.002 0.179 0.535 0.016 0.120 0.593 3.222 0.286 0.297 0.009 0.301 0.512 8.071 0.673 0.000 0.040 0.120 0.0 300.003 0.006 0.0 00 0.158 0.158 0.000 0.072 0.056 0.099 0.337 0.198 0 7200.139 0.317 0.072 0.084 0.0 300.173 0.000 0.257 0.198 0 6000.074 0.535 0.000 0.099 0.000 0.000 0.0 300.008 0.041 0.0 0.0 0.000 0.119 0.021 0.000 0.216 0.013 0 10500.254 0.011 0.000 0.515 0.016 0.000 0.342 0.087 0.535 0.023 0.0 300.000 0.620 8.158 0.620 8.317 0.000 0.000 0.127 0.297 0.310 0.317 0.000 0 1200.107 0.378 0.048 0.238 0.036 0.535 0.047 0.230 0.297 0.357 0.147 0.000 0.495 0.119 0.026 0.11 1 0.238 0.317 0.023 0.095 0.096 0.011 0.098 0.069 0.0 300.000 0.247 0.119 0.013 0 10200.238 0.297 0.238 0.257 0.238 0.495 0.060 0.219 0.048 0.257 0.020 0.006 0.0 300.125 0.068 0.0 0.238 0.311 0.024 0.000 0.200 0.034 0.095 0.139 0.000 0.086 0.011 0.000 0.048 0.248 0.303 0. 158 0.031 0.064 0.158 0.091 0.620 8.257 0.0 300.416 0.0 0.238 0.127 0.002 0.018 0.011 0.535 0.099 0.0 300.000 0.000 0.160 0 4200.148 0.083 0.163 0.0 300.040 0.141 0.0 300.045 0.0 300.000 0.000 0.040 0.006 0.020 0.0 300.093 0.250 0.495 0.238 0.0 0.011 0.139 0.082 0 2100.008 2127 789 3127 888 89 85 61 9061 8061 463 63 9063 69 9069 71 73 75 275 474 473 472 471 371 271 9051 9305 9515 51 53 43 155 9105 35.054 0.257 2.018 0.357 0.004 0.199 0.222 0.030 0.013 0.542 8.042 0.020 0.216 0.535 0.416 0.011 0.416 0.099 0.120 0.012 0.257 0.325 0.495 0.000 0.620 8.0 300.000 0.004 0 1500.059 0.013 0 9900.069 0.158 0.000 0.199 0.071 0.000 0.031 0.039 0.270 8.009 0.158 0.000 0.000 0.534 0.056 0.238 0.123 0.012 0.156 0.840 0.238 0.000 0.740 2.205 0.000 0.077 0.058 0.188 0.002 0.158 0.119 0.039 0.017 0.139 0.119 0.0 300.297 0.Truncated DDSWMM.015 0.000 0.017 0.257 0.0 300.152 0 7500.000 0.0 0.0 300.000 0.317 0.092 0.0 0.000 0.108 0.020 0.628 2.130 0.238 0.081 0.019 0 9000.000 0.120 0.257 0.080 0.006 0.100 0.087 0.113 0.179 0.515 0.258 0.260 0.000 0.0 0.01 1 0.238 0.025 0.004 0.297 0.027 0.024 0 1800.015 0 9300.515 0.012 0.039 0.158 0.0 0.000 0.282 0.014 0.198 0 4800.0 0.199 0.082 0.056 0.009 0.014 0.000 0.158 0.255 0.198 0 6900.099 0.000 0.139 0.036 0.000 0.120 0.317 0.035 0.442 0.416 0.000 0.317 0.129 0.066 0.099 0.056 0.000 0.132 0 2700.357 0.000 0.515 0.120 0.0 0.020 0.495 0.000 0.000 0.027 0.000 0.158 0.000 0.099 0.454 0.004 0.000 0.122 0 .514 8.0 0.560 8.033 0.102 0.000 0.495 0.092 0.019 0.357 0.257 0.297 0.134 0 3000.034 0.000 0.000 0.298 0.018 0.016 0.099 0.009 0.028 0.000 0.257 0.274 0.144 0.261 0.199 0.091 0.013 0.214 0.166 0.740 2.357 0.008 0.124 0.009 0.070 0.058 0.115 0.320 3.109 0.094 0.025 0.0 300.343 0.059 0.735 4.126 0.007 0.390 0 0.916 1.035 0.0 0.038 0.197 0.099 0.0 300.000 0.495 0.0 300.317 0.000 0.000 0.011 0.0 0.535 0.000 0 0.025 0.0 0.297 0.342 0. 15 0 0.0 300.152 0.011 0.257 0.158 0.238 0.416 0.238 0.317 0.023 0.119 0.093 0.495 0.198 0 5700.011 0.000 0.238 0.094 0.011 0.535 0.108 0.238 0.017 0.056 0.317 0.062 0.000 0.117 0.133 0 3300.297 0.000 0.515 0.025 0.238 0.100 0.120 0.000 0.000 0.416 0.138 0.067 0.000 0 .123 0.0 300.141 0.217 0.158 0.088 0.000 0.080 0.020 0.119 0.089 0.313 0.495 0.158 0.012 0.000 0.117 0.022 0.410 0.535 0.147 0 3900.000 0 600.449 0.000 0.0 0.0 0.020 0.031 0.000 .065 0.000 0.158 0.000 0.022 0.0 300.298 0.000 0.175 0.007 0.158 0.249 0.0 0.046 0.247 0.024 0.000 0.595 2.000 0.115 0.126 0.020 0.000 0.000 0 300.101 0.009 0.010 0.020 0.495 0.126 0.357 0.031 0.000 0.238 0.000 0.126 0.620 8.010 0.000 0.432 0.062 4.000 0.620 8.058 0.000 0.297 0.029 0.0 0.035 0 8400.017 0.026 0.495 0.007 0.139 0.535 0.216 0.234 6.317 0.101 0.312 0.620 8.202 0.268 0.0 300.099 0.104 0.105 0.007 0.31467 0 0.740 2.000 0.535 0.000 0.004 0.011 0.344 0.163 0.106 0.520 8.242 0.033 0.000 0.238 0.297 0.096 0.410 0.157 0.120 0.232 0.

Runoff in excess of the 5-yr rainfall is conveyed in the major drainage system typically consisting of street cross sections.XP to explore the methods employed to model a French drain. Module 54: A Method for Modeling French Drains – Page 1 . The interstices between the stones serve as a passageway for water. Load the file FRENCH_DRAINS. the largest stones being placed in the bottom with the size of stones decreasing towards the top.Module 54: A Method for Modeling French Drains Synopsis A French Drain is a trench loosely backfilled with stones. A typical objective would be to detain runoff from up to the six-month storm event in the French drain and storm water runoff between the six-month event and the five-year event is stored in a detention basin. A perforated conduit usually travels the length of the drain to transmit the flow from the manholes and catchbasins and then throughout the trench. swales and ditches. Solve the model and follow this tutorial to see the results.

The French drain is modeled by using two conduits in the multilink. It has a height equal to the trench height. which are displayed as dashed lines. The French drain is contained in the multilinks. The conduit also is given a very high Manning’s roughness to retard the flow and represent the energy losses through the voids. The second link is a rectangular conduit representing the rock filled trench. diameter and length equal to those of the perforated conduit in the French drain. Its width however is adjusted to be equal to the porosity of the trench times the trench width. and a length equal to the trench length. The first conduit named Perf1 is a circular conduit with inverts. Module 54: A Method for Modeling French Drains – Page 2 . This ensures that the trench has the right storage volume.As can be seen in the screen capture on the previous page the French drain system travels parallel the length of the street then down a steep hillside to a detention pond.

The invert elevations for the conduits and junctions are the key for it to function properly. A natural channel could be selected if a trapezoid is not suitable for example if the geometry is not simple. This forces the water to be impounded up to a level equal to the invert of the perforated pipe. Module 54: A Method for Modeling French Drains – Page 3 . The third and final conduit is a trapezoid. It is only the perforated conduit that penetrates the manhole. This stepping of the inverts is shown in the picture below. and would require engineering judgment for their selection and they should also be calibrated whenever possible. Therefore the invert of the downstream trench is raised up a height equal to the distance from the invert of the perforated pipe to the trench bottom. By selecting the fourth and fifth links then selecting the Dynamic Long Section tool from the Results menu easily view this. which is used to represent the street or overland flow pathways when the trench and perforated conduit are surcharged.These two adjustments to the width and the roughness are estimates only. The perforated conduit is above the invert of the conduit for the trench.

There is no flow in the street at this flow rate. It is shown on the next page matching the view above. Notice that the perforated conduit is surcharged and the depth in the trench is about half full. The magenta line is the maximum HGL at any time. Use the plot radio button in the multilink dialog to change to a different conduit. Module 54: A Method for Modeling French Drains – Page 4 . The dynamic long section tool now includes a window for the dynamic cross section. Although each section of the French drain model has all three conduit types only one conduit per section can be shown at one time.Selecting the first three lengths and then using the Dynamic long section shows in the first link the perforated pipe in the second the trench and then the street section. Rerunning the model at a higher flow rate will cause the French drain to surcharge and there will be flow predicted in the street. the brown line is the ground surface and the gray lines are the crown and invert levels.

The peak flow is much less because of the volume stored in the French drain and also the high losses throughout the trench.Return to the network and right-mouse click to select the link “L4” and choose Review Results. Although there is a total combined peak flow from all upstream catchments to this point of 93 l/s the combined routed peak at this point is only about 45 l/s. The flows in all conduits will be shown in time series. Module 54: A Method for Modeling French Drains – Page 5 .

See the end of this module for instruction on editing the rainfall. Flows in excess of this are discharged. The French drain is very effective at capturing small flows and recharging the groundwater table. weirs and culverts or can be simply modeled as a rating curve outfall. The stage-storage relationship of the pond is entered in the Storage section of the hydraulics node. Now we have street flow. Another goal of this French drain system is to store the 6-month to the 5-year storm flow in the downstream detention pond. The peak flow in the street is almost 300 l/s. Module 54: A Method for Modeling French Drains – Page 6 . The detention pond and its outlet structure should be sized so that up to the 5-year is stored in the pond.Now rerun the model with a new total rainfall depth of 100 mm instead of the existing 50 mm and review results on link “L4”. Double-click on the node “N8” to see both the Outfall and Storage flags checked. The Outlet structure can be modeled as a series of orifices.

Storage: Is entered as depth from the invert and area in hectares.Double-clicking on both the Storage and the outfall buttons will take you to the dialogs shown below. Outfall: Is flow in m3/s vs. elevation Module 54: A Method for Modeling French Drains – Page 7 .

This indicates that the storage is insufficient and or the outlet structure is under designed. Choose the record type of “(R) Rainfall” then edit the SCS Type II rainfall record.The resulting hydrographs (stage vs. Enter 50 or 100 as the multiplier in the constant Time Interval dialog. In the case of the 100 mm storm the level in the pond reaches its banks and overflows. The rainfall can be edited in the Global database. which is found by selecting Global Database from the Configuration menu. time) for the nodes is shown above for the 50 mm and 100 mm storms. Module 54: A Method for Modeling French Drains – Page 8 . Since the rainfall data is cumulative depth to 1 mm the multiplier can be used to insert the appropriate depth for a given return period.

Module 55: Offline Storage with Real Time Control Regulator Synopsis In this module we will look at a Runoff – Hydraulics (EXTRAN) surface pond system with a regulator that will control the flow in a conduit based on the depth of water at node “upper pond” This model depicts a method of controlling water levels in sensitive offline storage facilities such as wetlands. This data can be viewed by doubleclicking on the nodes “Upstream” and “Upper Pond” and on the selected subcatchment buttons.XP in your work directory. The two subcatchments have four physical parameters. Module 55: Offline Storage with Real Time Control Regulator – Page 1 . Open up the file Offline-Storage. The Runoff and Hydraulics layers are connected together with an interface file. and are connected to two global databases for rainfall and infiltration. use the EPA Runoff Hydrology. There are two subcatchments in the Runoff layer at nodes “Upstream” and “Upper Pond”.

The regulator will control the flow down the regulator link dependent on the depth of water in node. Click on the “Hyd” icon to move to the Hydraulics layer of XP-SWMM2000. Double-click on the Special conduit in the first row to look at the regulator. The same named interface file should be entered in the “Read Existing File in Hydraulics Layer”. Module 55: Offline Storage with Real Time Control Regulator – Page 2 . A regulator is defined in a multi-link under the Special list of conduits. The two flow time series will be read by Hydraulics and routed through the open and closed conduit network shown in the network. The low flow will be diverted down the conduit diversion to the Upper pond and Lower pond storage nodes.The interface file from the Runoff layer is named as the “Create New File in Runoff Layer” section of the Interface File dialog. This dialog is accessed under the Configuration menu in the interface. Two locations will be saved to the Runoff interface file. these are nodes “Upper Pond” and “Upstream”. The regulator in a row modifies the behavior of a conduit in that row.

In the above table until the depth of water in node “Upper Pond” exceeds 8 feet there will be no flow in conduit “rcp”. Module 55: Offline Storage with Real Time Control Regulator – Page 3 . Notice the time that the water surface elevation in “Upper Pond” is above 746 ft.The regulator data is set up in the following way: A table of depth versus flow multiplier is entered in the data fields. This leaves a maximum 1 foot of bounce (difference between control and the maximum water surface elevation) before the regulator will open. You can see the influence of the regulator and the delayed hydrograph through the two ponds. This is the same time frame that there is flow in “rcp” as we would expect from our rule in the regulator. Also note that “Upper Pond” is initialized at a depth of 7 feet. A multiplier of zero means that no flow will go through conduit “rcp”. Solve the model and look at the results using Review Results.

Next use the long section icon and look at the long section plot. The long section plot can only show straight runs of links. Module 55: Offline Storage with Real Time Control Regulator – Page 4 . Experiment and try to zoom in on the center section of the network. To accomplish this you could highlight the whole model and then using the shift key and the left mouse button deselect link “regulator”. You can see the dead storage in the two ponds.Highlight the “Upstream” through “Outlet” set of conduits.

| *==========================================================* Conduit -------Main Diversion Up Outlet Low Outlet Cont rcp control The conduit The conduit The conduit consecutive Time(exp) --------23.0 0.99 3000.53 9..00 with with with time Expl*Cmin Time(imp) --------..013 0....00 3000.49 11.56 5.99 28. or change the conduit name to | | "CHME?????" where ????? are any characters. Maximum possible is 10 * maximum time step | | | | The 5th column is the maximum change at any time step | | during the simulation...00 Time(min) --------110..98 16.397 1.494 -9.0 Max Qchange Wobble ----------...965 0...0 865.39 10. | | not the value listed in modify conduits.508 35.07 34.... The 6th column is the wobble | | value which is an indicator of the flow stability.91 66....53 3000.0 645.52 18. *==========================================================* | Table E5a .529 0.067 0.16 16.895 1.An important table in the output file is Table E5a. The conduit in the above table with the most control over the internal time step is link “Up Outlet”...52 32. which lists the internal time step for each conduit during the simulation......0 0.Diversion the largest flow change in any step....Up Outlet the largest wobble was....000 Type of Soln -----------Normal Soln Normal Soln Normal Soln Normal Soln Normal Soln Normal Soln Normal Soln the smallest time step limitation was..91 11.53 10.....000 0.0 0..07 5... this will | | lengthen the conduit based on the model time step.-------4.. Use modify conduits to | | alter the length of the slow conduits to make your | | simulation faster....0 0... | | | | You should use this section to find those conduits that | | are slowing your model down.98 18.504 0.--------23.Conduit Explicit Condition Summary | | Courant = Conduit Length | | Time step = -------------------------------| | Velocity + sqrt(g*depth) | | | | Conduit Implicit Condition Summary | | Courant = Conduit Length | | Time step = -------------------------------| | Velocity | *==========================================================* | The 3rd column is the Explicit time step times the | | minimum courant time step factor | | | | Minimum Conduit Time Step in seconds in the 4th column | | in the list.775 154..53 32...066 1...Cont Module 55: Offline Storage with Real Time Control Regulator – Page 5 ..803 -1.

Module 55: Offline Storage with Real Time Control Regulator – Page 6 . The selection of the time step factor should be based in the overall continuity error and the model efficiency. A low efficiency and low continuity error means that the model will run faster if the courant time step factor is increased.The internal time step is controlled by the minimum courant time step factor. This model will run faster if the courant time step factor is 2 or 3.

Module 56: Typical Runoff–Hydraulics Surface Pond with Weir/Orifice Outlet Structure – Page 1 . The weir and orifice are always located in a multi-link conduit.XP from your work directory to start this module. Open up the file SURFACEPOND. In this case we are examining an outlet structure with weirs and orifices in parallel.Module 56: Typical Runoff–Hydraulics Surface Pond with Weir/Orifice Outlet Structure Synopsis In this module we will connect a Runoff layer inlet to a small Hydraulics layer network with one storage pond a weir and orifice outlet from the storage pond. There is a weir and orifice in series connecting the storage node to the node junction.

The storage node is a variable storage area with a total area of 4 acres and at a depth of 5 feet.The orifice is a circular side outlet orifice with an area of 0.5 ft2 and has an invert of 9. It’s length is actually the perimeter of the top of the riser structure. The weir data is shown above for the weir in the multi-link.5 ft as shown above. Module 56: Typical Runoff–Hydraulics Surface Pond with Weir/Orifice Outlet Structure – Page 2 .

To see just the weir and the orifice only highlight the weir & orifice link. Hydrographs can be generated for reports from XP-SWMM2000 in the output file as a table that will summarize the inflow. The model will print at the summary interval defined in the output control located in the Hydraulics layer job control. Module 56: Typical Runoff–Hydraulics Surface Pond with Weir/Orifice Outlet Structure – Page 3 . The weir has flow only during the middle of the storm event. The total flow through the reach is a combination of the weir and orifice when the two are in parallel.Solve the model and review the flows. and storage of a node. outflow. You get this output table if you select “Detail Printout” in a Hydraulics node.

95 10.1922E+06 Inflow -----27.1062E+060.04 Module 56: Typical Runoff–Hydraulics Surface Pond with Weir/Orifice Outlet Structure – Page 4 .1157E+060.1174E+060.1134E+060.940.26 31.16 21.9459E+050.930.1147E+060.13 9.94 10.830.00 Junction:Pond A1 Elevation Depth Totl Area Node Area Volume ------------.1838E+06 2.1079E+06 2.8914E+050.236 5.1180E+060.890.87 30.10 29.1137E+060.1094E+060.93 10.54 30.1972E+06 2.1145E+060.51 16.--------10.41 33.93 10.50 15.1131E+060.1967E+06 2.00 Max Crown Elevation: 15. the volume of a node.07 10.551 Outflow ------1.1196E+060. ( feet) | *=======================================================* Time Hr:Mn:Sc -------12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Max Ground Elevation: 15. G.1142E+060.1251E+06 2.44 10.1728E+06 2.18 23.89 10.1045E+060.--------.63 28.83 10.1141E+060.151 10.1012E+060.23 17.1187E+060.1185E+060.73 10.1187E+060.--------.1112E+060.600.730.02 33.1589E+06 2.22 34. Search for “Max Ground Elevation”.90 2.1948E+06 2.99 11. *=======================================================* | T i m e H i s t o r y o f t h e H. L.1428E+06 2.91 32.950.950.35 25.260.19 12.1192E+060. the inflow and outflow of a node.Shown below is the output table in Hydraulics that contains the area of a node.1146E+060.1976E+06 2.60 10.1910E+06 2.9987E+050.440.73 20.1083E+060.1148E+060.04 28.930.95 10.07 31.23 30.1952E+06 2.900.070.26 10.

Module 57: All Three Layers Surface Pond System. In order for the flows to pass from the Runoff layer to any other layer an interface file must be created. We will learn how to use the design option in Hydraulics. how to model a storage node in Sanitary. This interface file will contain one location: the node “Catchment” in the runoff layer as it is the only active object and also it is a terminating end point with no immediate downstream active object. and the difference between a storage node in Sanitary and a storage node in Hydraulics.XP and going to the Runoff layer by clicking on the “Rnf” icon in the toolstrip at the top of the interface. These interface files are designated in the Interface File dialog accessed from the Configuration menu as is shown on the next page.int) that will go to the Hydraulics layer.Page 1 . The Runoff layer will save automatically any end of the network to the interface file.int) and create a new interface file (combinedflows. Sanitary will read this interface file (wetweather.Module 57: All Three Layers Surface Pond System Synopsis In this module we will connect a Runoff inlet (node) to both the Sanitary layer and the Hydraulics layer of XPSWMM2000. Start by loading the ALL3LAYERS.

Page 2 . Module 57: All Three Layers Surface Pond System. This was the file created by the Sanitary layer of XP-SWMM2000 and includes the wet weather inputs from Runoff and the dry weather flows generated by the Sanitary layer as one combined hydrograph.int to drive the network. We will save only the node “Catchment” to the interface file that goes to the Hydraulics layer. Hydraulics will read the file combinedflows.The Sanitary layer will only save to the interface file those locations designated by the user in the “Create New File in Runoff Layer”. This checkbox is shown below for the Sanitary node “Catchment”.

The Hydraulics layer of the model will route the interface file flows from the Sanitary layer to the outfall node. A significant difference between the results of Sanitary and Hydraulics in this model is due to the storage pond area and storage pond routing differences in both layers. pumped flow. area in ft2 or m2. In Sanitary the flows have to be specified either as a direct outflow. Module 57: All Three Layers Surface Pond System.Page 3 . or power function flow and are not subject to external backwater effects. The area in a Sanitary storage node is entered as rows of depth. The data in a Hydraulics storage node is entered as a series of depth and area (acres or hectares) values in the stepwise linear data dialog in the storage node dialog. and the outflow from the node in cfs or cms. This is very different from a Hydraulics storage node where the outflow from the node is based on the depth of water at the upstream and downstream end of the diversion or conduit leaving the storage node.

Notice that the flow in the second conduit is only 8 cfs because of the outflow restriction in the storage node. The peak flow should be about 110 cfs.Solve the model and review the results of the Runoff layer node labeled “Catchment” to view the surface runoff hydrograph. This was entered in the column as Direct Outflow. Module 57: All Three Layers Surface Pond System. Review the flow in the two conduits of the Sanitary layer.Page 4 .

0 6. It can also be imported as an XPX file at a later time. as it is stored on the disk.750 2.0 6.0 27.0 inches inches inches inches inches inches inches inches inches /* Hydraulic design routine final results.0 18.0 6.0 30.0 3.0000 The above data was also saved to file all3layers. Module 57: All Three Layers Surface Pond System. Open the output file to view the program’s modifications to the conduit “pipe” Increase Increase Increase Increase Increase Increase Increase Increase Increase diameter diameter diameter diameter diameter diameter diameter diameter diameter of of of of of of of of of conduit conduit conduit conduit conduit conduit conduit conduit conduit pipe pipe pipe pipe pipe pipe pipe pipe pipe by by by by by by by by by 3.000 2.500 3.des and was created by invoking the design option for the downstream conduit.0 42.0 */ inches inches inches inches inches inches inches inches inches to to to to to to to to to 1.500 1.0 3.0 24.0 21.0 36.0 3. DATA DEEP "pipe" 0 1 4.0 3.250 1.000 feet feet feet feet feet feet feet feet feet or or or or or or or or or 15.0 3.000 3.0 48.Page 5 .500 4.Notice the difference when you review the results of the flow in the two Hydraulics conduits. This file is automatically imported at the end of the run and updates all designed conduits.250 2.

It does not optimize the design by allowing a certain level of surcharge but rather it increases pipe sizes to eliminate the surcharge.The design algorithm only increases the conduit’s “DEEP” parameter (diameter for circular) by nominal pipe size increments.Page 6 . Module 57: All Three Layers Surface Pond System.

Since XP-SWMM2000 (Version 7) this parameter is automatically employed when a fixed backwater outfall without a tide gate is employed.Module 58: Hydraulics Layer Quick Flow and Stability Synopsis The purpose of this tutorial is to examine the effect of internal boundary conditions and backwater effects on upstream conduits. This is a system that is 500 meters long. Module 58: Hydraulics Layer Quick Flow and Stability– Page 1 . a peak of 1 cms enters the model at node 1. We will look at a simple Hydraulics model consisting of 6 nodes and 5 circular conduits. Load the file QUICKQ1. The inflow at node 6 starts later and has a peak flow of 30 cms. We will use the long-section capability of XP-SWMM2000 to see snapshots of the water surface profile during the course of the simulation. 2 meters in diameter and has two inflow points: node 1 and node 6. In this case the model is initialized so that the water surface at the beginning of the run is set to the fixed backwater throughout the entire network. The inflow at node 1 begins before the flow at node 6 and has a peak flow of 1 cms. and a peak of 30 cms enters the model at node 6. There are two inflow nodes. In earlier versions of XP-SWMM users could initialize the whole model to an elevation of 87 meters. The larger inflow at node 6 will be seen to have a significant impact on the conduits upstream of node 6. which equals the fixed backwater condition at outfall node 10 by employing the configuration parameter ZREF=87.XP from your work directory. Using a tide gate would not allow the model to be automatically initialized.

All points below this level are immediately inundated.Below is the water surface elevation at the beginning of the simulation. The automatic initialization has filled up the network to an elevation of 87 meters. At the beginning of the run the conduits are filling up to the constant flow from node “1” of 1 cms. In this instance the conduits are not surcharged an are flowing at much less than capacity. Module 58: Hydraulics Layer Quick Flow and Stability– Page 2 .

the conduits are under surcharge because of backwater effects. Even though flow is less than capacity and is still 1 cms. The inflow will eventually peak at 30 cms. The effect to this point has been to increase the depth at node 6. This causes a reverse flow in conduit 7 due to the negative hydraulic grade line.The inflow at node 6 has begun. The inflow at node 6 has caused the upstream conduits to surcharge. Module 58: Hydraulics Layer Quick Flow and Stability– Page 3 .

The conduits are no longer surcharged. Expanding the time series plot for conduit 3 shows the reverse flows and the effects of conduit storage. The magenta line on the graphs shows the peak elevation during the simulation.The flow upstream of node 6 is now 1 cms since all of the water has drained from the conduits. Module 58: Hydraulics Layer Quick Flow and Stability– Page 4 .

Since orifices can allow reverse flow. In this network the connection between the road surface and the sub surface conduits is modeled as an orifice. The inflow comes into nodes inflo1.XP to work with this example dataset.Module 59: Major/Minor or Dual Drainage Synopsis This module shows one method of modeling a major-minor (dual drainage) system in the Hydraulic layer of XP-SWMM2000. This allows us to restrict the flow just as the inlet would restrict the flow captured to the storm sewer. inflo2. Module 59: Major/Minor or Dual Drainage – Page 1 . the streets can also be flooded by the HGL in the pipes as it would in the real world through the catchbasin connection. (2) an orifice connection between the road and pipe sections and (3) a pipe subsurface network. Load the file MOD59. The network consists of three sections: (1) an overland road section. inflo3 and inflo4.

Each of the orifice’s have the same geometry. Module 59: Major/Minor or Dual Drainage – Page 2 . The road sections data is similar to the GR line data in HEC-2. The orifice is modeled with the parameter ORFULL so that only the full orifice flow will be allowed in the orifice equivalent conduit. The road sections are natural (HEC-2) channels with three roughness values.The inlet or grate data is entered as an orifice in the multi-conduit dialog. The orifice or grate data is shown below.

Module 59: Major/Minor or Dual Drainage – Page 3 . The maximum depth of the natural channel is either calculated from the data as a difference in the max and min values.You can graph the section coordinates.

Module 59: Major/Minor or Dual Drainage – Page 4 . This scenario is outlined in Workshop Example 1. In a normal Hydraulics simulation without the orifice all of the flow would go into the subsurface conduits until the hydraulic grade line reached the road elevation. An alternative to modeling the connection as orifices is to use the “Inlet Capacity” functions of XPSWMM2000 in the Hydraulics layer and simulate the two conduits (street and pipe) in multi-conduits. The flow starts in the road before the hydraulic grade reaches the road elevation because the orifice blocks the flow into the subsurface conduits. A manhole can accept any amount of water. orifice 3 and orifice 4.Highlight the whole model and then holding down the shift key and the clicking with the left mouse button unhighlight orifice 2. After solving the network use the long section icon and look at the flow in the two sections of the network.

Page 1 . The seepage losses will be simulated using a power function equation connecting the storage node to an outfall node. Load the model MOD62. The “seepage” conduit is an “other” conduit in the special dialog list in multi-conduits.XP.Module 62: Modeling Seepage Losses Synopsis In this module we will learn a method to model seepage losses from a storage node in the Hydraulics layer. Module 62: Modeling Seepage Losses.

Factor #1 should be called “function”.100 0.000 0.--------1 0. and the type number must be 5000.Page 2 .000 Point Data Data Data Data No.1 and Column3=2 ===================================================== Input Information for functional channels seepage ===================================================== Equation: 0.Column2* ZdnColumn4 And in this case: Q = 0.000 0.100 ** 2. Column Column Column Column # 1 # 2 # 3 # 4 -------------------.000 ** 0. The power function equation is entered on line 1 to activate the seepage conduit.1 * Zup2 where. The equation for function conduits is Q=Column1* ZupColumn3.000 Solve the model and review the flow in the seepage conduit and the output table from the output file with the data for the power function conduit shown above. Q is the flow Zup = Upstream depth Column1=0.000 2. Module 62: Modeling Seepage Losses.

The seepage losses will be simulated using a power function equation connecting the storage node to an outfall node. Module 63: Hydraulics Groundwater Connection.XP.Module 63: Hydraulics Groundwater Connection Synopsis In this module we will learn a method to model seepage losses from a storage node in the Hydraulics layer that are connected to an outfall representing the groundwater table. The “seepage” conduit is an “other” conduit in the special dialog list in multi-conduits. Load the file MOD63.Page 1 .

Factor #1 should be called “function”. Solve the model and review the flow in the seepage conduit and the output table from the output file with the data for the power function conduit shown above. The equation for function conduits is Q=Column1* ZupColumn3. The power function equation is entered on line 1 to activate the seepage conduit. Module 63: Hydraulics Groundwater Connection.1 Column 2=0.1 * Zup2 where. and the type number must be 5000.Column2* ZdnColumn4 And in this case: Q = 0. Q is the flow Zup = Upstream depth Column1=0.05 Column3=2 and Column 4=2. The flow is negative because of the downstream boundary condition.Page 2 .

Module 64: Hydraulics Layer Weirs. There is one weir in each multi-link dialog. Each weir in the network is 2 feet long. Some large wetland areas have been modeled in this fashion.Page 1 . We will have submerged and reverse flow through the weirs. with a weir crest elevation of 12 feet and a weir top of 15 feet.Module 64: Hydraulics Layer Weirs Synopsis This module shows a interconnected pond example with all of the interconnections as weirs.

00 2.5000 Module 64: Hydraulics Layer Weirs.1000 1.00 5.5000 2.00 5.00 5.00 5.5000 2.1000 1.----------.---------.---------WEIR#1 Duckpond 202 WEIR#2 202 205 WEIR#3 205 Duckpond WEIR#4 202 207 WEIR#5 207 203 WEIR#6 203 204 WEIR#7 204 206 WEIR#8 206 203 WEIR#9 203 202 WEIR#10 205 207 WEIR#11 207 206 Type ---1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Crest Height(ft) ---------1.00 5.00 5.00 Weir Discharge Weir Length(ft) Coefficient Power ---------.00 1. *===========================================* | Weir Data | *===========================================* Weir From To Name Junction Junction --------.00 5.00 3.Solve the model and look at the flow out of the pond ducks.00 3.1000 1.00 Weir Top(ft) ------5.5000 2.00 5.5000 2.1000 1.00 5.5000 2.5000 2.00 3.00 5.00 3. The flow in the weir is converted to flow in an orifice when the US elevation reaches the crown or top of the weir entered in the weir data dialog.Page 2 .00 3.00 2.00 2.1000 1.00 2.1000 1.5000 2. One weir has positive flow and the other weir has negative flow.00 3.00 1.5000 2.-------2.00 3.1000 1.00 3.5000 2.00 3.00 2.1000 1.1000 1.1000 1.00 1.5000 2.00 3.1000 1.00 2.00 2.00 3.

Module 65: Hydraulics Layer Orifice – Page 1 . Load the model ALLORF. to restrict flow to the orifice equation estimate.XP. Each orifice is a rectangular side outlet with a discharge elevation of 13 feet. The orifice data is always located in the multi-conduit dialog.Module 65: Hydraulics Layer Orifice Synopsis In this case orifices and not weirs connect all of the ponds. This module demonstrates how to model orifices and the meaning of the configuration parameter ORFULL.

5396 4.5396 4.5163 55.5396 4.5163 4.0001 0.5396 4.5396 4.0001 0.5396 Conduit Slope ---------0.0000 0.5396 4. *=================================* | Conduit Convergence Criteria | *=================================* Conduit Name ----------239 241 243 ORF # 1 ORF # 2 ORF # 3 ORF # 4 ORF # 5 ORF # 6 ORF # 7 ORF # 8 ORF # 9 ORF # 10 ORF # 11 Full Flow ---------55.0000 0.Solve the model and review the results.5396 4.0000 0.5396 4.0000 0.0000 0.5396 4. The orifices can have both positive and negative flow.0000 0.5396 4.0001 0.5163 55.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Module 65: Hydraulics Layer Orifice – Page 2 .

............. INVERT ELEVATION AT DOWNSTREAM END......................................... ====> EQUIVALENT PIPE INFORMATION FOR ORIFICE CONDUIT NAME.......... INVERT ELEVATION AT UPSTREAM END.... MANNINGS ROUGHNESS.........................0000 12.... MANNINGS ROUGHNESS............... MANNINGS ROUGHNESS.........0046 13... INVERT ELEVATION AT UPSTREAM END.............................. INVERT ELEVATION AT DOWNSTREAM END..50 300................50 300.. INVERT ELEVATION AT DOWNSTREAM END..............................50 300... Upstream node.. PIPE DIAMETER........ ====> EQUIVALENT PIPE INFORMATION FOR ORIFICE CONDUIT NAME..... Downstream node..............9900 5 ORIF#5 207 203 0...........0046 13................ PIPE LENGTH................................. INVERT ELEVATION AT UPSTREAM END.......... Module 65: Hydraulics Layer Orifice – Page 3 . Downstream node... PIPE LENGTH...............9900 2 ORIF#2 202 205 0.......9900 4 ORIF#4 202 207 0...........9900 The orifices are converted into equivalent pipes in the program......................................... PIPE DIAMETER..... Upstream node.......... The output file will list the equivalent pipe information as is shown above.............. ====> EQUIVALENT PIPE INFORMATION FOR ORIFICE CONDUIT NAME.......... Upstream node...0000 12... INVERT ELEVATION AT DOWNSTREAM END....0046 13... PIPE DIAMETER........ MANNINGS ROUGHNESS........................00 0.........50 300......................9900 3 ORIF#3 205 Duckpond 0........................... INVERT ELEVATION AT UPSTREAM END......50 300.......... PIPE DIAMETER........................ Downstream node........0046 13....................... Downstream node... INVERT ELEVATION AT UPSTREAM END.. Upstream node... PIPE LENGTH.......... Downstream node..................................00 0..... INVERT ELEVATION AT DOWNSTREAM END................................0000 12.......... PIPE LENGTH...... 1 ORIF#1 Duckpond 202 0............. PIPE LENGTH.................................. ====> EQUIVALENT PIPE INFORMATION FOR ORIFICE CONDUIT NAME....0046 13..........0000 12........ Upstream node......... ====> EQUIVALENT PIPE INFORMATION FOR ORIFICE CONDUIT NAME...0000 12. MANNINGS ROUGHNESS.00 0....Using the configuration parameter ORFULL will restrict the maximum orifice flow to the flow listed in the conduit convergence criteria section of the model output file.......00 0....... PIPE DIAMETER.....00 0.

5 cfs after the parameter ORFULL is used in the SWMM parameter list.Solve the model using the ORFULL parameter and you will see that all of the orifices are restricted to the maximum orifice flow of about 4. Module 65: Hydraulics Layer Orifice – Page 4 .

The model will calculate the area of the pond or lake after calculating the new node depth as it marches through time. The combination can either be in multi-conduit or a single conduit.Module 66: Detention Ponds and Alternative Data Input Synopsis Detention ponds are simulated in the Hydraulics layer or (EXTRAN) of XP-SWMM simply by putting in the physical structure of the pond. Module 66: Detention Ponds. orifices. and MOD66C. Any number of outlets can be simulated and individual control items can be described in parallel or in series.XP. We will examine the influence of the SWMM Configuration Parameters for modifying the interpretation of the Storage node inputs. The program will simulate the movement of water based on the data input and the inflow hydrographs. the physical characteristics of the overflows and inflows and the correct elevations. MOD66B. The pond or lake is simulated as storage node with a table of depth versus area.XP. and open conduits. MOD66A.Page 1 . The inflows to a pond or lake are usually simulated using a closed or open conduit. closed conduits. The outlet of a pond or lake is usually constructed as a combination of weirs. It will do this by solving the continuity equation for the nodes and the combined continuity and momentum equation for the conduits. The module will use file MOD66. You can have multiple inflows either in one link (multi-link) from one upstream node or multiple inflows from multiple upstream nodes in separate links.XP. At each time step a new depth and area is calculated and the program will use the table of depth versus area to calculate the area.XP.

this is the default. and VS: Volume and Stage. The physical characteristics of the pond or lake are entered in the stepwise linear storage dialog as shown below. The volume methods are not currently recommended due to their generation of continuity errors.These are: AS: Area and Stage .stage. VE: Volume and Elevation. which means area . The area of the lake is 4 acres at a depth of 4 feet. AE: Area and Elevation. the program will interpolate and make four times as many data points as entered in the stepwise linear dialog. The default method for using storage node data is the option AS. Module 66: Detention Ponds. The first file to load is MOD66.XP.Page 2 .

0000 1.0000 174240.0667 0.1230 25636.5476 42518.3333 17423.0643 168071.0203 0.4000 0.0000 4.6667 30492.3333 4.---------------storage Stage/Area 174240.7092 CROWN DEPTH ELEVATION STARTS (FT) FROM --------.7016 90836.0000 5 101.-------.4751 2.6667 3.7000 1.6667 1.6667 0.6667 2905.6667 2.6667 72600.*==========================================* | Storage Junction Data | *==========================================* MAXIMUM OR STORAGE JUNCTION JUNCTION CONSTANT SURFACE NUMBER OR NAME TYPE AREA (FT2) -------------.3067 0.0000 4356.0853 2.1000 0.4535 4 101.0204 13359.9154 2086.0000 170.6667 2.0000 Volume ft^3 ============ 0.9761 1.3333 1.3333 1.3333 2.6667 145200.----------110.2429 221237.5885 0.3333 116159.9851 883.0334 0.1257 0.0000 PEAK OR CONSTANT VOLUME (CUBIC FEET) --------------221237.7092 221237.0000 1.3333 0.0000 4.0039 0.0000 8 102.9025 3 100.3333 3.9710 12 103.0000 14 110.0789 Solve the model and review the stage history in node storage.0145 10 103.0000 43560.0000 2.0479 0.0256 5474.0131 7 102.0000 11 103.8584 5.0000 3.8604 3.0000 0.3333 1454.0000 10.9348 124601.0000 87120.0789 5.0000 Node Invert *==================================* | Variable storage data for node |storage *==================================* Data Elevation Depth Area Point ft ft ft^2 ===== ========= ====== =========== 1 100.6667 3.0001 0.0290 13 104.0000 4.9869 6 101.0000 0.3333 58079.0000 2.7092 Area acres =========== 0.6123 64253.9855 9 102.3560 2 100.0000 Volume ac-ft ============ 0.0000 174240.Page 3 . Module 66: Detention Ponds.

0000 5 101.3116 9 102.-----------------------------.0000 11 103.0000 78900. however.Page 4 .0000 2.0000 222000. the analysis will interpret the data as volume because of the configuration parameter.0000 69766.0000 0.0000 222000.3333 30660.0000 2 100.6667 4360.0002 726.0000 91500.3333 3.0000 48033.6667 3.0000 10219.----------storage Stage/Vol 666000.0000 2180.9920 6 101.0000 3.0000 110.6667 1.0000 0.-------.0000 178500.0000 666000.6667 0.0000 6540.3333 2.6667 209300.6884 10 103.3333 0.0000 134999.3333 1.0000 274500.0000 18260.0000 0.0000 4.6667 2.XP and look at the depths in node storage.3341 4 101.6660 3 100. *==========================================* | Storage Junction Data | *==========================================* MAXIMUM OR PEAK OR CROWN DEPTH STORAGE JUNCTION JUNCTION CONSTANT SURFACE CONSTANT VOLUME ELEVATION STARTS NUMBER OR NAME TYPE AREA (FT2) (CUBIC FEET) (FT) FROM -------------.--------.6667 535500.0000 26300.Load and solve the model MOD66A.3333 405000.0000 Node Invert *==================================* | Variable storage data for node |storage *==================================* Data Elevation Depth Area Volume Point ft ft ft^2 ft^3 ===== ========= ====== ==== ====== 1 100. This file uses the option VS so that in the storage node the data entered is depth and volume.9565 12 103.6667 54780. The label on the column will always say area even though the data entered is volume.3333 2180. The table below is generated in the output file.0435 13 104.0000 Module 66: Detention Ponds.3333 144100.0000 1.0001 1453.0000 8 102.0080 7 102.

3333 405000.0000 666000.6667 0.6667 1.0000 2.0000 3.0000 11 103.3341 2180.6667 2.6884 91500.3333 1.Load and solve the model MOD66B.0000 Module 66: Detention Ponds.9565 178500.0002 3 100.0000 134999.0000 6540.0000 10 103.0000 CROWN DEPTH ELEVATION STARTS (FT) FROM --------.3333 2180. the analysis will interpret the data as elevation and volume because of the configuration parameter.0000 PEAK OR CONSTANT VOLUME (CUBIC FEET) --------------222000.0000 1. The table below is generated in the output file.0000 5 101.0435 222000.6667 54780.6667 3.0000 274500. The label on the column will always say depth and area even though the data entered is elevation and volume.0000 0.3333 3.0000 9 102.0000 0.0000 2 100.6660 1453.9920 18260. however.6667 535500.0000 12 103.Page 5 .3116 69766.3333 0.0000 Node Invert *==================================* | Variable storage data for node |storage *==================================* Data Elevation Depth Area Point ft ft ft^2 ===== ========= ====== ==== 1 100. This file uses the option VE with the storage node data entered as elevation and volume.0000 78900.0000 10219.3333 2.-------storage Elev/Vol MAXIMUM OR CONSTANT SURFACE AREA (FT2) ---------------666000. *==========================================* | Storage Junction Data | *==========================================* STORAGE JUNCTION JUNCTION NUMBER OR NAME TYPE -------------.0000 13 104.0080 26300.0000 Volume ft^3 ====== 0.6667 4360.XP and look at the data in node storage.0000 8 102.3333 144100.0000 726.0000 6 101.0000 4.0000 48033.0001 4 101.3333 30660.----------110.6667 209300.0000 7 102.

The table below is generated in the output file.Load and solve the model MOD66C.1230 7 102.0204 6 101.3333 2.3333 116159.0000 3.6667 2.0000 4.3333 3.7092 Module 66: Detention Ponds.0000 221237.6667 0.0000 90836.0256 5 101.3560 0.6123 9 102.9348 11 103.9851 3 100.0000 25636.9154 4 101.0000 0.6667 2905.----------storage Elev/Area 174240.6667 3.0000 174240.4535 883.0000 87120. The label on the column will always say depth even though the data entered is elevation.3333 1.0000 1.7092 110.9869 5474.0145 64253.3333 58079.0000 2.9025 170.0000 2 100.7016 10 103.6667 30492.Page 6 . however.0000 4356.0000 Node Invert *==================================* | Variable storage data for node |storage *==================================* Data Elevation Depth Area Volume Point ft ft ft^2 ft^3 ===== ========= ====== ==== ====== 1 100.6667 1.XP and look at the data in node storage.0643 12 103.3333 0.0000 2086.0131 13359.-------.3333 1454.9710 124601.6667 72600.-----------------------------.0000 221237.2429 13 104.6667 145200.5476 8 102.0000 4.--------.0290 168071.9855 42518.0000 43560. This file uses the option AE so that in the storage node the data entered is elevation and area. the analysis will interpret the data as elevation because of the configuration parameter. *==========================================* | Storage Junction Data | *==========================================* MAXIMUM OR PEAK OR CROWN DEPTH STORAGE JUNCTION JUNCTION CONSTANT SURFACE CONSTANT VOLUME ELEVATION STARTS NUMBER OR NAME TYPE AREA (FT2) (CUBIC FEET) (FT) FROM -------------.3333 17423.

Note: each regulator needs to have a unique name as shown below.Module 68: Regulators in Hydraulics Synopsis The file MOD68. In the above multiconduit dialog the regulator in the “special” column will regulated the conduit regulated. The regulator will control the behavior of the conduit on the same row as the regulator.XP will illustrate how to model regulators in the Hydraulics layer XP-SWMM. Module 68: Regulators in Hydraulics.Page 1 .

in the above example the flow in normal in conduit regulated until the depth of water reaches 2 feet in node “1a” and then the flow becomes zero (according to the multiplier). For example.Page 2 . Module 68: Regulators in Hydraulics. Solve the model and look at the flow in conduit regulated. and finally the flow is positive again when the depth of water reaches 2 feet in node 1a. then the flow is zero. and based on the depth of water at the control node the program will control the flow in the regulated conduit.The regulator looks at a control node listed in the “Node Name” box. The flow is positive until the depth is 2 feet.

XP. The data for a user-defined weir goes in the multi-conduit under “special” and under the category “user defined weirs” with a unique weir name.Module 69: User Defined Weirs Synopsis Modelers can create user-defined weirs by using the special option again in the multi-conduit dialog. Module 69: User Defined Weirs – Page 1 . The userdefined weirs can be a combination of v-notch. An example of a compound weir that could be modeled in this way is pictured below. broad crested and narrow crested with different flood control levels. Load up the file named MOD69.

100 15.The data for the weir consists of a table of depth (above the upstream node invert).--------1 0.000 1.100 3.100 25.010 3.100 15.000 1. Column Column Column Column # 1 # 2 # 3 # 4 -------------------.100 1. and weir exponent and weir discharge coefficient.000 1.000 3.500 4 3. The ground the rises to 9 feet and is steadily sloped to that point. weir length.500 5 4.500 8 9.000 1. Solve the model and review the flow in the user-defined weir.000 1. The above weir has a 1-foot slot from 0 to 3 feet then a main weir 15 feet wide at 3 feet and 25 feet wide at 4 feet.100 1.100 0.000 3.500 6 4. The weir data is also echoed in the output file in a table similar to one shown below.100 25. ===================================================== Input Information from Internal Weir weirs ===================================================== Point Data Data Data Data No.100 30.000 0.500 7 5.000 3.000 3.010 3. This data can be graphed and printed by selecting the graph button.000 1.000 1.000 2 0.000 3.500 Module 69: User Defined Weirs – Page 2 .500 3 3.

Module 70: Sanitary Dry Weather Flow Example Synopsis Module 70 shows the basics of a simple sanitary model. MOD70DWF. Sanitary will create an interface file containing the time series flows and concentrations (if simulated) for Hydraulics. Module 70: Sanitary Dry Weather Flow Example – Page 1 .XP will generate dry weather flow in the Sanitary layer and route the flow through the Hydraulics layer of XP-SWMM using an interface file.

The dry weather flows (DWF) can be calculated as Direct Flow. Unit Flow Rate. Census Based or using the dated EPA SWMM methodology. When we solve the model we will solve both the sanitary and hydraulic layer.Hydraulics will read the created interface file and route the flows through the sanitary network. The node DWF uses the “Direct Flow” which is then the mean DWF and it is multiplied by the peaking factors to generate the hydrograph. Module 70: Sanitary Dry Weather Flow Example – Page 2 . In all cases flows are multiplied by diurnal and weekly patterns for dry weather flow.

the peaking factors can be held constant for the hourly and daily periods using the configuration parameter INTERP_DWF=OFF. Alternatively. Module 70: Sanitary Dry Weather Flow Example – Page 3 . That result is shown below.The flow generated for seven days in the Sanitary layer is shown below.

The flow in the first conduit of the Hydraulics layer is shown below. Module 70: Sanitary Dry Weather Flow Example – Page 4 .

and Hydraulics. since only the nodes “Watershed” and “Catchment” are active and they have no downstream active element. the Runoff layer will have 2 saved locations on the interface file. Sanitary. Two interface files will contain the flow time series to connect the three layers Runoff. Two locations are the flows read from the Runoff interface file and the other is the generated dry weather flow (DWF). For example.XP illustrates how to simulate a combined sewer network. Module 71: Combined Flow Example – Page 1 . Its view is shown below. The Sanitary layer will save three locations to the interface file. All nodes in Sanitary that are desired to be on an interface file must be tagged by checking the “Save Outflows to SWMM Interface File”.Module 71: Combined Flow Example Synopsis MOD71.

The Sanitary layer interface file is a combination of Runoff and the flows at generated at node “dwf”. The inflow equals the outflow through these nodes.The nodes “Watershed” and “Catchment” in the Sanitary layer are simply manholes that capture the inflow from the runoff layer and resave the flow on an interface file. Module 71: Combined Flow Example – Page 2 .

The Hydraulics layer merges the flows in the sanitary and combined sewer area and routes the flow through all of the conduits and diversions. In this simulation the program will solve all three layers. Module 71: Combined Flow Example – Page 3 . The layer all solved consecutively from top to bottom as first Runoff the Sanitary then Hydraulics. This is because all of the flows have been passed to it from the Sanitary layer interface file.

A negative flow means that there was an overflow from the combined sewer to the storm sewer network.Solve the model and review the conduit in conduit 219. Module 71: Combined Flow Example – Page 4 . the connection between the sanitary and combined sewer.

exit and contraction/expansion losses are entered in the conduit factors dialog.see Module 155. Module 74: Culverts in Hydraulics – Page 1 .Module 74: Culverts in Hydraulics Synopsis Load the file CULVERT. We will examine how entrance. The entrance.XP. exit and expansion/contraction coefficients are entered in the conduit factors dialog. The program uses these losses if the dynamic wave equation is used in the Routing Control. Note: use the parameter MINOR_LOSS for EPA Version 4 methods .

0000 0.0000 0.0000 56. normal and critical depth for the peak flow in any culvert. Module 74: Culverts in Hydraulics – Page 2 . | | Use this section for culvert comparisons | *===============================================================* Conduit Maximum Head Friction Critical Normal HW TW Name Flow Loss Loss Depth Depth Elevat Elevat ------.0000 56. The head loss in Table E13 is due to the entrance and exit losses.--------.0000 0. The Dynamic Wave Equation is used for | | all conduit analysis but the culvert flow classification | | condition is based on the HW and TW depths.0000 0. headwater depth (HW).0000 None Culvert 0.0000 Standard-Dynamic The output file also lists the headwater (HW).--------. CULVERT ANALYSIS CLASSIFICATION.0308 2.0000 4.0000 0. Once the entrance and exit losses are turned off the head loss in Table E13 will be zero.--------.0311 Max Flow Max Flow Max Flow *==========================================================* | Table E13a.0935 9. | | and the time the culvert was in a particular | | classification during the simulation.--------.0899 Culvert 120.--------Trapin 120.0000 0.--------. XP-SWMM will yield the correct upstream HW elevation.0000 0.1923 0. After solving the model you will see that the headwater depth is reduced by almost seven feet without entrance and exit losses. *==================================================* | Table E2 .0000 0.--------.--------.0000 0. | *==========================================================* Mild Mild Steep Mild Mild Slope Slope TW Slope TW Slug Flow Slope Slope Critical D Control Insignf Outlet/ TW > D TW <= D Conduit Outlet Outlet Entrance Entrance Outlet Outlet Outlet Inlet Inlet Name Control Control Control Control Control Control Control Control Configuration ------.The conduit factors data is printed out in Table E2 of the output file.0000 0.0000 0.--------.0000 0.0000 0. Inlet Control is detected and an inlet configuration selected by the user.--------.0302 1. If during the simulation.1910 9.0000 9.--------.0000 1.0000 0. The time is | | in minutes.6322 0.6500 1.--------.--------. critical and normal depth (Yc and Yn).0000 0.2433 2.2368 0.0000 0.0901 2.0000 0.------1. You can use this table to compare the XP-SWMM output to a culvert nomograph.0059 2.0030 2. Channel losses(H).------------Trapin 1.0000 None Trapout 0.0000 59.7246 2. New to XP-SWMM is the option of also using the FHWA Inlet Control equations.--------.--------.0000 0.7190 10.5000 1.--------.--------.3173 6.Conduit Factor Data | *==================================================* Conduit Name -----Culvert Time Low Flow Depth at Number Entrance Exit Exp/Contc Weighting Roughness Which Flow of Barrels Loss Coef Loss Coef Coefficnt Parameter Factor n Changes Routing ---------.0000 0. To date XP-SWMM is the only full dynamic wave routing software to incorporate this procedure. tailwater | | depth (TW).--------.--------.7095 3. See Table E13 in any of the output files.0000 0.0000 4.--------.0000 0. *===============================================================* | Table E13. tailwater (TW).0392 Trapout 120.0000 None The entrance and exit losses can be turned off simply by clicking off the checkbox for conduit factors.--------.

XP shows how to use the bendable weir option in the special list in the multi-conduit dialog. The third column is the rebound factor for the bendable weir (a value of zero means that no flow is allowed down the conduit: a value of one means that flow is allowed in the conduit). The model has a trapezoidal shaped hydrograph as input with a peak flow of 4 cfs in node 1. Module 79: Bendable Weirs – Page 1 . A bendable weir will store water until a certain depth is reached. then the weir will bend and allow the flow of water until another user-defined depth is reached. The control node name is located in the node name text box. The bendable weir like all of the other regulators is defined in the multi-conduit dialog.Module 79: Bendable Weirs Synopsis The file BENDABLE. The first column in the bendable weir dialog is the depth of water at the control node. The second column is the controlling factor for the bendable weir (a value of zero means that no flow is allowed down the conduit: a value of one means that flow is allowed in the conduit). The bendable weir in the right column modifies the action of the conduit to the left on the same row. A bendable weir should have a unique name.

The choice of the controlling number is selected as follows: (1) when there is no flow in the reacting conduit the model will be controlled by the numbers in column Bend Factor. based on the data shown above the model will have flow at a depth of 4.01 feet.01 feet and the flow will last until the depth of water reaches 2. The weir will thus store the water up to a depth of 4 feet and then flop down until the water drains down to a depth of 2 feet. For example. and (2) when there is flow in the conduit the model will be controlled by the numbers in column Rebound Factor. Module 79: Bendable Weirs – Page 2 . Review the results of conduit 1-2. The flow will commence at a depth of 4 feet and will continue flowing until a depth of 2 feet.

We will run the explicit solution (EPA version 3. Module 86: Explicit Solutions – Page 1 .0) first in this module. The flow tolerance only is used from the simulation tolerances dialog.Module 86: Explicit Solutions Synopsis There are two explicit solutions in XP-SWMM. Load the file MOD86. These are activated by using the Version 4 solutions in routing control. The typical number of iterations is 30 for the surcharge algorithm. If you are using the explicit solution only the maximum number of iterations is used from the routing control dialog.XP to start this module.

You need to pick a time step based on the most stringent conditions during the simulation: the largest velocity in the smallest diameter short conduit. The conduit flow is unstable until the steady flow is reached.The explicit solution needs to use a smaller time step than the dynamic wave solution. Solve the model and review the results of conduit “Trapin”. Module 86: Explicit Solutions – Page 2 .

switch to the enhanced explicit solution. The time step. maximum iterations and flow tolerance all stay the same. Solve the model and now review the flow in conduit “Trapin”. Venant equation so that the program can use a larger time step. The flow is now not unstable in this conduit even during the rising limb of the hydrograph. The enhanced explicit solution uses a different time weighting for the St.Now. Module 86: Explicit Solutions – Page 3 .

Module 86: Explicit Solutions – Page 4 .This page is intentionally left blank .

Use the keywords “CMIN” and “THETA” to use the minimum courant time step factor and time weighting factor. The iterative solution uses the time weighting factor. minimum courant time step factor and maximum time step iteration from the routing control dialog. If you did not use the keywords CMIN and THETA then the minimum courant time step factor and time weighting factor are not used by the iterative solution.Module 88: EPA Iterative Solution Synopsis Load the file MOD88.XP and examine how to use the iterative EPA solution in XP-SWMM. and the flow tolerance from the simulation tolerances dialog. Erreur ! Source du renvoi introuvable. – Page 1 . The iterative solution is in the EPA “Version 4” Solution in the Routing Control dialog.

.... Average number of iterations per time step... Average time step size(seconds). The row number of time ITMAX exceeded shows the number of times the iterations reached 10......9 1. Number of times ITMAX exceeded............... Average Courant Factor Tf..#################################################### # Extran Iteration Summary # #################################################### Maximum number of iterations in a time step... Review the results of conduit “Trapin”....0223 fraction 688 1. Smallest time step size(seconds).... or in this simulation none... – Page 2 ..... Total number of time steps during simulation Ratio of actual # of time steps / NTCYC.0 10..............23 5.00 The iterative solution will modify the time step based on the courant time step factor and any time more than 10 iterations are used.. 4 692 0....01 5... Erreur ! Source du renvoi introuvable.... Largest time step size(seconds).. Total number of iterations in the simulation Maximum continuity error during simulation.0 0 2........

05 * width The SWMM Parameters are WSLOT1. and WSLOT5.0001 * width WSLOT4: 0.001 * width WSLOT3: 0. WSLOT4. All of the pipes are: 1. WSLOT4 and WSLOT5.005 * width WSLOT1: 0. Preissmann Slot widths in XP-XWMM Default: 0. and the parameters WSLOT1.XP to investigate the influence of the Priessmann slot width on the flow in a surcharged conduit.5 feet in diameter. WSLOT2. 100 feet long.00001 * width WSLOT5: 0. WSLOT3.012 and have zero slope. WSLOT2. WSLOT3.01 * width WSLOT2: 0. Module 89: Preissmann Slot Options – Page 1 .Module 89: Preissmann Slot Options Synopsis We will use the MOD89. The inflow ramps up to a peak of 15 cfs over one hour in node 1. a roughness of 0. We will use the default option.

005 times the pipe diameter for all closed conduits. the EPA explicit and enhanced explicit solutions use a different equation for partial flow and surcharged flow. WSLOT3.001 times the closed conduit width or the WSLOT2.The dynamic wave solution and the iterative EPA solution use a fictitious “slot” extending from the crown of a closed conduit to the ground elevation. The slot is usually 0. We will find that the head difference is small after the slot becomes smaller than 0.408 feet. Solve the model and look at the nodal depths in node 1. The ending surface elevation in this node (from the output file) is 6. The flow was surcharged in each conduit in each run. WSLOT4 options. The following pages illustrate this. The first run we will make uses a slot width of 0. using the options shown to the right is it possible to change the default width of a conduit during the simulation. However.005 times the width of the conduit. Module 89: Preissmann Slot Options – Page 2 . The flow for each run is 15 cfs. This slot allows the use of the same equation for the conduit under partial flow and surcharged or pressure flow. Conversely.

Now we use option WSLOT1.01 times the pipe width. Module 89: Preissmann Slot Options – Page 3 . The ending depth is 6.323 feet.481 feet. The ending depth is 6. which uses a slot width of 0. The new option is entered in the SWMM Configuration dialog. The graph below is from a run with the WSLOT2 option.

Module 89: Preissmann Slot Options – Page 4 .499 feet.The above graph is from a run with the WSLOT3 option. The above graph is from a run with the WSLOT4 option.497 feet. The ending depth is 6. The ending depth is 6.

001 times the conduit width.778 feet. A new configuration parameter has been developed as part of version 9 to allow the Priessmann slot to be any size. The contents of the configuration parameter dialog box is shown below..1. where X is the value in percent allows the user to specify the value rather than select from a small list of predefined values (WSLOT1-5).1% or 0. Each of the runs is accomplished by disabeling all parameters but the parameter in question. or 0. Module 89: Preissmann Slot Options – Page 5 . This new parameter PSLOT=X.The above graph is from a run with the WSLOT5 option. The ending depth is 5. For example the graph on the next page is generated using PSLOT=0.

481 feet.The above graph is from a run with the PSLOT=0.1 option. Module 89: Preissmann Slot Options – Page 6 . The ending depth is 6.

Module 90: Dynamic Head Pumps Synopsis Load file MOD90. The inflow into the network will come via a user-defined hydrograph at node wet well. Dynamic head pumps operate based on a pump-operating curve. The wet well is a storage node.XP from the work directory. It is a simple model using dynamic head pumps. Module 90: Dynamic Head Pumps– Page 1 . The head difference between the downstream and upstream nodes is calculated at each time step and then the pump flow is interpolated from the operating curve. Double clicking on the appropriate check box accesses the data for the storage node and the inflow hydrograph.

The pump data is entered in the multi-conduit link of Hydraulics. In this model we will have one pump. (2) a starting elevation. and the inflow is a ramped inflow of 10 cfs over 2 hours.0).The wet well is a constant storage of 100 ft 2. and (6) the pump operating curve data in the pump type dialog. Module 90: Dynamic Head Pumps– Page 2 . The pump name should be unique to each pump.0 means that the program will default to the ground surface elevation of 510 feet. so the check box for the first pump is turned on in this dialog. Using a surcharge elevation of 0. (5) pump speed factor (usually 1. (3) a stopping elevation. A dynamic head pump needs: (1) a pump name. (4) dynamic head radio button is turned on.

0 will double the flows and quadruple the heads. A pump speed factor of 3. Module 90: Dynamic Head Pumps– Page 3 .Click on the pump type box to select or edit the pump data. The pump speed factor will affect the export of this data. A pump speed factor of 2. Up to 100 pairs of flow and head data can be entered in this table. If you edit the data you will see the data and the graph shown below.0 will triple the flows and make the heads nine times the table value. The flows are not extrapolated. Heads higher or lower than the lowest table head will generate either the maximum flow or the minimum flow from the operating table. The program will calculate the head difference at each time step and then use this curve to interpolate what the flow should be.

000 10.000 5.-------dynamic wet well mid pt 2.-------. wet well mid pt 0. *=========================================================* | New Pump Data Fields for PBSJ and Miami/Dade | | Pump Name/Upstream Node/Dnstream Node/DataPt/Depth/Flow | *=========================================================* Pumpdynamic wet well mid pt 1 20.00 Table E17 in the output lists the pump on times and the total operating time of the pump.----------.---------. ################################################### # Table E17. Pump Operation Section # ################################################### Pump Operating Time and Pump General Results --------------------------------------------Time # of Times Upstream Downstream in hours Pump Min HGL Max HGL Min Q Max Q Totl Q Pump Name Node Node Pump On Goes On feet feet cfs cfs ft^3 ----------. The data is echoed in the output as shown below in the beginning of the output file.-------.4791 88539.6701 3.000 *===========================================* | Pump Curve Data | *===========================================* JUNCTIONS INITIAL DEPTH ON FROM TO IN WELL.---------.000 5.6501 19 8.8558 11.--------.16 The maximum number of pumps turned on during the simulation The minumum number of pumps turned on during the simulation 1 0 Module 90: Dynamic Head Pumps– Page 4 . Solve the model and review the results of the pump flows.00 2 4 15.0086 14.-------. The review results is shown on the last page of this module.000 20.The downstream pipe is a 2-foot circular pipe with a constant boundary downstream of 515 feet.000 0.00 2.-------.000 5 0.000 30. ft feet -------------------------1.000 3 10.000 OFF feet ----1.

The long section plot or hydraulic grade line plot of the pump flows. As the depth of water increases at midpoint. This length just affects the screen view. The key feature here is that the pump goes uphill: the downstream node of the pump should be at a higher elevation than the upstream node of the pump. The flow in the pipe downstream of the pump is based on the changing water surface elevations at node midpoint and node outfall. Module 90: Dynamic Head Pumps– Page 5 .We can look at a long section view of the pump by clicking on the plot button at the lower right hand side of the multi-conduit dialog box. We need to pick pump as the plot item and give it a graphical length. The pump flow drives the downstream pipe flow by modifying the depth of water at node midpoint. the flow increases in the downstream pipe.

Module 90: Dynamic Head Pumps– Page 6 .

Also a wet well pump also has to have a conduit upstream of the wet well to define the inflow. and (4) pump data. These pumps are different from dynamic head pumps because there is no downstream influence. Wet well pumps do not use on/off elevations. (3) initial volume. (2) total wet well volume.XP to start this module. Double click on the multi-link to access the pump dialog.Module 91: Well Volume Controlled Pumps Synopsis Load the file MOD91. We will look at the second pump alternative: pumps rated by wet well volume. Wet well pumps only uses: (1) pump name. Module 91: Well Volume Controlled Pumps – Page 1 .

This is a global database that can have up to 100 data points. Module 91: Well Volume Controlled Pumps – Page 2 .The type of data for a wet well pump is different than the dynamic head pumps. Selecting the graph options button or right mouse clicking on the graph brings up the pop-up dialog allowing among many other things the customization of the graphing. It uses a simple table of pump flow versus wet well volume is entered by the user of the model.

0000 0.--------.-------.---------. Pump Operation Section # ################################################### Pump Operating Time and Pump General Results --------------------------------------------Time # of Times Upstream Downstream in hours Pump Min HGL Max HGL Min Q Max Q Totl Q Pump Name Node Node Pump On Goes On feet feet cfs cfs ft^3 --------.-------dynamic wet well mid pt 0. The wet well volume is based on the mass balance of the flow in and the flow out of the wet well.92 The maximum number of pumps turned on during the simulation The minumum number of pumps turned on during the simulation 1 1 This pump was on for two hours and turned on one time at the beginning of the simulation. ################################################### # Table E17.Solve the model and review the results of the flow in the pump.-------.0000 10.--------. Module 91: Well Volume Controlled Pumps – Page 3 .----------.0114 53740.0000 0.-------. The pump basically follows the user defined flow hydrograph and peaks at 10 cfs. The depth of water in the wet well is based on the minimum of y critical or y normal at the downstream end of the upstream conduit.-------.0000 0 0.

Highlight the whole network and look at the hydraulic grade line through the whole network. Again. the pump should pump hill and the downstream end of the pump should have a higher elevation than the upstream end of the pump. Module 91: Well Volume Controlled Pumps – Page 4 .

Double click on the multi-link to access the pump dialog. and (2) pump data. We will look at the third pump alternative: pumps rated by depth. Rated by depth pumps only uses: (1) pump name. Rated by depth pumps do not use the pump starting elevation and pump stopping elevation. Module 92: Depth Rated Pumps – Page 1 .Module 92: Depth Rated Pumps Synopsis Load the file MOD92. These pumps are similar to pumps rated by wet well volume because there is no downstream influence.XP.

Solve the model and review the flows in the pump. The flow follows the shape of the inflow hydrograph. Module 92: Depth Rated Pumps – Page 2 . Look at the long section plot of the whole network.

There are two dynamic head pump curves and two real time control curves in this model.XP illustrates how to use a real time control “rule curve” to modify the flow in a pump based on the depth of water at a non-adjacent node. The “rule curve” is entered in the special column of the dialog.040 cms. The pump and its “rule curve” are on the same row of a multi-conduit dialog. The base or unmodified flow in this pump is 0. Module 93: Real Time Control based on Depth – Page 1 .Module 93: Real Time Control based on Depth Synopsis The file MOD93.

01 meters.05 cms .0.0 and 2. This table of depth versus flow states that based on the depth of water at node “Well DS” the flow in the pump is 0.15 cms until the depth of water at node “Well Main” reached 5 meters and then the flow is limited to 0.0 cms after the depth reaches 3.The “rule curve” is entered in the special pump (pump 5) dialog. The flow below 3 meters is up to 10 cms or the maximum pump flow of 0. Module 93: Real Time Control based on Depth – Page 2 . Omega varies between 1.as shown below in the pump 5 dialog. The omega value will allow a change in pump flow of 12 percent per iteration or time step.40 cms. The pump at link “DSPUMP” has a normal pump flow of 0.

The first pump flow oscillates between 0. Highlight the whole model and use the long section icon.0 cms. changes from 0. Module 93: Real Time Control based on Depth – Page 3 .15 cms to 0.40 and 0. A look via the long section plot through the two pumps in the system.05 cms as the “pump rule” comes into effect.Solve the model and look at the flows in the pumps. The second pump. DSPUMP.

000 0.000 10. Control node = Well DS ===================================================== Input Information for dynamic pump rule curve scada ===================================================== Point Data Data Data Data No.000 10.000 Control node = Well Main ===================================================== Input Information for dynamic pump rule curve newpump5 ===================================================== Point Data Data Data Data No.010 0.000 2 1.000 0.000 4 5.000 0.--------1 0.000 2 1.990 0. Column Column Column Column # 1 # 2 # 3 # 4 -------------------.000 0.000 Module 93: Real Time Control based on Depth – Page 4 .000 10. The raw curve data and the node the controls the pump5 rule is listed.000 3 3.000 10.000 4 3.000 0.000 0. Column Column Column Column # 1 # 2 # 3 # 4 -------------------.000 5 7.050 0.000 0.000 3 4.050 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 5 10.000 0.000 0.000 0.The rule curve for the pump5 pump data is echoed to the output file in the beginning of the output file.000 0.000 0.000 10.000 0.000 10.000 0.000 0.000 0.--------1 0.000 0.

Module 94: Real Time Control based on Flow – Page 1 . A dynamic pump is entered in the pump dialogs of the multi-conduit link. The “pump rule” is entered in the special conduit list. In this model the pump “Pump US” is dependent not only on the downstream and upstream node water surface elevations but also a “pump rule” curve that changes the pump flow based on the conduit “Connect”.Module 94: Real Time Control based on Flow Synopsis Module 94 shows how to modify the pump flow of a conduit based on the flow in a non-adjacent conduit.

column #3 is the flow for the pump based on the flow in column #2.The normal flow in this pump is 0.40 cms as shown to the right. factor #2 is the name of the non-adjacent conduit. The “rule curve” for the pump rated by non-adjacent flow is shown on the next page and is entered in the Other table in the special conduit dialog. Factor #1 is always the name pumpbyQ. Module 94: Real Time Control based on Flow – Page 2 . The “rule curve” is entered in column 2 and column 3 of the dialog. Please note that the program interpolates intermediate values. column #2 is the flow in the non-adjacent conduit.

Module 94: Real Time Control based on Flow – Page 3 .Solve the model and review the results of the flows in conduit connect.

These flows are 10 percent of the flows in conduit connect.Review the flows in the pump. Module 94: Real Time Control based on Flow – Page 4 .

The loss coefficients should be entered on the same row as the pump discharge data. Module 95: Pump Discharge Pipes (Force Mains) – Page 1 . The dynamic head loss coefficients are entered in the special conduit dialogs. The discharge pipe losses are also entered in this link. Open up the file MOD95. The dynamic head pump data is entered in the pump dialog. The pump is in the link named “pump”.Module 95: Pump Discharge Pipes (Force Mains) Synopsis In this module we will learn how to model the dynamic losses through the pump discharge pipe. The data is entered in a multi-conduit..XP from the work directory.

Up to 100 data points may be entered in the pump ratings dialog.The data for a dynamic head pump include the starting and stopping elevations. the pump speed factor. The head losses are entered in the special conduit dialog under the “OTHER” category. Each pump discharge pipe should have a unique name as the diversion name. and the pump discharge curve in the pump type dialog. Module 95: Pump Discharge Pipes (Force Mains) – Page 2 . This data is originally entered in the global data section.

-------.000 Rough -ness ====== 0. Factor #3 is the initial guess the program makes for the flow in the discharge pipe. The “all” in factor #1 means that this applies to all pumps connecting these two nodes in the multi-conduit. The type number of 4000 means that this is the data for a pump discharge pipe. ################################################### # Table E17.9986 57. Table E17 in the output file also has pump summary information.--------. Factor #2 is the number of iterations used to calculate the pump discharge dynamic losses in the pump discharge pipe.000 0. The third column in the first line is the pipe roughness.833 Length ft or m ======= 30. *===========================================* | Special Pump Data Conduits for PBSJ | *===========================================* Conduit Name ======= PUMP Diameter ft or m ======= 0.000 Valve Bend Loss Preissman Loss K Loss K Coefft Sf*L SlotWidth ====== ====== ====== ====== ====== 0.30 The maximum number of pumps turned on during the simulation The minumum number of pumps turned on during the simulation 1 0 Module 95: Pump Discharge Pipes (Force Mains) – Page 3 .----------. This value may be between 0.0519 7 14. A value of 0.---------. The second line has the minor losses for the pump discharge pipe.0. The second column in the first line is the pipe length in feet or meters. Pump Operation Section # ################################################### Pump Operating Time and Pump General Results --------------------------------------------Time # of Times Upstream Downstream in hours Pump Min HGL Max HGL Min Q Max Q Totl Q Pump Name Node Node Pump On Goes On feet feet cfs cfs ft^3 --------.-------.1322 293.0 and 1.000 0. These losses are additive and are added together in the model. The first column in the first line is the pipe diameter in feet or meters.012 Entrance Exit Loss K Loss K ====== ====== 1.--------.-------PUMP 2 mid 0.-------.000 0.-------.2591 125. The pump turns on 7 times.052 0.50 means that 50 percent of the maximum pump flow is used by the program.053 0.000 Click on the pump icon in review results and look at the pump results.6327 48795.This dialog contains all of the data needed to model the pump discharge pipe.

################################################### # Table E22. The user can change many parameters in the Dynamic Wave solution.The data entered for the pump discharge pipe is echoed in the output file under the above table name. 0. Look at table E22 in the output file. Module 95: Pump Discharge Pipes (Force Mains) – Page 4 . So make sure to select the diversion-graphing tool. There were no non-convergences in the simulation. Numerical Model judgement section # ################################################### Your overall error was Worst nodal error was in node 2 Of the total inflow this loss was Your overall continuity error was Efficiency of the simulation Most Number of Non Convergences at one Node Total Number Non Convergences at all Nodes Total Number of Nodes with Non Convergences with -0. The overall error was great. This is one of XP-SWMM’s strengths in that the solution is not a black box. The special conduit that is the pump discharge pipe will always have no flow. Change the Hydraulics Job control information can rectify continuity and stability problems.8718 percent 1. However most models run fine without employing any of these options.39 0.5519 percent 0. 0. Solve the model and review the results of the multi-conduit “pump”.6090 percent Excellent Excellent Efficiency 2.

the second system head curve is the second pump etc.XP to see these two methods.XP and MOD96A. The first pump is the first system head curve. the second and subsequent pumps are the incremental difference in the pump system head curves. The first method uses different pumps to simulate the incremental changes in the pump flow versus the pump head-operating curve. The second method uses a different pump for each system head curve in the variable pump. Module 96: Variable Speed Pumps in Hydraulics – Page 1 . The first system head curve is the first pump. thus only one pump will pump at one time. The model will turn off the lower pumps when the current head is in the operating range of one pump. We will load the file MOD96.XP. Double-click on the multi-link and look at the connecting elements. The pumps are located between node “lake A” and node “reserv”. There are five pumps simulating the incremental differences in the system head of the variable speed pump of model MOD96.Module 96: Variable Speed Pumps in Hydraulics Synopsis In this module you will learn two different ways to model variable speed pumps in Hydraulics.

all five pumps will turn on in this example because the upstream nodal depth will be above the pump on elevation of all the pumps. hence a different operating range. Go back to the network and solve the model by using the Solve icon. Each pump has a different on / off elevation. Module 96: Variable Speed Pumps in Hydraulics – Page 2 . In this example. Up to 100 pump rating data points can be entered in this dialog. Select the pump global data or Pump Ratings data by clicking on the pump type dialog box.Double click on the first pump by clicking on the #1 checkbox. EDIT the data and then graph the data shown in the pump ratings dialog.

XP. Now close file MOD96. The variable pump option is activated by using a special conduit in the special list of conduits in a multi-link. has a first row of all zeroes.XP.XP and then open file MOD96A. All of these together will mean that any pumps in the same multi-link as the “variable” conduit will act like variable pumps. During the peak flow all five pumps are being used in MOD96. The special conduit is under the “other” category. Module 96: Variable Speed Pumps in Hydraulics – Page 3 .Review the pump flows by highlighting the pump link and then clicking on the review results icon. Each pump is active during part of the course of the simulation. The special conduit will make the pumps in this multi-link behave as a “variable” speed pump. and a type number of 5000. This example will simulate each system curve as a separate pump. The pumps are same as in the file MOD96.XP except for a special conduit called “variable”. has a factor #1 name of “variable”.

You will see that only one pump is turned on at any one time.Solve the model and review the results of the pumps in the link between node “lake a” and node “reserv”. Module 96: Variable Speed Pumps in Hydraulics – Page 4 . The pumps turn on based on the pump on elevation.

Module 97: Pump Check Valves Synopsis Module97 shows how to use pump check valves to alter the reported junction depth based on the flow in a downstream conduit. Once the flow in the conduit goes below a certain cfs or cms value the program will report a minimum pressure or depth at the downstream end of the pump. This data is located in the “other” diversion type. Module 97: Pump Check Valves – Page 1 . In this model the flow in pipe “dnpipe” will control the reported depth at node “mid pt”. The check value data is entered in the special dialog box located on the same row as the pump in the multiconduit dialog.

The type number should always be 5000. The reported pressure at node mid pt is based on the flow at conduit “dnpipe”. Module 97: Pump Check Valves – Page 2 . Factor #2 should be the name of a downstream pipe. When the flow in “dnpipe” is less than 2 cfs then the reported depth is 5 feet. first column is the minimum reported depth or pressure at the downstream node of the pump. The number in the second row. first column is the flow in cfs or cms that will trigger the usage of the minimum pressure. Solve the model and review the results of node mid pt and conduit “dnpipe”.Factor #1 should be named “check” for check valves. The number in the first row. The model will use in its calculations the actual node depth but the reported depth in the graphical output file is set to a minimum of 5 meters.

Module 98: Automatic Pump Flow Generation – Page 1 .XP from the workshop directory for the example file that goes with this module. There are two pumps in the multi-link.Module 98: Automatic Pump Flow Generation Synopsis A method exists for starting a pump automatically without depending on changing upstream and downstream water surface elevations. The pumps are automatic pumps because the keyword AUTO_PUMP is used in the SWMM Configuration parameters dialog. Load the file AUTOPUMP.

When AUTO_PUMP is used the meaning of the user defined inflow hydrograph is modified. The new meaning is a time series of pump turn on (value of 1) and pump turn off (value of 0) times. Solve the model and review the pump flows results. The pump will turn on at the times listed in the upstream nodes user defined hydrograph. The turn on and turn off times are entered at the upstream node of the pump(s). The time is in hours from the beginning of the simulation. Module 98: Automatic Pump Flow Generation – Page 2 .

0000 0.0 $review_elevatio $use_half_volume $min_ts = 0.0000 0.0010 0.0000 0.1000 50.5000 1 0 3 1 1 1 0 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 77 97 143 153 154 161 164 290 294 295 316 322 333 346 383 385 407 Module 99: PUMPWT and NOPUMPWT Configuration Parameters – Page 1 .0000 0.0000 0.0000 0. This module examines the configuration parameters PUMPWT & NOPUMPWT.5 0.0000 0.0000 0. $powerstation $perv $oldegg $as $noflat $oldomega $oldvol $implicit $oldhot $oldscs $flood $nokeys $pzero $oldvol2 $storage2 $oldhot1 $pumpwt 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0. Note the paragraph below is double column.0000 0.0000 0. PUMPWT is the default and is listed in the beginning of the output file in the SWMM parameters section.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 2 3 1 1 2 4 7 11 21 24 28 29 31 33 40 42 55 59 62 63 70 $ecloss $exout $djref = -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.1 $weirlen = 50 $oldbnd $nogrelev $ncmid $new_nl_97 $best97 $newbound $q_tol = 0.0000 30.0000 0.XP.0000 0.Module 99: PUMPWT and NOPUMPWT Configuration Parameters Synopsis Load the file MOD99.1 $new_storage $old_iteration $minlen=30. All the parameters with a $ are the default parameters.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.

. *=========================================================* | Table E8 . 2...--------wet well 0 1.49 4525 0 2 mid pt 0 3..24 9842 0 59 outfall 0 3....Junction Time Step Limitation Summary | *=========================================================* | Not Convr = Number of times this junction did not | | converge during the simulation.PUMPWT only uses one iteration per time step for the pumps.--------.42 10382 0 44 Total number of iterations for all junctions...--------.72 Good Efficiency Ittrn >10 --------0 74 34 Ittrn >25 --------0 20 17 Ittrn >40 --------0 2 2 Module 99: PUMPWT and NOPUMPWT Configuration Parameters – Page 2 .. | | Omega Cng = Change of omega during iterations | | Max Itern = Maximum number of iterations | *=========================================================* Junction Not Convr Avg Convr Total Itt Omega Cng Max Itern -------------.. 9108 Efficiency of the simulation.... The graph and Table E8 on this page show the results of using pump weighting (the default)...... The head at the beginning of the time step is used to interpolate the pump flow from the pump-operating curve.. Table E8 shows the number of iterations at each time step for the model..-------... | | Avg Convr = Average junction iterations.--------... 24749 Minimum number of possible iterations. | | Conv err = Mean convergence error..

Solve the model and look at the results.Now we will use the SWMM configuration parameter NOPUMPWT by selecting disable to remove the pound “#” symbol in front of the parameter NOPUMPWT. The number of iterations has gone up in the downstream pump node (see Table E8 in the output file). The number of iterations at a pump node will not be limited to one but will be allowed to go to the value of iterations listed in the Hydraulic layer job control. Module 99: PUMPWT and NOPUMPWT Configuration Parameters – Page 3 .

The graph and Table E8 on this page show the results of this model using NOPUMPWT.--------.... | | Conv err = Mean convergence error..--------.--------wet well 0 1...... 25852 Minimum number of possible iterations...44 10781 0 48 Total number of iterations for all junctions. | | Avg Convr = Average junction iterations.75 Good Efficiency Ittrn >10 --------0 65 37 Ittrn >25 --------0 23 20 Ittrn >40 --------0 3 1 Module 99: PUMPWT and NOPUMPWT Configuration Parameters – Page 4 .. *=========================================================* | Table E8 .26 10213 0 59 outfall 0 3. | | Omega Cng = Change of omega during iterations | | Max Itern = Maximum number of iterations | *=========================================================* Junction Not Convr Avg Convr Total Itt Omega Cng Max Itern -------------.--------... 9408 Efficiency of the simulation...... 2..Junction Time Step Limitation Summary | *=========================================================* | Not Convr = Number of times this junction did not | | converge during the simulation.....55 4858 0 2 mid pt 0 3...-------.

Module 100: Valves with Head Losses – Page 1 . The valve data is in the multi-link “orifice”. The orifice specific data is located in the Special column of the multi-link dialog.Module 100: Valves with Head Losses Synopsis This module examines the ability of XP-SWMM to simulate a flow valve with head losses.XP. Load the file MOD100.

This database has only one special conduit in the multi-link dialog. The flow through the valve should be entered in column 3 and the head loss in column 4 in units of ft or meters depending on the project units. It is in the “Special” column and requires a diversion name not used by any other objects in the model. Use the name “oneq” for the value in Factor #1 and the type number 5000. Module 100: Valves with Head Losses – Page 2 .

Module 101: Sanitary Layer Pumps
Synopsis Module 101 shows how to use pump the Sanitary layer of XP-SWMM. The inflow to the network is a ramped inflow of 10 cfs at node 1. Node 2 is a storage node so that the flow coming out of node 2 is controlled by direct flow or equation entered in the storage node dialog.

The pump data is entered in the multi-conduit dialog of link “5”. The name of the pump is entered on the same row as the pump check box.

Module 101: Sanitary Layer Pumps – Page 1

There are two pump rates for transport pumps. The flow is Q1 after the depth for Q1 is reached. The flow is Q2 after the depth for Q2 is reached. The storage node or wet well of the pump has the average cross sectional area given by the value in average cross section area. In this network the flow through the network works in the following sequence: Inflow at node 1 - storage node at node 1 - outflow from node 1 - wet well of pump pump - downstream node of pump.

Solve the model and look at the flows in nodes 1, 2 and 4 by highlighting those three nodes. The flow at node 1 is the inflow, 2 is the outlet from the storage node; and the flow at node 4 is the pump outflow. You can see that the flow in the pumps oscillates between 3 and 5 cfs as shown in the figure below.

Module 101: Sanitary Layer Pumps – Page 2

Module 102: Sanitary Layer Flow Dividers
Synopsis In this module we will have a brief look at Sanitary flow dividers. Load the file MOD102.XP from the work directory. The flow divider is in node 2 and it will split the flow in two directions: conduit 5 and conduit 7.

Look at the data for a sanitary flow divider. The primary flow will go down conduit 7. All flow up to 4 cfs will go through conduit 7. All flows above 1 cfs will be split evenly between conduits 7 and 5 or conduit pipe.

Module 102: Sanitary Layer Flow Dividers – Page 1

Solve the model and look at the flows in conduits 5 & 7. The low flow will go through the conduit 5.

Change the flow divider node to a manhole. XP-SWMM has an automatic flow divider that will divide the flow based on the conduit area. In this case since the conduit areas are the same the program will divide the flow in half. Solve the model and review the flows at conduits 5 & 7.

Module 102: Sanitary Layer Flow Dividers – Page 2

Module 103: Sanitary Layer Storage Pond Outlets
Synopsis Now we will look at the three different ways the flow out of a Sanitary storage node can be specified. These are: (1) direct flow, (2) pumped flow, and (3) power function flow. The big difference between Sanitary and Hydraulics storage nodes is that the flow out of a Sanitary storage node has to be user-defined.

The outflow from node 1 is direct (see the figure below), and the outflow from node “1a” is a power equation (see next page). Each of the little networks has the same inflow, the same storage area and the same pipe geometry.

Module 103: Sanitary Layer Storage Pond Outlets – Page 1

Power function equation form of the storage node outlet flow is: Flow = 2.0 *[Depth - Minimum Depth]^1.5

The third storage node, 1b, has a pump outflow with the same type of data that is in the pump in a multi-conduit link. The main difference is that the pump at a storage node uses the area of the storage node and not the wet well area like the pump in a conduit. The results for nodes 1 & 2 shown below are the inflow and outflow from the pump directly connected to the outflow of the storage node.

Module 103: Sanitary Layer Storage Pond Outlets – Page 2

The inflow and outflow from the pump connected to the equation outlet storage node.

Module 103: Sanitary Layer Storage Pond Outlets – Page 3

The inflow and outflow from the pump that is connected to the pumped outflow storage node. These two pumps are in series so that the outflow from the storage node pump equals the outflow from the conduit pump.

Module 103: Sanitary Layer Storage Pond Outlets – Page 4

Module 106: Gauged Data
Synopsis XP-SWMM allows the simultaneous display of measured flows, levels, and pollutant concentrations along with the modeled results. This permits a visual check on the level of calibration and degree of fit of the computed hydrographs to measured parameters. Load the file BASIC4.XP. We will add the gauged flow to the predicted flows at Link 3. Double-click on link 3 to see the conduit dialog shown below. Selecting the Gauged Data button in the lower left-hand corner of the dialog accesses gauged data.

Double-click on the Gauged Flow button. The data can be entered in the interface or the “HYD-SYS” format can be created outside of XP-SWMM. Enter the data as shown below.

Module 106: Gauged Data – Page 1

Select the edit button of the Gauged Flow dialog. Since the file does not already exist the software will create it in the correct format with the data entered in the Gauged Data Flow dialog. If the file existed then the user would be allowed to review, graph or edit the data.

The actual .HIS file is shown below. This file is a fixed format text file.
100 100 100 100 140.00199501010000 140.00199501010010 140.00199501010030 140.00199501010100 .1 5 3 2

Module 106: Gauged Data – Page 2

Module 119: Multi-Run and Multi-Review
Synopsis
XP-SWMM2000 contains a scenario management capability in the Project Menu. The Project menu allows many .XP files to be grouped and managed together in one project file .XPP.

Module 119: Multi-Run and Multi-Review – Page 1

Module 119: Multi-Run and Multi-Review – Page 2

Module 119: Multi-Run and Multi-Review – Page 3 .

Module 119: Multi-Run and Multi-Review – Page 4 .

We are allowed to proceed but the full Dynamic wave method would be more appropriate in this case.XP from the work directory to start this module. Warnings will be generated since there are flat and negative conduit slopes. This is one of the six available routing options. This example will route the flow through a siphon as shown in the figure below.Module 140: Kinematic Wave Routing Synopsis An option in the Hydraulics layer is to select Kinematic wave routing in lieu of Dynamic wave routing for all conduits. Load the file KWDW. These warnings ensure that the Kinematic wave is only used in appropriate situations. Module 140: Kinematic Wave Routing – Page 1 . Kinematic wave routing will route the flows downstream based on the upstream cross sectional area and hydraulic radius of each conduit. Kinematic wave routing is selected from routing control dialog in job control. which include the three EPA SWMM Solutions. All of the routing control parameters are active when using kinematic wave routing. Solve then review the results of the conduits in the model.

This will show the hydraulic grade line in the network. Using the same highlighted section of the network use the long section plotting. It shows some of the limitations of the kinematic wave routing. No influence from the downstream node affects the flow generated from the upstream area of the conduit.Highlight node “Inflow” and then using the Ctrl key and the left mouse button click on the node “Outfall”. Module 140: Kinematic Wave Routing – Page 2 . It should highlight the network from inflow to outfall.

Kinematic Wave Routing is best suited to dendritic networks with minimal backwater and slopes greater than .43 2457 0 17 K4... 20223 Minimum number of possible iterations. 13728 Efficiency of the simulation.--------Inflow 0 1..--------.30 2238 0 9 K4.2 0 1.46 2498 0 12 219 0 1. | | Avg Convr = Average junction iterations.47. and nodes k4..Junction Time Step Limitation Summary | *=========================================================* | Not Convr = Number of times this junction did not | | converge during the simulation...59 2735 0 13 217 0 1.47 Good Efficiency Ittrn >10 --------0 1 0 0 4 1 6 2 Ittrn >25 --------0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ittrn >40 --------0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Module 140: Kinematic Wave Routing – Page 3 ... | | Omega Cng = Change of omega during iterations | | Max Itern = Maximum number of iterations | *=========================================================* Junction Not Convr Avg Convr Total Itt Omega Cng Max Itern -------------...--------..Select all the network and using the shift key and the left mouse button deselect the conduits down1. From the previous HGL plots Node K4..... up1.26 2162 0 12 Total number of iterations for all junctions...--------.3... Next use long section plotting to look at the hydraulic grade line.. and syphon.2 and k4..33 2289 0 6 213 0 1.. 1.51 2596 0 9 Outfall 0 1. Use the Browse File option and look at the generated output file.3 0 1.. | | Conv err = Mean convergence error.2 and 219 in particular stand out as a violation of the requirements for kinematic wave routing since there is an inappropriate HGL.89 3248 0 19 215 0 1..-------.5%... *=========================================================* | Table E8 . Kinematic wave routing is usually very efficient: Table E8 shows that the average number of iterations is 1.

and = the current time step. Q =θ • 1or1.The flow at a new time step in the kinematic wave solution is calculated iteratively in the model by using the upstream cross sectional area and hydraulic radius.0 • L ) L R4 3 ( ) 12 First an equivalent roughness is found based on the current time step’s hydraulic radius. Module 140: Kinematic Wave Routing – Page 4 .486 n n • (Zup − Zdn ) L • Aup+1 • Rup+1 n ( ) 23 + (1 − θ ) • 1or1. = upstream hydraulic radius. The new flow is iterated until it converges based on the flow tolerance parameter. = elevation of downstream conduit invert. secondly this equivalent roughness is used to estimate the new n for the current time step or iteration. = upstream cross sectional area.0 • n 2 • nnew = neq • R 4 3 (29. The influence of minor losses such as entrance and exit losses are calculated at each time step by adjusting the roughness coefficient based on the following equations: neq = K ent + K exit + 29. = the last time step.486 n n • (Zup − Zdn ) L • Aup • Rup n ( ) 23 Where. Adverse sloped conduits are calculated in the following way: The upstream and downstream junctions are reversed internally. The kinematic wave equation then uses the downstream area and hydraulic radius to calculate the flow through the conduit. = time weighting parameter. Q θ Zup Zdn Aup Rup n n+1 = new flow at time step n+1. = elevation of upstream conduit invert. The new flow is based on a combination of the last time step area and hydraulic radius and the last iteration area and hydraulic radius.

5. Full Dynamic Wave method recommended. Solve the model and you will see the above messages in your selected editor. Data Generation Diagnostics WARNING: HDR: Links 'pipe1': Conduit slope less than 0.as shown below.XP. 0 Error(s) and 6 Warning(s) were encountered Data Export Completed Successfully Module 141: Diffusive Wave Routing – Page 1 . WARNING: HDR: Links 'syphon': Conduit slope less than 0. Full Dynamic Wave method recommended. in your workshop directory. Full Dynamic Wave method recommended. This will remove the “#” pound sign. Full Dynamic Wave method recommended. it also uses the file. Select the parameter then the enable button to activate the parameter.5. WARNING: HDR: Links 'up1': Conduit slope less than 0.5. WARNING: HDR: Links 'up2': Conduit slope less than 0. Slope ignored WARNING: HDR: Links 'syphon2': Conduit slope less than 0. We will use Diffusive wave routing for the flow in this network. KWDW. WARNING: HDR: Links 'up1': Slope inconsistent with length and invert levels.5.5. This means that Kinematic wave or Diffusion wave is not suggested for relatively flat-sloped conduits. Full Dynamic Wave method recommended. We have small and adverse slopes in this example to illustrate these points. Diffusive wave routing is used by the program when kinematic wave is selected in the Hydraulic layer of XP-SWMM and the keyword DIFFUSION is entered in the SWMM Configuration Parameters dialog .Module 141: Diffusive Wave Routing Synopsis This module is a continuation of module 140.

09 4944 0 9 K4.07 Fair Efficiency Ittrn >10 --------0 874 1778 7 1 172 122 320 Ittrn >25 --------0 328 888 0 0 57 12 50 Ittrn >40 --------0 209 633 0 0 10 2 21 Module 141: Diffusive Wave Routing – Page 2 .86 8496 0 65 219 4 3..3 97 8. Notice that node K4...--------Inflow 0 1. 36448 Efficiency of the simulation..--------..62 16496 0 101 Total number of iterations for all junctions. | | Omega Cng = Change of omega during iterations | | Max Itern = Maximum number of iterations | *=========================================================* Junction Not Convr Avg Convr Total Itt Omega Cng Max Itern -------------....80 40083 0 101 K4...40 6361 0 12 215 0 4..2 has many non-convergences.. *=========================================================* | Table E8 ..Junction Time Step Limitation Summary | *=========================================================* | Not Convr = Number of times this junction did not | | converge during the simulation.03 18344 0 79 217 0 1.. 5...47 6720 0 12 213 0 1. | | Conv err = Mean convergence error..-------....Look at both the review results and the output Table..... | | Avg Convr = Average junction iterations.2 326 18.--------. 184943 Minimum number of possible iterations.33 83499 0 101 Outfall 0 1.--------. Diffusion wave tends to oscillate when the head upstream and downstream are the same...

Module 141: Diffusive Wave Routing – Page 3 .2 and k4. Highlight the whole model and then using the shift key and the left mouse button unhighlight the conduits down1. Select the dynamic long section icon. This is because the Diffusion wave does have backwater and downstream boundary conditions affecting the flow in each conduit. Again the hydraulic grade line looks better than that pictured in module 140. The hydraulic grade line is not inconsistent like the hydraulic grade line for the kinematic wave view in module 140.3.Highlight node inflow and then using the Ctrl key and the left mouse button click on the node outfall. and siphon. This is the view of the alternate siphon route. and nodes k4. Look at the results in the long section view. up1.

Q θ Hup Hdn A R n n+1 = new flow at time step n+1. = the last time step. if the under relaxation parameter was 0.85 then 85 percent of the new iteration and 15 percent of the old iteration would be added together to give the new flow estimate.Q =θ • 1or1.486 n n • (Hup − Hdn ) L • Aup+1 • Rup+1 n ( ) 23 + (1 − θ ) • 1or1. = water surface elevation of the downstream end of the conduit. = time weighting parameter. Module 141: Diffusive Wave Routing – Page 4 . and = the current time step. = center hydraulic radius. Adverse sloped conduits are calculated in the following way: The upstream and downstream junctions are reversed internally. = water surface elevation of the upstream end of the conduit. hydraulic radius and water surface elevation slope. The new flow is iterated until it converges based on the flow tolerance parameter. For example. The flow calculated from the Diffusion wave equation is then modified based on the under relaxation parameter and a maximum iteration flow change of 25 percent. The Diffusion wave equation then uses the downstream water surface elevation minus the upstream water surface elevation to calculate the flow through the conduit.486 n n • (Hup − Hdn ) L • Aup • Rup n ( ) 23 Where. = center cross sectional area. The new flow is based on a combination of the last time step area and hydraulic radius and the last iteration area and hydraulic radius. The flow at a new time step in the Diffusion wave solution is calculated iteratively in the model by using the center cross sectional area. This flow estimate is then constrained not to increase or decrease by more than 25 percent in one iteration.

One method uses a low flow roughness factor and a break point depth. As shown in the example on the next page the roughness is 4 times the conduit roughness up until a depth of 2 feet in the low flow roughness scenario whereas it does not exist in the base model.XP. Double click with the mouse on the conduit “Trapin”. We will apply this equation to all closed conduits. It is a trapezoidal channel with the conduit factors dialog box checked on. The roughness below the break point depth can then be higher or lower than the roughness entered for the conduit. The second method uses an equation from Zaghloul (1998). Make sure you are in the Scenario “Low Flow Roughness”.Module 151: Vertically Graduated Roughness Synopsis Open the file named LOWFLOW. It will estimate the variable roughness based on the value of depth over pipe full depth in circular conduits. In the conduit factors dialog the data for the low flow roughness is entered. Module 151: Vertically Graduated Roughness – Page 1 . We will examine how to model a vertical differentiation of roughness in open or closed conduits.

You can see that the level in conduit “Trapin” is affected because of the higher roughness in the low flow roughness scenario.Solve the model and review the US level for “Trapin”. Both the base and the Scenario should be shown. Module 151: Vertically Graduated Roughness – Page 2 .

3986 0.0000 Standard culverta 1.9082 Mean Percent Change -------0. “Trapout” and “Trapin” have a mean roughness of 0.4307 1550.0000 1.-------.0146 0.6500 1.1666 0.0833 299.0523 0.0710 0.------Trapin 1.4295 1546.5924 0. and = the current roughness.0183 Culvert 0.0000 0.0000 0.0140 0.--------.--------. = diameter of pipe. in the base case.9922 0.3595 0. y d0 n n0 n = current depth.---------.1586 0.0000 0.0016 0.Use the Browse File icon to look at the output files.0494 1.6500 1.Conduit Factor Data | *==================================================* Time Low Flow Depth at Conduit Number Entrance Exit Exp/Contc Weighting Roughness Which Flow Name of Barrels Loss Coef Loss Coef Coefficnt Parameter Factor n Changes Routing -----.0000 0.5000 1.2574• ( y / d 0 ) − 23.6500 1.0035 Mean Mean Cross Conduit Area Roughness ------.0000 1.1202 5. Module 151: Vertically Graduated Roughness – Page 3 .9987 + 3.0000 0.0406 0.1253 6.--------.0000 0.-------Trapin 0.6656 0.0014 For the Scenario: Conduit Name --------------Trapin Culvert Trapout Mean Total Flow Flow (cfs) (ft^3) -------.-------.0000 0.0000 0.4873 0.0036 Mean Mean Cross Conduit Area Roughness ------.0000 Standard trapina 1.0000 Standard - Dynamic Dynamic Dynamic Dynamic Wave Wave Wave Wave If you use the SWMM configuration parameter VARIABLE_N then the model will not use the first option for vertical variable roughness.6500 4.3538 0. The input data is echoed in Table E2 as shown in the tables below.0015 Trapout 0.0000 0.0000 0.-------0.1001 360.9926 Mean Mean Froude Hydraulic Number Radius -----. Mean Conduit Flow Information | *===========================================* Mean Total Mean Conduit Flow Flow Percent Name (cfs) (ft^3) Change --------------. Table E12 lists the mean conduit roughness for each conduit in the model.0000 0.0559.7108• ( y / d 0 ) + 27.0140 *==================================================* | Table E2 . = reference roughness from the dialog.0716 0.0000 Standard Culvert 1.3689 0.0000 0.5375 0.9094 0.0000 0.--------12.0000 0.1251 0. The mean conduit roughness for conduit “Trapin” in the scenario is higher because of the roughness at depths less than 2 feet is 0.--------.-------0.0494 1.9922 Mean Mean Froude Hydraulic Number Radius -----.6642 0.0778 0.0000 0.9926 0.0110 0.9963 0.0871 313.0014 Low Flow Weightng -------0.-------0.--------.4963• ( y / d 0 ) + 7.1039 374.--------12.4616• ( y / d 0 ) − 14.5000 1.0559 0. = current roughness.4909• ( y / d 0 ) n0 Where. In this option we will use the following equation from Zaghloul (1998) for circular conduits: n 1 2 3 4 5 = 0.0110 0.014.0000 0.0140 Low Flow Weightng -------0. *===========================================* | Table E12.--------.

Close your existing file and open up the file named LOWFLOW1.-------Trapin 0. Vol. 73-76.5626 0. conduit shapes.1192 5.9704 0.0120 0.-------0.0015 1.3313 0.5967 0. The data that modifies the conduit roughness is shown below in the conduit factors dialog for the link “Culvert”. and boundary conditions for each of the networks shown above in the hydraulic layer of XP-SWMM.0509 0. 124.0000 Culvert 0. “Flow Simulation in Circular Pipes with Variable Roughness Using SWMM-EXTRAN Model”.XP have the same inflow.5505 Mean Mean Froude Hydraulic Number Radius -----.0979 352.8192 0. No.--------11.0000 FREE # 1 0.0816 293.-------.-------. The output Table E12 will list the mean conduit roughness for each conduit. N.0490 1. This file will use the circular conduit equation for vertical roughness changes in the conduit “culvert”.011 based on the Zaghloul (1988) equation. (1998). Module 151: Vertically Graduated Roughness – Page 4 .6511 0.A. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering.XP. pp.0140 0.0035 Mean Mean Cross Conduit Area Roughness ------. The mean roughness for culvert is higher than the base roughness of 0. Solve the model. *===========================================* | Table E12.0813 292. 1. Mean Conduit Flow Information | *===========================================* Mean Total Mean Low Conduit Flow Flow Percent Flow Name (cfs) (ft^3) Change Weightng --------. This XP file and LOWFLOW.0806 Trapout 0.0012 0.4273 1538.-------. The only difference is the treatment of low flow roughness in either conduit “Trapin” or “Culvert”.0701 0.0140 Reference: Zaghloul.3459 0.0087 0.

There will be three types of data: global database infiltration and rainfall data. Using a value of 0 or 1 for the R_INFILM field indicates the infiltration method.1 R_DECAY "" 0 1 0.XPX shown below is a template for the minimum data required to import into XP-SWMM for Runoff subcatchments using the Runoff method. Width and Slope.XPX.01 "" "" "" "" R_FSCS "Runoff" 0 1 0 R_GWTAG "Runoff" 0 1 0 R_RAINSEL "Runoff" 0 1 "Rainfall Data" R_INFILSEL "Runoff" 0 1 "Infiltration Data" Module 152: Runoff Layer XPX Import – Page 1 .05 R_PROUGH "" 1 1 0.05 R_PROUGH "" 0 1 0. The second paragraph imports a Green-Ampt infiltration type record into instance “1” or the second record in the list.05 R_WSTOR2 "" 0 1 0. The first file is INFIL. A 1 is “on” a 0 is “off”. The field R_RFCMNT is the subcatchment flag. "" "" "" "" R_WIMP "Runoff" 0 5 40.0 R_WSTOR1 "" 1 1 0.0 /* Global data type & name */ /* Horton infiltration */ /* Max infiltration */ /* Min infiltration */ /* decay rate */ /* Imp storage */ /* Perv storage */ /* Imp roughness */ /* Perv roughness */ /* Imp area with zero detention */ /* /* /* /* /* Global data type & name */ Green Ampt infiltration */ Capillary Suction */ Initial Moisture Deficit */ Hydraulic Conductivity */ The file RUNOFF.78359375 442. NODE DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA 134 "Runoff" 82.Module 152: Runoff Layer XPX Import Synopsis In this module we learn how to import Runoff layer XPX data into XP-SWMM.255859375 R_RFCMNT "Runoff" 0 5 1 0 0 0 0 R_WAREA "Runoff" 0 5 15. The R_GWTAG selects the state of the groundwater flag as 0 for “off and 1 for “on”.0 "Infiltration" 1 "GREEN" R_INFILM "" 1 1 1 R_SUCT "" 1 1 1. "" "" "" "" R_WSLOPE "Runoff" 0 5 . the last two lines indicate which rainfall and infiltration global databases to use. The next four fields are the Area.05 R_IROUGH "" 1 1 0. It can be viewed with any text editor.001 R_WSTOR1 "" 0 1 0. The R_FSCS selects the routing method with 0 being the EPA SWMM Runoff method.2 R_PCTZER "" 1 1 25. "" "" "" "" R_WIDTH "Runoff" 0 5 100. and subcatchment physical data.0 R_WLMIN "" 0 1 0. The syntax of the GLDB command is as follows: GLDB “Record Type” Instance “Name for Record” GLDB DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA GLDB DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA "Infiltration" 0 "HORTON" R_INFILM "" 0 1 0 R_WLMAX "" 0 1 1.05 R_WSTOR2 "" 1 1 0. % Impervious. Finally. The first paragraph imports a Horton Infiltration type Global Database record called “Horton” into instance “0” which is the first record. There can be up to 5 subcatchments per node therefore there are optional placeholders “” for blank fields.31 R_HYDCON "" 1 1 1.0 R_SMDMAX "" 1 1 0.2 R_PCTZER "" 0 1 25.05 R_IROUGH "" 0 1 0.

1 0.25 0.6630 0.Variable */ GLDB "Rainfall" 1 "Variable" DATA R_ROPT "" 1 1 0 /* User defined rainfall DATA R_KTYPE "" 1 1 1 /* Variable rainfall DATA R_KPREPV "" 1 1 1 /* Absolute Depth DATA R_RMULTV "" 1 1 1.0 0.25 0.5 /* Duration Values */ data – Tipping Bucket */ "Tipping" 1 0 /* User defined rainfall 1 2 /* Tipping Bucket Data 1 "10/26/1994" /* Storm Start Date 1 "00:00" /* Storm Start Time */ */ */ */ DATA R_BVOL "" 2 4 0.5 0.9722 1.The following list is the Record Type names to be used for importing global database records.9408 0.0 /* Time Values */ 0.8976 0. /* Constant Rainfall data .0010 0.0 /* Rainfall Multiplier DATA R_KTIMEV "" 1 1 1 /* Time Interval in Hours DATA R_TZRDT "" 1 1 "10/26/1994" /* Storm Start Date DATA R_TZRTM "" 1 1 "00:00" /* Storm Start Time DATA R_RAIN "" 1 DATA R_TRAIN "" 1 DATA R_DRAIN "" 1 /* Tipping Bucket GLDB "Rainfall" 2 DATA R_ROPT "" 2 DATA R_KTYPE "" 2 DATA R_TZRDT "" 2 DATA R_TZRTM "" 2 5 5 5 */ */ */ */ */ */ */ 1.25 0.SCS Type II Design Storm*/ GLDB "Rainfall" 0 "SCS Type II" DATA R_ROPT "" 0 1 0 /* User defined rainfall DATA R_KTYPE "" 0 1 0 /* Constant rainfall DATA R_KPREPC "" 0 1 2 /* Cumulative Depth DATA R_RMULT "" 0 1 6.5 0.0 0.1 /* Time Interval DATA R_TZRDT "" 0 1 "10/26/1994" /* Storm Start Date DATA R_TZRTM "" 0 1 "00:00" /* Storm Start Time */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ /* Rainfall Values Read Left to Right Top to Bottom */ DATA R_REIN "" 0 10 0.0281 0. a Variable Rainfall type and a tipping bucket rainfall type.0 3.5 0.75 2.000 /* Variable Rainfall data .1 0.XPX shows how to import an XPX file for a design storm using cumulative depth in the constant time step section.8342 0.0614 0. The names must be exactly used as shown in order to import into the global database.1 0. "Pollutant" "Groundwater" "Initial Loads" "BMP" "WS Temperatures" "Landuse List" "Gauged Pollutants" "User Defined File Types" "Buildup/Washoff" "Infiltration" "Rainfall" "DW Sewer Inflows" "Temporal Variations" "GlobalDB" "Pump Ratings" "XP Tables" "Erosion" "Landuse" "Snow Melt" "Sewer infiltration" "Pollutant List" "StatPollutants" "Pit Rating Curves" The file RAINFALL.1051 0.1 /* Rainfall Values or Tip Depth */ DATA R_BDATE "" 2 4 ‘01/01/98’ ‘01/01/98’ ‘01/01/98’ ‘01/01/98’ /* Date of Tip */ DATA R_BTIME "" 2 4 ‘00:00:00’ ‘00:01:00’ ‘00:02:00’ ‘00:03:00’ /* Time of Tip */ Module 152: Runoff Layer XPX Import – Page 2 .5 1.0 /* Rainfall Values */ 0.3 /* Rainfall Multiplier DATA R_HOFF "" 0 1 0 /* User defined rainfall DATA R_KTIMEC "" 0 1 1 /* Time Interval in Hours DATA R_THISTO "" 0 1 0.25 0.

RAIN.Now Import in succession the RUNOFF. One node will be created with the data shown below. Choose XPX file and click the Import button. The Import command is found in the File Menu.XPX AND INFIL.XPX files. Module 152: Runoff Layer XPX Import – Page 3 .XPX.

Checking the Global Database from the Configuration menu will confirm the import of the two Infiltration Records and three rainfall records. Module 152: Runoff Layer XPX Import – Page 4 .

5 1.0 1.0 1. The file DWF.75 1.25 0.XPX if imported directly into the Sanitary layer of XP-SWMM will be active in that layer. This file is stored in DWF. 0 is cfs */ 1 10 /* Flow Rate */ 1 100 /* Area in Acres or Hectares */ 1 12 /* Population Density persons/ac or ha */ 1 1 /* Local Flow Peaking Factor */ 1 12 /* Population Density persons per acre */ 1 1 /* Predominant Land Use Residential=1 */ 1 "DWF Pattern" /* Pattern for this Node */ 1 1.XPX in your work directory. If you import the file DWF.5 0.75 1.5 0.XPX into either the Runoff or Hydraulics layer of XP-SWMM.5 1.25 0.0 1.0 1. then the data will be in the right dialog but the Sanitary layer node will not be active.0 1.25 0.0 1. NODE DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA 134 T_NTYPE T_FSEWIN T_FCON T_QCON T_FCHCGO T_PRTY DRY_WTH_UN T_SEWAGE T_ASUB T_POPDEN T_DWF_PFAC T_FUDEF T_KLAND T_DWF_TVAR T_DWLNGS T_PCGG T_FAMILY T_XINCOM T_VALUE T_METHOD T_FDWLNG "Process "Process "Process "Process "Process "Process "Process "Process "Process "Process "Process "Process "Process "Process "Process "Process "Process "Process "Process "Process "Process "Process Q" Q" Q" Q" Q" Q" Q" Q" Q" Q" Q" Q" Q" Q" Q" Q" Q" Q" Q" Q" Q" Q" 72 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 430 1 19 /* Node Type selected is Manhole */ 1 1 /* Sewer Inputs Flag */ 1 0 /* Constant Inflow Flag */ 1 0 /* Constant Inflow Value */ 1 1 /* Dry Weather Flow Flag */ 1 3 /* DWF Generation Method Direct Inflow=3 */ 1 0 /* DWF Units.5 1.0 1. /* Average People per Dwelling */ 1 0. There will be two types of data: global database dry weather flow data and manhole specific data associated with dry weather flow.0 1.25 0.0 1.0 1. /* % Homes with Garbage Grinders */ 1 4.5 0. The example below for node “Process Q” will bring in all of the necessary data to activate a Sanitary node for dry weather flow including all associated flags.5 0. /* Number of Dwellings */ 1 0.0 1.75 1.5 1.75 1.0 /* Daily and Hourly Peaking Factors */ Module 153: Sanitary Layer XPX Import – Page 1 .0 1.0 1.0 /* Hourly variations */ DATA T_HV "" 0 24 1.Module 153: Sanitary Layer XPX Import Synopsis In this module we will learn how to import Sanitary layer XPX data into XP-SWMM. /* Family Income */ 1 800000 /* Market Value of Home */ 1 1 /* Residential Type Single=1 Multi = 2*/ 1 0 /* Number of Dwellings Check Box */ /* The following set is only required for global data import */ GLDB "DW Sewer Inflows" 0 "DWF" /* Global data type & name */ DATA T_NFILTH "" 0 1 1 DATA T_FTHREF "" 0 1 "DWF" /* Global study area data only used for EPA Methodology */ DATA T_POPULA "" 0 1 0 DATA T_CPI "" 0 1 300 DATA T_CCCI "" 0 1 300 DATA T_KDAY "" 0 1 1 /* Global study area data only used for EPA Methodology */ DATA T_FSTUDY "" 0 1 0 DATA T_DADOM "" 0 1 0 DATA T_DAINF "" 0 1 0 GLDB "Temporal Variations" 0 "DWF Pattern" /* Daily variations */ DATA T_DV "" 0 7 1.

set a simulation length of 12 hours. Change to the Sanitary Layer by selecting the San Icon from the toolstrip. After importing you should see the small network shown below with one node. The node is activated and all of the data is present in the correct dialogs. check save all results for review and solve the model to view the generated DWF. Check the validity of the import by trying to solve the model. 3 Error(s) and 1 Warning(s) were encountered Data Export Was NOT Completed Successfully Module 153: Sanitary Layer XPX Import – Page 2 .XP.Create a new XP file called DATA. Using defaults. Data Generation Diagnostics ERROR: SAN: Invalid simulation start date ERROR: SAN: Job Control: : Missing Data ERROR: SAN: Job Control: Print Control: Missing Data WARNING: SAN: Job Control Options data not entered. The Import Dialog is in the File menu.XPX from the work directory. and import the file DWF. Use Print Control Defaults. You should just get the messages shown above concerning missing data in the Sanitary Job Control dialogs.

Open the file ORFSMALL. This feature has been used to simulate such network elements as the operation of river locks. which is varying the parameters of an orifice over time in XP-SWMM.Module 154: Time Varying Orifices Synopsis This module presents a useful time controlled element.XP to see how to simulate the closing of an orifice. Double-Click on the dashed link “orifice 1” to view the orifice data and the time varying control data. regulators and pump schedules. Module 154: Time Varying Orifices – Page 1 .

1 button to view the fixed orifice data as shown below.61.005 ft2 from hour 1 to 2 and the coefficient is constant at 0. An area of 0.0 is rectangular in shape and has dimensions of 4 ft tall and 0. The orifice is a side outlet type with an invert at 0.Select the Orifice No.005 is effectively closed so the flow drops to near zero for that part of the simulation.5 ft wide to yield an area of 2 ft2. Select the Vary with Time button to view the time dependent change in the coefficient and area of the orifice. Module 154: Time Varying Orifices – Page 2 . For example. This dialog allows the value of discharge coefficient and the orifice area to be adjusted based on the simulation time. in this model the orifice area is .

..... PIPE LENGTH....-----------.. Area (ft2) ----2....................------------0..94 0.0100 Note: For a Bottom-outlet orifice the invert elevation of the downstream node will be adjusted to accomodate the equivalent conduit..... As can be seen in the graph the flows drops to near zero when the orifice is almost completely closed....... The flow into the network is a constant 2 cfs in the most upstream node.--------------ORIF#1 4 6 Rect Side ====> EQUIVALENT PIPE INFORMATION FOR ORIFICE CONDUIT NAME......00 Depth (ft) ----4......... INVERT ELEVATION AT UPSTREAM END.0043 0......0000 -0. As can be seen in the output file from the Orifice Data Table orifices in SWMM are changed to equivalent circular or rectangular pipes depending on the selected orifice geometry....610 0.......................... *==========================================* | Orifice Data | *==========================================* Conduit From To Name Junction Junction Type ------------............ Conduit grades are not affected. INVERT ELEVATION AT DOWNSTREAM END. Downstream node.....Solve the model and review the results for the orifice........000 1 ORIF#1 4 6 4.. PIPE DIAMETER........... Module 154: Time Varying Orifices – Page 3 ..............00 680.............00 Discharge Height Above Coefficient Junction (ft) ----------. MANNINGS ROUGHNESS.... Upstream node...

..............44 0.....0083 . ################################################### # Table E22........94 MANNINGS ROUGHNESS.... ..................2689 percent -0.......1958E+02 SIMULATION TIME IN HOURS.............. 2. 680....... Module 154: Time Varying Orifices – Page 4 .....1958E+02 SIMULATION TIME IN HOURS.................................4268E-02 New Qfull................ CONDUIT NAME..........ORIF#1 Upstream node..00 PIPE LENGTH............. 0................. Numerical Model judgement section # ################################################### Your overall error was Worst nodal error was in node 4 Of the total inflow this loss was Your overall continuity error was Efficiency of the simulation Most Number of Non Convergences at one Node Total Number Non Convergences at all Nodes Total Number of Nodes with Non Convergences with -0.4903 percent 0.....4 Downstream node.................................................... 0. Below is the view of the Simulation Tolerances dialog and the continuity error after reducing the minimum orifice length to 100 feet................0083 Run the model as is and then using the Simulation Tolerances dialog of the Job Control Change the default orifice length from 300 to 100 feet.. 4.......................61 PIPE DIAMETER............... ... the output file will record the various changes in the orifice data and echo these into the output file.... 4.........94 MANNINGS ROUGHNESS....... 680.... 0.4268E-02 New Qfull.... 0... This is found just after the initial conditions table...9144 percent Excellent Fair Efficiency 4...6 ORIFICE AREA.... 0...........................ORIF#1 Upstream node.. 0.. 0........00 PIPE LENGTH.00 ORIFICE DISCHARGE COEFFICIENT....... 0.....00 ORIFICE DISCHARGE COEFFICIENT..............6 ORIFICE AREA...In addition..............61 PIPE DIAMETER....... This can reduce continuity errors that are associated with nodes with orifices......................... 2.4 Downstream node...... 4.... CONDUIT NAME.. Additional cycles omitted here for space..... 0...........

This model consists of a culvert with upstream and downstream trapezoidal channels. At the most upstream end of the network is a user-defined inflow hydrograph. Module 155: Minor Losses in the EPA Version 4 Solutions – Page 1 . Using the Configuration Parameter MINOR_LOSS activates the minor losses in the EPA solutions.XP located in the work directory.Module 155: Minor Losses in the EPA Version 4 Solutions Synopsis This module explains how to add and view the effects of adding entrance and exit losses to the EPA Version 4 solutions. We will examine these losses using a simple culvert example. Load the file MINOR44. Configuration Parameters are entered by selecting the Configuration Parameters dialog from the Configuration menu.

The EPA solutions only use the Max time step iterations. The Explicit solution is the Version 3 solution. Module 155: Minor Losses in the EPA Version 4 Solutions – Page 2 .The EPA EXTRAN solutions are selected by choosing the Version 4 button of the Routing Control Dialog from the Job Control. the Enhanced Explicit and the Iterative solutions were added to version 4 of EXTRAN. Each conduit can have unique minor losses. roughness factor and flow adjustment factor from this dialog. The conduit specific entrance and exit losses are entered in the conduit factors dialog. The Conduit Factors dialog is selected from the first Conduit Data dialog. There are three EPA solutions.

5*ABS(QO(N)/ANL)*DELT2/LEN(N) DELQ5 = DEL51*PLE(N) + DEL52*PLC(N) ELSEIF(PLC(N).EQ.0 ENDIF ELSE DELQ5 = 0.1) THEN IF(PLC(N). it uses the current time step velocity !note ANL = Used in Entrance loss. = last time or half time step flow.0) THEN DELQ5 = 0.NE. g • A• Sf See1 = Where. and = current time step. !note !======================================================================= IF(IJARG(78). Aup and Adn L Q ∆t = Cross section area upstream and area downstream.0 DEL51 = 0.NE.0 ENDIF Module 155: Minor Losses in the EPA Version 4 Solutions – Page 3 .NE. it uses the current time step velocity !note The loss = [1/2*K*V^2/g] is factored into the momentum !note equation similarly to the friction slope !note The loss momentum term = g*A * [1/2*K*V^2/g] !note = g*A * [1/2*K*Q/A*Q/A/g] !note = g * [1/2*K*|Q/A| /g] * Q !note The loss term is then solved for implicity at each time step.0. !======================================================================= !red Calculate pit loss terms .0.0.PLE(N). The FORTRAN code for the losses in the EPA Solution are shown below.Entrance and exit l osses (See) are calculated at each time step in the momentum equation by using a loss term: g • A • S ee which is calculated similarly to the friction loss Sf in the momentum equation.5*PLC(N)*ABS(QO(N)/ANL)*DELT2/LEN(N) ELSEIF(PLE(N).5*PLE(N)*ABS(QO(N)/ANH)*DELT2/LEN(N) ELSE DELQ5 = 0.5*ABS(QO(N)/ANH)*DELT2/LEN(N) DEL52 = 0.added to version 4 solutions .NE. The losses are solved implicitly with the new flow Qn+1 factored out of See1 and See2. = length of conduit.0. Ke • Q Aup • ∆t S ee 2 = Ke • Q 2• L Adn 2• L • ∆t Momentum Term = Q n +1 • ( S ee1 + S ee 2 ) The losses at each time step are calculated using the equations See1 and See2 as shown above.0) THEN DELQ5 = 0.0.AND.7/15/95 !note DELQ5 is the sum of the loss at both ends of the conduit !note ANH = Used in Exit loss.0) THEN DELQ5 = 0.

0000 9. | | Use this section for culvert comparisons | *===============================================================* Conduit Maximum Head Friction Critical Normal HW TW Name Flow Loss Loss Depth Depth Elevat Elevat --------------.9667 0.5327 0.0000 Culvert 0.0000 0.2542 2.------------0. critical and normal depth (Yc and Yn).--------.0000 0.7479 2.4897 0. Channel losses(H).------.-------.0000 0.2706 Trapout 122.0000 Max Flow Max Flow Max Flow Outlet Inlet Inlet Control Control Configuration ------.7000 0.0000 6.0000 None 59.--------Trapin 240. The Dynamic Wave Equation is used for | | all conduit analysis but the culvert flow classification | | condition is based on the HW and TW depths.0000 0. The time is | | in minutes.0000 0.-------Trapin 1.4000 0.3206 5. The peak flow through the conduit as well at the HW and TW elevations are listed in this table.0000 0.--------.4000 0.4000 0. | *==========================================================* Mild Mild Steep Mild Mild Slope Slope TW Slope TW Slug Flow Slope Slope Critical D Control Insignf Outlet/ TW > D TW <= D Conduit Outlet Outlet Entrance Entrance Outlet Outlet Name Control Control Control Control Control Control ---------.0085 3.0000 None 59.-------.5099 0. CULVERT ANALYSIS CLASSIFICATION.0460 2. | | and the time the culvert was in a particular | | classification during the simulation.--------.0000 0. *===============================================================* | Table E13.0000 0.7658 9. Table E13 will list the minor loss total and friction loss in units of feet of head.0000 0.8912 10.0000 0.Solve the model and use the Browse File command to look at the output file.2781 1.--------.1333 51.6753 3.--------.--------.8428 2. tailwater | | depth (TW).0000 None Module 155: Minor Losses in the EPA Version 4 Solutions – Page 4 .4000 0.0474 *==========================================================* | Table E13a.0000 0.--------.0000 0.--------. headwater depth (HW).------.2156 9.0000 Trapout 0.8114 2.7334 Culvert 122.

Evaporation is not usually modeled in Hydraulics .it is only used when the SWMM configuration parameter EXT_EVAP is used in the SWMM Configuration Parameters dialog and the amount of flow is significant for continuous simulations. The daily or monthly evaporation data is entered in this dialog. The actual lake evaporation estimates are entered in the Runoff layer of XP-SWMM.XP. If no data is entered in the 12 monthly evaporation fields then no evaporation will be estimated by Hydraulics even though the parameter EXT_EVAP is used. Module 158: Evaporation in Hydraulics Layer – Page 1 .Module 158: Evaporation in Hydraulics Layer Synopsis We will use the file EXEVAP. to look at how evaporation from storage nodes may be modeled in the Hydraulics layer. The evaporation dialog box is under EVAPORATION in the Runoff layer JOB CONTROL.

---------.Solve the model.0000 0.8181 Average Outflow. cfs ------------3.Junction Inflow Sources | | Units are either ft^3 or m^3 | | depending on the units in your model. At the beginning of each time step the evaporation estimate for the month times the surface area of the pond times the time step is taken off the top of the storage pond or storage area in Hydraulics.| *===================================================* Constant User Interface DWF Inflow RNF Layer Junction Inflow Inflow Inflow Inlow through Inflow Outflow Evaporation Name to Node to Node to Node to Node Outfall to Node from Node from Node --------. Continuity balance at the end of the simulation | | Junction Inflow.5618 2 0.5000 -10145.a gain | *===============================================* There is no evaporation if the storage node is dry.---------. Percent = -0. .--------.0000 Cu Ft | | Inflow + Initial volume = 10860.1679 Average Inflow.1679 0.----------1 7200.0000 0. ft^3 = -19.814 | | + Error means a continuity loss.---------.8181 *=====================================================* | Initial system volume = 0.---------.1679 Cu Ft | | Volume left in system = 739.0010 Cu Ft | | Total system inflow volume = 10860.0010 Cu Ft | *=====================================================* | Total system outflow = 10145.0000 0. *===================================================* | Table E19 .9764 Cu Ft | | Evaporation = 0.ft^3 -----------10145. cfs -----------2.0000 10145.Final Volume | *===================================================================* Inflow Junction --------------1 2 Outflow Junction --------------2 Inflow Volume.1679 Outflow Volume.0000 0.1443 Cu Ft | *=====================================================* *===============================================* | Total Model Continuity Error | | Error in Continuity.0000 0.0000 0.0201 -2.Outflow .0235 Module 158: Evaporation in Hydraulics Layer – Page 2 .5853 Cu Ft | | Outflow + Final Volume = 10885.0000 3660.0000 0.0000 0. The individual node evaporation losses are printed out in Table E19. *===================================================================* | Table E21.0000 0. At the present time even manholes lose volume to evaporation. Outflow or Street Flooding | | Error = Inflow + Initial Volume . The total evaporation is listed in Table E21.---------.ft^3 -----------10872.---------.0000 0.0000 0.1825 | | Error in Continuity.

The half-foot diameter pipe is offset 4 feet from the invert of the wet well. Module 161: Basement Flooding Example – Page 1 .Module 161: Basement Flooding Example Synopsis In this example we will examine one way in which to model basement flooding in a sanitary or combined sewer network. Additionally. The basements will not flood until the wet well depth reaches at least four feet. The area of the house basements is simulated as a storage node offline from the main sanitary system.XP. A small half-foot pipe conveys the overflow from the sanitary system to the basement representing the house connection. many homes could be modeled this way with their cumulative stage storage being represented by a few strategically placed storage nodes and the conduit factor “number of barrels” for the connecting conduits could represent the number of residential connections. Load the file named BASEMENT.

0000 Stored in System Ponding Allowed Flood Pond Volume ----------------0. The inflow ends after the pump reaches a pumping rate of 10 cfs.0000 0. or the simulated amount of basement flooding is almost 570 cubic feet.8000 165. Module 161: Basement Flooding Example – Page 2 .5301 103. From this table we find that the volume stored in the node basement is about 570 cubic feet.0000 0.0000 Junction Name --------------wet well mid pt outfall basement Surcharged Time (min) ---------119.0000 0. | | The fourth column is instantaneous.0837 62. *=====================================================* | Table E20 .Junction Flooding and Volume Listing. The volume in the | | flooded storage area is the total volume| | above the ground elevation.4000 Flooded Time(min) --------0. where the | | flooded pond storage area starts.0000 0.0000 Maximum Volume --------1027.0000 0. the fifth is the| | sum of the flooded volume over the entire simulation| | Units are either ft^3 or m^3 depending on the units.1143 Table E20 lists the maximum volume stored in any of the nodes of the network.8300 568.0000 0.Solve the model and look at the inflow to the storage node (represents a basement). This is the max | | volume at any time.0000 0.| *=====================================================* Out of System Flooded Volume --------0.0000 0.4866 165.2823 79.0000 0. | | The maximum volume is the total volume | | in the node including the volume in the | | flooded storage area.

A small half-foot pipe conveys the overflow from the sanitary system to the basement representing the house connection. The area of the house basements is simulated as a storage node offline from the main sanitary system. The basements will not flood until the wet well depth reaches at least four feet. Load the file named BASEMENT.Module 161: Basement Flooding Example Synopsis In this example we will examine one way in which to model basement flooding in a sanitary or combined sewer network.XP. many homes could be modeled this way with their cumulative stage storage being represented by a few strategically placed storage nodes and the conduit factor “number of barrels” for the connecting conduits could represent the number of residential connections. Additionally. The half-foot diameter pipe is offset 4 feet from the invert of the wet well. Module 161: Basement Flooding Example – Page 1 .

4866 165.8300 568.0000 0.0000 Stored in System Ponding Allowed Flood Pond Volume ----------------0.0000 0.0837 62. *=====================================================* | Table E20 .8000 165.4000 Flooded Time(min) --------0. or the simulated amount of basement flooding is almost 570 cubic feet.0000 0.5301 103.Junction Flooding and Volume Listing. Module 161: Basement Flooding Example – Page 2 .Solve the model and look at the inflow to the storage node (represents a basement).2823 79. where the | | flooded pond storage area starts.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Maximum Volume --------1027.0000 0. | | The fourth column is instantaneous.| *=====================================================* Out of System Flooded Volume --------0. | | The maximum volume is the total volume | | in the node including the volume in the | | flooded storage area. The volume in the | | flooded storage area is the total volume| | above the ground elevation.0000 0. From this table we find that the volume stored in the node basement is about 570 cubic feet.0000 Junction Name --------------wet well mid pt outfall basement Surcharged Time (min) ---------119. The inflow ends after the pump reaches a pumping rate of 10 cfs. the fifth is the| | sum of the flooded volume over the entire simulation| | Units are either ft^3 or m^3 depending on the units. This is the max | | volume at any time.1143 Table E20 lists the maximum volume stored in any of the nodes of the network.0000 0.

probabilistic. The dialog right is from the global database shows the locations for entering total sums of infiltration from various sources. etc.) should match the methodology employed for the modeling. and percent of streamflow methods also may be valuable.Module 162: Modeling Rain Derived Infiltration and Inflow (RDII) Synopsis Rain derived infiltration and inflows (RDII) is the portion of a sanitary sewer flow hydrograph which is above the normal dry weather flow pattern. (WERF. and rainfall/flow regression methods all tested well for quantifying isolated single events. and receiving waters. Module 162: Modeling Rain Derived Infiltration and Inflow (RDII) – Page 1 . It also contributes to seasonal elevated wet-weather flows when the groundwater table is above the sewer inverts. Reliable estimates of RDII throughout the network are critical to the development of effective plans to control SSOs. The ultimate purpose of RDII quantification (control effectiveness. These include Groundwater Infiltration. Wet Weather Infiltration and Snow Melt Infiltration. synthetic unit hydrograph. facility planning. The researchers also found that under certain circumstances. It is caused by precipitation inputs that infiltrate the soil then the network such as rainfall or snowmelt. property. 1) Modeling Infiltration Based on EPA Transport Infiltration Algorithm The Sanitary (Transport plus Storage/Treatment) layer has the capacity to take total sums of infiltration and divide it among conduits based on diameter and length. 1999) All of these methods can be employed in XP-SWMM and some of the detail is outlined below. forces the user to employ the Kinematic wave routing in the Sanitary layer and does not allow aging sewers to have more infiltration. Dry Weather Infiltration. urban wet weather management. the constant unit rate. RDII contributes to SSOs of wastewater to streets. This method however. Researchers have concluded that the percent of rainfall. system sizing and design. but that the synthetic unit hydrograph and rainfall/flow regression methods were preferred for predicting multiple events.

to a resulting amount of measured infiltration. sewer age groundwater table location etc. another option is to add them to an XP model simply import them by using XPX files. which creates an interface file from . This requires that any nodes in Runoff that would have flows generated.CSV hydrographs that represents the infiltration and inflows. This is set up at any number of nodes in the “Gauged Inflow” option. Since the data is entered at many nodes portions of the network to have more or less infiltration flows based on observation. Module 162: Modeling Rain Derived Infiltration and Inflow (RDII) – Page 2 . or user-defined hydrographs that are either imported or read from an external file using our flexible file reader. External programs and spreadsheets have been written to perform these calculations. These flows representing infiltration can be simple constant inputs. 6 hours. Additionally. and prepare XPX files or interface files for XP-SWMM. The Runoff layer can calculate the rainfall-runoff process by employing 10 different hydrology methods. 2 days.2) Specifying Unique Infiltration as Constant Flows or User-Defined Hydrographs A more sophisticated methods is to add unique infiltration values to any number of Hydraulics nodes as constant inflows or user defined hydrographs. etc. If the flows are generated outside of XP-SWMM. One program known to this author is PSCRAT a utility developed by the City of Portland. our flexible file reader allows external files of flows to be accessed during a run. Use the following field names for importing the flows QO for constant inflows. TEO for the time of the user defined hydrograph and QCARD for the paired flow values. These inputs can represent the estimated or measured RDII into the network at various locations. be active in the Runoff layer and the Hydraulics layer so that these flows could pass from Runoff through Hydraulics and be summed there with the DWFs. 5 days. 1 week. users will generate a regression equation that relates the amount of rain in the previous several weeks. 3) Using Regression Based RDII Flows as User-Defined Hydrographs More and more. 4) Generating RDII Hydrographs Based on Simulated Rainfall and Sewershed Data In order for the RDII hydrographs of many storms or a continuous simulation to be used the Runoff layer should be employed and the generated RDII flows linked through interface files to be routed in Hydraulics.

Rational Method 6.The twelve hydrology methods that can be used to directly simulate RDII are: 1. Then by adjusting the parameter zero detention percentage from 0 to 100% this value represents the amount of rainfall that is converted to inflow. so the inflow is timed very closely to the rainfall. First Method The first method can be accomplished by employing 4 different strategies. The first strategy is to adjust or calibrate the area of the subcatchment so that the runoff hydrograph is proportional to the amount of inflow desired. Additional lag time could be represented with a conduit or adjustments in catchment width. Colorado Hydrograph 12. SCS 5. Using the SCS hydrology method with a long time of concentration (>60 minutes). If 15% of the hydrograph is inflow then 15% of the area will generate the desired amount of flow. slope or Manning's roughness. Santa Barbara Unit Hydrograph 11. Snyder (Alemeda County) 9. On the next page is a typical node employing the strategy described above. small hydrograph shape factors (<256) and low pervious area curve numbers (<30) the unit hydrographs can represent the II. Runoff 2. It is important that the sum of the unit hydrographs that represent the infiltration and inflow together with the hydrograph representing the storm flows produce the total response and that the total runoff for the unit hydrograph for infiltration into the sewer does not exceed the infiltration total from the storm water hydrograph. A high degree of calibration can be achieved using multiple subcatchments employing this strategy. As mentioned above additional changes to the model can increase the lag for this hydrograph. This method does not generate very much lagging in the hydrograph. This guaranties that the total surface infiltration is the only source for the infiltration into the pipes. Module 162: Modeling Rain Derived Infiltration and Inflow (RDII) – Page 3 . A third strategy is to modify the catchment so that most of the runoff is captured by infiltration and by using a small subcatchment width and the groundwater module. A second strategy is to modify the catchment so that it is 100% impervious and has large impervious detention storage so that all the rainfall is captured. LA County Method One of the least understood or documented capabilities of SWMM is adjusting the amount of inflow generated from the Runoff layer to represent the RDII. A fourth strategy involves selecting a Unit Hydrograph routing method to generate runoff several hydrographs some with fast response some with a slow response and long recession limb. Time Area 7. Snyder 8. if conduits are buried below the groundwater table then this additional source can be modeled. Kinematic Wave 3. Second Method The second method to capture a portion of the storm flows is to construct flow dividers or other hydraulic structures that restrict the amount of Runoff that enters the sanitary sewer system nodes that save flows on the interface file for Hydraulics. Nash 10. There are basically two strategies. The first deals with simulating only a representative area of the surface catchment so that a portion of the hydrograph becomes infiltration and inflow to the sewer. the user can produce a long recession limb in the hydrograph to represent the inflow. Catchment 4 represents the surface runoff being captured by the combined sewer. Catchments 2 and 3 are using the SCS methodology to create long responses to represent infiltration and inflow. Laurenson 4. However.

One of the Subcatchments at the node represents the storm water runoff component. Based on infiltration occurring during the simulation the groundwater table can rise beyond a static threshold or a dynamic conduit depth of the Runoff or Hydraulic and generate infiltration. while one or more unit hydrograph methods such as SCS are used to develop long and lagged hydrographs to represent the inflow and infiltration into the sewer. This methodology allows the most deterministic approach to RDII but requires calibration for spatial and seasonal effects. Within the Runoff layer the user can model several components of flow by employing a strategy of developing several hydrographs from the same subcatchment.In this method it is important that the conduits that are used to split the flows are active only in the Runoff or Sanitary layer and that the conduits downstream nodes where interface file flows are stored are active in the layer to receive flows as well the layer where the conduit is active. 5) Using Groundwater Mounding to Generate RDII Based on Dynamic Conduit Depths SWMM Runoff allows the modeler to simulate the rise and fall of the groundwater table seasonally in continuous simulations or during an event. This infiltrated water is then passed on to the Hydraulics layer for routing and combination with the dry weather flows. Issue 4 Water Environment Research Foundation Module 162: Modeling Rain Derived Infiltration and Inflow (RDII) – Page 4 . Volume 10. the area of the catchment can be repeated or portions of the area can be used. Progress. In this case. References Moeller. The choice of selecting a dynamic conduit depth or static threshold is shown in the dialog below along with the flexible groundwater outflow equation. Fall 1999. Jeff 1999.

Add the STRUCTURE. The image file name is now in the picture file box. GIF etc.Module 167: Picture Files and Notes for Network Objects Synopsis Any node or link in XP-SWMM can have an attached digital picture file. XP-SWMM allows most of the popular digital formats including. A right-mouse click on a selected link or node will bring up the popup menu then select the Attributes command to get to this dialog. TIFF. Click with the right mouse button on the node with the image file name. You will see the View Image command is now enabled since a file has been attached.JPG file from your work directory to the node “Pond A1”. BMP. The image file is selected by: Browsing from the Node or Link Attribute dialog and selecting the appropriate file.XP from the workshop directory. JPG. Load the file named YOUNG. Module 167: Picture Files and Notes for Network Objects – Page 1 . Click on the OK button and go back to the network interface.

Click on View Image then you will see on the screen the image file below showing the outlet structure of the pond. Module 167: Picture Files and Notes for Network Objects – Page 2 .

Other possible reasons you may not be able access the outfall dialog is the upstream conduit is not in the HYDRAULICS layer or you are currently not in the HYDRAULICS layer. Load the file named MOD171. The possible types of outfalls are shown and described below: Module 168: Outfall Boundary Conditions – Page 1 . you cannot access the outfall dialog if more than one conduit is connected to the outfall node. Double click on the node Outlet and look at the Outfall dialog.Module 168: Outfall Boundary Conditions Synopsis We will examine the boundary condition options in the Hydraulics layer of XP-SWMM.XP. The boundary conditions are always at ending nodes in the network.

The most common are free outfalls. Use the configuration parameter MAX_YN_YC to use the maximum of Ynormal or Ycritical at a free outfall in the HYDRAULICS layer of XP-SWMM. fixed backwater and stage history. The default. Minimum of Ycritical or Ynormal makes the cross sectional area a minimum at the outflow edge. The free outfall uses the either Y-critical. The fixed backwater uses an elevation not a depth in the user input box for type 2. A stage boundary condition is used for a lake or river downstream condition. Y-normal or the minimum of Y-critical or Y-normal as the depth of water at the edge of the conduit before the free overflow commences. This boundary is based on the minimum of Ycritical or Ynormal. Module 168: Outfall Boundary Conditions – Page 2 . Solve the model and look at the depth of water at node outfall.

Solve the model and look at the depths at node outfall. Module 168: Outfall Boundary Conditions – Page 3 . These depths are based on the maximum of Ycritical or Ynormal because the SWMM configuration parameter MAX_YN_YC was used in the program.

The default is to enter a table or flow versus elevation.A special note on the fields in the rating curve outfall. Module 168: Outfall Boundary Conditions – Page 4 .

Module 169: Using Notes Field for Advanced Features – Page 1 . Load file MOD171.Routing Control.XP and look at the notes field dialogs.Module 169: Using Notes Field for Advanced Features Synopsis We will show how to modify the input to a node on an individual basis similarly to what is possible in the Hydraulics Job Control . A line of a note is treated special and is parsed if it contains the words “node inflow”.

XX " is found. sign is found the program will reduce the flow by the percent entered.If the words "node inflow" along with a "=.012 on 2/16/98 Although the inflow to the network peaks at 25 cfs as can be seen in the User Inflow dialog the output shows peaks of about 12. *===================================================* | XP Note Field Summary | *===================================================* XP XP XP XP XP XP Note Note Note Note Note Note for: for: for: for: for: for: Inflow Inflow Inflow Outlet Culvert Culvert Lower node flow in percent = 50. Notes are entered by: typing up to 40 characters in the single line rectangular user field then adding that line to the list. Notes can be added to user defined reports and also they appear in the output file in the XP Note Field Summary.XX A note can be entered for any node by right-mouse clicking and selecting Notes from the popup menu or select the Notes command from the Edit menu when a node is selected. Module 169: Using Notes Field for Advanced Features – Page 2 .5 cfs because of the special notes field reduction. A link can have Notes entered by using the Notes command from the Edit menu while a link is selected.0 The above line will lower the flow in this node by 50 percent. You may have other words on the line.. as long as the script "node flow" and = XX. the program will reduce the flow by the value of XX . The outfall node is a free outfall This conduit had a roughness change to 0. In this example we will reduce the flow by 50 percent.

The inflow to this model is a cycling inflow at node inflow.55. Extrapolation estimates a first iteration flow or head based on the last two final iteration flows and heads.Module 170: Flow and Head Extrapolation Synopsis Open the database file mod170. We will look at two options in this module: EXTRA and EXTRA=0. Module 170: Flow and Head Extrapolation – Page 1 . shown on the next page.xp and exam how to use the extrapolation technique in the Hydraulics or Extran layer of XP-SWMM.

--------...16 iterations to move to the next time step. *=========================================================* | Table E8 ..25 15467 0 16 1 node204 0 1.. This output table shown below was generated without the extrapolation option. 27472 Efficiency of the simulation.. 59204 Minimum number of possible iterations.Junction Time Step Limitation Summary | *=========================================================* | Not Convr = Number of times this junction did not | | converge during the simulation....-------.... Solve the model and look at the efficiency summary in Table E8 of the Extran or Hydraulics layer output.. | | Omega Cng = Change of omega during iterations | | Max Itern = Maximum number of iterations | *=========================================================* Junction Not Convr Avg Convr Total Itt Omega Cng Max Itern Ittrn >10 -------------.--------Inflow 0 2.Cycling inflow to the model at node inflow.... 2.--------......16 or an average of 2.78 12250 0 12 2 Outlet 0 2.. The efficiency is 2. | | Avg Convr = Average junction iterations.16 Excellent Efficiency Ittrn >25 --------0 0 0 0 Ittrn >40 --------0 0 0 0 Module 170: Flow and Head Extrapolation – Page 2 ..--------.13 14646 0 15 1 node202 0 2..--------. | | Conv err = Mean convergence error...45 16841 0 15 1 Total number of iterations for all junctions..

If the parameter EXTRA is not used then the last time step value of flow or head is used as the starting point of the next time steps iteration process. This option will use the following equation for estimating the first iteration flow or head: Qn+1/2 = 0. The efficiency of the model increased (value is lower) because now the simulation has a head start on the first iteration estimate.5·(Qn .Now. This next table on the following page was generated using the extrapolation option.Qn-2 ) (170-1) Qn+1/2 = iteration estimate for the new time step Qn = last time step flow value Qn-1 = flow value two time steps earlier Qn-2 = flow value three time steps earlier Solve the model using the EXTRA (extrapolation option).5·(Qn-1 .Qn-1 ) where.38. The average number of iterations is now 1. + 0. go to the SWMM configuration parameters dialog and enable the parameter EXTRA. Module 170: Flow and Head Extrapolation – Page 3 .

-------...-------.39 Good Efficiency Ittrn >10 --------1 1 2 0 Ittrn >25 --------0 0 0 0 Ittrn >40 --------0 0 0 0 Module 170: Flow and Head Extrapolation – Page 4 .--------. 27476 Efficiency of the simulation... 27476 Efficiency of the simulation.0 can be used in this configuration. + 0...55.....00 and 1.. This option will use the following equation for estimating the first iteration flow or head: Qn+1/2 = 0.--------. | | Avg Convr = Average junction iterations..--------.Qn-1 ) where...Qn-2 ) (170-2) Qn+1/2 = iteration estimate for the new time step Qn = last time step flow value Qn-1 = flow value two time steps earlier Qn-2 = flow value three time steps earlier This output table shown below was generated with the extrapolation option EXTRA=0.. This allows the user to define the weighting for extrapolation. | | Conv err = Mean convergence error... 38023 Minimum number of possible iterations.--------. | | Avg Convr = Average junction iterations... go to the SWMM configuration parameters dialog and enter the name EXTRA=0.37 9408 0 6 Total number of iterations for all junctions. | | Omega Cng = Change of omega during iterations | | Max Itern = Maximum number of iterations | *=========================================================* Junction Not Convr Avg Convr Total Itt Omega Cng Max Itern -------------.41 9708 0 11 node204 0 1.Junction Time Step Limitation Summary | *=========================================================* | Not Convr = Number of times this junction did not | | converge during the simulation. Any number between 0.... 38170 Minimum number of possible iterations..31 9000 0 15 node202 0 1...41 9716 0 11 node204 0 1....--------... | | Conv err = Mean convergence error.55. It resulted in slightly more total iterations...46 10062 0 22 Outlet 0 1.. | | Omega Cng = Change of omega during iterations | | Max Itern = Maximum number of iterations | *=========================================================* Junction Not Convr Avg Convr Total Itt Omega Cng Max Itern -------------...55·(Qn .45·(Qn-1 .Junction Time Step Limitation Summary | *=========================================================* | Not Convr = Number of times this junction did not | | converge during the simulation..37 9418 0 6 Total number of iterations for all junctions. 1....46 10036 0 22 Outlet 0 1....--------Inflow 0 1.--------Inflow 0 1..--------. *=========================================================* | Table E8 ....38 Good Efficiency Ittrn >10 --------1 1 3 0 Ittrn >25 --------0 0 0 0 Ittrn >40 --------0 0 0 0 Now.29 8845 0 15 node202 0 1.. 1....*=========================================================* | Table E8 ...

Module 171: Configuration Parameter FUZZYQ – Page 1 . The first time step will be 1 to the number of junctions and the next time step will be from the number of junctions down to 1. OPTIMAL97. The order of solution of the nodes reverses each time step.XP to examine the differences between the options BEST97. The options FUZZYQ and OPTIMAL97 are used by entering configuration parameters of the same name in the SWMM configuration dialog. and FUZZYQ. BEST97 solves each node and each connecting link to the node until the node depth and link flows have reached convergence.Module 171: Configuration Parameter FUZZYQ Synopsis In this module we will use the file Offline-Storage. The default solution in the hydraulics layer uses the option BEST97.

3848 percent 0.71000 seconds | *==============================================================* Numerical results for the FUZZYQ option in which all of the nodes and all of the conduits are solved in one time step until each node and conduit has reached convergence. 0. 2004 Time. An entry of FUZZYQ=10 means that the program will use BEST97 until 10 iterations are reached and then will switch to the OPTIMAL97 solution... 1.. January 6.Numerical results for the BEST97 option in which all of the nodes and all of the conduits are solved in one time step until each node and conduit has reached convergence..0566 percent 1. the number of non-convergences will be reduced for these options. Hydraulic model simulation ended normally...5698 percent Excellent Excellent Efficiency 1. January 6.04517 minutes or 2. 11:12:19:44 | | Ending Date. 11:44:50:86 | | Elapsed Time. ################################################### # Table E22.04033 minutes or 2. 2004 Time... 0. Numerical Model judgement section # ################################################### Your overall error was Worst nodal error was in node Upper Pond Of the total inflow this loss was Your overall continuity error was Efficiency of the simulation Most Number of Non Convergences at one Node Total Number Non Convergences at all Nodes Total Number of Nodes with Non Convergences ===> ===> ===> ===> with -0. January 6.2020 percent 1. 2004 Time.4349 percent -0.37 1.. XP-SWMM Simulation ended normally.out *==============================================================* | SWMM Simulation Date and Time Summary | *==============================================================* | Starting Date. Now the number of non-convergences has been reduced to zero... XP-SWMM Simulation ended normally. Usually. ################################################### # Table E22. 0.42000 seconds | *==============================================================* Module 171: Configuration Parameter FUZZYQ – Page 2 .. 0. 2004 Time..59 0. January 6. Your input file was named : C:\XPS\XP-SWMM\Work\Offline-Storage.DAT Your output file was named : C:\XPS\XP-SWMM\Work\Offline-Storage. Numerical Model judgement section # ################################################### Your overall error was Worst nodal error was in node Lower Pond Of the total inflow this loss was Your overall continuity error was Efficiency of the simulation Most Number of Non Convergences at one Node Total Number Non Convergences at all Nodes Total Number of Nodes with Non Convergences ===> ===> ===> ===> with 0..out *==============================================================* | SWMM Simulation Date and Time Summary | *==============================================================* | Starting Date. A model that has many non-convergences can be solved for using the OPTIMAL97 and FUZZYQ solutions.DAT Your output file was named : C:\XPS\XP-SWMM\Work\Offline-Storage.. Hydraulic model simulation ended normally... These two solutions do not have to be used for networks in which the number of non-convergences are zero or near zero. 1..2187 percent Excellent Excellent Efficiency 1. Your input file was named : C:\XPS\XP-SWMM\Work\Offline-Storage.. 11:44:48:44 | | Ending Date. 11:12:22:15 | | Elapsed Time..

the data in the detailed printout is saved to the . The data saved in the . velocities and stages suitable for import into a spreadsheet program such as Excel will be saved if you use the SWMM configuration parameter EXTERNAL_CSV or EXTERNAL_XLS.Module 175: Configuration Parameter EXTERNAL_CSV Synopsis An external comma delimited file of flows.XLS Open the file Offline-Storage. The external file has the name of your project and uses the extension . but with the use of the configuration parameters the data is not echoed in the output file – thus eliminating the possibly lengthy table in the output file.CSV or . Normally.XP.OUT file. Click on the Output Control button and make sure the Print Flow Details box is activated.csv or the . Module 175: Configuration Parameter EXTERNAL_CSV – Page 1 .xls file is activated through the print control dialog.

csv file for the conduit culvert.XLS file. The summary interval defines how often the detailed printout is echoed to either the output file or the . Module 175: Configuration Parameter EXTERNAL_CSV – Page 2 .The summary interval is defined in the output control dialog box in the HYDRAULIC layer job control. Using a value of 1 means to write out every time step whereas a value of 5 would write out every 5th time step. This file can be opened in any spreadsheet as a comma delimited file. Shown below is the format of the Offline-Storage.

Module 176: Velocity Component Comparison – Page 1 . Note: if the bed slope is zero then Manning’s equation will have a predicted velocity of zero.XP to see the comparison of velocity in the conduits. The choice of whether to print out the velocity comparison is signaled by using the VCOMPARE configuration parameter. Load the file Offline-Storage.Module 176: Velocity Component Comparison Synopsis Sometimes a modeler may want a simple comparison of the model velocity [which is calculated from the flow and area in a conduit] to Manning’s equation or the velocity from the water surface slope. The printout interval of the velocity comparison is at the intermediate interval as defined in the output control dialog in the hydraulics job control. This example shows how this comparison is printed out for each conduit.

61347 4.83154 5.83739 5.21025 7.20647 7.20 Low Outlet/ Cont/ 8. R = hydraulic radius.61841 4.98448 3.61211 4.61347 1.00000 5.74 / 0.18 Up Outlet/ 7. At each printout time step the calculated velocity is compared to the velocity from Manning’s equation.38 / 756.76533 6.85127 5.486 • R V1 = 23 •  S 0 + ∆y   L   n 12 V2 = V1 + loss slope WS S0 = water surface slope over bed slope where. Q= flow.58 Lower Pond/ 7.00252 Diversion V Comparison Vd/Vm/V1/V2/WS|So 3.00251 Diversion V Comparison Vd/Vm/V1/V2/WS|So 3.31288 0.83360 5. and the velocity from the water surface slope. ∆y = water surface change over the conduit length.83852 5.31478 0. S0 = bed slope. A= center conduit cross section area.98949 3.35721 5.00369 Vd = velocity from the program = Q A 1 1.18524 Up Outlet V Comparison Vd/Vm/V1/V2/WS|So 6. Main/ 4. Module 176: Velocity Component Comparison – Page 2 .20998 7.60628 4.77034 6.00 FREE # 1/ Main V Comparison Vd/Vm/V1/V2/WS|So 5.00062 Cont V Comparison Vd/Vm/V1/V2/WS|So 7.20048 7.The output of the VCOMPARE option is intermixed with the intermediate output file.19672 7.00000 3.44 / 742.00000 3.77590 6.00024 Low Outlet V Comparison Vd/Vm/V1/V2/WS|So 4.55 / 737.15 Diversion/ 4.55 Outlet/ 7.00059 Cont V Comparison Vd/Vm/V1/V2/WS|So 7.98448 0.85501 1.00021 Low Outlet V Comparison Vd/Vm/V1/V2/WS|So 4.486 • R 2 3 • S 0 2 Vm = n 1.54 / 745.00000 5.98949 0.89 rcp/ 0.61264 4. and L = length of conduit.18492 Up Outlet V Comparison Vd/Vm/V1/V2/WS|So 6.00369 Main V Comparison Vd/Vm/V1/V2/WS|So 5. Split MH/ 0.20. Cycle 220 Time 18 Hrs .20998 1.85127 1.36290 5.00 Min ===> "*" Junction is Surcharged.93 / 745. n = Manning’s roughness.60771 1.00 control/ 0.77673 6.77673 1.21976 7.89 Junction / Depth / Elevation Upstream/ 0.88 8.84767 5.00000 rcp V Comparison Vd/Vm/V1/V2/WS|So 0.83154 1.76533 1.54 8. The different components of the output table are shown below.74 730.78177 6.21976 1.00000 rcp V Comparison Vd/Vm/V1/V2/WS|So 0.84391 5.85501 5.60771 4.76462 6.83852 1.93 Upper Pond/ MH Joint/ 0.44 Conduit/ FLOW ===> "*" Conduit uses the normal flow option.

Module 177: Flow Component Comparison – Page 1 . This example shows how this comparison is printed out for each conduit.XP to see the comparison of flow components in the conduits. The choice of whether to print out the velocity comparison is signaled by using the QCOMPARE configuration parameter. The printout interval of the flow comparison is at the intermediate interval as defined in the output control dialog in the hydraulics job control.Module 177: Flow Component Comparison Synopsis Sometimes a user of the model wants a simple comparison of the model flow components or the terms of the dynamic wave equation. Load the file Offline-Storage.

2630 -0.0005 0.2670 0.0521 0. 2. Q5 = Minor loss slope flow.0001 0. Q7 = Sum of Q1.0000 0. Gradient Slope Flow (Q2) 5.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.one conveyance.Q5 and Q6.2550 0.0000 0.4073 0. 7.0044 0. Sum of All Flow Terms ((Q7) 10.1460 1. Head Diffr = Upstream –downstream head difference.0005 0.0408 0.Vel* Current Diffr Up Dn Mean eyance Rough Radius ity Area Q -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Main 0.5030 -0.Q2.0780 0. . Minor Loss Slope (Q5) 8.0000 Up Outlet 0. Mean Conduit Area There are 19 values on the following line.0000 0.4940 0.0000 0.0611 0.Qold (Q1).2672 rcp 0.0073 0.1346 0. 9 Flows and 3 Areas. Expansion/Contraction Slope (Q6).4114 0.0000 0. Qnew .0039 0.0432 0.0000 -0.0000 0.6325 0.0000 5. and one mean roughness.0779 0.2805 0. Qnorm = flow from the normal flow equation.0005 Module 177: Flow Component Comparison – Page 2 Q = flow from the dynamic wave equation.0011 0. 3. 12. Downstream Conduit Area.Q4. Q4 = Non-linear slope flow.0592 2.0037 9.2807 -1.0040 0. Q3. If the flow was steady then Q2 would be balanced by Q3.0003 0.1.0000 -1. Non-linear Slope Flow (Q4).2091 7.2701 0.0000 0.0000 0. Veloc.---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.0063 0.0000 0.0018 0. Qnorm.2670 0.00 Min 33. head.0006 0.50. Friction Slope Flow (Q3).2594 0. 11.1065 -0.0313 0.Q Comparison -.0120 0.6318 0. As the flow is increasing Q2 is balanced by Q1. Q3 = Friction slope flow. 6. 9. Upstream Conduit Area. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Run Cycle 22 Time 1 Hrs .2677 0. Q1= change in flow during the last time step. 4.1520 0.0000 0.0000 0.0033 0.Q3.2717 4. and Q4.333 time step (seconds) Q Qnorm Q1 Head Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Area Area Area ConvWhtd Hydr.0130 0.2587 Diversion 0.1073 0. Dynamic Flow (Q).1111 1.0000 0.0000 0.2948 0.0116 0.9005 0. Q2 = Gradient slope flow. Q6 = Expansion-contraction slope flow.7182 0.0000 0.

Module 194: Long Section Plotting of the Energy Grade Line – Page 1 .SYF file. When using the configuration parameter ENERGY. whenever you use the Review Results or the Dynamic Long Section you will see the EGL and not the hydraulic grade line (HGL). the EGL is generated using the maximum velocity from the connecting conduits to a node.Module 194: Long Section Plotting of the Energy Grade Line Synopsis If the Configuration Parameter ENERGY is used in the Configuration Parameter dialog then the energy grade line (EGL) is saved to the . Then. The EGL and the HGL of every node can both be viewed on the screen by using the spatial reports capability of XP-SWMM as shown in the screen below.

Z = node invert elevation. Module 194: Long Section Plotting of the Energy Grade Line – Page 2 .The EGL at a node uses the following formula: EGL V 2 = Z + Y + 2 • g where. Y = node depth. EGL = Energy Grade Line. and G = acceleration due to gravity. V = maximum US velocity of any connected conduit.