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UlbLmlLlKmbKlLM lKb
mLKbLKo.ZIN, |H.L.
Revised and Updated by
Illustrated by
Western Publishing Company, Inc.
Racine, Wisconsin
This book pictures in full color 129 of the most familiar
American birds. Using these birds as keys, the text
describes additional related and similar species, helping
the reader to identify more than 250 birds in all.
The selection of the most common birds of America
and the assembling of concise information about them
were achieved through long, detailed study of volumi
nous data on our bird life. This might have been an
impossible task were it not for the wholehearted coop
eration and assistance of ornithologists and other natu
ralists. John Aldrich, C. A. Cottam, Allen Duvall, D. F.
Hoffmeister, A. C. Martin, Ernst Mayr, A. . Nelson, A.
Sprunt IV, R. E. Stewart, H. . Webster, and Alex Wet
more gave helpful comments and suggestions. Special
thanks are due to Chandler S. Robbins of the Patuxent
Wildlife Research Center, who compiled the basic data
for the range maps, and checked migration dates, tab
ular data, and other factual information. James Gordon
Irving has contributed his knowledge of birds as well as
his unusual artistic talent.
This Revised Edition, prepared by Chandler S. Rob
bins, includes the latest information about birds, as well
as recent changes in scientific and common names, bird
classification, and geographical distributions.
Revised Edition. !
ht T!, , T4 by Western Publishin
Company, Inc. All ri
reserved. includin
hts of reproduction and use in any form or by any means.
the makin
of copies by any photo process. or by any electronic or
mechanical device, printed or written or oral, or recordin
for sound or visual
reproduction or for use in any knowled
e retrieval system or device. unless
permission in writin
is obtained from the copyri
ht proprietor. Produced in the
U.S.A. Published by Golden Press. New York, N.Y. Library of Con
ress Catalo
Card Number: -Z ISBN -!-Z4-
N UtN b K
Thi s is a fi el d book made to fi t your pocket when you
go l ooki ng for bi rds. Check each range map (exampl e
bel ow) for bi rds t hat occur i n your regi on. Concentrate
on these bi rds . Areas where bi rds l i ve i n summer are
shown in red; wi nter areas are in bl ue. Purpl e shows
areas where the bi rd i s a permanent resi dent.
Mi grati ng bi rds pass over parts of the whi te areas i n
spri ng and fal l . Check thei r "ti metabl e" as gi ven on pp.
1 32- 1 53, where you wi l l al so fi nd i nformati on on nests,
eggs, and food. Mark each bi rd you are l i kel y to see,
and when you have seen i t, record the date and pl ace.
Thumb through thi s book and become fami l i ar wi th the
bi rds. Then, when you see them, you' l l recogni ze some
at fi rst si ght. Al so use the i nformati on on pp. 1 54- 1 55
concerni ng books, museums, and pl aces to see bi rds .
The more you l ook at t hi s book, t he mor e facts you' l l
fi nd . The col or pl ates show spri ng pl umage of adul t mal e
bi rds, and usual l y femal es or young i f they are very
di fferent. The text emphasi zes si ze, fi el d marks, i mpor
tant facts, di fferences between mal es and femal es, and
rel ated bi rds t hat are si mi l ar. The bi rds have been se
l ected so that knowi ng one bi rd wi l l hel p you to know
others l i ke i t.
The bi rds i l l ustrated are among the most common and
the ones you have the best chance of seei ng. No rare
bi rds are pi ctured. I n al most every
part of the Uni ted States and south
ern Canada you can see many of
the bi rds in thi s book-pl us other
common l ocal bi rds you wi l l soon
l earn to know.
Most bi rds can be i denti fi ed at a gl ance by experts
because they know exactl y what to l ook for. Wi th prac
ti ce you too can become an expert.
Whereas some wi l dfl ower gui des are arranged by
col or, bi rd guides are general l y organi zed so that cl osel y
rel ated speci es-those of si mi l ar shape and behavi or
are together. Water bi rds appear fi rst, fol l owed by the
more pri mi ti ve l and bi rds; the true songbi rds are l ast.
One qui ckl y l earns to sort unknown bi rds i nto the
maj or categori es cal l ed orders, such as herons, ducks,
hawks, ki ngfi shers, woodpeckers, and perchi ng bi rds
(see pages 9- 1 1 ) . For water bi rds, note whether they
wade, swi m, or di ve; for aeri al feeders whether they
constantl y fl ap, soar, or hover. For al l bi rds, l ook cl osel y
at the si ze and shape of the bi l l (pages 1 4-15) and the
shape and l ength of the tai l . Compare the total l ength
wi th that of some fami l i ar speci es. I s i t the si ze of a
ki ngl et, a warbl er, a sparrow, an ori ol e, a robi n, a
fl i cker, or a crow? These characters wi l l hel p pl ace bi rds
i n the correct fami l y.
The next step is to determi ne the speci es by l ooki ng
for the presence or absence of wi ng bars, tai l patterns,
eye ri ngs or eye stri pes, and col or patterns on the head
and el sewhere. I s the back pl ai n or streaked? Do the
underparts have hori zontal bars or l ongi tudi nal streaks?
Eye col or i s i mportant for owl s and some vi reos .
Behavi or can al so provi de val uabl e cl ues. Does the
bi rd wal k or hop or run? Does i t wag i ts tai l ? Does i t
catch i nsects on the wi ng and eat i n fl i ght l i ke a swi ft or
swal l ow? Or does i t repeatedl y return to an exposed
perch to eat i nsect prey l i ke a fl ycatcher or waxwi ng?
Does i t cl i mb up a tree trunk l i ke a woodpecker or a
Brown Creeper, or work head-down l i ke a nuthatch?
Does i t eat berri es l i ke a thrush or an ori ol e, or probe i n
the ground for worms and grubs l i ke a robi n, bl ackbi rd,
or star l i ng? See pages 1 32- 1 53 for the pri nci pal foods
of each speci es.
EQUI PMENT The onl y essenti al equi pment for seei ng
bi rds i s a pai r of eyes . Good ears are a hel p, too. But
there are ways of i ncreasi ng your enj oyment, none of
whi ch i nvol ves much expense. Thi s book i s one, for a
gui de book is i mportant. As you acqui re experi ence, you
wi l l want more advanced books (see page 1 54) . Your
own records, i f kept systemati cal l y, are an i mportant
part of your equi pment . A pocket notebook to record
detai l ed i nformati on i s worth carryi ng. Rugged cl oth
i ng, waterproof boots, and a bottl e of mosqui to repel
l ent are par t of an experi enced bi rder's equi pment .
Fi el d gl asses or bi nocul ars ar e t he most i mportant and
most expensive i tem of equi pment . There's no denyi ng
thei r val ue i n bri ngi ng tree-top bi rds down to you . Li ke
a good camera, a good pai r of bi nocul ars i s a preci si on
tool and shoul d be sel ected wi t h care. The best gl asses
are made wi th pri sms to reduce thei r si ze. The power of
the gl ass tel l s how much cl oser i t makes a bi rd appear.
Through 6x (6-power) gl asses a bi rd l ooks si x ti mes as
cl ose. Gl asses of 6x t o 8x are best . Remember, the
hi gher the power, the more l i mi ted your fi el d of vi si on .
Gl asses that admi t the most l i ght are the best. Thi s
depends on t he wi dt h of the front l ens ( usual l y measured
i n mi l l i meters) . A 6 x 35 l ens admi ts twi ce as much l i ght
as a 6 x 24. The l arge 7 x 50 bi nocul ars are excel l ent for
bi rds . Those t hat adj ust by a si ngl e center focusi ng screw
are most conveni ent.

WHERE TO LOOK Bi rds are everywhere, but to see

the most bi rds try l ooki ng i n the best pl aces: i n moi st
woodl ands or perhaps at the edge of a wooded swamp.
Young scrubby woods ar e l i kel y t o have mor e bi r ds than
mature forests . Wood margi ns are general l y good, es
peci al l y duri ng mi grati on . But no si ngl e pl ace i s best .
Sal twater marshes and shores wi l l yi el d bi rds that one
wi l l never fi nd i n pi ne woods. Other speci es prefer open
fi el ds, or western deserts . A wooded park i n the mi dst
of a ci ty i s one of the very best pl aces to l ook for bi rds
duri ng mi grati ons. I f you expl ore your own regi on, you
wi l l di scover certai n spots are favored-perhaps a smal l
gl en wi th a brook, a wooded poi nt on a l ake, a marsh,
or cottonwoods al ong a ri ver. On page 1 55 i s a l i st of
some famous pl aces to see bi rds. Make l ocal i nqui ri es.
See al so the books and museums l i sted on page 1 54.
HOW TO LOOK Experi enced watchers go out earl y
i n the morni ng when bi rds are most acti ve, and wi l l often
si t qui etl y i n a l i kel y spot and l et the bi rds come to them.
Keen-eyed birds are easi l y frightened by movement.
Don' t make yoursel f conspi cuous agai nst the open sky.
Move sl owl y. Try to cover several di sti nct habi tats, i f
possi bl e-a woodl and, marsh, fiel d, ri ver bank, shore,
or whatever your l ocal i ty affords . Eventual l y you wi l l
work out a route that wi l l gi ve you the greatest vari ety
of bi rds per t i me spent. Experi ence i n your own regi on
wi l l be your best hel p. Make bi rd watchi ng a year-round
activi ty, for each season has its own special surprises
and del i ghts to offer the careful observer.
WHY LOOK? Bi rdi ng is enj oyed by mi l l i ons of North
Ameri cans of al l ages, and by mi l l i ons of others al l over
the worl d . It is a hobby that can gi ve pl easure at any
pl ace and at any ti me. Some prefer to do thei r observi ng
by themsel ves, others prefer the soci abi l i ty of bi rdi ng as
a smal l group. There are more t han 700 bi rd cl ubs i n the
Uni ted States and wel l over 1 00 i n Canada .
Bi rds are by far the most popul ar of wi l dl i fe because
they are easy to see, easy to i denti fy, great i n numbers
and vari ety, beauti ful to observe, attractive to hear,
and ever changi ng in occurrence and numbers . Even the
experts get many thri l l s from fi ndi ng unusual or unex
pected speci es. Many speci es mi grate l ong di stances ,
and at ti mes l arge numbers of bi rds are bl own off course
and are di scovered hundreds of mi l es from thei r usual
homes . A few western bi rds even occur on the Atl anti c
coast and vi ce versa .
Many bi rders enj oy competi ti on, such as beati ng the
previ ous year's bi rd l i st, fi ndi ng more speci es than a
fri end, or bei ng the fi rst to spot a returni ng mi grant .
Thousands of peopl e take bi rd tours to exoti c pl aces .
Many others keep i mpressive l i sts of the speci es they
have di scovered ri ght at home. Bi rd feeders and bi rd
baths al so bri ng much pl easure to shut- i ns .
An i nterest i n bi rds often expands i nto a greater
appreci ati on for al l wi l dl i fe, and for the habi tats that
are essential to thei r survi val . Many birders devel op into
wi l dl i fe photographers or l eaders of scouti ng or other
youth groups . I n any case, one acqui res an absorbi ng
hobby that can be enj oyed throughout l i fe.

PR f bK
Names are tool s . Bi rd experts have dozens of techni
cal names for t he vari ous part s of bi rds . Usi ng these
terms, they can descri be a bi rd wi th great accuracy. The
begi nner does not have the experi ence to use these
terms, so onl y the essenti al techni cal terms are used i n
thi s book. When you see a bi rd you cannot i denti fy and
want hel p from an expert, try to observe the bi rd so wel l
that you can descri be i ts si ze, habi ts, and the col or and
form of the parts i l l ustrated above. Put your i nformati on
down on paper (don' t trust your memory) . By keepi ng
these few parts i n mi nd you wi l l systemati ze your obser
vati ons and record the detai l s needed to get your bi rd
i denti fi ed.
Birds are grouped into orders, families, and genera
according to similarities of bills, feet, and internal tnat
omy. If you know these groups, the relationship and
classification of birds will be clearer. Here is a simplified
list of the main bird groups in this book; a family tree
{pages 12-13) shows their relationships. On pages 156-
157 are listed the scientific names of all the birds illus
trated. These names and the English names used are
those adopted by the A.O. U. (American Ornithologists'
Union) Committee on Classification and Nomenclature.
LOONS: Large swi mmi ng and di vi ng bi rds;
tai ls short; l egs set far back. Four toes: J
front ones ful l y webbed. Bi l l sharply pointed,
hi gher than wi de. page 21
GREBES: Smal l er swi mmers and di vers . Tai l
lacki ng; l egs f ar back. Four toes wi t h thi n
ski n flaps ( l obes) and wi th flattened nai l s.
Bi l l sl ender, poi nted; hi gher than wi de.
page 22
HERONS and BITTERNS: Long-legged
wadi ng bi rds . In fli ght, feet extend beyond
tail but neck i s pulled i n. Bill strai ght and
sharp; skin between eye and bi l l bare. Four
toes, scarcely webbed or not webbed at al l .
Mi ddl e toenai l has comb l i ke margi n.
pages 23-2S
DUCKS, GEESE, and SWANS: Swi mmi ng
bi rds wi th di st i nct tai l s . Legs centered. Bi rds
walk wel l compared to grebes and l oons.
Four toes, front J webbed. Bi l l broad and
flat, often with "teeth" along edge. Upper
bi l l endi ng in short, flat hook or "nai l . "
pages 26-33

bi rds flyi ng wi th neck extended and feet
dangl i ng ( rai l s) ; wi ngs rounded. Four toes,
unwebbed (except for coot, whi ch has l obes) .
Middle toenai l wi thout combl i ke margi n
(see Herons). Feathered between eye and
bi l l . page 34
Long-l egged shorebi rds, mostl y smal l . Bi l l
usual l y coni cal , l ong and soft; nostri l s open
i ng through sl i ts i n bi l l . General l y 4 toes:
hi nd toe rai sed and short. Sanderli ngs and
most plovers have onl y J toes.
pages 35-39
GULLS and TERNS: Mostl y l i ght-col ored
mar i ne bi r ds . Wi n gs l ong , n arrow and
pointed. Bi l l hooked (gul l s) or pointed (terns)
with nostrils openi ng i nto slits that go through
bill. Four toes: hind toe small and not webbed.
pages 40-41
Large bi rds. Bill strongl y hooked; feet pow
erful, cl aws long and curved. Vul tures di ffer
i n havi ng a bare head with nostri ls connected
by hole through bi l l . pages 42-47
bi rds that scratch for food. Bi l l s short and
stout . Feet heavy, strong; hi nd toe short and
rai sed. Wings short and rounded.
pages 48-50
PIGEONS and DOVES: Smal l - headed
bi rds wi th sl ender bi l l s, grooved at base;
and wi th nostri l s openi ng through a bare
fl eshy area at base of bi l l . Legs short. Four
toes, al l on same level . Hi nd toe as long as
shortest front one. pages 51 -52
CUCKOOS: Long, sl i m bi rds wi th sli ghtl y
curved bi l l . Tai l l ong, feathers not sti ff or
poi nted; central tai l feathers l ongest. Four
toes: 2 i n front; 2 behi nd. goge53
OWLS: Bills strongly hooked. Toes with l arge
curved claws; entire leg feathered. Eyes large
and i mmovabl e i n puffy, feathered "face. "
SWIFTS: Smal l swal l owl i ke bi rds; bi l l small
wi th no bri stl es at base. Mouth wi de. Wi ngs
sl ender and very l ong, reachi ng beyond tai l ;
t ai l wi th 1 0 feathers . goge57
GOATSUCKERS: Bi rds wi th large heads,
small bi lls, and wi de mouths . Bi l l usually
with bri stles at base. Feet small; middle toe
long with combli ke cl aw. Feathers soft, dull
colored. pages 58-59
HUMMINGBIRDS: T i ny bi rds wi th bi l l
sl ender and needlel i ke-l onger than head.
Feet smal l , weak . Feathers on bock usual l y
shi ny green. goge60
KINGFISHERS: Head large and crested.
Bi l l long, strong, poi nted. Feet smal l ond
weak. Four toes: 2 of the 3 forward toes
joi ned for half their length. poge61
WOODPECKERS: Cl i mbi ng bi r ds . Bi l l
strong, poi nted, wi th bri stl es ot nostri l . Tai l
feathers sti ff ond poi nted. Toes : 2 i n front, 2
in back; or (rarel y) 2 in front ond 1 in back.
PERCHING BIRDS: T he l argest bi rd group.
Lond bi rds, mostly smol l , wi th 4 toes-oil on
the same level , never webbed. Hi nd toe as
l ong os mi ddl e front toe-on adaptation for
perchi ng. Tai l wi th 1 2 feathers.
jages 66-1 27


The 860 speci es of bi rds in North Amer-
ica north of Mexi co are cl assi fied i nto 70
fami l i es . The maj or fami l i es and thei r ap
proxi mate rel ati onshi ps are shown here.
Fami l i es wi th the most speci es north of Mexi co
are represented by the thi ckest branches .
and Kin


and Creepers


Crows and Jays
Old World
ern Loon Heron Kngsher
PM f bK
Bi rds show unusual adaptati ons to thei r way

of l i fe. The most i mportant and obvi ous is a
coveri ng of feathers . These have devel oped from
the scal y coveri ng of repti l es. Each feather has
rows of branched barbs that hook together. On
the l ong fl i ght feathers, the barbs mesh ti ghtl y
to form a fi rm structure. Contour feathers and
an undercoat of fi ner down cover the bi rd's
body. Form and structure of feathers vary wi th
di fferent bi rds.
I nternal adaptati ons of bi rds i ncl ude ai r sacs
and l i ght, hol l ow bones; a very rapi d heart;
temperature several degrees hi gher than ours,
and other structures favori ng a very active ex
i stence. The ani mal food of bi rds i ncl udes i n
sects, worms, mol l usks, fi sh, and smal l mam
mal s . Pl ant foods i ncl ude seeds , buds, l eaves ,
and frui ts . Bi l l s have obvi ous adaptati ons re
l ated to di et. Above are four bi rds, each from
a di fferent fami l y, wi th si mi l ar bi l l s adapted for
eati ng fi s h.
Of fbbI

Wood Thrush Crossbill Yellowthroat
Above are five bi rds al l bel ongi ng to the
same order, perchi ng bi rds. Each of these spe
ci es has devel oped a very di fferent type of bi l l
sui ted for eati ng parti cul ar foods . These are
di vergent devel opments from a common fami l y
ancestor. Thi s type of devel opment i s al so
common .
Other adaptati ons are shown i n the l egs and
feet of bi rds . The bi rd's three or four toes have
been modi fi ed for cl i mbi ng, scratchi ng, grasp
i ng and teari ng, and swi mmi ng . Long toes di s
tri bute the wei ght of bi rds that wal k on mud
and sand . Extra featheri ng protects the feet of
ptarmi gans and arcti c owl s . The l ong legs of
waders, the webbed feet of swi mmers, and other
adaptati ons i ndi cate speci al i zed uses of var
i ous ki nds.
Most i nteresti ng of al l adaptati ons are those
of behavi or. Many speci es have devel oped di s
ti nct patterns of l i vi ng. Careful observati ons
wi l l di scl ose the "personal i ties" of di fferent bi rds
and thei r soci al adaptati ons .
Everyone st ar t s watc hi ng
bi rds wi th the same i deas i n
mi nd: t o l earn thei r names, to
LBW 5' 00BKB
i denti fy as many as possi bl e,
0?BB @ 5 0
and to see what ki nd of "rec-
ords" hi s watchi ng wi l l yi el d. Some peopl e are content
doi ng these thi ngs and never venture beyond thi s stage.
Others fi nd many more ways to broaden thei r knowl
edge. Ti me, pl ace, and experi ence wi l l determi ne how
far you want to go. Here are some suggesti ons:
Bi rds were here l ong before peopl e fed
them-and they wi l l conti nue to feed
and care for themsel ves. But i f severe
col d or i ce cuts off the food suppl y of
wi nter bi rds, cooperati ve effor ts are
someti mes essenti al to save them. If
you want to attract bi rds to your yard
or wi ndow, then feedi ng them wi l l hel p.
Pl ace feed on a pl atform or wi ndow
shel f to retard spoi l i ng and to provi de
some protecti on from predators . Fi nd
out how to bui l d feedi ng stati ons. Set
them near shrubbery to gi ve the bi rds
shel ter. Pl ace l umps of suet i n wi re
contai ners for creepers, chi ckadees,
nuthatches, and woodpeckers. Smal l
grai n (sunfl ower seeds , hemp, mi l l et,
and canary seed) wi l l attract seed
eaters. At a wi ndow stati on you can
watch bi rds feed.
Siskins and other
finches enjoy sunflower and thistle seeds
I NG Bi rds need dri nki ng and bathi ng
water j ust as much as they need food.
A wateri ng pl ace wi l l attract bi rds dur
i ng warm months when wi l d food i s
avai l abl e. Bi rds l i ke movi ng, shal l ow
water. A dri ppi ng hose or a tri ckl e of
water runni ng i nto a one-i nch pan wi th
gravel on the bottom i s excel l ent. An
ol d bucket wi th a tri angul ar pi ece of
cl oth pul l ed through a dr i p hol e and
hung over an ol d baki ng pan wi l l do as
wel l as any el aborate cement pool .
AND SHELTER Bi rds need cover for
protecti on agai nst wi nd, col d, and
enemi es. The best ki nd of cover for
bi rds is shrubs and vi nes that provi de
food as wel l as a pl ace to hi de. Pl ant
that look attracti ve to us are not nec
essari l y attractive to bi .ds . Nati ve
pl ants that retai n thei r frui t i n wi nter
are best . Nesti ng boxes are sel dom
sati sfactory unl ess they are bui l t wi th
a speci fi c bi rd i n mi nd. A box for a
wren must be very di fferent from one
for a flicker. Get compl ete i nstructi ons .
provides water
Martin box
Wren house
WeeH 88L Ns-em
Bui l d a box that can be easi l y cl eaned and used year
after year. Don' t pl ace boxes too cl ose; three or four
nesti ng boxes t o an acre are usual l y enough. Most bi rds
set up thei r own "terri tory" and wi l l keep other bi rds out.
CREATING A LOCAL REFUGE A group of peopl e may
fi nd a way to create a l ocal bi rd refuge to hel p bi rds
care for themsel ves . Most communi ti es have swamp or
wastel and whi ch can easi l y be devel oped i nto a bi rd
refuge. Parks, gol f courses, and cemeteri es have been
successful . Ampl e water suppl y i s needed . Smal l dams
across a brook wi l l create shal l ow ponds that attract
many bi rds. Swamp pl ants and grasses shoul d be en
couraged as seed producers . Evergreens may be pl anted
for shel ter.
BIRD PHOTOGRAPHY Hunti ng wi th a gun i s gi vi ng
way to hunti ng wi th a camera. Onl y a few speci es of
game bi rds may be shot, but you may photograph any
bi rd. Bi rd photography offers thri l l s and hard wor k. I t
call s for pati ence and ski l l , but one fi ne shot makes i t al l
worthwhi l e. Use a camera wi th a focal pl ane shutter and
a fast l ens. A fl ash bul b i s usual l y necessary for cl ose
photos even in dayl i ght, because many bi rds prefer to
feed i n the shade.
Steller's Jay (11 ln.), only crested lay of the western conifers
BI RD BANDI NG Thi n al umi num bands are put
around bi rds' l egs to hel p i n sci enti fi c studi es .
From the 43 mi l l i on bi rds banded we have l earned
much about mi grati ons, fl yways, l i fe spans, pop
ul ati on changes, and annual returns to the same
nesti ng or wi nteri ng areas .
Cooperati on of thousands of amateurs has
greatl y assi sted sci enti fi c study of bi rds . I f you fi nd
a banded bi rd si ck or dead (except a pi geon), l ook
for a seri al number, l i ke " 1 240-24401 " or "509-
30091 . " An address ei ther outsi de or i nsi de the
band may read "A vi se Bi rd Band Wri te Wash DC
USA". Wri te the number on a postcard, stati ng
when, where, how, and by whom the bi rd was
found. Send the card to the Bird Banding Labore-

tory, Patuxent Wi l dl i fe Research Center, Laurel ,

Md . 20708. They wi l l send you the bi rd's hi story,
and your report wi l l hel p thei r studi es.
Permi ts to band bi rds are i ssued to qual i fi ed
persons i nvol ved i n speci al studi es. An appl i cant
must be at l east 1 8 years ol d, must descri be the
proposed research i n detai l , and must gi ve names
of three experts who wi l l vouch for hi s or her
qual i fi cati ons.
CUUr bunO5 tttu btrO bunO5
the common bi rds, you wi l l begi n to keep l i sts of the
speci es you se. Thi s i s the begi nni ng of an absorbi ng
hobby. Soon your l i sts may i ncl ude est i mates of the
number of bi rds seen as wel l as the speci es . Next you
may do a compl ete census of a speci fi c area that wi l l
show t he densi t y of t he bi rd popul ati on there. Many bi rd
cl ubs al l over North Ameri ca make one-day Chri stmas
Bi rd Counts duri ng Chri stmas season. To parti ci pate,
contact a l ocal bi rd cl ub or wri te to Amercon 8rJs,
Nati onal Audubon Soci ety, 950 Thi rd Avenue, New York,
N. Y. 1 0022. Counts made duri ng the breedi ng season
reveal from 2 to 20 adul t bi rds per acre, dependi ng on
the type of vegetati on (habi tat) and the l ocal i ty. Care
fu l l y made counts, especi al l y those repeated year after
year such as on a Breedi ng Bi rd Survey route, are of real
sci enti fi c val ue. Speci al counts made duri ng mi grati ons,
or counts of bi rd col oni es or bi rd roosts, hel p us under
stand more about certai n unusual speci es .
BREEDI NG BI RD ATLASES In many states and prov
i nces, i ntensive mappi ng projects are i n progress to show
the nesti ng range of every bi rd speci es. Each state i s
di vi ded i nto squares of about 1 0 square mi l es each, and
vol unteers compi l e nesti ng season l i sts of bi rds found i n
each square. Evi dence of nesti ng, such as adul ts carry
i ng nesti ng mater i al or food for young makes the records
especi al l y val uabl e. These Atl as proj ects usual l y take
five years to compl ete. Then they are repeated after a
peri od of years to fi nd out what changes i n bi rd di stri
buti on have occurred. To fi nd out whether an Atl as proj
ect i s i n progress i n your area, contact the Laboratory
of Orni thol ogy, Cornel l Uni versi ty, 1 59 Sapsucker Woods
Road, I thaca, N. Y. 1 4850.
COMMON LOON Spot l oons by thei r l arge si ze,
l ong body, short neck, poi nted bi l l , and l oud, yodel - l i ke
cal l . loons are expert di vers, but ki ck al ong the water
before taki ng fl i ght . I n wi nter, Common loon (24 i n . ) i s
gray above and whi te beneath . The -
sl ender-bi l l ed Red-throated loon
( 1 7 i n . ) and Paci fi c loon ( 1 8 i n . )
are recogni zed i n summer by red or
bl ack throat patch contrasti ng wi th
gray head.
PI ED-BI LLED GREBE Grebes are expert di vers and
swi mmers . Smal l er than most ducks, they fl oat l ower i n
the water, and are rarel y seen i n fl i ght . The Pi ed-bi l l ed
Grebe (9 i n . ) has a more rounded bi l l than other grebes .
The throat patch i s l acki ng in wi nter. The Horned Grebe
(9V2 i n.) i s tol d i n summer by bl ack
head wi t h br i ght c hes t nut ear
patches . Red-necked Grebe ( 1 3 i n . )
i s grayer, wi th conspi cuous whi te
cheek patches and a l ong, poi nted,
yel l owi sh bi l l .
GREAT BLUE HERON, our l argest dark-col ored wader,
fl ies wi th a sl ow, regul ar wi ng beat . It usual l y nests i n
col oni es . I t gi ves a seri es of l ow-pi tched croaks when
fl ushed. Tol d from other herons by i ts si ze ( 38 in . ) . The
sl ender-bi l l ed Tri col ored Heron ( 2 i n . ) of southern
coastal marshes has a sharpl y
contrasti ng whi te bel l y. The me
di um-si zed adul t Bl ack-crowned
Night- Heron ( 2 1 i n . ) i s bl ack above,
al l -whi te beneath; young are heav
i l y streaked brown and whi te.
GREEN-BACKED HE RON This small solitary heron
( 14 in.) is scarcely larger than a crow. It has a typical
heron flight, with slow, deep wing strokes. Like other
herons it eats aquatic animals. At a distance it may be
confused with the larger American Bittern (23 in.) or an
immature night-heron (21 in.), but its body is unstreaked
and its yellow-orange legs are dis
tinctive. When alarmed it raises its
crest. Adult Little Blue Heron (22
in.) is more slender, uniformly dark
all over, and with a pale base to its
bill (see page 130).
CATTLE EGRET This exotic bird (17 in. ), a native of
Africa, recently colonized North America. It is still
spreading into new areas. It usually feeds with cattle,
but it nests in colonies with other herons. Young birds
are all white. Other white herons are the Snowy Egret
{20 in. ) with its slender black bill and legs and yellow
feet, the immature little Blue Heron
(22 in. ) with greenish legs and feet
and a pale base to the bill, and the
Great Egret (32 in. ) with yellow bill,
black legs and feet {page 130).
TUNDRA (WHI STLI NG) SWAN Thi s very l arge (36
i n . ) al l -whi te bi rd mi grates i n -formati on from i ts arcti c
nesti ng ground to i ts wi nter quarters i n coastal United
States . I n fl i ght i t i s recogni zed by its muffl ed cal l . It
feeds from the surface, usi ng i ts l ong neck to reach

aquati c vegetati on . The i ntroduced

Mute Swan (40 i n . ) , found spar

i ngl y i n the Great lakes, i n coastal
waters, and some ci ty parks, is tol d
by i ts orange bi l l and graceful l y
curved neck.
CANADA GOOSE, a wel l -known and wi del y di st ri b
uted bi rd, i s recogni zed by i ts l arge si ze ( 1 6-25 i n . ) ,
l ong bl ack neck, an d whi te cheeks. Geese swi m wi th
thei r necks strai ght up and fl y i n -format i on, wi th
necks extended . They feed i n ponds and estuari es, but
al so graze on grass and sprouti ng
grai n. The smal l , dark, arcti c-nest
i ng Brant ( 1 7 i n . ) , whi ch wi nters i n
fl ocks i n coastal bays, has a smal l
whi te neck stri pe i nstead of whi te
cheeks .
MALLARD This large [16 in. ), common duck of ponds
and sloughs has two white bars bordering its blue wing
patch that identify both the colorful male and the mot
tled brown female. The green head and white neck ring
are also good field marks of the male. Mallards, like
other surface-feeding ducks, take
off in a vertical leap. They feed by
tipping in shallow water. Mallards
have been domesticated and often
produce hybrids with other duck
AMERICAN BLACK DUCK Thi s common marshl and
duck ( 1 6 i n. ) resembl es the femal e Mal l ar d, but i s darker
and has whi ter wi ng l i ni ngs. Mal es have bri ght red l egs
and yel l owi sh bi l l s; femal es are dul l er. Bl ack Ducks prefer
bracki sh water, especi al l y i n wi nter. The si mi l ar Mottl ed
Duck ( 1 5 i n . ) i s restri cted to Fl o

i da -
and the Gul f Coast . The wade-
spread Gadwal l ( 1 4V2 i n . ) is sl i ghtl y
smal l er wi th a whi te bel l y and a
smal l rectangul ar whi te patch on "-.>
the bl ack trai l i ng edge of the wi ng.
WOOD DUCK (l3V2 i n . ) is tol d in fl i ght by the whi te
trai l i ng edge of the wi ng, the l ong tai l , short neck, and
the bi l l hel d at a di sti nct downward angl e. Note the
l arge whi te eye ri ng of the femal e and young .
Wood Ducks fl y l ow, dodgi ng around trees, where they
roost . The fl yi ng Ameri can Wi geon
(14 i n . ) shows a l arge white patch
on the forward edge of the wing,
and t he mal e has a whi te crown and
a broad green band through the
NORTHERN PI NTAI L Spot the sl i m pi ntai l (l8V2 i n . )
by the mal e's sl ender whi te neck and l ong, poi nted tai l .
I n al l pl umages fl yi ng bi rds show a whi te stri pe on the
trai l i ng edge of the wi ng, whi ch i s the best fi el d mark of
the femal e. This common surface-feedi ng duck prefers
fresh water. The tiny Green-wi nged --
Teal (lOV2 i n . ) has a broad green
stri pe across the face, contrasti ng
wi th the pl ai n brown head, and i t
has whi te borders before and be
hi nd the green wi ng patch .
CANVASBACK This diving duck (15 in.) swims low,
often in large flocks. The long bill and sloping forehead
are distinctive. In flight note the large size, and the wings
set far back on the white body. It often flies in clusters of

V's. Female has olive he

d and neck.


Smaller Redhead (14V2 H. )has gray

body, more rounded forehead.

Closely related lesser Scaup ( 12
, in.) has violet head, white stripe
down the extended wing.
COMMON ME RGANSER Mergansers are l oonl i ke
di vi ng ducks wi th narrow, cyl i ndri cal "toothed" bi l l s .
They fl y l ow and prefer open water. Whi te wi ng patches
are vi si bl e i n fl i ght. The Common Merganser [1 8 i n . ) i s
stri ki ngl y whi te beneath . Note the sharpl y defi ned whi te
throat of the femal e. The Red
breasted Merganser [16 i n . ) has a
reddi sh breast and a l arger crest
and prefers sal t water i n wi nter. The
smal l er Hooded Merganser [1 3 i n . )
has a fan-shaped whi te crest .
AMERICAN COOT ( 1 2 i n . ) nests in marsh vege
tati on, but often wi nters i n open water. I t i s the onl y
duckl i ke bi rd wi th a chal ky whi te bi l l . When di sturbed
i t ei ther di ves or skits over the water with feet and
wi ngs. The cl osel y rel ated Common
Moorhen (or F l ori da Gal l i nul e,
lOV2 i n . ) has a red bi l l and fore
head and a whi te str i pe under the
wi ng . Both pump the neck when
swi mmi ng .
KI LLDEER (8 i n . ) , a l arge upl and pl over, is tol d by i ts
doubl e breast band and (i n fl i ght) by i ts orange-brown
rump and tai l . I t frequents open meadows and pl owed
fiel ds, where i ts l oud "ki l l deer" cal l resounds. I t bobs its
head as i t wal ks. The young, whi ch have onl y one breast
band, l eave the nest al most as soon
as hatched. The much smal l er Semi
pal mated Pl over (53/. i n. ) i s si mi l ar
but l acks t he bri ght rump. I t too has
onl y one breast band; it prefers mud
fl ats and beaches .
COMMON SNI PE Thi s shy bi rd (9 i n. ) of meadows
and open fresh-water swamps ri ses hi gh i n the spri ng ai r
at dus k and ci rcl es wi th an unforgettabl e "wi nnowi ng"
sound; otherwi se i t stays cl ose to vegetati on. Fi el d marks
are very l ong bi l l , rather short l egs, poi nted wi ngs, and
zi gzag fl i ght. The pl ump Ameri can Woodcock ( 8V. i n.)
of moi st woods and fiel ds, a cl ose
rel ative, has rounded wi ngs and a
ri cher brown col or. Dowi tchers ( 1 0
i n. ) , of mud fl ats and beaches, have
a conspi cuous whi te rump, and i n
spri ng are reddi sh-brown beneath .
LESSER YE LLOWLEGS This gray-and-white sandpip
er (8% in.) is one of our common shorebirds. In flight
note its size, the white rump and tail, the slender, dark
bill, and long, bright yellow legs. The Greater Yellow
legs (ll in.) is very similar but with a longer, slightly
upturned bill. Willets ( l3V2 in.) are still larger and
plumper, with dark legs and with bold
black-and-white wing markings in _

flight. Still larger are the Whimbrel

(14 in.) with its long down-curved bill
and the Marbled Godwit(l6 in.)with
its up-curved bill.
SPOTTED SANDPI PER (6V. i n . ) Thi s is our onl y sand
pi per wi th a strongl y spotted breast. I n many i nl and
l ocal i ti es thi s i s the most common shorebi rd and the onl y
breedi ng sandpi per. The spots are present onl y i n the
breedi ng season, but the teeteri ng wal k and the narrow
wing beats and l ow fl i ght are
di sti ncti ve. The Sol i tary Sandpi per
(7 i n. ) , seen duri ng mi grati on,
has a whi te eye ri ng, and barred
whi te feathers on the si des of the
tai l .
LEAST SANDPI PER Best known an d smal l est of the
smal l sandpi pers, thi s bi rd prefers mud fl ats and sal t
marshes. Note i t s smal l si ze (43/4 i n. ) , ri ch brown back,
breast band, yel l owi sh l egs, and sl ender, strai ght bi l l .
The Semi pal mated ( 5 i n . ) and Western (51/4 i n . ) Sand
pi pers, often found wi th the least, have grayer backs,
stouter bi l l s, and bl ack l egs; the

Western has a l onger, heavi er bi l l

and tends t o feed i n deeper water.
The l arger Whi te-rumped Sandpi
per (6V4 i n . ) has a di sti nct whi te
HERRI NG GULL (20 i n . ) is abundant al ong the Atl anti c
Coast and parts of the i nteri or. I t i s a great scavenger.
Bl ack wi ng ti ps of adul ts contrast wi th gray wi ngs and
back. Legs are fl esh-col ored. Immature bi rds are dul l
gray-brown, becomi ng whi ter wi th maturi ty. Cal ifornia
and Ri ng-bi l l ed Gul l s ( 1 7 i n . ) are smal l er with dul l yel
l owi sh or greeni sh l egs; Ri ng-bi l l ed
has a bl ack ri ng on the bi l l . Laugh
i ng Gul l ( 1 3 i n. ) on the East Coast
and Frankl i n's Gul l (11 i n . ) i n the
West have darker backs and bl ack
heads .
COMMON TERN Terns are smal l er, s l i mmer, and
more graceful than gul l s; wi ngs are sl ender and tai l s
often deepl y forked. They di ve headl ong i nto s ea or
l akes after fi sh . Common Tern (14 i n . ) i s tol d by i ts bl ack
ti pped reddi sh bi l l , dusky wi ng ti ps, and deepl y forked
whi te tai l . Forster's Tern (14 i n . ) i s very si mi l ar but wi th
orange bi l l , pal er wi ng ti ps, and
grayer tai l . The ti ny least Tern
(8V2 i n. ) has a yel l ow bi l l and whi te
forehead, the l arge Caspi an Tern
(20 i n. ) a heavy bl ood-red bi l l , and
sl i ghtl y forked tai l .
TURKEY and BLACK V ULTURES, val uabl e scaven
gers, soar hi gh i n the sky. Turkey Vul t ures (25 i n . )
soar wi th thei r l ong wi ngs sl i ghtl y above the hori
zontal ; the naked red head compl etes i denti fi cati on
of the adul t. The smal l er Bl ack Vul ture (at ri ght, 22 i n. )
of the Southeast has round whi te patches on the under
si de of i ts wi ng ti ps, and i t fl aps
more than does the Turkey Vul ture.
It has a dark head, as do young
Turkey Vul tures, and a very short
square tai l ; i t soars on hori
zontal wi ngs .
OSPREY The Osprey or Fi sh Hawk (22 i n. ) occurs around
the worl d. I t i s smal l er and sl immer than the eagl es, and
has a l arge bl ack spot under the "el bow" of the wi ng. No
other l arge hawk has as much white bel ow. I t fl ies wi th a
characteri sti c backward bend at the "el bow. " I ts huge nest
may be pl aced on an i sol ated tree, a
tower, a channel marker, or a duck
bl i nd. The bi rds wheel and soar over
l akes, bays, and oceans, pl ungi ng
feet foremost after fi sh. Young are
simi l ar to adul ts.
BALD EAGLE Eagles are large, l ong-wi nged hawks that
soar on hori zontal wi ngs. The white head and tai l mark the
adul t Bal d Eagl e (32 i n. ) . Younger bi rds are dark brown
al l over; i t takes them several years to acqui re adul t
pl umage. Bal d Eagl es, our nati onal embl em, are usual l y
found near water, as fi sh i s thei r fa
vorite food. The Gol den Eagl e (32
i n. ) of the West i s al l dark i n al l
pl umages except for the whi te base
of its tai l and a fl ash of whi te under
each wi ng.
COOPER'S HAWK ( 1 5V2 i n . ) is typi cal l y a wood
l and bi rd, rarel y soari ng i n the open except when
mi grati ng . I ts short, rounded wi ngs and l ong, rounded
tai l i denti fy i t i n fl i ght. The l i ttl e Sharp-shi nned Hawk
(1 OV2 i n . ) l ooks si mi l ar, but has a square-ti pped tai l and
smal l er head. The l arge Northern
Goshawk ( 1 9 i n . ) has a l i ght gray
breast, dark gray back, and whi te
l i ne over the eye. Femal es of al l are
much l arger than mal es; breasts of
young are streaked l engthwi se.
RED-TAI LED HAWK The Red-tai l i s a l arge ( 1 8 i n . )
soari ng hawk. I ts wi ngs are broad and i ts tai l i s fan
shaped and chestnut-red above. Underparts are l i ght
except for a band of streaks across the bel l y. Young have
a fi nel y barred tai l . Red-shoul dered Hawk ( 1 6 i n . ) , of
wooded stream val l eys, i s rusty bel ow with a di st i nctl y
banded tai l . Other soari ng hawks
i ncl ude the Broad-wi nged Hawk ( 1 3
i n . ) of northeastern woods wi th i ts
promi nent l y bar red ta i l , and
Swai nson's Hawk ( 1 8 i n . ) of the
West, wi th i ts broad, dark chest
AMERICAN KESTREL Thi s i s the smal l est (8V2 i n . )
U. S. fal con-a hawk wi th l ong, poi nted wi ngs. I t rarel y
soars. Note the ri ch reddi sh-brown back, tai l , and crown.
The femal e i s tol d by narrow bl ack bars on the tai l .
The s l i ghtl y l arger Merl i n ( 1 2 i n . ) i s uni forml y dark
above, heavi l y streaked bel ow, and has broad bl ack tai l
bars . The Peregri ne Fal con ( 1 5 i n. ) ,
whi ch nests on cl iffs and a few tal l
bui Jdi ngs, i s a rare but wi de-rang
i ng speci es wi th heavy bl ack mus
tache marks and a bl ue or brown
RI NG-NECKED PHEASANT Thi s unmistakabl e Asi ati c
bird (27 i n. ) has been successful l y i ntroduced over much of
the Uni ted States. I t i s a favorite game bi rd of farml ands,
where i t feeds on waste grai n, occasi onal l y causi ng l ocal
crop damage. The handsome mal e is unrival ed i n its spl en
di d col ori ng. The femal e i s smal l er, brown al l over, but
wi th a short poi nted tai l that
di sti ngui shes i t from the Ruffed
Grouse and Prai ri e-Chi ckens (see
next page) . Pheasants and thei r rel
atives on the next two pages do not
RUFFED GROUSE Thi s is an attractive chi cken l i ke bi rd
( 1 4 i n. ) of the deep woods. It suddenl y spri ngs i nto the ai r
with a l oud whi rri ng of wi ngs. The drummi ng of t he mal e i s
part of t he spri ng courtshi p. The fan-shaped t ai l wi t h i ts
broad, dark termi nal band i s the best fi el d mark. The
Prai ri e-Chi ckens ( 1 4 i n. ) of the mi dwest prai ri es are fi nel y
barred al l over wi th brown and whi te
and have a bl ack, rounded tai l ; they
and the pl ai n brown, narrow-tai l ed
Sharp-tai l ed Grouse ( 1 5 i n. ) are re
stri cted to open country.
NORTHERN BOBWHI TE Everyone knows the bob
whi te's cal l , but these smal l quai l (8 i n. ) are hard to see in
tal l grass and weeds . Their smal l si ze, rich brown col or,
and stubby appearance make them easy to identify.
Scaled, Gambel 's, Cal i forni a, and Mountai n Quai l s, al l
8-9 i n. , have popul ati ons centered i n
New Mexi co, Ari zona, Cal iforni a,
and Oregon, respecti vel y; they are
pl ai n ol ive or gray on the back and
have long head pl umes. Femal es are
dul l er than mal es .
ROCK DOVE (DOMESTI C PI GEON) is descended from
the wi l d Rock Dove of European coastal cl iffs . Thi s chubby
bi rd ( 1 1 i n . ) has a broad, fanned tai l . Col ors vary from
sl ate-bl ue to brown to whi te. Thei r nesti ng habi ts make
them unpopul ar tenants i n ci ti es. The l arge western Band
tai l ed Pi geon ( 1 3V2 i n . ) has yel l ow l egs and a pal e tai l
band. The Whi te-crowned Pi geon
( 1 1 i n . ) of the F l ori da keys i s al l
dark wi th a whi te crown . The ti ny
Common Ground- Dove (5V2 i n. ) of
the far South has a short bl ack tai l
and chestnut wi ngs.

MOURNI NG DOV E Browner and sl i mmer than the
Rock Dove and wi th a l ong, poi nted tai l , the Mourni ng
Dove (lOV2 i n . ) nests i n every state and provi nce. I t i s
named from i ts mel anchol y cal l : "Coo-ah, coo, coo,
coo." The whi te tai l border i s conspi cuous i n fl i ght. Fl i ght
i s rapi d, and thi s dove i s pri zed as a favori te game
speci es i n many states. The Whi te
wi nged Dove ( 1 0 i n . ) of the South
west i s si mi l ar, but a l arge whi te wi ng
patch i s conspi cuous i n fl i ght . The
southwestern Inca Dove (6V2 i n . ) i s
l i ke a mi ni ature Mourni ng Dove.
YELLOW- BI LLED CUCKOO The s l i m, brown-and
whi te cuckoos are dovel i ke i n appearance, but unl i ke
doves they rarel y perch in the open . They are among the
few bi rds that eat hai ry caterpi l l ars. The Yel l ow-bi l l ed
Cuckoo ( 1 1 i n . ) has a yel l ow l ower bi l l , bri ght chestnut
brown wi ng patches , and l arge
whi te tai l spots . The more northern
Bl ack-bi l l ed Cuckoo ( 1 1 i n . ) has a
bl ack bi l l , pl ai n brown wi ngs, and
i ndi sti nct tai l spots . Young are si m
i l ar to adul ts.
COMMON BARN-OWL Thi s l ong-l egged bi rd ( 1 4
i n. ) i s uni que among Ameri can owl s, bel ongi ng to a
separate fami l y. The whi te, heart-shaped face and dark
eyes i denti fy i t. The l i ght buff pl umage i s conspi cuous,
but thi s owl i s rarel y seen by day, and the hi ssi ng cal l
that i t gi ves at ni ght i s not often
heard . I t nests i n barns, bel fri es,
and hol l ow trees, and i s i mportant
i n control l i ng rodents i nj uri ous to
or char ds and garden cr ops . I t s
range i s worl dwi de.

GREAT HORNED OWL (20 in . ) , aggressi ve and

powerful , resembl es a huge gray screech-owl . I ts cal l i s
a seri es of five to seven deep hoots , al l on t he same
pi tch . The smal l er, sl ender long-eared Owl ( 1 3 i n . ) of
the upper Mi dwest has si mi l ar ear tufts; i t tends to gi ve
si ngl e hoots, wai l s, or screams. The
eastern Barred Owl ( 1 7 i n. ) and
western Spotted Owl ( 1 6 i n . ) have
dark eyes, no ear tufts. The Barred
Owl typi cal l y gi ves ei ght hoots, the
Spot ted Owl three or four.
cent l y separated i nto two speci es, these cl osel y rel ated
nocturnal bi rds are tol d from other common owl s by
thei r smal l si ze (8 i n . ) and presence of ear tufts . Pl umage
of these two i s al most i denti cal , but gray and brown
col or phases occur. Both speci es whi stl e rather than
screech . Keen eyesi ght and noi se
l ess fl i ght enabl e them to prey on
fi el d rodents . The terrestri al Bur
rowi ng Owl ( 8 i n. ) of the prai ri es
and the Northern Saw-whet Owl (7
i n.) of the North woods l ack ear
tufts .

CHI MNEY SWI FT Swi fts are al most al ways in the

ai r, fl yi ng wi th a bat l i ke fl i ght . Di sti ncti ve, streaml i ned
bi rds, they usual l y fl y i n groups and mi grate i n l arge
fl ocks . The short spi ny tai l s of Chi mney Swi fts (5 i n . )
prop them agai nst i nsi de wal l s of chi mneys when rest i ng.
There a re t hree wester n swi f t s :
Vaux's Swi ft (4V2 i n . ) , si mi l ar to the
Chi mney; Whi te-throated Swi ft (6V2
i n. ) , of steep canyons; and the rare
Bl ack Swi ft ( 7 i n. )-the l ast two
col ored as thei r names impl y.
WHI P-POOR-WI LL When resti ng on dead l eaves
the nocturnal Whi p-poor-wi l l (9 i n . ) i s al most i nvi si bl e-
more often heard than seen . It rarel y fl i es by day. A
rounded tai l , buffy-ti pped i n the femal e, and absence
of whi te i n the wi ng di sti ngui sh i t from the ni ghthawks.

The sout heast ern Chuc k-wi l l ' s
wi dow ( 1 1 i n . ) has buff on the throat
and under the tai l . The smal l west
ern Common Poor-wi l l ( 7 i n . ) has
onl y tiny square whi te patches at
the corners of the tai l .

COMMON NI GHTHAWK (9 i n . ) , a cl ose rel ati ve of

the Whi p-poor-wi l l , has sl ender, poi nted wi ngs and a
l ong tai l wi th sl i ghtl y notched t i p. I n fl i ght note i ts di sti n
gui shi ng whi te wi ng patch. Ni ghthawks are constantl y i n
t he ai r at ni ght, fl yi ng i n a zi gzag pat h, ci rcl i ng, di vi ng,
and banki ng as they catch fl yi ng
i nsect s . The l ower-fl yi ng lesser
Ni ghthawk ( 8 i n . ) of the Southwest
has the white band nearer the tip of
a more rounded wi ng. Young are
si mi l ar to adul ts.


hummi ngbi rds (3 i n . ) are gems of beauty and marvel s i n
fl i ght. They hover moti onl ess, can fl y backward, and
may come t o bri ghtl y col ored tubes of sugar water. The
femal e and young are whi te-throated. Western hum
mi ngbi rds i ncl ude t he very si mi l ar Broad-tai l ed (33, i n . )
of the southern Rocki es; Anna's (3V2
i n . ) , wi th crown and throat metal l i c
red; Bl ack-chi nned (3 i n . ) through
out the western mountai ns; and the
brown-backed Rufous ( 3V2 i n . ) of
the Northwest.
BELTED KI NGFI SHER [ l 2 i n . ) Where there are fi sh
there are ki ngfi shers, beati ng the ai r wi th i rregul ar fl aps,
di vi ng i nto water head fi rst, and emergi ng wi th fi sh i n
thei r l ong beaks. Note the ragged crest and harsh rat
tl i ng cal l . I l l ustrati on i s of a femal e;
the mal e l acks the chestnut on si des
and breast. The ti ny Green Ki ng
fi sher (?V2 i n . ) of southern Texas
has a dark green back and al most
no crest .

ers on tree tronks, usi ng thei r strong bi l l s to di g out
wood-bori ng i nsects . The Red-headed (?V2 i n . ) i s the
onl y eastern woodpecker wi th a total l y red head. The
sol i d bl ack back and l arge whi te wi ng patches are good
fi el d marks . Young have brown heads. Mal e Red-bel l i ed
Woodpecker ( 8V2 i n . ) of the South
east has enti re crown and back of
neck red, and bl ack-and-whi te bar
ri ng on the back. The western Acorn
Woodpecker ( 8 i n . ) has bl ack back,
chi n, and breast band.
NORTHERN F LI CKER [lOV2 i n . ) , l arge and broyn, i s
i denti fi ed by i ts bobbi ng fl i ght, whi te rump, bl ack breast
band, and gol den or sal mon wi ng and tai l l i ni ngs. Li ke al l
woodpeckers i t nests i n a tree cavi ty, but thi s speci es often
goes to the ground to eat ants. The eastern race (above)
has yel l ow wi ng and tai l shafts . The
western Red-shafted and Gi l ded
races have red mustache marks at
the base of the bi l l . Young of al l
races are si mi l ar t o adul t mal es, but
adul t femal es l ack the mustache.
YELLOW- BELLI ED SAPSUCKER (7:. i n . ) Sapsuckers
feed on the soft i nner bark and sap of trees . They di g
rows of smal l hol es that l eave scars on trunks and
branches . Note the vertical whi te patch on the bl ack
wi ng. The Red-breasted Sapsucker (7V. i n. ) of the
western mountai n states i s si mi l ar but with head and
breast sol i d red. Wi l l i amson's Sap
sucker ( 8V. i n . ) of the Northwest i s
mostl y bl ack wi t h a whi te rump,
l arge whi te wing stri pe, and yel l ow
bel l y. Femal e sapsuckers l ack red
on throat .
DOWNY WOODPECKE R The Downy (53/4 i n. ) and
Hai ry (?V2 i n . ) Woodpeckers are common and wi de
spread and have si mi l ar pl umage. The whi te stri pe down
the back i s a good fi el d mark for both . Onl y the mal es
have the red spot on the back of the head. Young are
l i ke adul ts. The Hai ry has a much heavi er bi l l than the
Downy Woodpecker, and i ts outer
tai l feathers are enti rel y whi te. The
Downy feeds wi th chi ckadees, ti t
mi ce, and nuthatches, and often
vi si ts feedi ng stati ons i n wi nter for
suet and seeds .
EASTERN KI NGBI RD (6 3/4 i n . ) darts from its perch on
a branch or fence i n true fl ycatcher fashi on . The whi te
ti p on the tai l marks the Eastern speci es . The Gray
Ki ngbi rd (7V2 i n . ) of the Southeast has an oversi zed bi l l
and a total l y gray notched tai l . The Western Ki ngbi rd ( 7
i n . ) i s gray wi th a yel l ow bel l y and
white outer tai l feathers . The si mi
l ar Cassi n's Ki ngbi rd ( 7 i n . ) of the
western mountai ns has onl y a nar
row grayi sh ti p to i ts tai l . Young are
si mi l ar to adul t s.
GREAT CRESTED F LYCATCHE R is the onl y l arge ( 7
i n. ) eastern fl ycatcher wi th a rusty tai l . The yel l ow bel l y
and wi ng bars are good fi el d marks. I t i s an orchard and
forest bi rd. I t typi cal l y uses shed snake ski ns i n i ts nest,
whi ch i s pl aced i n a tree cavi ty or nest box. Thi s fl y
catcher i s tol d from the Western
Ki ngbi rd by i t s tai l col or . The
smal l er, pal er Ash-throated F l y
catcher (6V2 i n . ) repl aces the Great
Crested F l ycatcher i n the West.
Young are l i ke adul ts.
EASTERN PHOEBE (534 in . ) I f the persistent "fee-be"
cal l doesn't identify this bi rd, its equal l y persistent tail
bobbing wil l . It is an active fl ycatcher, with no wing
bars or eye ring . I t nests in the shel ter of a porch,
out-bui l ding, or bridge. Say's Phoebe (6V4 in . ) i s a
western bird with rusty breast and
bel l y. Eastern and Western Wood
Pewees (5V4 in. ) l ook l ike smal l
Eastern Phoebes but have two dis
tinct wing bars and do not bob their
tail s .
LEAST F LYCATCHE R is the smal l est (4Y2 i n.) eastern
fl ycatcher. I ts many cl ose rel atives share the eye ri ng
and two whi ti sh wi ng bars; they are best tol d apart by
habi tat and voi ce. Acadi an Fl ycatcher nests i n south
eastern forests, Al der i n northern al der swamps, Wi l l ow
on brushy hi l l si des, Yel l ow-bel l i ed i n northeastern coni
fers. I n the West the yel l ow-bel l i ed
Western F l ycatcher i s easi l y i denti
fi ed; but thedrab Hammond's, Gray,
and Dusky are best l umped under
the group's generi c name, Empi
donax. Young are si mi l ar to adul ts.
HORNED LARK Fl ocks of Horned Larks (6V2 i n . ) feed
i n bare fi el ds and al ong shores , wal ki ng as they feed.
Note the bl ack breast band, yel l ow throat, bl ack tai l ,
and, at cl ose range, the "horns . " Young bi rds are
streaked. Thi s and the Eurasi an Skyl ark are true l arks.
Meadowl arks bel ong to the bl ackbi rd subfami l y. The
Water Pi pi t (SV2 i n. ) , unrel ated to
the Horned Lark, i s someti mes taken
for i t . The Water Pi pi t al so wal ks,
but has a l i ghtl y spotted buffy breast
and a long bobbi ng tai l with whi te
outer feathers.

PURPLE MARTI N Marti ns are the l argest ( 7 i n . ) and
most conspi cuous of t he swal l ows, streaml i ned bi rds that
do al l of thei r feedi ng on the wi ng. I n fl i ght thei r wi ngs
are more tri angul ar than other swal l ows' . Mart i ns nest
i n col oni es, most often i n mul t i -cel l ed marti n box-s. The
uni form dark col or of the mal e i denti fi es i t. Femal es and
young have grayi sh breast and whi te
bel l y. The Nor thern Rough-wi nged
Swal l ow (43/. i n . ) , whi ch nests si n
gl y i n drai n pi pes or hol es i n gravel
banks, has a pl ai n brown back and
chest, no vi ol et .
TREE SWALLOW Unbroken bl ue-bl ack above and
whi te bel ow makes the Tree Swal l ow (5 i n.) easy to pi ck
out from a mi xed fl ock of mi grati ng swal l ows . Femal e i s
dul l er. Young bi rds are brown-backed . I n col d weather
thi s swal l ow can substi tute bayberri es for i nsects, so i t
can wi nter farther north than other
swal l ows. The western Vi ol et-green
Swal l ow (43/. i n . ) i s si mi l ar wi th a
l arge whi te patch on each si de of i ts
rump. Swal l ows are usual l y found
near water.
BARN SWALLOW (6 i n . ) Thi s is the one swal l ow wi th a
deepl y forked "swal l ow tai l . " Note the chestnut fore
head and throat, and the buff underparts. Femal e and
young are dul l er wi th shorter tai l s . Nests i n barns and
under bri dges . The Cl i ff Swal l ow (5 i n. ) i s s i mi l ar, but
wi th short, square tai l , buff rump,
and whi te forehead . The Bank
Swal l ow (43/4 i n. ) , whi ch nests i n
stream banks and gravel pi ts, i s
brown-backed wi th a brown band
across i ts whi te breast.
BLACK- BI LLED MAGPI E No other bi rds resembl e
the l arge bl ack-and-whi te magpi es wi th thei r sweepi ng
tai l s . The two speci es, Bl ack-bi l l ed ( 1 8 i n . ) and Yel l ow
bi l l ed ( 1 6 i n. ) Magpi es, are di st i ngui shed by bi l l col or
and geography. The Yel l ow-bi l l ed Magpi e l i ves onl y i n
the central Cal i forni a val l eys . Magpi es fl y and feed i n
fl ocks. Thei r mi xed di et i ncl udes
fru i t s , mel ons , and ot her cr op
pl ant s . They oft en l i ve a round
r anches , and occas i ona l l y t hese
rel atives of the crows become seri
ous l ocal pests .
AMERI CAN CROW Peopl e often confuse two re
l ated bi rds wi th the fami l i ar al l -bl ack Ameri can Crow
( 1 7 i n . ) . The coastal Fi sh Crow ( 1 5 i n. ) i s si mi l ar except
for i ts short nasal cal l : "car, car. "
The l arge Common Raven (2 1 i n. ) ,
rare i n much of t he East , has rough
throat feathers and a croaki ng cal l .
I t soars i n fl i ght, showing the wedge
shaped tai l t i p.
BLUE JAY No other eastern bi rd is l i ke the noi sy bl ue,
bl ack, and whi te Bl ue Jay ( 1 0 i n. ) . Of the western j ays,
Stel l er's ( 1 1 i n . ) has a bl ack head, throat, and breast, and
l ong bl ack crest ( page 1 8) . The short-tai l ed, crestl ess
Pi nyon Jay ( 9 i n. ) i s dul l bl ue wi th a darker crown. The
Scrub Jay (1 0 i n . ) , found commonl y
west of the Rocki es and i n central
F l ori da, has a bl ue cap, wi ngs, and
tai l , and a dul l bl ue neckl ace across
the whi ti sh underpart s. Young of al l
jays are si mi l ar t o thei r parents .
down tree trunks head fi rst, and often vi si t feedi ng sta
ti ons. The Whi te-breasted Nuthatch (5 i n . ), wi th i ts
whi te breast, throat, and face i s common i n deci duous
woods . Other nuthatches prefer coni fers . The northern
Red-breasted Nuthatch (4 i n . ) has orange-brown under
parts and a dark l i ne through the
eye. The Brown-headed Nuthatch
(4 i n . ) of southeast pi ne woods has
a chocol ate cap. The gray cap of
the ti ny western Pygmy Nuthatch
(3V2 i n . ) comes down to i ts eye.
BLACK-CAPPED CHI CKADEE (4V2 i n . ) The cal l of
thi s pl ump bi rd i s i ts name. Chi ckadees, constant vi si tors
to feedi ng stati ons, often feed upsi de down . The smal l er
(4V4 i n . ) Carol i na Chi ckadee of the Southeast has l ess
buff on the si des, l ess whi te i n the wi ng, and four or five
notes i n its whi stl ed song i nstead of two or three. The
brown-capped Boreal Ch i ckadee
(4V4 i n . ) i s a wi nter vi si tor al ong the
Canadi an border. The wester n
Chestnut-capped Chi ckadee (4V4
i n . ) has a dul l brown cap and a
bri ght chestnut back.
TUFTED TI TMOUSE The poi nted crest and the per
si stent whi stl ed "peter, peter" cal l di sti ngui sh the Tufted
Ti tmouse ( SV2 i n . ) . I t i s tol d from chi ckadees by l ack of
the bl ack bi b, and from nuthatches by the stubby bi l l and
perchi ng habi t. The cap and crest of Texas bi rds are
bl ack. The Pl ai n Ti tmouse (5 i n. ) of
the West l acks the rusty fl anks. The
sl ender, l ong-tai led Bushti t ( JV2 i n. )
of the ari d West i s pl ai n gray-brown
above, with no crest; crown i s brown
or gray. Young are si mi l ar to adul ts.
BROWN CREEPER Thi s is the onl y smal l (4% i n . )
brown tree-creepi ng bi rd . Its underparts are whi te, i ts
tai l sti ff. It works up the tree i n a spi ral , searchi ng for
i nsects and i nsect eggs that i t di gs out wi th i ts curved
bi l l . Then it flies to the base of a nearby tree and cl i mbs
up agai n. As thei r cal l s are hi gh-pi tched and thei r col ors
bl end wel l wi th bark, these bi rds may be hard to detect .
They prefer open mature woods,
nest i ng under l oose bark. They feed
i n smal l fl ocks of chi ckadees, ki ng
l ets, and woodpeckers . In wi nter
they l i ke suet feeders pl aced on tree
trunks . Young are l i ke adul t s.
HOUSE WREN Wrens are smal l , brown bi rds that
usual l y carry thei r tai l s upri ght. The wel l - known House
Wren (4V4 i n . ) i s a garden bi rd that l acks di sti nct head
marki ngs . The ti ny northern Wi nter Wren ( 3V4 i n . ) has a
dark bel l y and shorter tai l . Carol i na Wren (4% i n . ) of
the Southeast has a l arge whi te eye stri pe and a ruddy
back . Western wrens i ncl ude Bewi ck's Wren ( 4V2 i n. )
wi th a whi te eye stri pe and a l ong tai l wi th narrow whi te
border, Canyon Wren (4V2 i n . ) wi th
whi te breast and contrasti ng dark
bel ly, Rock Wren (4% i n . ) wi th fai nt
breast streaks and buff-fri nged tai l ,
and t he huge Cactus Wren ( 6V2 i n . )
of the deserts .
RUBY-CROWNED KI NGLET Ki ngl ets are among our
smal l est bi rds (3% i n . ) and are doubl y attractive be
cause they are pri mari l y wi nter vi si tors . Thei r smal l ,
chunky bodi es, stubby tai l s , and dul l , ol i ve col or are
di sti ncti ve. The frequent fl i cki ng of wi ngs is characteri s
ti c of ki ngl ets. The red crown of the Ruby-crowned Ki ng
l et i s often hi dden, but t he l arge eye ri ng wi l l di sti ngui sh
thi s species when i ts ruby crown does
not show. Femal e l acks the ruby
crown . Ki ngl ets breed i n northern
spruce-fir forests . I n wi nter they are
often seen in shrubbery around
bui l di ngs.
GOLDEN- CROWNED KI NGLET ( JV2 i n . ) is the more
showy of our two Ameri can speci es . The femal e has a
gol den crown bordered wi th bl ack and whi te. The mal e
has an addi t i onal orange stri pe t hrough t he center of
t he gol den crown. These ki ngl ets are often seen feedi ng
on t he branches of fi rs, spruce, and other coni fers, but
i n wi nter they al so use deci duous woods . They eat i n
sects, so are not attracted t o feed
i ng stati ons, al though they are often
found with chi ckadees , nuthatches,
creepers, and woodpeckers i n wi n
ter. Common cal l i s three to five
very hi gh notes on the same pi tch .
BLUE-GRAY GNATCATCHE R (4 i n . ) Wi th i ts l ong,
whi te-bordered tai l , gnatcatchers l ook l i ke mi ni ature
mocki ngbi rds . Common in the South, but sel dom seen
because of i ts preference for treetops i n moi st woods .
The bl ue back and the whi te eye r i ng ai d i denti fi cati on;
so does i ts habi t of j erki ng i ts tai l . Femal e and young
l ack bl ack stri pe over eye. The Bl ack
tai l ed Gnatcatcher ( 4 i n . ) of south
western deserts has a bl ack cap
(mal e); the tai l of both sexes i s bl ack
beneath i nstead of mostl y whi te.
EASTERN BLUEBI RD ( 5V2 i n. ) is an earl y spri ng mi
grant i n t he North. I t i s a thrush, as t he spotted breast
of the young testi fi es. No other bl ue bi rd i n the East has
chestnut-brown breast. The Western Bl uebi rd ( 5V2 i n . )
has chestnut on the back as wel l . The adul t mal e Moun
tai n Bl uebi rd (6 i n. ) of the Rocki es has a l i ghter sky-bl ue
back, pal e bl ue breast, and whi te
bel l y. Bl uebi rds may be attracted
to nesti ng boxes wi th lV2 i n . hol es.
Femal e and young bl uebi rds are
much dul l er.
WOOD THRUSH The spotted thrushes are typi cal l y
woodl and bi rds . Wood Thrushes (7 i n. ) are common i n
deci duous woods . They ar e recogni zed by thei r chest
nut - brown backs , br i ght er heads , heavi l y s pot t ed
breasts, and cl ear, fl utel i ke songs . The Veery (6 i n . ) ,
whi ch requi res moi st woods, al so has a bri ght unmarked
red-brown back, but wi th head and
tai l the same col or as the back; i t
has onl y fai nt spotting on i ts breast.
The l ong- tai l ed Brown Thr as her
(page 91 ) has a streaked breast,
but i ts eye i s yel l ow.
HERMI T THRUSH Famous songster of the mountai ns
and t he Nort h woods, t he Hermi t Thrush (7 i n . ) reverses
the Wood Thrush pattern . I ts tai l , whi ch i t s l owl y rai ses
and l owers, i s much bri ghter than i ts back. The breast i s
l ess spotted than the Wood Thrush's, but more so than
the Veery's . Other thrushes have dul l , ol i ve-brown backs
and tai l s . Swai nson's Thrush (6V4
i n. ) has a buff eye ri ng and buff
cheeks . The northern Gray-cheeked
Thrush (6V4 i n. ) , an eastern mi
grant, has gr ay cheeks and no eye
ri ng. Young of al l are l i ke adul t s.
AMERI CAN ROBI N One of the most common native
bi rds of towns and vi l l ages, the robi n ( 8V2 i n. ) nests i n
every state except Hawai i and i n every Canadi an
provi nce. I t i s the l argest of the thrushes, and young
robi ns have the heavi l y spotted breasts that are charac
teri sti c of thrushes. Femal es are si mi l ar but dul l er. Col
oni sts named the robi n after a smal l
European thrush wi th a much red
der breast. The Vari ed Thrush (8
i n . ) of the Paci fi c states i s si mi l ar to
our robi n but has a bl ack breast
band (page 1 30) .
GRAY CATBI RD Not qui te as handsome as the mock
i ngbi rd, the Gray Catbi rd { 7 i n. ) si ngs al most as wel l ,
but i s a poor i mi tator. I ts name comes from i ts mewi ng
cal l . I t feeds and nests l ow i n shrubs and vi nes, often
near houses or i n moi st thi ckets. Catbi rds are sl aty-gray
except for the bl ack cap and a
chestnut patch under the base of the

tai l . The sl ender bi l l and l ong,

rounded tai l wi l l separate the cat-
bi rd from other dark birds i ts si ze.
-"* ~
Young are l i ke adul ts.

NORTHERN MOCKI NGBI RD "li sten to the mock

i ngbi rd . . . " goes the song, and the mocki ngbi rd (9 i n . )
i s , i ndeed, worth heari ng. I t s song i mi tates other bi rds'
songs perfect l y, wi th ori gi nal phrases added. Mocki ng
bi rds nest around homes, perch on chi mneys and
tel evi si on antennas. Whi te patches
wi ngs and tai l are conspi cuous
i n fl i ght. The loggerhead Shri ke (7
i n. , page 93) , whi ch al so perches
on wi res and fences, i s chunki er,
wi th a thi ck bi l l and bl ack mask.
BROWN THRASHER Rel ated to the mocki ngbi rds,
thrashers have the same l ong rounded tai l s ; most have
down-curved bi l l s . They feed and nest near the ground.
The wi despread Brown Thrasher ( 1 0 i n . ) is the ri chest
chestnut above and streaked wi th brown bel ow. The onl y
western thrasher wi t h heavy streaks, Sage Thrasher (7
i n. ) , has whi te ti ps on i ts outer tai l feathers . le Conte's
Thrasher (9V4 i n . ) is an ashy-gray
desert bi rd wi th a pl ai n breast. The
Cal i forni a Thrasher ( 1 0 i n . ) i s dark
brown and unstreaked wi th a l ong
down-curved bi l l ; no wi ng bars.
CEDAR WAXWI NG (53/. i n. ) These warm-brown,
crested bi rds cannot be mi staken, especi al l y when a
whol e fl ock is feedi ng on cherries or mul berri es. Watch
for the wide yel l ow tai l band. Young are fai ntl y streaked
below and have less crest. The grayer Bohemi an Wax
wing (6V. i n. ) of the Northwest has bri ght ci nnamon
i nstead of whi te under the base of
its tai l . Bohemi an Waxwi ngs nest i n
western Canada, but occasi onal l y
wi nter i n the north central states.
Thei r i rregul ar appearance makes
them mystery bi rds.
LOGGERHEAD SHRI KE (7 i n . ) Shri kes feed on i nsects,
rodents, and smal l bi rds. They often hang thei r prey on
thorns or barbed-wi re fences . Resembl i ng mocki ng
bi rds, the shri kes are chunki er, have a bl ack eye mask,
and a heavy hooked bi l l . Thei r rapi d wi ng beats and
boundi ng fl i ght are di sti ncti ve. The Northern Shri ke i s a
l arger speci es (8 i n . ) wi th a fai ntl y
barred breast that i s seen onl y i n
wi nter i n t he northern states . I ts
bl ack mask i s di vi ded by the bi l l ,
whi ch i s l i ght bel ow. Young are
browner than adul t s.
E UROPEAN STARLI NG (6 i n . ) I ntroduced i nto New
York in 1 890, starl i ngs have been spreadi ng ever si nce.
I n some pl aces they are a nui sance and even a pest . But
they are handsome bi rds, gi ven to musi cal song and
mi mi cry. Sunl i ght on thei r pl umage makes a rai nbow of
col ors. Note the short tai l , pl ump
body, and ( i n spri ng and summer)
the yel l ow bi l l . Young bi rds are uni
form brown wi t h dark bi l l s , and
adul ts i n wi nter are speckl ed wi th
whi te.
The wood-warbl ers are a stri ctl y Ameri can subfami l y
of t he l arge bi rd fami l y known as t he Emberi zi ds, whi ch
al so i ncl udes the tanagers, grosbeaks, sparrows , bl ack
bi rds, and ori ol es. Fi fty-ei ght of the 1 09 speci es of
wood-warbl ers occur i n the Uni ted States and i ncl ude
some of our most beauti ful bi rds . To many, warbl ers are
the most exci ti ng bi rds to watch because of thei r many
speci es, bri ght col ors, di st i ncti ve songs, and mi gratory
habi ts . Most wi nter i n the tropi cs and mi grate north to
thei r breedi ng grounds i n Apri l and May; as many as 25
speci es may be found on a warm May morni ng. Learni ng
the songs from records or tapes wi l l hel p begi nners fi nd
addi ti onal speci es.
Warbl ers are smal l , acti ve woodl and bi rds wi th sl en
der, strai ght bi l l s for catchi ng crawl i ng or fl yi ng i nsects .
Mal es mi grate a few days ahead of the dul l er-col ored
femal es. The best ti me to see them i s before the trees are
in ful l l eaf. Young bi rds and autumn adul ts of many
speci es are more drab and l ess easy to i denti fy. By
November most warbl ers have l eft for thei r wi nter homes
i n the tropi cs, but the Yel l ow-rumped Warbl er (page
1 00) can be found al l wi nter i n southern and coastal
YELLOW WARBLER Thi s i s the onl y warbl er wi th
yel l ow spots on the tai l . The mal e has di sti nctive chestnut
streaks on hi s breast . The Yel l ow Warbl er (4 i n . ) prefers
shrubs or l ow trees, so i s easi l y seen.
The Orange-crowned Warbl er (4V4
i n . ) of the West is dul l yel l ow-green
al l over, wi th a smal l orange crown
patch and no wi ng bars or tai l spots.
BLACK-AND-WHI TE WARBLER Onl y two eastern
warbl ers are stri ped bl ack and whi te: the common Bl ack
and-whi te Warbl er (4V2 i n. ) and the Bl ackpol l (4V2 i n . ) ,
whi ch has a sol i d bl ack crown and i s seen onl y duri ng
mi gr at i on . The Bl ack- and- wh i te
feeds al ong tree trunks and l arge
branches. Femal e and young l ack
the bl ack throat . The western Bl ack
throated Gray Warbl er has a pl ai n,
al most unstreaked back.
(4V2 i n . ) i s real l y wel l named. No other North Ameri can
bi rd has a bl ue back and bl ack throat. The onl y di st i n
gui shi ng mark of t he pl ai n ol ive femal e i s t he smal l whi te

wi ng s pot . The Bl ac k- t hroated

Green Warbl er (4V4 i n . ) of the East
has a yel l ow-green back and gol den
face. The Cerul ean Warbl er (4 i n . )
of the Mi dwest i s bl ue above, whi te
bel ow wi th a narrow bl ack neckl ace.

COMMON YELLOWTHROAT (4V. i n . ) Thi s is a
warbl er of marshes and moi st waysi de shrubbery. The
bl ack mask and yel l ow throat mark the mal e. The femal e
has the yel l ow throat but no mask. I ts whi ti sh bel l y and
absence of wi ng bars ai d i denti fi
cati on. The Kentucky Warbl er (4V2
i n. ) of southeastern woodl ands has
a l arge yel l ow eye ri ng, bl ack crown
and si deburns, and enti rel y yel l ow
OVENBI RD Thi s i s another ground- l ovi ng warbl er
often seen wal ki ng i n the l eaves, i ts tai l bobbi ng. The
Ovenbi rd (5 i n . ) resembl es a smal l thrush: pl ai n ol i ve
brown above wi th a streaked breast. The orange crown
wi th bl ack borders and a narrow
eye ri ng make i denti fi cati on posi
tive. I ts "teacher, teacher, teacher"
song i s easy to remember. Watch
for i t i n eastern deci duous forests .
Young l ack the orange crown.
NORTHERN WATERTHRUSH These pl ump warbl ers
stay near the ground i n swamps and brooks . The North
ern Waterthrush (5 i n . ) has a di sti nct yel l owi sh cast to
the heavi l y streaked underparts, and usual l y a buffy eye
l i ne. The more southern loui si ana
Waterthrush (5V. i n . ) is whi ter be
l ow, except for the buffy l ower
fl anks; i ts throat i s unstreaked, the
eye l i ne whi te and broader. Both
speci es teeter l i ke sandpi pers .

YELLOW- RUMPED WARBLER The yel l ow rump,

crown, and si de patches mark thi s warbl er (4% i n. ) .
Femal e, young, and wi nter bi rds ore browner. Western
bi rds hove yel l ow throats. Thi s speci es mi grates earl i er
i n the spri ng and l ater i n the fal l than other common
warbl ers . I t i s often found i n I orge
fl ocks. The yel l ow-rumped Magno
l i a Warbl er (4V4 i n . ) of the East has
a bl ock- st reaked yel l ow breast ,
much more whi te in wi ngs and toi l .
Femal e, young ore browner.
AMERI CAN REDSTART The orange and bl ock mol e
(4V2 i n. ) i s a stri ki ng bi rd of moi st deci duous forests .
The femal e i s yel l ow and ol i ve-gray, but wi th the some
pattern . Redstorts conti nual l y fl i t
about and catch i nsects fl ycatcher
fashi on . The Poi nted Redstart (4V2
i n . ) of evergreen forests i n Ari zona
and New Mexi co has a red breast,
fl ashy whi te wi ng and toi l patches .
WILSON' S WARBLER A smal l (4V4 i n . ) , very acti ve
warbl er, unbroken yel l ow bel ow, pl ai n ol i ve-yel l ow
above. There ore no wi ng bars or toi l spots . The femal e
l ocks the bl ock cop. I t prefers moi st thi ckets and swamps
and i s especi al l y fond of wi l l ows .
Hooded Warbl er (4V2 i n . ) of south
eastern forests i s si mi l ar except mol e
has a bl ock head and t hroat wi th
yel l ow face; both sexes hove whi te
toi l spots .

RED-EYED VI REO Vi reos are l arger and l ess acti ve

than warbl ers . The Red-eyed (5 i n. ) , common i n deci d
uous forests, has a gray crown bordered wi th bl ack, a
broad whi te l i ne above the red eye, and no wi ng bars.
The dark-eyed Warbl i ng Vi reo (43. i n . ) l acks dark head
marks . A pal e yel l ow eye ri ng and two wi ng bars hel p
i denti fy t he Whi te-eyed Vi reo (4V2
i n. ) . The Yel l ow-throated Vi reo (5
i n . ) of the East and the bl ui sh
headed Sol i tary Vi reo (43/. i n. ) have
broad wi ng bars and eye ri ngs. Al l
young have brown eyes.
SCARLET TANAGER (6V4 i n . ) The mal e is our onl y red
bi rd with bl ack wi ngs. The femal e i s uni form yel l ow
green with dusky wi ngs. The mal e Summer Tanager (6V2
i n . ) of the South is enti rel y red, i ts mate orange-yel l ow.
It prefers pi ne woods, whi l e the Scarl et uses mi xed or
deci duous . The Western Tanager
(6V4 i n . ) i s bri ght yel l ow, wi th red
onl y on the head; t hi s i s our onl y
tanager wi th wi ng bars . Tanagers
are t ol d from or i ol es by t hei r
shorter, heavi er bi l l s .
NORTHERN CARDI NAL The cardi nal (734 i n . ) i s
the onl y eastern red bi rd wi th a crest . The heavy red
bi l l , wi th bl ack at the base, i s a good fi el d mark. The
l i ght brown femal e has the crest and red bi l l , but l i t t l e
red on the body. Young have dusky bi l l s. Cardi nal s are
common i n shrubbery, hedgerows, and wood margi ns .
I n recent years t he cardi nal has
gradual l y spread northward . The
crested Pyrrhul oxi a (?V2 i n . ) of the
Southwest i s mostl y gray wi th red
face, crest, breast, and tai l , and
the general cardi nal shape.
ROSE- BREASTED GROSBEAK The mal e ( 7V4 i n . ) ,
nearl y al l bl ack and whi te, fl ashes a deep rose patch
on i ts breast. The femal e i s streaked yel l ow-brown
and whi te l i ke an overgrown sparrow. li ke al l gros
beaks they have heavy coni cal bi l l s . The cl osel y rel ated
Bl ack-headed Grosbeak (7V4 i n . ) of the west al so has
the bl ack head and back, but i ts
enti re underparts are orange-brown.
The Eveni ng Grosbeak (7V4 i n . )
of the North and the western
mountai ns is a bri l l i ant yel l ow wi th
bl ack-and-whi te wi ngs and tai l .
I NDI GO BUNTI NG Thi s i s our onl y smal l bi rd (4V2
i n. ) that is enti rel y bl ue. Femal e and young are uni form
gray-brown . They l i ve i n hedgerows and wood margi ns.
The southern Bl ue Grosbeak (6V- i n . ) i s much l arger wi th
chestnut wi ng bars and a much heavi er bi l l . Other bunt
i ngs are al so spl ashes of bri l l i ant col or. The Lazul i Bunt
i ng (SV2 i n. ) of the West i s si mi l ar to the I ndi go, but has
whi te wi ng bars, chestnut breast,
and whi te bel l y. The mal e Pai nted
Bunti ng (4V2 i n . ) of the South i s a
showy combi nati on of red bel ow and
bl ue and green above; but the fe
mal e is pl ai n yel l ow-green.
RUFOUS-SI DED TOWHEE Thi s towhee (7V4 i n. ) may
be tol d by i ts "chewi nk" cal l and by i ts pl umage. The
bl ack back and tai l (whi te t i p) , whi te bel l y, and chestnut
si de patches are good fi el d marks . Eyes of the adul t are
bri ght red (whi te i n southeastern bi rds) . The femal e i s
brown i nstead of bl ack. Thi s speci es nests i n thi ckets
wi thi n both coni ferous and deci d
uous woods . A western form has
many smal l whi te spots on the wi ngs
and back . Al l towhees are ground
feeders that scratch vi gorousl y i n
dead l eaves for i nsects and seeds .
BROWN TOWHEE Thi s western towhee (7V4 i n . ) i s
pl ai n brown above, gray bel ow, wi t h a chestnut cap
and wi th orange-brown on the throat and under the
tai l . Favored habi tats are suburban shrubbery, chap
arral , and stream borders. The shy Abert's Towhee (73/4

i n . ) of Southwest deserts is chest

nut-brown al l over, wi th a bl ack
face. The Green-tai l ed Towhee (6V4
i n. ) of western mountai ns has a
green back, reddi sh crown, whi te
throat, and gray si des .
Worl dwi de there are nearl y 300 speci es of sparrows,
of whi ch 52 have been recorded i n North Ameri ca north
of Mexi co. Towhees, j uncos, and some l ess wel l -known
bi rds such as grassqui ts and l ongspurs are i ncl uded i n
these total s . The onl y ones di scussed here are bi rds that
occur over much of the conti nent and are l i kel y to be
found by begi nners.
Sparrows are smal l to medi um-si zed bi rds wi th stout
coni cal bi l l s adapted for crushi ng seeds , whi ch are thei r
mai n di et. Seed-eaters have a better chance for wi nter
survi val i n the North than do i nsect-eaters, so sparrows
are conspi cuous wi nter resi dents i n areas where dayti me
wi nter temperatures are l i kel y to remai n bel ow freezi ng
for several consecut ive days .
Most sparrows have streaked backs. Head and breast
patterns can be used to i denti fy most speci es . Each
speci es has i ts own parti cul ar nest i ng habi tat i n summer,
but duri ng mi grati on and in wi nter several speci es often
flock together. Sparrows are short-di stance mi grants,
wi nteri ng l argel y wi thi n the Uni ted States and southern
Canada. They arri ve on thei r breedi ng grounds earl y i n
spri ng. Most species prefer fi el ds rather than woodl ands.

FI ELD SPARROW Thi s common sparrow (5 i n . ) of
brushy fi el ds di spl ays a reddi sh-brown crown; i ts pl ai n
breast, pi nk bi l l and l egs, and broad
gray eye ri ng cl i nch i ts i denti fi ca
ti on . I ts song i s an accel erati ng se
ri es of s l urred whi stl es. Compare
the Fi el d Sparrow wi th the Ameri
can Tree, Chi ppi ng, and Swamp
Sparrows, whi ch have t he same
reddi sh cap.
AMERI CAN TREE SPARROW The bri ght reddi sh cap
together wi th the si ngl e dark breast spot i denti fi es the
Ameri can Tree Sparrow (5V4 i n . ) . Note al so that the bi l l
i s dar k above, yel l owi sh bel ow. The sweet song i s rarel y
heard i n i ts wi nter range. Thi s bi rd i s not rel ated to the
Eurasi an Tree Sparrow (5 i n. ), whi ch
has been i ntroduced i nto southern
I l l i noi s and whi ch l ooks l i ke a House
Sparrow wi th a smal l bl ack cheek
patch and brown crown.
VESPER SPARROW Whi te outer tai l feathers di sti n
gui sh the Vesper Sparrow (5V2 i n. ) , a bi rd of l arge open
fi el ds. Otherwi se, except for the smal l chestnut wi ng
patch, thi s bi rd resembl es the Song Sparrow (page 1 1 4) .
Other smal l bi rds wi th whi te outer tai l feathers are the
sl ender-bi l l ed l ong-tai l ed pi pi ts and
t he Dar k- eyed J u nc o. The Lar k
Sparrow (53/4 i n. ) of t he West has a
broad whi te fri nge around the tai l ,
a l arge chestnut ear patch, and a
central breast spot.

CHI PPI NG SPARROW Thi s smal l sparrow (4V2 i n. )
i s tol d by i ts reddi sh crown , cl ear whi te underparts,
whi te l i ne over the eye, bl ack l i ne through the eye, and
bl ack bi l l . Young have streaked crowns wi th l i ttl e or no
red. The song i s a rapi d seri es of unmusi cal "chi ps" on
the same pi tch . The Chi ppi ng Spar
row prefers l awns, gol f courses, and
other short-grass habi tats.
WHI TE- CROWNE D SPARROW The bl ac k- and
white crown, erect posture, pl ai n gray breast and throat,
and pi nk or yel l owi sh bi l l i denti fy thi s sparrow (5% i n . ) .
Young have brown and buff head stri pes. Western bi rds
use suburban habi tats , but eastern bi rds prefer hedge
rows bordered by l arge fi el ds. The
Gol den-crowned Sparrow (6V4 i n. ),
whi ch wi nters i n the Paci fi c states,
di ffers by havi ng a dul l yel l ow crown
bordered wi th bl ack.
WHI TE-THROATED SPARROW Thi s bi rd (53/4 i n . )
i s tol d from the precedi ng by a di sti nct whi te throat and
a smal l spot of yel l ow before the eye. I t l acks the erect
posture and gray hi nd neck of the Whi te-crowned Spar
row. I ts whi st l ed "Ol d Sam Peabody Peabody Peabody"
song i s fami l i ar i n the Nort h woods
i n summer, and can al so be heard
on warm wi nter morni ngs. I n wi nter
i t prefers wood margi ns and t hi ck
ets, and i s never found far from
SONG SPARROW A l arge brown center spot on a
bol dl y streaked breast, and a rather l ong, rounded tai l
that i t pumps a s i t fl i es, are the fi el d marks of the Song
Sparrow (5V2 i n. ) . I ts mel odi ous, var i ed song, one of
the fi rst si gns of spri ng, i s easy to recogni ze. At al l
seasons Song Sparrows are found i n hedgerows, shrub-
bery, and weedy fi el ds. The smal l er
Li ncol n's Sparrow (43/4 i n . ) , most
common i n the West, i s s i mi l ar but
wi th a buff breast band crossed by
fi ne dark streaks.
SWAMP SPARROW (5 i n. ) Note the Swamp Spar
row's whi te throat, red-brown crown, pl ai n gray breast,
and rounded tai l . The rusty wi ngs, dark bi l l , and the
broad gray stri pe over the eye
(buffy in young bi rds) wi l l confi rm
the i denti fi cati on . I t prefers moi st
brushy habi tats at al l seasons . I ts
song i s a sl ow musi cal tri l l .
FOX SPARROW Our l argest true sparrow (6V4 i n. ) ,
thi s bi rd i s recogni zed by i ts bri ght red-brown tai l and
i ts heavi l y streaked breast. Though a l i ttl e l i ke the Her
mi t Thrush ( page 87) i n si ze and marki ngs, the Fox
Sparrow has a heavi er bi l l and
l arger, more conspi cuous breast
streaks. I t frequents woods and
thi ckets, and i t scratches i n dry
l eaves wi th both feet at once l i ke a
DARK-EYED JUNCO Thi s even gray bi rd ( 5V4 i n . )
wi th cl ear whi te outer tai l feathers and a whi ti sh bi l l i s
usual l y seen on or near the ground, feedi ng on seeds .
The femal e i s browner, especi al l y on the back and si des.
Juncos are common nesti ng bi rds i n the North woods,
preferri ng coni fers . They are attracted to feeders i n
wi nter. Western races tend t o have
bl acker heads and mor e r ust y
backs. A l arge race (6 i n. ) i n the
Bl ack Hi l l s of South Dakota has
whi te wi ng bars. Adul t Yel l ow-eyed
Juncos of Ari zona have yel l ow eyes.

EASTERN MEADOWLARK Thi s bi rd ( 8V2 i n . ) pre
fers pastures, meadows , and grai n fi el ds. The very s i m
i l ar Western Meadowl ark ( 8V2 i n. ) i s sl i ghtl y pal er on
t he back, and t he yel l ow of t he throat goes hi gher on t he
cheek. The onl y other l arge songbi rds wi th whi te outer
tai l feathers are the mocki ngbi rd and the shri kes. Note
the bl ack "V" on the yel l ow breast
of the meadowl arks. Young of both
speci es are l i ke the adul ts. The
West ern Meadowl ark' s song i s
l ouder and more fl utel i ke than the
si mpl e whi stl e of the Eastern bi rd.
BOBOLI NK The mal e (6 i n. ) , the onl y North Ameri
can songbi rd that i s l i ght above, al l -bl ack bel ow, i s easy
to i denti fy. However, the femal e and the mal e i n fal l are
sparrowl i ke, wi th buff breasts and bl ack-and-buff stri pes
on the crown . I n summer i t eats i nsects i n hayfi el ds, but
. i n fal l i t may damage ri ce crops .
The other grai ns it eats are of no
commerc i al val ue . The Bobol i n k
wi nters i n South Ameri ca. I ts song
i s one of the most beauti ful of bi rd
songs .
RED-WI NGED BLACKBI RD The mal e ( 7V4 i n . ) i s
uni que wi th i t s red shoul ders, margi ned wi th buff. The
femal e i s dusky brown above wi th a heavi l y streaked
breast and general l y wi th no hi nt of the red shoul der.
The Tri col ored Bl ackbi rd (lV2 i n . ) of Cal i forni a's central
val l eys has deeper red shoul ders
wi th a whi te margi n. Both speci es
are abundant marsh and fi el d bi rds,
nest i ng i n reeds , cat tai l s , and
shrubs . They form l arge fl ocks dur
i ng fal l , wi nter, and spri ng .
BREWER'S BLACKBI RD (8 i n . ) Thi s is the bl ackbi rd of
western ranches and corral s . The yel l ow eye of the mal e
and the purpl i sh ti nge to i ts head feathers are fi el d
marks . I t wal ks wi th i ts wi ngs sl i ghtl y droopi ng . The
femal e i s pl ai n browni sh gray wi th brown eyes. The Rusty
Bl ackbi rd (8 i n. ) of the East i s si mi
l ar, but wi t h whi te eyes and rusty
ti ps to i ts feathers . The Rusty Bl ack
bi rd sel dom fl ocks wi th other bl ack
bi rds; i t i s usual l y found i n swamp
forests i nstead of i n fi el ds .
COMMON GRACKLE Grackl es are abundant, l arge
bl ackbi rds wi th l ong wedge-shaped tai l s . The Common
Grackl e [1 0- 1 2 i n . ) i s a fami l i ar suburban and farml and
bi rd t hat nests i n col oni es i n evergreen trees . Note t he
i ri descent pl umage of t he mal e. The Boat-tai l ed Grackl e
( 1 2- 1 6 i n . ) i s found al ong the coast
from Del aware to Texas, and the
Great-tai l ed Grackl e [1 2- 1 6 i n . ) i s
becomi ng abundant i n the southern
Great Pl ai ns. Femal e grackl es are
much smal l er than mal es.
BROWN-HEADED COWBI RD (6V2 i n . ) has the unfor
tunate habi t of al ways l ayi ng i ts eggs i n nests of other
bi rds . I ts eggs hatch sooner than those of i ts host; onl y
the fast-growi ng cowbi rds survi ve. The cowbi rd i s our
smal l est bl ackbi rd, and the onl y one wi th a brown head .
It gets i ts name from i ts habi t of
feedi ng wi t h cat t l e . L i ke ot her
bl ackbi rds, they wal k, but they hol d
thei r tai l s hi gher when wal ki ng than
do thei r rel atives . The femal e i s uni
form mouse-gray.
NORTHERN ORI OLE The bri l l i ant mal e (7 i n . ) is a
showy bi rd. The femal e is ol ive above, dul l orange
yel l ow bel ow, wi th two pal e wi ng bars; she sel ects a tal l
shade tree for her hangi ng nest . Western mal es have
orange on the sides of the head and over the eye. The
Orchard Ori ol e (6 i n . ) , east of the
Rocki es, i s si mi l ar, but i s bri ck red,
not orange; the femal e Orchard
Ori ol e is greeni sh-yel l ow. Young
ori ol es are si mi l ar to femal es . Other
ori ol es are in the Southwest .
PURPLE FI NCH The mal e Purpl e Fi nch {5V2 i n. ) i s
ol d-rose i n col or, not purpl e. Femal es are sparrowl i ke,
streaked brown and whi te wi th a di sti nctive dark streak
at the si de of the throat. Both sexes have the heavy seed
crushi ng bi l l , pal e l i ne over the eye, and notched tai l .
Feeders wi th sunfl ower seeds attract fl ocks of Purpl e
Fi nches i n wi nter. I n the West, the si mi l ar Cassi n's Fi nch
{6 i n. ) i s recogni zed by the contrast
between i ts bri l l i ant red crown and
the browner hi nd neck and back.
Both species nest i n coni fers but are
often found in deci duous trees and
shrubs i n wi nter.
HOUSE FI NCH Thi s abundant suburban bi rd (5V"
i n. ) is easi l y attracted to feedi ng stati ons. A native of
the West, a flock was rel eased on Long I sl and i n
the 1 950's, and the descendents are now spreadi ng
rapi dl y i n the East. The mal e has more brown on
the wi ngs, back, and breast than the Purpl e Fi nch . The
femal e i s nondescri pt, more fai ntl y streaked than
the femal e Purpl e Fi nch, and wi th
out the promi nent l i ne over the eye
and the dark streak besi de the
throat. The bi l l i s nearl y as l arge
as the Purpl e Fi nch's, the tai l l ess
AMERI CAN GOLDFI NCH The yel l ow body, bl ack
cap and wi ngs mark the Ameri can Gol dfi nch (4V4 i n . ) .
I n fl i ght i t i s recogni zed by i ts rol l er-coaster fl i ght and
i ts cl ear song. I t i s a bi rd of weedy fi el ds and meadows,
feedi ng near the ground, and nesti ng i n young trees .
Femal e, young, and wi nter mal es are dul l yel l ow-brown,
wi th wi ng bars but no bl ack on the head . The western
Lesser Gol dfi nch (3% i n . ) i s si mi l ar,
wi th bl ack crown, but dark (green
or bl ack) back and dul l er yel l ow
breast. Sunfl ower or thi stl e seeds
wi l l attract gol dfi nches to feedi ng
stati ons.
HOUSE SPARROW Thi s bi rd (5V4 i n . ) , mi snamed
Engl i sh Sparrow, i s a nati ve of Europe bel ongi ng to the
Ol d Worl d Sparrow fami l y. I mported from Engl and i n
1 850, i t became establ i shed, spread rapi dl y, and i s now
wi despread . The gray crown and bl ack throat of the
mal e are characteri sti c, as are the unstreaked brown
crown and broad buff l i ne over the
eye of the femal e. Unl i ke our nati ve
sparrows, the House Sparrow nests
i n cavi ti es and bi rd boxes . I t i s an
aggressi ve speci es, dri vi ng nati ve
bi rds from feeders and nest boxes.
f b K
Most swi mmi n g bi rds
that depend on fl yi ng or
cr awl i ng i n sect s can not
tcfc TBt ( 1 3 i n. ) : grayi sh; red
wi nt er i n col d c l i mat es .
bi l l ; black cap.
Some seed-eaters al so mi
grate. Some bi rds mi grate by day, others by ni ght . No
one knows j ust how bi rds fi nd t hei r way from t hei r sum
mer to thei r wi nter homes.
Mi grat i ons north and sout h ore best known. Some
bi rds move onl y a few hundred mi l es from t hei r breedi ng
to t hei r wi nter range; others cover several thousand.
Scar l et Tanagers travel from Peru t o northern U. S.
WW5B'5 WtDBt (4V. in. ) flies
fom Alaska and Yukon to Central
DcKc55B (53/, i n. ) migrates in
enormous numbrs fom our grass
lands to South America.
and bck. Some warblers, vi reos, and flycatchers
travel even farther. The champion migrant i s the Arc
tic Tern; some breed i n the Arctic and wi nter i n the Antarcti c,
1 1 , 0 mi les away. They fl y over 25, 0 mi les a yar and
cross the Atl anti c i n thei r mi gration.
Four North American fl yways form connecting paths
bteen northern breeding grounds and wi nteri ng
areas i n the southern Uni ted States, Mexi co, Cuba,
and South America. Thei r use by waterfowl i s best
known, though most mi grating bi rds use them. Fly
ways overl ap i n the breeding grounds, though each
tends to have its own population.
The priods of spring and fal l mi grations are the ti mes
you will see the most birds. See pages 1 31 - 1 53 for
when to look for mi grants.
Nbbbb PP
Ug0 b0ggt ( 1 0 i n. ) mi
grates fom the Arctic and the prai
ries to central South America.
Re K0? (8V2 i n. ) concentrates on
the Atlantic coast enroute fom the
Arctic to Chile.
V0t0 Thtu5h (8 i n. ) : Robin-like,
black bar on orange breast.
V0@M5D00K(7V. i n. ) : larger
than goldfinch; huge bak.
Besi des north and south mi grati ons, verti cal move
ments occur i n hi gh mountai ns . Summer resi dents nest
hi gh among spruce and fir i n summer, l ater movi ng
down to foothi l l s and val l eys for more dependabl e
wi nter food .
Many speci es normal l y mi grati ng farther north breed
at hi gh el evati ons in the mountai ns . Another pattern i s
that shown by young her
ons and eagl es. Soon after
they l eave the nest, they
wander nor t hward . By
l ate summer or earl y fal l
many are hundreds of mi l es
nor t h of t hei r nest i n g
gr ounds . Before wi nt er
they go south agai n .
Left: Great Egret (3Z i n. ), a
large heron, al l white; black legs,
yel l ow bi l l . Right: Little Blue
Heron (ZZ i n. ), smal l er than
Great Bl ue (p. Z3). Legs green
ish. Young white; blue tint on
wi ngs.
The tabl es on pages 1 32- 1 53 gi ve conci sel y, for each
bi rd i l l ustrated, a weal th of facts on mi grati on, nests
and eggs, and feedi ng habi ts .
The i nformati on on mi grati on is gi ven by key ci ti es:
DC-Washi ngton, D. C. ; NY-New York; B-Boston; StL
St . Loui s; SF-San Franci sco; P-Portl and, Oreg. You can
esti mate the arri val of bi rds i n your regi on from dates
for the nearest key ci ty. There i s about a week's di ffer
ence between DC and NY and between NY and B for
most mi grati ng bi rds.
Bi rds found i n an area the year round are l i sted as
"permanent resi dents . " For "summer resi dents" ( SR) ,
whi ch come nort h i n t he spri ng, stay al l summer, and
depart i n the fal l , the tabl e gi ves the average dates of
arri val and departure. Average dates for "wi nter resi
dents" (WR) are si mi l arl y gi ven . Fi nal l y, some bi rds
come north i n the spri ng and, after stayi ng a whi l e,
conti nue nor thward . These can be seen f or onl y a few
weeks in spri ng and fal l . These bi rds are "transi ents"
(Tr) . Approxi mate dates for al l bi rds are gi ven i n abbre
vi ated form: E, M, and L stand for "earl y, " "mi ddl e, "
and "l ate. " "E-Apr" means earl y Apri l and "M-Oct"
stands for mi ddl e October.
Local weather, food suppl y, and other factors i nfl u
ence arrival and departure of bi rds . After several years,
your own personal records may prove a better l ocal
gui de than the abbrevi ated data gi ven here, especi al l y
i f you compare dates wi t h those recorded by other ob
servers i n your county.
Bi rds and thei r nests and eggs are protected by federal
and state l aws . We do not encourage vi si ti ng nests, but
i f a nest i s found, the i nformati on on pages 1 32- 1 53 wi l l
hel p t o i denti fy t he owner.
\ Z
Poge Nome Migration ffls
Arrive Depart Size (in.) No.
Z Common Loon DC b-Ocf Wk M-Moy 3. X Z. Z Z
L-5epf WkL-Moy Vor ob e,green shordu
5fL b-Apr Ir L-Nov brown wfh fonf bock
5f b-Ocf Wkb-Moy spofs.
ZZ Fed-b ed Orebe DC M-Mor 5k L-Ocf . 7X . 4-8
b-Apr 5k M-Ocf Vert ghf b ue-green,
5fL M-Mor 5k L-Nov dor er or buff, un-
Fermonenfkesdenf morked.
Z3 Oreof ueHeron NT b-Apr 5k L-Nov Z. 4X . 8 3-4
b-Apr 5k M-Nov Fo e b u sh reen fo du
5fL b-Mor 5k L-Nov bue, unmor ed.
5f Fermonenfkesdenf
Z4 Oreen-bocked DC M-Apr 5k b-Ocf 1 . X . 3-
Heron L-Apr 5k M-5epf Fo egreen shorgreensh
5fL M-Apr 5k L-5epf bue, unmorked.
5f M-Mor 5k L-Ocf
Z Coffe bgref DC M-Apr Ir M-Ocf . 8 X . 3 3-V
NT L-Apr 5k b-Ocf Very poe green.
5fL b-Moy 5k L-Aug
Z Iundro 5won DC M-Nov Wk M-Apr 4.3 XZ. 8 Z-
5fL M-Ocf Wk L-Apr Whfe orpoe yeow.
5f b-Ocf Wk b-Apr
Z7 ConodoOoose DC L-5epf Wk M-Apr 3.4 X Z. 3 4- 0
L-5epf Ir L-Apr Creom fo du reensh
5fL b-Ocf Wk M-Apr whfe. Lofer bu fy ond
M-5epf Wk M-Moy moffed.
Z8 Mo ord DC Fermonenfkesdenf Z.3 X . - Z
N T b-Ocf Wk M-Apr Fo e green sh fo groysh
5fL b-5epf Wkb-Moy buff.
ZY Amerconock DC Fermonenfkesdenf Z. 3X . 7 - Z
Duck NT Fermonenf kesdenf Orosh whfe fo green-
Fermonenf kesdenf sh uff. 5 m l or fo Mo -
5fL L-Ocf Wk b-Apr ord.
30 Wood Duck DC L-feb 5k M-Nov Z.0 X . 8-
NT M-Mor 5k b-Nov Du creom fobuff.
5fL M-feb 5k L-Nov
Decoyngvegefof on.
Orosses, sedges, ond
ned wfhdown.
nedwfh own.
Orosses, weeds,
eoves, feof her n-
n g.
eoves,down- ned.

round on smo s-
I n shoow wofer. foof-
ngomongrushes nokes
Hghup nfreeorcffneor
I n frees, buf neor wofer,
occos ono yonground.
I nfreesorshrubs,- Z ff.
ff. d omefer mound n
morshes or wef grossy
offen onsmo s ond.
On ground omong h
gross or reeds, usuo y
or brush. omefmes for
Upfo0 ff.omvegmund,
no hoe nfreeorsfump.
Mo n y fsh, crobs, some
nsecfs ond mor ne o -
rof sh, crusfoceons,
smo1f sh,ond nsecfs.
Mo n y fsh, o so crusfo-
Mo n y fsh, oquofc n-
I nsecfs, esreco y gross-
hoppers, rogs, sp ders.
A sofcks.
oquofcp onfs.
Fondweeds, grosses,
seeds of wheof, borey,
Fondweeds, w d rce
ond ofher seeds, oquofc
5ome osMo ord.
W d r ce, /ondweeds,
ocorns,see s, ond frufs,
some nsecfs.
e Nome Migration
Arrive Depart 5ze(in.) No.
3 Norfhern Fnfo NT M-5epf Wk M-Apr Z.Z X 1 . - Z
5fL L-5epf Ir L-Apr 5 m orfoMo ord.
5f b-5epf Wk L-Apr
3Z Convosbock DC b-Nov Wkb-Apr Z. X . - 0
NTM-Ocf Wk M-Apr Ove groyordu green.
5fL L-Ocf WkL-Apr
5f M-Ocf WkL-Apr
33 Common DC M-Nov Wkb-Apr Z. X . 7 - 7
Mergonser b M-Ocf WkL-Apr Foebuff, unmorked.
5fL M-Nov WkM-Apr
34 AmerconCoof DC M-Ocf Wkb-Moy . VX . 3 8- Z
NT b-Ocf Ir L-Nov Lghf buff, specked wfh
5fL M-feb 5k M-Nov dorkbrownorbock.
5f Fermonenfkesdenf
3 K ldeer NT b-Mor 5k b-Nov . X . 4
b L-Mor 5k L-Ocf uff or dorker, heovy
5fL L-feb 5k L-Nov spoffedormoffed.
5f Fermonenfkesdenf
3 Common 5n pe DC M-5epf Ir b-Moy .X . Z 4
5fL L-feb Ir L-Nov Fo e o ve f o brown,

b-5epf Wkb-Moy
37 Lesser DC b-Apr Ir M-Ocf . X . 3-
Tel owegs NT b-Apr Ir b-Ocf uffl wfh bod bofches
5fL b-Apr Ir b-Ocf of c ocoofe ond bock-
5f b-Aug Ir b-Moy sh.
38 5poffed DC M-Apr 5k L-5epf . 3 X 0.V 4
5ondp per b b-Moy 5k M-5epf Wh fe fo creom, heovy
5fL M-Apr >k b-Ocf morked wfh dork brown
L-Apr 5k M-Ocf ond bock.
3V Leosf5ondpper DC L-Apr Ir L-5epf . Z . 0 3-4
5fL b-Apr Ir L-Ocf Fo e brown or groy,
5f b-Juy Wk M-Moy momedwfh bmwn, groy,
b-Moy Ir L-5epf orbock.
40 HerrngOu DC M-5epf Wk M-Moy Z.V X . V 3-4
NT L-Aug WkL-Moy Vorobe. Wh f shfo groy
5fL M-Ocf WkL-Apr orbmwn,bmwnspofsond
5f L-Ocf Wk M-Apr bofches.
5frow, gross, rushes,
ned wfh down.
keeds, nedwfh
Leoves, grosses, moss,
Heops of reeds,
rushes, ond coorse
ned w f h

eb es,


nedw f


eorno n ng.
5 ghfde

5 ghf depress on,
spor ngy ned w fh
5eoweeds, morsh
ponfs, ch ps, feofh-
ers, she s. 5ome-
On dry ground n f he
On ground n reeds or
On ground, beneofh
bushes ond befween
bouden,or noho e no
On ground neor wofer,
somefmes hof ooof.
A hoow n

round, n

Ongroundoronsghfe -

round oong shores

ond tnmonhes,offenun-
dersmo bush.
On ground or covfy n
rocks, on sondy or rocky
shores. onks of sfreoms
ondopen up ondfeds.
On ground or rock n
grossy ow onds neor
wofer. 5omef mes on
mosfup ond.
On ground. rds nesf n
co on es. Offen on s-
onds, somefmes under
heovyvegefof on.
of oquofc ponfs, mo-
uscsond nsecfs.
Wd ceery, pondweeds

some mo

uscs, ond
oquofc nsecfs.
fsh, croyfsh, frogs, oc-
cosonooquofc nsecfs.
Duckweeds ond ofher
oquofc p onfs. Mo uscs,
crusfoceons, ond oquofc
Mo n y nsecfsondeorfh-
worms, smol l crusfo-
l nsecfs, crusfoceons,
worms, seeds of swomp
ondoquofc ponfs.
5mo fsh,sno s,worms,
crusfoceons, ond some
Mo n y nsecfs, worms,
spden, ond smo crus-
Aquofc nsecfs, worms,
ond smo crusfoceons.
5mohsh,mo uscs,crus-
foceons, nsecfs, gor-
boge,b ueberres.
Foge Nome Mleration

Arrve Deporf 5ze[n.) No.

4 CommonIern DC M-Apr 5k b-Ocf . X . Z Z-3
NT L-Apr 5k M-Ocf Vor ob e. Dul green sh
b-Moy 5k b-Ocf whfe fo brown, dorker
5f L-Apr Ir b-Nov spofs.
4Z IurkeyVufure DC Fermonenfkesdenf Z.8 X . V -3
NT L-Mor 5k M-Nov Dul wh fe or buff, rreg-
5f b-Mor 5k M-Nov u orbrown spofs.
M-Mor 5k L-5epf
43 Osprey DC L-Mor 5k M-Ocf Z. X . 8 Z-4
L-Apr 5k b-Ocf Vorobe. Du whfe fo
5fL b-Apr Ir L-Ocf buff or ghf brown wfh
5f M-Mor 5k M-Ocf brown blofches.
44 odboge DC Fermonenf kesdenf 3. X Z. V -4
4 CoopersHowk NT b-Apr Ir b-Ocf . VX . 3-
M-Apr 5k b-Ocf ush orgreen sh whfe,
5fL M-Mor 5k L-Ocf unmorked fo heov y
5f Fermonenf kesdenf spoffedwfhbrown.
4 ked-fo ed Howk Fermonenfkesdenf Z.X . 8 Z-4
fhroughouffsronge, Du or creomy wh fe,
excepf nnorfhcenfro spoffed brown or purpe,
sfofes rore yunmorked.
47 AmerconKesfre Fermonenfkesdenf . 3 X . Z 4-7
fhroughouffsronge, Whfeorf nfedwfhbuff,
excepf nnorfhcenfro spoffed or specked wfh
sfofesondConodo brown.
48 k ng-necked Fermonenfkesdenf . 8 X .4 -
Fheosonf fhroughouffsronge uff fo dork o ve, occo-
sonoygreen sh.
4V kuffedOrouse Fermonenfkesdenf . X . 8- 4
fhroughouffsronge Fo e buff buf voryng n
coor, unmorked.
0 Norfhern Fermonenfkesdenf . Z X .0 0-Z4
obwhfe fhroughouffsronge Wh fe,unmorked.
Ho ow, ned w f h
she s, fowe - bu f
mound of gross ond
Fofformofsfcks, od-
d f ons mode from
Lo:enesfof bronches
on sfcks. Addfons
ondrepo rsore mode
ronches ond fwgs,
offen nedw fhbork.
ronches ond fwgs,
ned w f h rosses,
weeds,deod eoves.
Nonesfmofer o , un-
ess some wos eff by
prevous occuponf.
Deod eoves, gross,
5ho owdepress on,
nedw fheoves.
somef mesomong
grosses. Usuo yons-

ow og n sec uded
poces, neor wofer or n
I n frees: -0 ff. up or
on rocks. Ospreys nesf
o ongcoosfs.
I nfreefopsorc ffs,30-V0
ff. '' n foresfed or
woo ed reg ons, neor
Usuo y n frees: p nes
referred, Z- ff. up.
ore yonground.
I nfo frees, Z0-80ff. up,
nforesforeosor nsmo
I n covfy offree, c ffem-
bonkmenf, 7-80 ff. up,
offen n forms or or-
On ground n bushy pos-
fures, mooronds, gross,
ondgro nf eds.
n wooded up onds or
On ground n
ross fon-
ges, open fe s, hedge-
feeds o mosf who y on
smo f sh, buf oso some
Corr on.
A mosfenf re yfsh.
Mosf yf sh,somerodenfs
ondo fewb rds.
Mo n y w d b rds ond
poufry, some mommos,
ofher verfebrofes ond
Mo n y rodenfs, some
Lorgey nsecfs, some ro-
denfs, zords, ond smo
b rds.
Corn,wheof,bor ey, w d
frufs,ond nsecfs.
Leoves, buds, ond frufs
of foresf p onf s. Occo-
s ono nsecfs.
Corn ond 9ro n. kog-
weed, e:e ezo, ocorns,
ondwee seeds.
Foge Nome Migrofion tggs
Arrve Deporf 5ze(in.) No.
kockDove Fermonenfkesdenf . X . Z-3
fhroughouffsronge Whfe,unmorked.
Z Mourn ngDove DC Fermonenfkesdenf . X 0. Z
NT M-Mor 5k M-Nov Whfe, unmorked.
b L-Mor 5k L-Ocf
5f L-Mor 5k M-Nov
3 Telow-b ed DC b-Moy 5k L-5epf . Z X 0.V Z-4
Cuckoo NT b-Moy 5k L-5epf Lghf b ush green, un-
5fL L-Apr 5k L-5epf morked, occos ono y
5f L-Moy 5k L-5epf moffed.
4 Common Fermonenf kesdenf . X . Z -
om-Ow excepfofnorfhern Whfe,unmorked.
Oreof Homed Fermonenfkesdenf Z.3 X . V Z-3
Ow fhroughouf fsronge koughwhfe,unmorked.
bosfernond Fermonenfkes denfs . 4 X . 3 3-
Wesfern fhroughouffhe rronge Whfe, unmorked.
7 Ch mney5wff DC M-Apr 5k b-Ocf 0. 8 X 0. 4-
L-Apr 5k b-5epf Whfe,unmorked.
5fL b-Apr 5k b-Ocf
8 Wh p-poor-w ll DC L-Apr 5k M-5epf . Z X0. 8 Z
b-Moy 5k M-5epf Creomywh f e, spoffed
5fL M-Apr 5k M-Ocf wfhbrown.
9 Common DC b-Moy 5k L-5epf . Z X0. V Z
Nghfhowk M-Moy 5k M-5epf Du wh fe, spoffed wfh
5fL L-Apr 5k b-Ocf groyondbrown.
b-June 5k L-5epf
0 kuby-fhmofed DC L-Apr 5k L-5epf 0. X 0. 4 Z
Humm ngb rd NT M-Moy 5k M-5epf Whfe, unmorked.
5fL L-Apr 5k b-Ocf
5fcks,sfrow, ond
5fems, sfrows, some-
5fcks, roofefs,
sfrows, pne needes,
debrs. Usuoy no
5omefmes uses od
howk nesfs, some-
No nesf, or uses ony
ovo ob emofer o .
Coorsefwgs,he dfo-
gefher by so vo of
No nesf consfrucfon.
Uses s ghf depres-
s on neoves.
None. gs o d on
Fonf-down,bfsof -
chen oufs de, bound
by fhreods of sovo
u d ng [ 30 ff . ond
h gher] , on she fered
I nfrees[p nes preferred}
Z-4 ff. obove ground, n
upond, somefmes nwef
I n frees or fh ckefs, 3-Z0
ff. up. Frefers morgnsof
Iree cov f es, sfeep es,
borns. 5omefmes under-
ground nburrowsorhoes
I n orgefrees[preferob y
p nes} 0-V0 ff. up.
5omef mes nfreehoow
Ho ow of free [-0 ff.
up] , cronny, nook of
bu d ng.
Usuo yneortopofch m-
neysor rorey nbornsor
sheds, somefmes nsde
On ground, usuo y n
bruswood mor ns,on
we-ro ned on.
Onmund,rock, oronof
roos of bu d ng, n open
feds, posfures, or cfy
Foced or "sodded" on
bronch of free3-0 ff.
Corn, oofs, weed seeds,
formg eon ngs.
Wheof, corn, gross, ond
I nsecfs, mosfy coforp -
ors, nc ud ng ho ryspe-
Mce, rofs, gophers, ond
kobb fs, squ rre s, rofs,
w db rdsondpoufry.
kodenfs, smo b rds,
frogs,fsh,ond nsecfs.
f es, mosqu foes, ond
ofhersmo nsecfs,
coughf n ghf.
Mofhs, y ng onfs, ond
ofher nsecfs coughf n
5m orfoWh p-poor-w .
Necf or of owers ond
smo nsecfs.
\ 4
Foge Nome mgrofon tggs
Arrve 0eporf 5ze[n.) No.
efedKnghsher DC Fermonenfkesdenf . 3 X .0 -8
b b-At 5k L-Ocf Oossywhfe, unmorked.
5fL L-fe 5k L-Nov
5f Fermonenfkesdenf
Z ked-heoded DC Fermonenf kesdenf . 0 . 0 4-
Woodpecker NT b-Moy Ir L-5epf
5fL Fermonenfkesdenf
Whfe, unmorked.
3 Norfhern DC Fermonenfkesdenf . X 0. V -V
f cker NT M-Mor 5k L-Ocf Oossywhfe,unmorked.
b M-Apr 5k M-Ocf
5f Fermonenfkesdenf
4 Te ow-be ed DC L-5epf Wk b-Moy 0. V X 0. 7 -7
5opsucker b M-Apr Ir L-Ocf Oossywhfe,unmorked.
5fL b-Mor Ir M-Nov
5f b-Ocf WkL-Apr
Downy Fermonenfkesdenf 0. 8X 0. 4-
Woodpecker fhroughouffsronge Wh fe, unmorked.
bosfernKngbrd DC L-_r 5k M-5epf . 0X 0. 7 3-4
NT b- oy 5k b-5epf Creomy wh f e, spoffed
5fL L-Apr 5k L-5epf wfh brown.
M-Moy 5k M-5epf
7 OreofCresfed DC b-Moy 5k M-5epf 0. V X 0. 7 3-
fycofcher b M-Moy 5k b-5epf Creomy, sfreoked w f h
5f L L-Apr 5k M-5epf brown.
8 bosfernFhoebe DC M-Mor 5k L-Ocf 0. 8 X 0. 4-
NT M-Mor 5k M-Ocf Whfe, occosonoy spof-
5fL M-Mor 5k L-Ocf fed wfh brown.
V Leosffycofcher DC b-Moy Ir L-5epf 0. X 0. 3-4
b b-Moy 5k b-5epf Wh fe, unmorked.
5fL b-Moy Ir b-Ocf
70 Homed Lork Fermonenfkesdenf 0. 8 X 0. 3-
nfheUnfed5fofes Du whfe, specked wfh
Nesf ned wfh fsh-
poddedwfhch ps.
Hoe, podded w f h
Hoe, nedwfhch ps.
Oourd-shoped exco-
vofon: - 0 n. deep.
koofefs, mss, fwne,
ho r,woo1. Lnedwfh
Iwgs, ross, eoves,
moss, eofhers, ond
usuo yo cosf-off
snokesk n.
moss ond deod
eoves, ned w f h
ross roofefs, moss,
Orosses, bork fbers,
ned w f h feofhers
ond ofher soff mofe-
Depress on, oose y
fed w fh gross, f-
Af endof burrow n bonk
fhon 0 ff. up. Usuo y
bxcovof ons n frees,
posfs, poes:-80 ff. up.
Covfy 0-Z4 n. deep n
frees, snogs, poes: n. -
0ff. up.
Covf ndeodorvefree
8-40 f. up, n woods or
I ndeod mb -0 ff. up,
brdges: Z-0 ff.up.
Cov fy n deod mb or
posf . 5omef mesbu d-
ngs,3-70 ff.up.
I n she f er of undercuf
bonks, f ree roofs, cu -
ver f s, eoves, or ns de
fombudngs, -20ffup.
fork of free or uprghf
fwgs: Z-0 ff. up. Usu-
o yo ongwoodmorgns.
On round, n cu f vofed
ren s onds, n cover of
gross ond moss.
\ 4 \
Mo n yfsh, some crusfo-
eefes, onfs, ofher n-
secfs. Acorns, ofher w d
Anfs, beefes, ond ofher
nsecfs. Wd frufs ond
Anfs, beefes, ofher n-
secfsondfhe reggs.Wood
ond sop,w dfrufs.
Anfs ond borng nsecfs,
spden,snos. 5omefrufs
ees,onfs, grosshoppen,
beefes, efc. Aso some
Mofhs, grosshoppers,

secfs. Oc-
f y ng nsecfs: beef es,
es, mof hs, efc. 5ome
w dfruf,fewseeds.
5mo nsecfs: es, mos-
qu foes, mofhs,beefes.
Mxed def of nsecfs ond
[nwnfer} seedsofweeds
ond grosses.
Foge Nome mgrofon
Arrve 0eporf 5ze[n. ) No.
7 FurpeMorfn DC L-Mor 5k b-5epf .0X 0. 7 4-
NT M-Apr Ir L-Aug Whfe,unmorked.
5fL L-Mor 5k M-5epf
7Z Iree5woow DC L-Mor Ir M-Ocf 0. 7 X 0. 4-7
M-Apr 5k M-5epf Whfe, unmorked.
5fL M-Mor 5k L-Ocf
5f b-Mor 5k L-Ocf
73 orn 5woow NT b-Apr 5k L-5epf 0. 8X 0. 3-
5fL b-Apr 5k L-Ocf Wh f e, spoffed w fh
5f L-Mor 5k M-Ocf brown.
M-Apr 5k M-5epf
74 ock-b ed Fermonenfkesdenf . 3X 0.V 4-8
Mogpe fhroughouffsronge Oroysh, heovy morked
7 AmerconCrow Fermonenfkesdenf . X . Z 3-
excepfnConodo Vorobe. Foegreenshor
b u s h, toffed or
bofched wf brown.
7 ueJoy Fermonenfkesdenf . X 0.V 4-
fhroughouffsronge Oreenshfoove,spoffed
buf rregu or nwnfer wfh brown.
nf henorfh
77 Whfe-breosfed Fermonenf kesdenf 0. 8 X 0. -8
Nufhofch fhroughouf fsronge Wh fe, rore y p nk sh,
specked orspoffed wfh
78 ock-copped Fermonenfkesdenf 0. X 0. -8
Chckodee fhroughouffsronge Whfe,fneyspoffedwfh
7V IuffedIfmouse Fermonenfkesdenf 0. 7 X 0. -8
fhroughouffsronge Whfe fo buff, specked
wfhgroysh brown.
80 rown Creeper DC b-Ocf WkL-Apr 0.X 0. -8
NT L-5epf Wk b-Moy Wh f e, speck ed w f h
5f L L-5epf Wk L-Apr brown.
5f Fermonenfkesdenf
Leoves, gross, sfrow,
Oross, n ngof
Mud renforcedw fh
ponfmofer o . L ned
onmud, n ngof
roofefsorhorseho r.
Iwgs ond sfcks,
nedwfhroof efs,
Oross, onf fbers,
fwgs, ho r, ond
Moss, ho r, feofhers,
gross, ned w fh
Leoves, moss, bork,
Iwgs, ponffbers,
somefmes ned wfh
orho r.
I n covfes of frees, hoes
n c ffs: 3-30 ff. h gh.
freuenf uses mu -
ceed b rdhouses.
Ho ows ond covfes n
frees, woodpecker hoes,
crevces nbu d ngs,oso
b rdhouses, Z-0 ff. up.
Common y nborns, ouf-
bu d ngs, porches, -Z0
ff. up. Nesfodheresfoon
upr ghfsurfoce.
I nbushesondfrees:8-30
ff. up.
I n frees [preferoby pne
woods},heghf 0-70ff.
I n o forkoffree: -0 ff.
up. Frefersevergreenfor-
esfs.ufoffen nsuburbs,
forms,ondv oges.
A cov f or deserfed
woodpecerhoe: -0 ff.
up. Mof ure frees pre-
Covfy nroffed sfump or
mb, or deserfed wood-
peckerhoe, -0 ff. up.
Deserfed woodpeckers'
hoes or sfumps: Z-8 ff.
I n frees, beh nd or be-
fweenoosebork:- ff.
up. Us uo y n deep
fyng nsecfs: es, bees,
beefes, y ng onf s,
f es, mofhs, bees, bee-
fes ond ofher y ng n-
secfs. Uses boyberres os
o w nferfood.
bnf re y y ng nsecfs:
es, bees,onfs, beefes.
Orosshoppers, ofher n-
secfs, corr on, s mo
mommo s, w d ond cu -
Corn ond ofher gro ns,
weed seeds, wd frufs,
grosshoppers ond ofher
Acorns, beechnufs, corn
ondofhergro n. 5ome n-
secfs, eggs, ond young
b rds.
eefes, onfs, ofher n-
secfsondfhe reggs. Aso
seeds n w nfer. Frefers
I nsecfs ond fher eggs,
Anfs, bugs, ondofher n-
secfs, some seeds ond
Mo n y nsecfs: beef es,
bugs, coferp ors, onfs,
\ 44
8 HouseWren
8Z kuby-crowned
83 Uoden-crowned
K ng ef
84 ue-gro
Onofcofc er
8 bosfern ueb rd
8 WoodIhrush
87 HermfIhrush
88 Amercon kobn
8V OroyCofb rd
V0 Norfhem
Nock ngb rd
Arrive Depart
DC M-Apr 5k M-Ocf
NT L-Apr 5k b-Ocf
5fL M-Apr 5k M-Ocf
5f b-Mor 5k L-Ocf
NT b-Apr Ir L-Ocf
M-Apr Ir M-Ocf
5fL b-Ocf Ir L-A&r
M-Apr 5k M- cf
DC b-Ocf
NT L-5epf
Wk M-Apr
Wk M-Apr
5fL L-5epf Wk L-Apr
5f Fermonenfkesdenf
DC M-Apr 5k M-5epf
5k b-5epf NT L-Apr
5fL L-Mor 5k L-5epf
5f Fermonenfkesdenf
DC Fermonenfkesdenf
NT M-Mor 5k M-Nov
5fL L-feb 5k L-Nov
DC L-Apr 5k M-Ocf
NT b-Moy 5k b-Ocf
M-Moy 5k M-5epf
5fL L-Apr 5k b-Ocf
DC M-Ocf Wk b-Moy
NT b-Apr 5k M-Nov
M-Apr 5k b-Nov
5f Fermonenfkesdenf
DC Fermonenfkesdenf
NT b-Mor 5k M-Nov
5fL Fermonenfkesdenf
5f Fermonenfkesdenf
DC L-Apr 5k L-Ocf
NT b-Moy 5k b-Ocf
5fL L-Apr 5k M-Ocf
DC Fermonenfkesdenf
5fL Fermonenfkesdenf
5f Fermonenfkesdenf

Size (in.) No.
0. 7 X 0. - 0
Du wh fe, densey spof-
fed wfh brown.
0. X 0. 4 4-V
Whfe fo creom. 5 m or
fo Ooden-crowned K ng-
0. X 0. 4 - 0
Whfe f o creom, spoffed
wfh poe brown.
0. X 0. 4-
Wh f e or b u s h wh fe,
0. V X 0. 7 4-
Foe bue, rore y
wh fe,
. X0. 8 3-
r ghf jreen shb ue, un-
morke .
0. V X 0. 7 3-4
Oreen sh b ue, un-
. Z X0. 8 3-
Oreen sh
b ue, rore y
0. V X 0. 7 4-
Deep green sh b ue or
b u shgreen, unmorked.
.0X0. 8 3-
Oreen shfob ue, spoffed
brown, mosfy of orge
Iwgs, sfems, gmsses,
ned wfh feofhers,
ho r.
Fonf down, covered
by mosses ond -
chens. ound w f h
Oreen mosses, ned
wfh fne nner bork,
b ock roof efs, ond
Iendr s, f ne bork,
ond grosses. f r m y
woven ond covered
w fhchens.
Orosses, mofefs, hor,
ond some feofhers.
Leoves, roofefs, f ne
fws. frmy woven,
wf nner wo of
L ned w f h roof efs
ondp neneedes.
Mud wo ond bof-
fom, renforced wfh
gross, fwne, fwgs.
Iwgs ond eoves.
shreds, roofefs.
u ky nesf of coorse
fw gs, weed sfems,
shreds,sfr ng,rogs.
A covfy n hoow free:
-0 ff. up. Wood onds,
formyords, ond n cfes.
rd boxes common y
I nconfen, offen sodded
ono mb; -0 ff. up.
I nconferousfrees,
0 f.up.
Ono bronchor nocrofch
nfree neorwofer, 0-70
ff. up.
I n ho ow frees, deserfed
woodpeckerho es, ond
brdhouses, 3-30 ff. up.
Usuo y n sop ngs n
woods, 3-40 ff.up.
Onorneorground np ne
I n free crofch or omong
bronches, -70 ff. up. I n
bu dngs, nrurooreos.
I n shrubbery, fh ckef, -
0 ff. ond rorey Z ff.
up. Frefers dense ow-
I nshrubs,fhckefs,vnes,
neorhouses, - ff. up,
roreyh gher.
5mo nsecfs: bugs, bee-
fes,coferp ors,efc.
Anfs, ponf ce, sco e n-
secfs, ond nsecf eg

Occos ono use of wt d
I nsecfs: es, beef es,
p onfce, nsecfeggs.
Mo n y smo nsecfs:
beefes,es,coferp ors,
Monr nsecfs, nc ud ng
beefes, weev s, ond
grosshopers. Aso ho y,
dogwood, ond ofherw d
eef es, onf s, coferp -
ors, ond ofher nsecfs.
food s m or fo Wood
Oordenond fe d nsecfs,
worms, c u f vofed ond
w dfrufs.5omeseeds.
food s m or fo Mock ng-
b rd.
eef es, grosshoppers,
ond ofher nsecfs, some
wdfmf nseongrope
ond ho ypreferred.
V rownIhrosher
VZ CedorWoxwng
V3 Log!erheod
5hr e
V4 buroeon
5for ng
V Te owWorber
V ock-ond-wh fe
V ock-fhroofed
ue Worber
V8 Common
Te owfhroof
V8 Ovenb rd
V8 Norfhern
Arrve Deporf
DC b-Apr 5k M-Ocf
NT L-Apr 5k M-Ocf
L-Apr 5k M-5epf
5fL M-Mor 5k M-Nov
DC b-5epf Wkb-June
NT M-Moy 5k M-Nov
5fL L-5epf WkM-June
Fermonenf kesdenf
NT b-Aug Ir L-Ocf
M-Mor Ir L-Ocf
5fL Fermonenfkesdenf
5f Fermonenfkesdenf
excef nexfreme
DC L-Apr 5k M-5epf
NT b-Moy 5k L-Aug
5fL L-Apr 5k M-5epf
5f M-Apr 5k L-5epf
DC M-Apr 5k b-Ocf
NT L-Apr 5k M-5epf
5fL M-Apr 5k L-5epf
DC b-Moy Ir b-Ocf
NT b-Moy Ir L-5epf
M-Moy Ir M-5epf
5fL b-Moy Ir M-5epf
DC L-Apr 5k M-Ocf
NT b-Moy 5k M-Ocf
5fL b-Apr 5k b-Ocf
5f Fermonenf kesdenf
DC L-Apr 5k b-Ocf
NT b-Moy 5k M-5epf
5fL L-Apr 5k b-Ocf
DC L-Apr Ir L-5epf
M-Moy Ir b-5epf
5fL L-Apr Ir L-5epf
Size (in.) No.
. . b 3-
f h c k y spoffed w f h
0. V X 0. 3-
Oroy sh b ue, speck ed
. 0X0. 8 3-
Du wh fe, spoffed ond
b ofched w f h ghf
. Z X0. V 4-
Wh f sh or poe bue, un-
0. 7 X 0. 4-
Foe b u sh whfe, brown
spofs form ng
r ng of
0. 7 X 0. 4-
Oreen sh wh fe fo buff,
spoffed ondbofchedwfh
0. 7 X 0. 3-
Creomy wh fe, specked
wfh brown ond Ioven-
der,mosfyof orgerend.
0. 7 X 0. 3-
Creomy whfe, specked
wfh brown ond bock,
chey of orgeend.
0. 8 X 0. 4-
Wh f e, spoffed w f h
br own, espec o y
0. 8 X 0. 4-
Wh fefo creom
, spoffed
wfh brown on groy.
uky nesf of coone
fw gs, weed sfo ks,
eoves. L ned w f h
uky nesf of bork,
eoves, grosses, roof-
efs, moss, ondsome-
5frps of bork, smo
fwgs, ond veefobe
f bers, ne w fh
Lorge, poor y bu f
nesf of grosses ond
fne rosses ond f-
bers, ned wfh p onf
down, f ne gross,
someho r.
5fr ps of f ne bork,
grosses, ned w fh
roofefsorho n.
ork, f ne grosses,
p ne needes. L n ng
of bockroofefs.
ork, coorse grosses,
deod eoves. L ned
wfh fne gross fen-
u ky, covered nesf.
bnfronce of one sde.
Of eoves, coorse
Moss, ned wfh fen-
drsondf neroofefs.
I n bushes, vnes, brush,
ond owfrees,0- Z ff. up.
Offen n fruf ond shode
frees,-0 ff. up.
I n fhorn hedges or ow
frees, -0 ff. up.
I n hoow offreeor crev-
ce of bu d ng, 3-40 ff.
up. Usesb rd boxes.
In shrubs ond frees, 3-8
ff.up. korey40ff. feds
On ground, of bose of
frees, ogs, orrocks.
I n heovy undergrowfh of
dense woods, - 0ff. up.
On or neor ground. Usu-
o y n Uumpof gross, n
mosf ocof on.
On ground n o mossy
bonk or under roofs of
eef es, grosshoppers,
coferp on,efc.Asosome
ocorns ond w dfru f.
gropes, dogwood, how-
fhorn, cherres, some n-
l nsecfs, grosshopers,
beefes, some smo ro-
eef es, grosshoppers,
ond ofher nsecfs, w d
ond cu f vofedfru fsond
gro n.
Coferpon, weevs, ond
ofhersmo nsecfs.5 ghf
omounfofp onffood.
F onf ce, coferp ors,
beefes, scoe ond ofhe
Mo n y nsecfs: coferp -
on, smo beefes, p onf
I nsecfs: conkerworms,
weev s, eofhoppers,
coferp ors, efc.
eef es, grosshoppers,
ondofherround nsecfs.
I nsecfs: beef es, bugs,
coferp on, eofhoppen,
| 4
Foge Nome mgrofon tggs
Arrve Deporf 5ze [n.) No.
00 Te ow-rumped DC L-5epf Wk M-Moy 0.7 X0. 4-
Worber NT L-5epf Wk b-Moy Wh f e, speck ed w f h
5f LM-5epf Wk M-Moy brown,offen fomngrng
5f L-5epf WkL-Apr oforgerend.
00 Amercon DC L-Apr 5k b-Ocf 0. 7 X 0. 4-
kedsfotf b-Moy 5k M-5epf u shwhfe,brownspofs
5fL M-Apr 5k L-5epf occosonoy rngng o@e
00 W son's DC b-Moy Ir L-5epf 0. 7 X 0. 4-
Worber NT M-Moy Ir M-5epf Whfe or p nk sh, brown
5fL b-Moy Ir M-5epf spofs form ng r ng of
5f L-Mor 5k L-5epf orgerend.
0Z ked-eyedV reo DC b-Moy 5k b-Ocf 0. V X 0. 3-4
M-Moy 5k M-5epf Whfe, sporse specked
5fL M-Apr 5k b-Ocf wfhbrownor ock.
b-Moy 5k L-5epf
03 5corefIonoger DC L-Apr 5k b-Ocf 0. V X 0. 7 3-4
M-Moy 5k M-5epf Foe rreensh or b u sh,
5fL L-Apr 5k b-Ocf speck ed brown of orger
04 Norfhem Fermonenfkesdenf 1 .0 X 0. 7 3-4
Cord no Fo e b u sh wh fe, f ne
spoffed w f h redd s
0 kose-breosfed DC b-Moy Ir b-Ocf 0. V X 0. 7 4-
Orosbeok NT M-Moy 5k M-5epf Foe bue, spoffed wfh
5fL L-Apr 5k b-Ocf brown.
0 lndgounf ng DC L-Apr 5k b-Ocf 0. 7 X 0. 3-4
M-Moy 5k M-5epf Fo e b u s h wh fe, un-
5f L L-Apr 5k L-Ocf morked.
07 kufous-sded NT M-Apr 5k b-Ocf . 0X0. 7 4-
Iowhee L-Apr 5k b-Ocf Whfe or r nk sh, brown
5fL b-Mor 5k L-Nov specksof orgeend.
08 rown Iowhee Fermonenfkesdenf . 0X0. 7 3-4
Vorobe, b u sh morked
wfh purpeond bock.
Fonf fben, n ng of
om, eofsfoks, ponf
down. frmy woven
ond ned wfh roof-
wropped n eoves.
Lned w fh f ne roof-
5frps of bork, poper,
p onf down. f r m y
Lned wfh bork ond
Lned wfh vne fen-
ws,roofefs, sfrps
of ork. Lned wfh
Loose nesf of f ne
f w gs, weeds, roof-
Urosses, bfs of deod
eoves, bork, ned
w fhne gross, roof-
efs, ho n.
Deod eovesondbork,
ned w fh hne
Urosses, weeds, ond
fw gs L ned w f h
Conferousfrees n heovy
woods, -40 ff.up.
Usuo y nfhecrofch of o
sop ng 3-30 ff. obove
groun, rore yh gher.
nswompy ond.
5uspendedfrom o forked
bronch,3-7 ff. up.
Onhorzonfo mb, offen
neorfsend, 0-70ff.up.
I n fhck bushes or vnes,
Z- 0 ff. up. korey up fo
30 ff.
I n frees or bushes, -Z0
ff. up.
I n crofch of bush or so-
n, - 0 ff. up. kore

osghosZ0 ff.
fmes t n bushes or sop-
ngs,0- 0ff. up.
On ground or n ow
bushes. Less fhon 0 ff.

Mo n common nsecfs,
berry, on ofher frufs tn
w nfer.
5mo nsecfs: es, bee-
fes, mofhs, eofhoppers,
5mo nsecfs, s m or fo
ofher worb ers. Mokes
s ghfuseofp onffood.
Cofeon, mofhs, bugs,
beefes, ond ofher n-
secfs, smo omounf of
w dfruf.
Mo n y nsecfs:onfs,bee-
fes, mofhs, coferp ors.
Dogwood, bockbeny, ond
ofherw dfrufs.
Urode, ho y, bockberry,
w seeds ond o good
mony k ndsof nsecfs.
I nsecfs, nc ud ng bee-
f es, cofe' ors, onf s,
bees. W frufs when
ovo ob e.
D ef m xed: coferp on
ond ofher nsecfs, some
wd frufs,weed seeds.
W d fru f s ond weed
Oofs ond borey, weed
seeds, coferp ors ond
ofher nsecfs.

Foge Nome g|

Arrive Depart Size (in. ) No.

0 fed5porrow NT M-Apr 5k L-Ocf 0.7 X 0. 3-
M-Apr 5k M-Ocf Wh fe fo po e b ue or
5fL b-Mor 5k L-Nov green, speck ed w f h
0 AmerconIree NT M-Nov WkL-Mor 0. 8 X 0. 4-
5porrow L-Ocf Wk b-Apr Foe greensh or b ush
5fL M-Nov Wk L-Mor green, specked wfh ghf
L-Ocf Wk M-Mor rown.
0 Vesper5porrow DC b-Apr 5k L-Ocf 0. V X 0. 4-
M-Apr 5k M-Ocf Du wh fe, fhcky spof-
5fL M-Mor Ir b-Nov fedwfh brown.
b-Apr 5k M-5epf
Z Ch pp ng DC L-Mor 5k b-Nov 0. 7X 0. 4-
5porrow M-Apr 5k M-Ocf Oreensh bue, specked
5fL L-Mor 5k L-Ocf w f h brown, mosf y of
5f M-Apr 5k M-Ocf orgerend.
Z Wh fe-crowned DC b-Moy Ir M-Nov 0. V X 0. 4-
5porrow NT M-Moy Ir L-Ocf u sh ond green sh
5fL M-Apr Ir L-Nov wh fe, spoffed w fh
5f Fermonenfkesdenf brown.
Z Whfe-fhroofed DC L-5epf Wk M-Moy 0. 8 X 0. 4-
5porrow NT L-5epf Ir M-Moy Whfe fo b u sh, specked
5fL b-Ocf Ir M-Moy ond bofched wfh red-
d shbrown.
4 5ong 5porrow Fermonenfkesdenf 0. 8 X 0. 4-
overmuchoffsronge Vor ob e. Wh feorgreen-
sh,scoffed ondspecked
wfh rown.
4 5womp5porrow DC b-Ocf Wk b-Moy 0. 8 X 0. 4-
M-Apr 5k M-Ocf u sh wh fe, spoffed or
5fL b-Ocf Wk L-Apr bofched wfh brown.
4 Hx5porrow DC L-Ocf Ir b-Apr 0. 8 X 0. 4-
NT M-Ocf Ir M-Apr Oreen sh whfe, spoffed
5fL b-Ocf Ir M-Apr wfhdu brown.
5f b-Ocf Wk L-Apr
Dork-eyed DC b-Ocf Wkb-Moy 0. 8 X 0. 4-
Junco NT L-5epf Wkb-Moy Fo eb ush whfe, brown
5fL b-Ocf WkL-Apr spofs mo
form rng of
b-Ocf Wk M-Mor orger en .
Coorse grosses,
weeds, roofefs.
ondho rs.
Coorse gross. L ned
w fh f ner grosses,
roofefs, hors.
Orosses, f ne fw gs,
roofefs.Ih ck y ned
wfhho r.
Orosses, moss, ond
roof efs. L nedw f h
ho r.
Orosses, roof efs,
moss, sfrps of bork.
L ned w fh f ner
Nesf of grosses ond
roof efs. L nedw f h
fnegrossesondho r.
Coorse grosses, roof-
efs, deod eoves.
L ned w f h f ner
grosses ond some-
fmesho r.
Coorse grosses. Lned
w f h f ner grosses,
ho r, mosses, feofh-
Orosses, moss, ond
roof efs. L nedw f h
f negrossondho r.
1f.oress} nfeds,
overgrown posfures.
On round or n sfunfed
coners neor f mberne,
On ground ndry up ond
f e s, o ong dry rood-
In frees or bushes, n
shrubbery neor houses, 3-
3 ff. up. kore y on
Usuo yongroundor n
c umpofgross nwoods
orfh ckefs.
Usuo y on ground n
hederows ond wood-
On ground or n ow
bushes, n gross fhckefs
or sop n@s. Up fo 8 ff.,
rorey f.
Onorc osefoground, n
grosses nwefmeodows,
On ground or n ow
or o der f h ckefs pre-
fo en free, ogs, up-
furned roofs, underover-
hong ng bonks , o ong
woo roods.

5 m orfo Amercon Iree

w, wfh some use

o grot n.
Lorge y weed seeds,
cro gross, p gweed,
sedge, efc. 5ome nsecfs
Weed seeds of mony
k nds, some gro n, ond
vorous nsecfs.
Weed seeds, oofs, ond
ofhercommon nsecfs.
weed, ond ofher weed
seeds, some gro n ond o
number of k nds of n-
food very s m or fo fhof
of Wh fe-crowned 5por-
food s m or fo fhoI of
5eeds of weeds ond
grosses.eefes,coferp -
ors, ond ofher nsecfs.
Weed seeds, wd frufs,
some gro n, m pedes,
ond vorous nsecfs.
kogweed, crobgross,ond
ofher weed seeds. 5ome
coferp ors ond ofher n-
\ Z
7 bosfern
8 obo nk
V ked-w 'ed
Z0 rewers
Z Common
Urock e
ZZ rown-heoded
Z3 Norfhern
Z4 Furpef nch
Z House fnch
Z Amercon
Z7 House5porrow
Arrve Deporf
DC Fermonenf kesdenf
NT M-Mor 5k L-Ocf
L-Mor 5k L-Ocf
5fL Fermonenf kesdenf
DC b-Moy Ir L-5epf
M-Moy 5k M-5epf
5fL b-Moy Ir L-Moy
L-Moy 5k M-5epf
DC M-feb 5k M-Nov
NT M-Mor 5k L-Ocf
5fL b-Mor 5k b-Nov
5f Fermonenf kesdenf
5fL M-Mor Ir b-Apr
Fermonenf kesdenf 5f
Fermonenf kesdenf
DC M-feb 5k L-Nov
NT b-Mor 5k b-Nov
5fL Fermonenfkesdenf
DC b-Mor 5k b-Nov
NT M-Mor 5k M-Ocf
5fL b-Mor 5k L-Nov
b-Moy 5k L-5epf
DC L-Apr Ir L-5epf
NT M-Moy 5k b-5epf
5fL M-Apr 5k b-5epf
DC b-Ocf Wk b-Moy
NT L-Mor Ir b-Nov
5fL b-Ocf WkL-Apr
Fermonenfkesdenf 5f
Fermonenf kesdenf

5ze[n. ) No.
. X 0. 8 3-7
Whfe, compefey spof-
fed ond speck ed w f h
0. V X 0. 4-7
Du wh fe, spoffed ond
bofchedw fhbrownom
. 0X0. 7 3-
u sh wh fe, rre,u or
spofsondsfreoks o pur-
. 0 X 0. 8 4-7
Du wh fe, o mosf en-
fret spoffedw fhbrown
ond ock.
. Z X0.8 3-7
u s h wh f e, seck ed
ond spoffed dor brown
fo bock.
0. V X 0. 7 4-
Wh fe or b ush, heovy
speck ed w f h groy or
0. V X 0. 4-
Whfe, rregu or sfreoks
0. 8 X 0. 4-
ue, s'offed ond speck-
ed wf brown of orger
0. 8 X 0. 3-
Foe b ue, neor y whfe,
f h n y speck ed w f h
b ock.
0. 7 X 0. 3-
Fo e b u sh wh fe, un-
0. V X 0. 4-7
Wh f e fo du brown,
speckedw fhbrown.
Orosses ond weeds,
offen orchedover.
sfems, ond roofefs.
Coorse grosses ond
weeds. L ned w f h
fner gross ond roof-
Iw gs ond coorse
gross. Lnedwfhfner
u ky, buf compocf.
Of mud ond coorse
rosses, ned w f h
Orosses, ponf fbers,
hor,sfrng,efc. fmy
Iw s, grosses, ond
roofefs. Ihcky ned
wfhho n.
koofefs ond grosses.
Lnedwfhhorseho r.
f ne grosses, bork,
moss, fh ck y ned
w fhfhsfedown.
Ofonyovo ob emo-
fer o : sfr ng, sfrow,
fwgs, poper, efc.
M.. ts
Usuo on ground n
On round n fhe f o
Affoched fo ow bushes,
eds, usuoy nswomps.
Usuo y ess fhon ff.
On ground or nshrubsor
conferousfrees, 0- 0 ff.
Nesfs n coones, mosf
offen n conferous frees,
somef mes n bushes, -
80 ff.up.
bggs o dnnesfsofofher
b rds. Usuoy or Z n
Hong ng from end of
bronchesnshodeorfru f
frees, 0-V0ff. up.
Woods, n pneondspruce
frees, -0 ff.up.
Irees, bushes, ond vnes,
-Z0 ff. obove ground.
Offen on or neor bu d-
I n frees or bushes, -3
ff. up.
I nonovo ob epoce: n
bu ngs, sfrucfures,
eoves,overff. up.

Oro n ond w d gross
seeds, w d frufs, gross-
hoppers, ond of her n-
W d r ce, c u f vofed
grons, weed seeds, cof-
erp ors ond of her n-
Weed ond morsh ponf
seeds, gro n, some fruf
ond nsecfs nseoson.
Oofs ond ofher gro n,
weed seeds, s ome n-
Oro n ond weed seeds.
5ome wd fruf, beefes,
grosshoppers, cr ckefs,
Oro n ond weed seeds.
Orosshoppers ond ofher
Coferp ors,beefes,ond
ofher nsecfs, wd ond
somecu fvofedfrufs.
Iree seeds ond wdfrufs.
5ome nsecfs.
Weed seeds, tree seeds,
ponf ce ond ofher n-
ond w d fru f . cco-
s ono p onf ceond cof-
erp ors.
Corn, oofs, wheof, ond
ofhergro n, weed seeds,
ond summer.
PUBLI CATIONS Here are a few of the best publ i cati ons
to start you on more advanced bi rd study:
Robbi ns, C. S . , B. Bruun, and H. S. Zi m, Bi rds of North Ameri ca, A
Gui de to Fi el d I denti fi cati on, Gol den Press, N. Y. , rev. ed. , 1 983.
Peterson, R. T. , A Fi el d Gui de t o t he Bi rds of Eastern and Central
North Ameri ca, 4th ed. , 1 980; A Fi el d Gui de to Western Bi rds,
1 961 . Bot h Houghton Miffl in, Boston.
Petti ngi l l , C. S. , J r. , A Gui de t o Bi rd Fi ndi ng East of the Mi ssi s
si ppi , 2nd ed. , 1 977. A Gui de t o Bi rd Fi ndi ng West of the
Mi ssi ssi ppi , rev. ed. , 1 981 . Both Oxford Univ. Press, N. Y.
Pasqui er, R. F. , Watchi ng Bi rdsAn I ntroducti on to Orni thol ogy,
Houghton Mi ffl i n, Boston, 1 977.
Ri ckert, J. E . , A Gui de to North Ameri can Bi rd Cl ubs, Avi an
Publ i cati ons, P. O. Box 3 1 0, El i zabethtown, Ky. 42701 .
Denni s, J . W. , A Compl ete Gui de to Bi rd Feedi ng, Knopf, N. Y. ,
1 975.
Mart i n, A. C. , H. S. Zi m, and A. L. Nel son, Ameri can Wi l dl i fe and
Pl ants; Dover, N. Y. , 1 961 .
Ameri can Bi rds magazi ne, publ i shed by the Nati onal Audubon So
ci ety, 950 Thi rd Ave. , New York, N. Y. 1 0022.
MUSEUMS AND ZOOS are good pl aces to suppl e
ment your fi el d study.
Al bany: New York State Museum
Atl anta: Georgi a State Museum
Cambri dge, Mass . : Museum of Comparative Zool ogy, Harvard Uni v.
Chi cago: Fi el d Museum of Natural Hi story; Brookfi el d Zoo
Denver: Denver Museum of Natural Hi story
Gai nesvi l l e, Fl a . : Fl ori da State Museum
los Angel es: los Angel es County Museum; Gri ffi th Park (Zoo)
New Orl eans: loui si ana State Museum; Audubon Park (Zoo)
New York: Ameri can Museum of Natural Hi story; N. Y. Zool ogi cal Park
Phi l adel phi a: Phi l adel phi a Academy of Natural Sci ences; Phi l adel phi a
Zool ogi cal Gardens
San Franci sco: Cal i forni a Academy of Sci ences; San Franci sco Zool og
i cal Gardens
Seattl e: Washi ngton State Museum
Washi ngton, D. C. : Nati onal Museum of Natural Hi story; Nati onal
Zool ogi cal Park
These Nati onal Wi l d
l i fe Refuges ( NWR) ,
Nat i onal Parks ( NP) ,
and other areas are
famous for number
Greater Roadrunner (22 i n . ) , a
and vari ety of bi rds . l ong-toi led desert bi rd, rarely flies .
Al abama: Dauphi n I sl and. Ari zona: Huachuca Mts . , Tombstone. Ar
kansas: White Ri ver NWR, St. Charl es. Cal i forni a: Tul e-Ki amath Basi n,
Tul el ake; Sacramento NWR, Wi l l ows; Yosemi te NP. Col orado: Rocky Mt.
NP. Connecti cut: Audubon Nature Center, Greenwi ch. Del aware:
Bombay Hook NWR, Smyrna. Fl ori da: Evergl ades NP. , Homestead; St.
Marks NWR, St. Marks. Georgi a: Okefenokee NWR, Fol kston . I l l i noi s:
Chautauqua NWR, Havana. Kansas: Cheyenne Bottoms, Great Bend.
Loui si ana: Sabi ne NWR, Hackberry. Maryl and: Ocean Ci ty; Poco
moke Ri ver Swamp, Powel l svi l l e. Massachusetts: Porker Ri ver NWR,
Newburyport; Monomoy NWR, South Chatham. Mi chi gan: Seney NWR,
Seney. Mi nnesota: I tasca State Pk. Mi ssi ssi ppi : Noxubee NWR,
Brooksvi l l e. Montana: Red Rock Lakes NWR, Li mo. Nebraska: Val en
ti ne NWR, Val enti ne. New Hampshi re: Connecti cut Lakes, Pi ttsburg.
New Jersey: Cope May Poi nt, Cope May; Bri ganti ne NWR, Oceanvi l l e.
New Mexi co: Bosque del Apache NWR, Socorro. New York: Montauk
Pt. State Pk . , Montauk. North Carol i na: Mattamuskeet NWR, Swan
Quarter; Greenfi el d Pk. , Wi l mi ngton . North Dakota: Des Lacs NWR,
Kenmare. Ohi o: Buckeye Lake, Hebron. Okl ahoma: Wi chi ta Mts . NWR,
I ndi ahoma. Oregon: Mal heur NWR, Pri nceton; Netarts Bay, Netarts.
Pennsyl vani a: Hawk Mt. , Kempton. Rhode I sl and: Sakonnet Pt . ,
Li ttl e Compton . South Carol i na: Cape Romai n NWR, Awendaw. South
Dakota: Sand Lake NWR, Col umbi a; Bl ock Hi l l s . Tennessee: Great
Smoky Mts . NP, Gatl i nburg; Reel foot NWR, Uni on Ci t y. Texas: Santa
Ana NWR, Al amo; Laguna Atascosa NWR, Ri o Hondo; Rockport; Guada
l upe Mts . Vermont: Mi ssi squoi NWR, Swanton . Vi rgi ni a: Back Bay
NWR, Vi rgi ni a Beach; Chi ncoteague NWR, Chi ncoteague; Di smal Swamp
NWR, Suffol k. Washi ngton: Wi l l apa Bay area, Westport; Ol ympi c NP;
Mt. Rai ni er NP. Wi sconsi n: Hori con NWR, Mayvi l l e. Wyomi ng: Yel l ow
stone NP.
Al berta: Banff NP. Mani toba: Churchi l l ; Ri di ng Mt. NP. Ontari o:
Al gonqui n Provi nci al Pk. ; Pt. Pel ee NP. Quebec: Bonaventure I s .
Fol l owi ng are t he sci enti fi c names of speci es i l l ustrated
i n thi s book. The genus name i s fi rst; the speci es name
fol l ows . The numbers i n heavy type i ndi cate t he pages
where speci es are i l l ustrated .
1 6 lewi s' Woodpecker: Mel a- 51 Col umba I i vi a
nerpes l ewi s 52 Zen a i da macroura
Pi ne Si ski n: Carduel i s pi nus 53 Coccyzus ameri canus
1 8 Cyanoci tta stel l eri 54 Tyto al ba
1 9 I cteri c vi rens 55 Bubo vi rgi ni anus
21 Gavi a i mmer 56 Eastern: Otus asi o
22 Podi l ymbus podi ceps Western: Otus kenni cot t i i
23 Ardea herodi as 57 Chaetura pel agi ca
24 Butori des stri atus 58 Capri mul gus voci ferus
25 Bubul cus i bi s 59 Chordei l es mi nor
26 Cygnus col umbi anus 60 Archi l ochus col ubri s
27 Branta canadensi s 6 1 Ceryl e al cyon
28 Anas pl atyrhynchos 62 Mel anerpes
29 Anas rubri pes erythrocephal us
30 Ai x sponsa 63 Col aptes auratus
31 Anas acuta 64 Sphyrapi cus vari us
32 Aythya val i si neri a 65 Pi coi des pubescens
33 Mergus merganser 66 Tyrannus tyrannus
34 Ful i ca ameri cana 67 Myi archus cri ni tus
35 Charadri us voci ferus 68 Sayorni s phoebe
36 Gal l i nago gal l i nago 69 Empi donax mi ni mus
37 Tri nga fl avi pes 70 Eremophi l a al pestri s
38 Acti ti s macul ari a 71 Progne subi s
39 Cal i dri s mi nuti l l a 72 Tachyci neta bi col or
40 larus argentatus 73 Hi rundo rusti ca
41 Sterna hi rundo 74 Pi ca pi ca
42 Turkey: Cathartes aura 75 Corvus brachyrhynchos
Bl ack: Coragyps atratus 76 Cyanoci tta cri stata
43 Pandi on hal i aetus 77 Si tta carol i nensi s
44 Hal i aeetus l eucocephal us 78 Porus atri capi l l us
45 Acci pi ter cooperi i 79 Porus bi col or
46 Buteo j amai censi s 80 Certhi a ameri cana
47 Fal co sparveri us 81 Trogl odytes aedon
48 Phasi anus col chi cus 82 Regul us cal endul a
49 Bonasa umbel l us 83 Regul us satrapa
50 Col i nus vi rgi ni anus 84 Pol i opti l a caerul ea
85 Si al i a si al i s 1 1 3 Chi ppi ng: Spi zel l a
86 Hyl aci chl a mustel i na passeri ne
87 Catharus guttatus Whi te-crowned:
88 Turdus mi gratori us Zonotri chi a l eucophrys
89 Dumetel l a carol i nensi s Whi te-throated:
90 Mi mus pol ygl ottos Zonotri chi a al bi col l i s
91 Toxostoma rufum 1 1 5 Song: Mel ospi za mel odi a
92 Bombyci l l a cedrorum Swamp: Mel ospi za
93 Lani us l udovi ci anus georgi ana
94 Sturnus vul gari s Fox: Passerel l a i l i aca
95 Dendroi ca petechi a 1 1 6 Junco hyemal i s
97 Yel l ow: Dendroi ca petechi a 1 1 7 Sturnel l a magna
Bl ack-and-whi te: Mni oti l ta 1 1 8 Dal i chonyx oryzi vorus
vari a 1 1 9 Agel ai us phoeni ceus
Bl ack-throated Bl ue: 1 20 Euphagus cyanocephal us
Dendroi ca caerul escens 1 21 Qui scal us qui scul a
99 Yel l owthroat: Geothl ypi s 1 22 Mol othrus ater
tri chas 1 23 I cterus gal bul a
Ovenbi rd: Sei urus 1 24 Carpodacus purpureus
aurocapi l l us 1 25 Carpodacus mexi canus
Northern Waterthrush: 1 26 Carduel i s tri sti s
Sei urus noveboracensi s 1 27 Passer domesti cus
1 0 1 Yel l ow-rumped: Dendroi ca 1 28 Arcti c Ter n: Sterna
coronata paradi saea
Ameri can Redstart : Townsend's Warbl er:
Setophaga ruti ci l l a Dendroi ca townsendi
Wi l son' s: Wi l soni a pusi l l a Di ckci ssel : Spi za
1 02 Vi reo ol i vaceus ameri cana
1 03 Pi ranga ol i vacea 1 29 Upl and Sandpi per:
1 04 Cardi nal i s card i na l i s Bartrami a l ongi cauda
1 05 Pheucti cus l udovi ci anus Red Knot: Cal i dri s canutus
1 06 Passeri ne cyanea 1 30 Thrush: l xoreus naevi us
1 07 Pi pi l o erythrophthal mus Grosbeak: Coccothraustes
1 08 Pi pi l o fuscus vespert i nus
1 09 Spi zel l a passeri na Great Egret: Casmerodi us
1 1 1 Fi el d: Spi zel l a pusi l l a al bus
Tree: Spi zel l a arborea Heron: Egretta caerul ea
Vesper: Pooecetes 1 55 Roadrunner: Geococcyx
grami neus cal i forni anus
Asteri sks ( * ) denote pages o n whi ch bi rds are i l l ustrated.

Cattl e Egret. *25, Fal con, Peregri ne, 47 Arct i c Tern, * 1 28

1 32- 1 33 Feathers, * 1 4- * 1 5
Bandi ng, * 1 9 Chat, Yel l ow- Feedi ng stati ons, * 1 6-
Barn-Owl , Common, breasted, * 1 9 * 1 7
*54, 1 38- 1 39 Chi ckadees, * 78, Feet, * 1 4- * 1 5
Bi l l s , * 1 4- * 1 5 1 42- 1 43 fi nch, Cassi n's, 1 24
Bi rd houses, * 1 7 Chuck-wi l l 's-wi dow, House, * 1 25,
Bi rd" 58 1 52- 1 53
adaptat i ons, 1 4- 1 5 Coot, Ameri can, *34, Pur pl e, * 1 24, 1 25,
attracti ng, 1 6- 1 7 1 34- 1 35 1 52- 1 53
cl assi fi cati on of, 9- Cowbi rd, Brown- fi sh Hawk. See
1 3 headed, * 1 22, Osprey
counts, 20 1 52- 1 53 fl i cker, Northern,
fami l y tree of, * 1 2- Creeper, Brown, *80, *63, 1 40- 1 4 1
* 1 3 1 42- 1 43 f l ycatcher, Acadi an,
feedi ng, 1 6- 1 7 Crows, *75, 69
l i fe hi stori es, 20 1 42- 1 43 Al der, 69
parts of, 8, 1 4 - 1 5 Cuckoos, *53, Ash-throated, 67
v Bi rd watchi ng, 4-7, 1 38- 1 39 Dusky, 69
1 55 Gray, 69 g u
Bi ttern, Ameri can, 24 Di ckci ssel , * 1 28 Great Crested, u

Bl ackbi rd, Brewer's , Dove, Common *67, 1 40- 1 4 1

* 1 20, 1 52- 1 53 Ground-, 51 Hammond' s, 69

Red-wi nged, * 1 1 9, I nca, 52 least, *69, 1 40-
1 52- 1 53 Mourni ng, * 52, 1 4 1
Rusty, 1 20 1 38- 1 39 Western, 69

Tri col ored, 1 1 9 Rock, * 51 , 1 38- 1 39 Wi l l ow, 69

Bl uebi rds, *85, 1 44- Whi te-wi nged, 52 Yel l ow-bel l i ed, 69
1 45 Dowi tcher, 36 F l yways, * 1 28- * 1 29

Bl ue Jay, * 1 8, * 76, Duck, Ameri can Bl ack,

1 42- 1 43 *29, 1 32- 1 33 Gadwal l , 29
Bobol i nk, * 1 1 8, lesser Scaup, 32 Gal l i nul e, Fl ori da.

1 52- 1 53 Mal l ard, *28, 1 32- See Moorhen,

Bobwhi te, Northern, 1 33 Common
*50, 1 36- 1 37 Mottl ed, 29 Gnatcatchers, *84,
Books, reference, 1 54 Northern Pi ntai l , 1 44- 1 45
Brant, 27 * 3 1 , 1 34- 1 35 Godwi t , Marbl ed, 37
Bunt i ngs, * 1 06, Wood, * 30, 1 32- Gol dfi nch, Ameri can,
1 48- 1 49 1 33 * 1 26, 1 52- 1 53
Busht i t , 79 lesser, 1 26
Eagl es, * 44, 1 36- 1 37 Goose, Canada, *27,
Canada Goose, * 27, Egret , Cattl e, *25, 1 32- 1 33
1 32- 1 33 1 32- 1 33 Goshawk, Northern,
Canvasback, * 32, Great, 25, * 1 30 45
1 34- 1 35 Snowy, 25 Grackl es, * 1 2 1 , 1 52-
Cardi nal , Northern, Empi donax Fl ycatch- 1 53
* 1 04, 1 48- 1 49 ers, 69 Great Blue Heron,
Catbi rd, Gray, * 89, Eveni ng Grosbeak, * 23, 1 32- 1 33
1 44- 1 45 * 1 30 Grebes, * 22, 1 32- 1 33

Grosbeak, Bl ack- Ki ngl et , Gol den- Owl (cont . ) ,
headed, 1 05 crowned, *83, long-eared, 55
Eveni ng, 1 05, * 1 30 1 44- 1 45 Saw-whet, 56
Rose-breasted, Ruby-crowned, Screech-, *56, 1 38-
* 1 05, 1 48- 1 49 * 82, 1 44- 1 45 1 39
Ground-Dove, 5 1 Spotted, 55
Grouse, Ruffed, *49, lark, Harned, * 70,
1 36- 1 37 1 40- 1 4 1 Pewees , Wood- , 68
Sharp-tai l ed, 49 loons, * 2 1 , 1 32- 1 33 Pheasant, Ri ng-
Gul l s, *40, 1 34- 1 35 necked, *48,
Magpi es, * 74, 1 42- 1 36- 1 37
Hawk, Broad-wi nged,
1 43 Phoebes , *68, 1 40-
Mal l ard, * 28, 1 32- 1 4 1
Cooper's, *45,
1 33 Pi geons, * 5 1 , 1 38-
1 36- 1 37
Mart i n, Purpl e, * 71 , 1 39
Fi s h. See Osprey
1 42- 1 43 Pi ntai l , Northern,
Red-shoul dered, 46
Meadowl arks, 70, * 3 1 , 1 34- 1 35
Red-tai l ed, *46,
* 1 1 7, 1 52- 1 53 Pi pi t , Water, 70
1 36- 1 37
Mergansers, * 33, Pl over, Semi pal mated,
Sharp-shi nned, 45
1 34- 1 35 35
Swai nson' s, 46
Merl i n, 47 Poor-wi l l , Common,
Heron, Bl ack-crowned
Mi grati on, 1 28- 1 30 58
Ni ght-, 23
Mocki ngbi rd, North- Prai ri e-Chi ckens, 48,
Great Bl ue, * 23,
er n, * 90, 1 44- 49
1 32- 1 33
1 45 Pyrr hul oxi a, 1 04
Moorhen, Common,
* 24, 1 32- 1 33
34 Quai l s , *50, 1 36- 1 37
li ttl e Bl ue, 24, 25,
* 1 30 Nati onal parks, 1 55 Raven, Common, 75
Tri col ored, 13 Ni ghthawks, 58, *59, Redhead, 32
Hummi ngbi rds, *60, 1 38- 1 39 Red Knot, * 1 29
1 38- 1 39 Ni ght-Heron, Bl ack- Redstarts, 1 00- * 1 0 1 ,
crowned, 23 1 48- 1 49
I ndi go Bunt i ng, * 1 06, Nuthatch, Brown- Red-wi nged Bl ackbi rd,
1 48- 1 49 headed, 77 * 1 1 9, 1 52- 1 53
Pygmy, 77 Refuges, 1 B
Jay, Bl ue, * 1 B. *76, Red-breasted, 77 noti onal wi l dl i fe,
1 42- 1 43 Whi te-breasted, 1 55
Pi nyon, 76 *77, 1 42- 1 43 Roadrunner, Greater,
Scrub, 76 * 1 55
Stel l er' s, * 1 8, 76 Ori ol e, Bal t i more. See Robi n, Ameri can, *88,
J unco, Dark-eyed, Ori ol e, Northern 1 44- 1 45
1 1 0, * 1 1 6, Northern, * 1 23, Rock Dove, * 5 1 ,
1 50- 1 5 1 1 52- 1 53 1 38- 1 39
Yel l ow-eyed, 1 1 6 Orchard, 1 23
Osprey, *43, 1 36- 1 37 Sandpi per, least,
Kestrel , Ameri can, Ovenbi rd, 98- *99, * 39, 1 34- 1 35
*47, 1 36- 1 37 1 46- 1 47 Semi pal mated, 39
Ki l l deer, * 35, 1 34- Owl , Barn-, *54, 1 38- Sol i tary, 38
1 35 1 39 Spotted, * 38, 1 34-
Ki ngbi rds, * 66, 67, Barred, 55 1 35
1 40- 1 4 1 Burrowi ng, 56 Upl and, * 1 29
Ki ngfi shers, * 61 , 1 40- Great Horned, *55, Wester n, 39
1 4 1 1 38- 1 39 Whi te-rumped, 39

Sapsuckers, 64, 1 40- Swan, Mute, 26 Warbl er {cont . ) ,
1 41 Tundra, * 26, 1 32- Bl ack-throated
Scaup, lesser, 32 1 33 Gray, 96
Sci enti fi c names, 1 56- Whi stl i ng. See Bl ack-throated
1 57 Swan, Tundra Green, 96
Screech-Owl s, 56, Swi fts, 57, 1 38- 1 39 Cerul ean, 96
1 38- 1 39 Hooded, 1 00
Shri ke, loggerhead, Tanagers, *1 03, 1 48- Kentucky, 98
90, *93, 1 46- 1 49 Magnol i a, 1 00
1 47 Teal , Green-wi nged, Myrt l e. See War-
Northern, 93 3 1 bi er, Yel l ow-
Si ski n, Pi ne, * 1 6
Tern, Arcti c, * 1 28 rumped
Skyl ark, Eurasi an, 70
Caspi an, 41 Orange-crowned,
Sni pe, Common, *36,
Common, 41 , 1 36- 96
1 34- 1 35 1 37 Townsend' s, * 1 28
Sparrow, Ameri can Forster's, 4 1 Wi l son's , 1 00-
Tree, 1 1 0- * 1 1 1 , least, 41 * 1 01 , 1 48- 1 49
1 50- 1 5 1 Thrasher, Brown, 86, Yel l ow, * 95, 96-
Chi ppi ng, * 1 09, * 91 , 1 46- 1 47 *97, 1 46- 1 47
1 1 2- * 1 1 3, 1 50- Cal i forni a, 91 Yel l ow-rumped, 95,
1 5 1 le Conte's, 9 1 1 00- * 1 0 1 , 1 48-
Engl i sh, * 1 27, 1 52- Sage, 91 1 49

1 53 Thrush, Gray- Yel l owthroat. See


Eurasi an Tree, 1 1 0
cheeked, 87 Yel l owthroat ,

Fi el d, 1 1 0- * 1 1 1 ,
Hermi t, *87, 1 1 4, Common
1 50- 1 5 1
1 44- 1 45 Waterthrushes, 98-
Fox, 1 1 4- * 1 1 5, Swai nson's, 87 * 99, 1 46- 1 47
L 1 50- 1 5 1 Vari ed, 88, * 1 30 Waxwi ng, Bohemi an,
Gol den-crowned, Wood, *86, 87, 92
1 1 2 1 44- 1 45 Cedar, * 92, 1 46-

House, * 1 27, 1 52- Ti tmouse, Tufted, * 79, 1 47

1 53 1 42- 1 43 Whi mbrel , 37 w
lark, 1 1 0 Towhee, Abert's, 1 08 Whi p-poor-wi l l , *58,
Song, 1 1 0, 1 1 4- Brown, * 1 08, 1 48- 1 38- 1 39
* 1 1 5, 1 50- 1 5 1 1 49 Wi geon, Ameri can, 30
Swamp, 1 1 4- * 1 1 5, Green-tai l ed, 1 08 Wi l l et, 37
1 50- 1 5 1 Rufous-si ded, * 1 07, Woodcock, Ameri can,
Tree. See Sparrow, 1 48- 1 49 36
Ameri can Tree Turkey Vul ture, *42, Woodpecker, Acor n, 62
Vesper, 1 1 0- * 1 1 1 , 1 36- 1 37
Downy, * 1 6, * 65,
1 50- 1 5 1 1 40- 1 4 1
Whi te-crowned, Veery, 86, 87 Hai ry, 65
1 1 2- * 1 1 3, 1 50- Vi reos, * 1 02, 1 48- lewi s' , * 1 6
1 5 1 1 49 Red-bel l i ed, 62
Whi te-throated, Vul tures, *42, 1 36- Red-headed, *62,
1 1 2- * 1 1 3, 1 50- 1 37 1 40- 1 4 1
1 5 1 Wood- Pewees , 68
Star l i ng, European, Warbl er, Bl ack-and- Wrens, * 8 1 , 1 44- 1 45
* 94, 1 46- 1 47 whi te, 96- *97,
Swal l ow, Bank, 73 1 46- 1 47 Yel l owl egs, lesser,
Barn, * 73, 1 42- 1 43 Bl ackpol l , 96 *37, 1 34- 1 35
Cl i ff, 73 Bl ack-throated Yel l owthroat, Com-
Tree, *72, 1 42- 1 43 Bl ue, 96- *97, mon, 98- * 99,
Vi ol et-green, 72 1 46- 1 47 1 46- 1 47
HERBERT S. ZIM, Ph. D. , Sc. D. , an originator and
former editor of the Golden Guide Series, was also an
author for many years. Author of some ninety books
and editor of about as many, he is now Adjunct Pro
fessor at the University of Miami and Educational
Consultant to the American Friends Service Commit
tee and other organizations. He works on educa
tional , population and environmental problems.
The l at e IRA N. GABRIELSON, LL. D. , D. Sc. , was
President of the Wildlife Management Institute. A
former director of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service,
he was also known for his books on birds of Alaska
and Oregon.
CHANDLER S. ROBBINS, wildlife research biologist
for the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, has had broad
field experience in al l DU states. An internationally
known expert on identification, he has banded over
1ZU, UUU birds, and has identified more than UU spe
cies in North America alone. Mr. Robbins is senior
author of the popular Golden Field Guide btrJs J
NJr/hAmcrtc .
JAMES GORDON IRVING has exhibited paintings
at the American Museum of Natural History and the
National Audubon Society. In the Golden Guide Se
ries he has illustrated Nmm/s, btrJs, lnscc/s, Kcp/ t/cs
nJ Ampht0tn5, 5/rs, tshcs, and Gmc0trJs .


LbN Ulb`