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1PO1 Å11 BOO¥5 O1
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Under the genera| edItorshIp of
WeStern |ub|iShing COmpany, Inc.
Botany is the branch of science that incl udes every kind of
pl ant life. In combination with Zool ogy, the study of al l
animal life, Botany is an essential part of Biology, the study
of al l life. Due to some basic differences and the fact that
so much has been l earned about Biol ogy in the l ast cen­
tury, it is convenient to separate Botany from Zool ogy to
facil itate l earning. However, the reader shoul d never for­
get that pl ants and animal s, l iving together, form a com­
pl ex and unique unity that is the basis for sustaining al l
life on this pl anet. This book emphasizes plant science­
the diversity of form, the uniformity of processes, the eco­
l ogical distribution, and the evol utionary development from
simpl e to compl ex; but, it al so endeavors to present the
interaction and interdependence of al l living forms.
The preparation of any book, and particul arl y one of
this scope, requires the cooperation and assistance of
many peopl e. In addition to the co-authors, several peopl e
have made outstanding contributions t o this one. For this
reason, we shoul d like to express our appreciation to
George Fichter and to Elizabeth Oliver for their editori al
assistance and to Edit h Alexander for her assistance to the
artist. Art on t he fol l owing pages was conceived by and
rendered i n col or by Edith Al exander for copying by the
artist: 8-9; 1 0; 1 3; 1 4-1 5; 1 7; 42-43; 58-59;68; 1 01 ; 1 03;
1 04-1 05; 1 06-107; 108-109; 1 1 2-1 1 3; 1 1 4-115; 1 34-135;
141 and 1 49.
Vera R. Webster
Managi ng Editor
Copyri ght© 1 970 by Western Publ i shi ng Company, I nc. Al l ri ghts reserved,
i ncl udi ng rights of reproduction and use i n any form or by any means,
i ncl udi ng the making of copies by any photo process, or by any el ec­
troni c or mechanical device, pri nted or written or oral , or recordi ng for
sound or vi sual reproduction or for use in any knowl edge retrieval system
or devi ce, unl ess permission i n writing i s obtai ned from the copyri ght
propri etor. Produced i n the U.S.A. Publ ished by Gol den Press, New
York, N. Y. Li brary of Congress Catal og Card Number: 77-85477.
¯ ¯
Distinguishing Characteristics of Plants,
Plant Tissues. Basic Life Processes. The
Variety of Plant Life. The Plaht Kingdom.
The Euglenoids. Algae. Bacteria. Fungi.
EMBRYOPHYTES .............................. .
Embryophytes Without Seeds. Embryo­
phytes With Seeds (Gymnosperms, An­
ANATOMY OF SEED PLANTS .................. ...... .
Roots. Stems. Green leaves.
Photosynthesis. Autotrophic Nutrition.
Heterotrophic Nutrition. Foods. Ele­
ments. Water. Respiration. Translocation
of Sugar.
Hormones, Photoperiodism. Photorecep­
tors. Some Practical Us'es of Auxins. En­
vironmental Control.
Asexual Reproduction. Sexual Reproduc­
tion. Reproduction in Mosses. Reproduc­
tion in Ferns. Reproduction in Seed
Plants. Vegetative Propagation. Grafting.
Mendelian Genetics. Modern Genetics.
Fossils. Evolution of Major Plant Groups.
Evolution of Land Plants. Relic Plants.
The Direction of Evolution. Domestic
Cycles. Biomes. Plant Succession. Climax
Communities. Microecology. Interactions.
Plants Are Useful Indicators. Man's Eco-
INDEX 157-160
( enlarged)
~ ·�
W 0
¯ �  
( enlarged and stai ned)
Botany i s the sci enti fc study of the many and diverse
forms of l i fe bel ongi ng to the pl ant ki ngdom. I ncl uded
are trees, shrubs, vi nes, fowers, grasses, and a mul ti ­
tude of l esser and l ess-known pl ants. Botany al so treats
the structures and functi ons of plant parts, i nheri tance,
propagati on, and i nterrel ati onshi ps of pl ants wi th each
other, wi th ani mal s, and wi th thei r physi cal envi ronment.
Thi s book, an i ntroduction to botany, deal s bri efy wi th
pl ants of the past and thei r evol uti on i nto modern forms.
I t al so summari zes the l i fe hi stori es of the major ki nds
of l i vi ng pl ants, from mi croscopi c bacteri a to trees, the
l argest l i vi ng thi ngs. The book touches al so on other
major aspects of botany. Here are a few of the many
thousands of plant species, i l l ustrati ng the great diversi ty
of si ze and form that characteri zes the pl ant ki ngdom.
opposed to ani mal s, appear both in structure and in re­
sponse to the envi ronment. The basi c l i vi ng substance
of both plants and ani mal s is protopl asm. Thi s compl ex
of l i vi ng materi al is usual l y organi zed i nto structural
uni ts cal led cel l s. Some one-cel led organi sms have both
pl ant and ani mal characteri sti cs and are therefore dif­
fcul t to cl assi fy ( p. 1 7) . Often these borderl i ne organi sms
are grouped i n a separate ki ngdom, the Protista; but
most pl ants di fer obviousl y from most ani mal s.
LOCOMOTI ON, a mai n char·
ccteri stic of animal s, i s rre in
pl ants. Most animals can movt
about freely. Though some plants
can move, most grow roted in
soi l , or attached to roks, woo,
or other materiel .
CELL STRUCTURE i n pl ants dif.
fers from that in ani mal s. Both
have cyctopl asm, a nucl eus, an
a cel l membrane. Plant cel l s al so
hove a relatively ri gi d cell wel l
contai ni ng cel l ul ose. Many pl ant
cel l s contai n chlorophyl l s, es·
senticl green pigments found i n
structures cal led chl oropl asts.
THE FOD of green pl ants i s
manufactured by the pants them­
sel ves. Usi ng energ from sun­
l ight, pl ants contai ni ng chl orophyl l
combi ne carbn di oxi de and water
to form si mpl e sugars. Ani mal s
l ack chl oropyl l and so depnd
di rectly or i ndirectly on pl ants
for fod.
GROWTH i n typical green plants
ocurs at the tips of their branches
and rots and in the outer layers
of thei r stems; i t continues through­
out the enti re l i fe of the pl ant.
Ani mal s grow in al l parts of
thei r boy, but growth ceases at
i n pl ants and ani mal s but thei r
uti l ization of matter and energy
fr l ife proesses i s si mi l ar. For
exampl e, pl ants produce hor­
mones that have efects si mi l ar to
hormones prouced by ani mal s .
sunl ight
( energy)
stem cross
section ( stai ned),
showi ng cel l s of
secondary growth

Pl ant of
ferti l ized
THE LI FE HI STORY of most pl ants
i ncl udes two alternating genera­
tions. Generai on I prouces egs
and sperms, and from the fer­
til ized egg of this generation, a
Generation II pl ant develops that
reproduces by means of spores.
The spores then produce plants
of Generai on I type. Animal s
usual l y have no alternation of
generati ons.
Pl ant of
femal e
ani mal

ani mal
sperm ��
ferti l i zed
egg grows into
ofspring �
( mal e or�
femal e) g
PLANT TISSUES are composed of cel l s organi zed to
carry on speci fc functi ons. Most pl ant cel l s are ex­
tremel y smal l ; an appl e l eaf, for exampl e, contai ns an
esti mated 50 mi l l i on. Nearl y al l pl ant cel l s fol l ow the
same basic pl an. They consi st of protopl asm wi th vari ous
nonl i vi ng i ncl usi ons surrounded by a cel l wal l . Some of
the protopl asm i s organi zed i nto a nucl eus that contai ns
i nheri tance factors and al so control s the cel l acti vi ­
ti es. The remai nder of the protopl asm i s cal l ed the
cytopl asm. Ti ssues formed of these cel l s functi on for
the growth and reproducti on of the enti re pl ant. As
shown in the di agram, there is a conti nui ty of ti ssues
through the root, stem, and l eaf.
consi st of rapidly dividing cel l s
that are found i n buds, at root
ti ps, and as a thi n layer ( cam­
bium) between the brk and wood
of wooy pl ants. Cambi um cel l s
divide to form xyl em and phloem
ti ssues.
PARENCHYMA consi sts of cel l s
that are mai nl y of one ki nd.
Thi s i s the most abundant and
the basi c ti ssue of al gae and
other ''lower' ' pl ants. Usually i t
contai ns thin-wal l ed cel l s that
stare or manufacture food. Most
of the edi bl e parts of plants con­
sist of parenchyma.
PLEX TI SSUES are com­
posld of several ki nds of cel l s
j oi ntl y respnsi bl e for a speci fc
functi on. The mature fod-con­
ducti ng ti ssue ( phl oem) has cel l s
wi th si eve-l i ke end pl ates through
which strands of protopl asm ex­
tend from one cell to the next .
These sere as passageways for
di ssolved fod. Xyl em, another
compl ex ti ssue, i s composed of
l ong, tapered cel l s and of short,
hallow cel l s that form water­
conducting vessel s. The epidermi s,
forming the outer l ayer of l eaves,
stems, and rots, al so consi sts of
several typs of cel l s, hence is a
complex ti ssue.
1 0


m 9


Sensiti vi ty to External Stimul i
Metabol ic proesses,
usual l y at
the cel l ul ar l evel
I ncl usive processes
usual l y involve
whole plant
BASI C LI FE PROCESSES, such as respi rati on, growth,
reproducti on, maki ng or absorbi ng food (nutrition) ,
and others shown i n t he di agram above, ar e essenti al
for the survi val of pl ants. A key process i s respi ra­
ti on, whi ch makes energy avai l abl e to cel l s and ti ssues.
But because al l l i fe processes are i nterwoven, the mal ­
functioni ng of one may seri ousl y hamper the functi oni ng
of the others.
METABOLISM i s the name for a
series of cel l ular functions that
involve the use of energy for
l ife and growth of pl ants. Res­
pi ration i nvolves chemical reac­
tions that release the energy of
fod for use by cel l s. Oxygen is
usual l y needed. The energy thus
rel eased i s used i n al l processes
shown abve. The other supprt­
i ng processes are: [l} absorption,
the pssage of soluble substances
i nto the cell through the cell
membrane; ( 2) digestion, the
breaki ng down of complex sub­
stances for movement in the pl ant
or for use i n the cel l ; [3) assi mi ­
lation, the formi ng of new proto­
plasm from absorbd materi al s;
(4) synthesi s, the combi ni ng of
simple substances to bui l d more
complex substances; ( 5) trans­
locati on, the movement of sol ubl e
substances through a pl ant; and
(6) excreti on, the removal of
metabol i c wastes. Nutrition i s
a broad term embracing several
processes, especially 2, 3, and 4.
SENSITIVITY i s the capacity of
protopl asm to respnd to such
sti mul i as l ight, contact, water,
and food. Movement, growth,
reprouction, and nutrition i n a
pl ant are di rectly i nfuenced by
these external sti mul i . A pl ant ' s re­
sponses to sti mul i i ncrease its
chances of survival . Respnses are
adaptations to environment.
NUTRI TI ON i s the maki ng and
usi ng of fod to sustai n and re­
pai r the l i vi ng system and to
suppl y the necessary molecul es
for production of new l i vi ng ma­
teri al . Green pl ants produce the
foods for all nutrition. These
foods must be al tered before
being used by cel l s. Most non­
green pl ants absorb foods from
ei ther dead or l ivi ng organi sms.
Nutriti on i s bsi c to al l the other
l i fe processes.
Moti l e mi croscopic al gae are di s­
persed in the water i n di fuse
l ight. I n a concentrated beam,
they aggregate.
MOVEMENT may be by means of
whi pl i ke threads in si ngle-cel led
plants or by redi stribution of
water among speci al i zed cel l s i n
compl ex pl ants. Movement of
plants is l i mi ted, and its ocur­
rence and di rection are mai nl y
determi ned by exteral sti mul i .
REPRODUCTION i s the creation
of new pl ants. I t mai ntai ns a
species despi te deaths of i ndi­
vi dual s. The excess suppl y of
variable i ndi vi dual s makes evol u­
tion pssi bl e. Temperature and
l ength of dayl i ght i nfuence the
ti mi ng and mechani cs of pl ant
GOWTH resul ts from an i n­
crease in the number of cel l s,
thei r enlargement and maturation
according to patterns determi ned
by heredity and made possi bl e by
metabol i sm. The di rection of
growth is determined by such
sti mul i as l ight and gravity.
Plant stem grows
toward l ight source
and away from gravity.
When ptted plant i s
turned on i ts si de, the
young ti ssue respnds
by a change i n growth
di rection.
Bl ue Vi ol et
African Vi ol et
Yel low
THE VARIETY OF PLANT LIFE is tremendous, a resul t
of evol uti onary changes that began over two bi l l i on
years ago. More than 350,000 ki nds of l ivi ng pl ants
are known. Each has been given a sci enti fc name of to
parts. The frst i s the genus; the second i s the speci es.
Both words are l ati ni zed. A tree cal l ed Austral i an
Pi ne i n Fl ori da, Beefwood i n Cal i forni a, and Sheoak i n
Austral i a, where i t i s nati ve, i s known t o botani sts i n
al l these pl aces by i ts sci enti fc name, Losuortno equtselt-
ÍOÌto. Obvi ousl y, some pl ants have several l ocal names,
but each has onl y one sci enti fc name, whi ch i s recog­
ni zed the world over.
Thi s orderl y system of nami ng and cl assi fyi ng pl ants
was ori gi nated i n 1 753 by the Swedi sh natural i st,
Li nnaeus. Used al so by zoologi sts i n nami ng ani mal s, thi s
bi nomi al (two names) system i s based on natural rel a­
ti onshi ps as reveal ed by the study of fossi l s and al so
by anatomi cal and structural si mi l ari ti es. The two pur­
pl e fowers above are from pl ants that are not re­
l ated, though the fowers are much al i ke i n col or and
general shape and thei r common names i mpl y rel ati on­
shi p. The pi nk and yel l ow fowers at the ri ght are cl osel y
rel ated, as a detai l ed study of the reproducti ve structures
i n the fowers wi l l reveal . Both are orchi ds despi te difer­
ent common names.
UNIT i s the species. The many
mi l li ons of i ndi vi dual s of each
species may vary somewhat i n
si ze, col or, and even shape. Some
of these diferences are consi s­
tent enough so that a speci es may
be di vi ded i nto vari eti es, but al l
the varieties can i nterbreed­
a characteri sti c of a species.
With few exceptions, members of
diferent speci es cannot i nter-
(Rosa centiflia

Sci enti fc
level s
breed. Groups of si mi l ar species
are combined to form the next
category, the genus. Si mi l ar
genera are grouped i n fami l i es.
Each successivel y larger category­
order, cl ass, di vi si on, and sub­
ki ngdom-contai ns a l arger num­
ber of pl ants. The l argest cate­
gory i s the plant ki ngdom. Al l
l i vi ng thi ngs wi th cel l ul ar struc­
ture belong ei ther i n the plant
or animal kingdom.
Ì 4
THE PLANT KINGDOM pi ctured a s a fami l y tree shows
probabl e rel ati onshi ps of major groups of pl ants and
thei r devel opment from the more pri mi tive groups at
the base. Many pl ant groups have onl y sci enti fc names.
Al l are treated i n more detai l el sewhere i n thi s bok.
Thal l ophytes ( pp .. 1 6-4 1 ), such as bacteri a, fungi , and
al gae, are si mpl e pl ants. Embryophytes, or hi gher pl ants
(pp. 42-69), form embryos and, except for the Bryo­
phytes, al l contai n vascul ar or conducti ng ti ssues.

º| umaria
1 6
Al gae, bacteri a, and fungi ( si mpl e pl ants that l ack roots,
stems, and l eaves) form the subki ngdom Thal l ophyta.
These thal l us pl ants are cl assi fed i nto vari ous di vi si ons
based upon types of structures, nutri ti on, reproducti on,
pi gmentati on, and the chemi cal composi ti on of both cel l
wal l s and stored food. Col or al one i s not rel i abl e for
cl assi fcati on. For exampl e, the red-col ored al ga that
gi ves the Red Sea i ts name i s structural l y a bl ue-green
al ga. Photosynthesi s, the manufacturi ng of food by usi ng
sol ar energy, occurs in most al gae, in onl y a few bac­
teri a, and i n no fungi .
THE ORI GI N OF LIFE i s stil l
a mystery. The primitive earth,
about 3 bi l l ion years ago, was
not l i ke i t i s today. The earth' s
surface and atmosphere were
such that l i fe as we know it
today could not have exi sted.
Earth Without life ( Abioti c)
The frst pl ants hel ped change
thi s hosti l e envi ronment and pre­
pared the earth for new forms
of l i fe. They hel ped decrease
carbon dioxide and increase
oxygen and ozone. Ul traviol et
ray pnetration was l essened,
to, by the new atmosphere.
origin and change from the be­
gi nni ng to modern ti mes is shown
at l eft. Evidence,. of the earl iest
forms of l i fe i ndicate that they
were much like modern bacteria
and bl ue-green al gae. They form
a group cal l ed primitive protista
that lack orgnized nuclei . Sl owl y
other forms evolved from them,
frst wi th nucl ei but no ti ssue
systems. Some bcame ani mal ­
l i ke, the protozoa. Others be­
came the al gae. Fungi represent
an i ntermediate termi nal line. The
development of tissue systems led
to today' s hi gher plants and
animal s that are highl y cordi­
nated organi sms.
THE EUGLENOIDS pi ctured bel ow are three organi sms
that botani sts consi der to be pl ants, but whi ch many
zool ogi sts cl assi fy as ani mal s. Euglena contai ns chl oro­
phyl l and can manufacture its own food. I t moves by
means of a whi pl i ke fagel l um, has a pl i abl e outer mem­
brane but no cel l wal l , and takes i n food and el i mi nates
wastes through i ts gul l et. Astasia resembles Euglena
but l acks chl orophyl l , hence is even more ani mal -l i ke.
Colacium, i n contrast, i s more pl antl i ke. It does not
move, except i n its zoospore ( reproducti ve cel l ) stage. I t
contai ns chl orophyl l i n di sti nct bodi es ( chl oropl asts) and
has a frm gel ati nous cel l wal l .
The majority of eugl enoi ds, Euglena-l i ke pl ants, are
found in organi cal l y ri ch fresh or sal t waters. Other
eugl enoi ds are parasi tic wi thi n ani mal s . Total l y there
are about 500 speci es.
fagel l um

eyes pot
gul l et
gul l et
;y ,
begi nni ng of
new colony

Osci l l atoria fl ament
Gloeocapsa, cel l s i n gel ati nous
sheath; found on dam
Anabaena, hi ghl y manifed;
resembles Nostoc
BLUE-GREEN ALGAE, about 1 ,400 speci es, are com­
monl y bl ue-green, but red, vi ol et, yel l ow, brown, and
bl ack speci es al so occur. Extremel y si mpl e pl ants, al l
are mi croscopi c and consi st of a si ngl e cel l wi th no
wel l -organi zed nucl eus. The chl orophyl l occurs i n mem­
branous chloropl ast equi val ents rather than i n di sti nct
chloropl asts. Many l ive as si ngl e cel l s, others i n coloni es,
or i n fl aments. They reproduce pri mari l y by si mpl e cel l
di vi si on ( fssi on) or by a fragmtntation or breaki ng up
of t he colony or fl ament, each part conti nui ng growth
i ndependentl y. Bl ue-green al gae l i ve in fresh or sal t water,
i n hot spri ngs, on moi st soi l or other damp surfaces, and
as parasi tes. Some kinds i ncrease soi l ferti l i ty by pro­
duci ng ni trogen compounds. Others are i mportant as
food for young fsh and other smal l water ani mal s. Some
speci es cause the water i n swi mmi ng pool s to be sl i my
or gi ve reservoi rs of dri nki ng water a foul odor and
taste. A few ki nds are toxi c and may cause the death
of ani mal s that dri nk water i n whi ch these al gae grow.
RED ALGAE are bel i eved to share a common ancestor
wi th bl ue-green al gae. Mai nl y mari ne, they grow from
tidal shal l ows to depths greater ( 600 ft. ) than any
other pl ants that. manufacture food. Speci al pi gments
that trap the feebl e l i ght in the deep sea enabl e the
pl ants to carry on photosynthesi s. Red al gae are usual l y
smal l , onl y a few growi ng l onger than Z or 3 feet. They
are attached to the bottom by hol dfasts. Most of the
3, 500 speci es are red or pi nk, but a few are purpl e,
green, or brown.
Red al gae are usual l y mul ti cel l ul ar, each cel l wi th
a wel l -organi zed nucl eus. Most speci es reproduce sexual l y.
The mal e sex cel ls are carri ed to the femal e by water
I RISH MOSS (Chondrus crispus)
i s made into puddi ngs. Products
of other spci es are added to
ice cream mixes as · an emul sifer.
CORAUI NA and related spci es
of warm seas secrete l i me and
hel p bi ld coral reefs; have been
active reef bui l ders i n the geo-
logic past as wel l as· i n recent
arid present ti mes.
GELI DI UM and related forms pro­
duce gel ati nous agr, used for
sol i difying desserts and i n culture
media for growi ng bacteria, fungi ,
and orchi ds; al so used as a fl l er
in commercial foos.
BROWN ALGAE contai n chl orophyl l s as other al gae do,
but they are masked by brown pi gments. Al l brown al gae
are mul ti cel l ul ar, but some are mi croscopi c. The cel l u­
l ose cel l wal l s are covered by a gel ati nous l ayer of
al gi n. Food i s commonl y stored as l ami nari n, a carbo­
hydrate, and manni tol , an al cohol .
Most of t he 1 , 500 species of brown al gae are mari ne.
They foat freel y, or may grow attached to the bottom
i n i nterti dal zones or in deeper waters. The Sargasso Sea,
an area of eddyi ng seas coveri ng up to Z mi l l i on square
mi l es i n the mi d-Atl anti c, contai ns foati ng beds of Sar­
gassum. Tal es of shi ps being trapped in these masses of
seaweeds are mythi cal , but captai ns of sai l i ng vessel s
feared the Sargasso Sea because of i ts dead cal ms.
enl arged dtai l of
reprouctive cavity
N. Equatorial Current
Brown al gae vary in methods of reproducti on . Ecto­
carpus produces both sexual and asexual pl ants, as do
the gi ant kel ps i n whi ch the sexual stage i s mi croscopi c.
Sargassum and Fucus ( Rock Weed or Bl adder Wrack)
al so have an extremel y reduced sexual stage. Brown
al gae are i mportant as food, for fert i l i zer, and for the
roducti on of al gi n, a food addi ti ve.
KELPS ( several of whi ch are
shown bl ow) are large brown
algae that range in length from
one fot to more than l00 feet.
The pl ant consists of a hol dfast,
a long steml i ke stipe, and a
fattened blade, whi ch may be
single or divi ded. Some of the
larger kel ps are kept afloat by
air bladders . Macrocystis, for
example, may be anchored 50
feet below the surface; it spreads
i n foating mats abve. Ribbon
Kel p (Nereocystis), Lami nari a,
and the Sea Pal m (Postelsia)
other common kel ps.
GOLDEN ALGAE occur as si ngl e cel l s, i n fl aments or
i n col oni es. They are mostly yel l owi sh-green to gol den­
brown, but i n some, these col ors are masked by bri ght
orange and red pi gments. Many are equi pped wi th two
fagel l a of unequal l ength, as i n Dinobryono One of the
most common, Vaucheria, was unti l recentl y cl assifed
as a green al ga, but l i ke al l gol den al gae, Vaucheria
stores its food as oi l s rather than as starch, as do the
green al gae and most other pl ants.
DI ATOMS ( shown on top page
23) ore among the most i mpor­
tant of the more than · 1 0,000
species of gol den algae. Abundant
i n bth fresh and sal t water,
they ore the major consti tuent
of phytopl ankton, the foting
pl ant l i fe that is the bsi c foo
of nearl all aquati c ani mal s.
Al l diatoms ore mi croscopi c.
Each i s encl osed i n a cel l wal l
of two hal ves that ft together
l i ke a bx and i ts lid. The Ioyer
of gloss-l i ke si l ica deposi ted on
the cel l wal l .. forms scul ptured
desi gns. Ki nds and numbers of
di atoms found in water con be
used as a pol lution i ndex.
Di atoms may reprouce either
asexual l y by cel l di vi sion or by a
sexual proess that l eads to a
speci al type of spre cal l ed on
Di atom shel l s ore found i n
layers hundreds of feet thi ck on
l ands formerl y covered by shal low
seas. T hey ore mi ned as "di ato­
maceous earth" for use as on
abrasi ve, for i nsul ati on, and for
fl ters in various i ndustri al pro­
cesses. Crude oil depsits ps­
si bly originated from the stored
oils of di atoms. At extremely high
temperatures ( above 1 000° F)
di atomaceous earth i s a more
efective i nsulator than asbstos.
DI NOFLAGELLATES are cl osel y rel ated to the gol den
al gae._ Most of the 1,000 speci es of di noflagel l ates
have grooved cel l ul ose wal l s that may resembl e pl ates
of armor. Gymnodinium brevis i s one of several di no­
fagel l ates causi ng "red ti des" that destroy fsh and
other sea l i fe. Oysters and cl ams become poi sonous
after feedi ng on speci es of Gonyaulax that are most
preval ent i n the "R-Iess" months. Lumi nescent di nofagel ­
l ates, such as Nocti/uca, are the most common cause of
phosphorescence i n the sea. Ceratium i s a common di no­
fagel l ate i n fresh-water l akes.
GREEN ALGAE, a hi ghl y di verse group of more than
5, 000 speci es, are most abundant i n fresh water, where
they are food of aquati c ani mal s. They may ol so grow
on moi st surfaces, even on such unusual pl aces as tur­
tl es' backs and sl oths' hai r. Some green al gae are mi cro­
scopi c, unattached si ngl e cel l s, as Chlamydomonas and
Chlorella ( above) . Others, such as Volvox and Hydro­
dictyon, are smal l col oni al forms . Those wi th fagel l a
can move i ndependentl y. The fl amentous Spirogyra and
the desmi ds have oddl y shaped chl oropl asts.
Li ke hi gher pl ants, most green al gae are green due
to chl orophyl l s. Cel l wal l s contai ni ng cel l ul ose and the
storage of food as starch are other features suggesti ng
that green al gae ore the mai n l i ne of evol uti on that
termi nated in seed pl ants. Yel l ow to orange pi gments,
al so typi cal , may mask the green i n some green al gae.
Speci es of Chlamydomonas are often responsi bl e for the
appearance of a red col orati on i n l ong-standi ng snow­
Some green al gae reprouce both asexual l y and sexu­
al l y; some are whol l y asexual ; others have onl y sexual
reproucti on . I n some ki nds, the l i fe cycl e i ncl udes two
di ferent pl ant forms.
bl ow) comprise ol y about 1 0
percent of the green al gae, ond
many of these ore Iorge. Seo
lettuce (Uivo) i s common alog
oean shores, washed i n by the
tide. Coulerpo locks cross wal l s
in i ts protopl asm, so the proto­
pl asm, contai ni ng many nucl ei , ex­
tends throughot the pl ant. Hali­
meda and Acetobulorio ore other
attached forms of tropical seas.
STONEWORTS, represented here
by Chore ( shown abve), ocur
in fresh or brackish quiet waters.
They difer fro al l other forms
of alge in having thei r eggs and
sprms surronded by jackets of
sterile cel l s. Stoneworts, about
200 spcies, ore pl aced in a
seprate divi si on by some bota­
ni sts, wi th green alge by others.
Choro someti mes becomes a seri ­
os weed in fsh hatcheri es.

Earth' s surface is about
three quarters water
( esti mated\
l and
pl ants
CULTIVATION OF ALGAE i s bei ng consi dered and ex­
peri ments are underay to make use of al gae as a di rect
source of food for a growi ng worl d popul ati on. Al gae
are i deal food pl ants. They contai n l i ttl e cel l ul ose. Land
crops, in contrast, produce cel l ul ose, a substance that i s
unusabl e as food by man and onl y i ndi rectl y by l i vestock.
Under control l ed condi ti ons, al gae grow the year around;
furthermore, they are al most free of pests. At present,
man ' s use of al gae is chi efy i ndi rect-through the eati ng
of fsh and other sea foods.
Chlorella, a green al ga ( p. 24) ri ch i n foods and
vi tami ns, i s the most used i n current experi ments . Under
sui tabl e condi ti ons, Chlorella reproduces very rapi dl y.
By changi ng i ts envi ronment sl i ghtl y i n di ferent ways,
Chlorella can be made to produce from 7 to ÛÛ percent
protei n, from 6 to 40 percent carbohydrates, and from
1 to 75 percent fats . I f Chlorella were a crop, an acre
usel ess for ordi nary farmi ng coul d produce 50 tons of
foods per year. Even l and crops i n good soi l s yi el d onl y
5 to 1 0 tons of dry wei ght food per year . Though onl y
experi mental now, Chlorella farmi ng may some day
suppl ement our food suppl y. Perhaps even sooner i t
wi l l suppl y food and oxygen for space travel ers, espe­
ci al l y i f a l ong voyage to Mars or beyond i s undertaken.
Algae-Ch/ore//a in parti cul ar-are used al so ir sew­
age purifcati on. Rapid growth of the al gae i n treatment
tanks rel eases l arge amounts of oxygen that i s uti l i zed
by bacteri a i n oxi di zi ng the wastes before they are
released i nto streams, l akes, or other waters.
A SPACE STATION, of necessi ty,
must be a cl osed ecosystem i n
whi ch materi al s are recycled to
sustai n l i fe. A spce-uni t fo
factory wi l l work theoreti cal l y
as shown i n the di agram bel ow.
I n the manufacturing of foo,
algae can uti l i ze human wastes
( proessed by bacteri a) pl us the
carbon dioxi de and water given
of i n respi rati on both by bac­
teri a and man. A by-product of
photosynthesi s is oxygn, needed
by man and the bacteria for their
surival . A si mi lar system might
b used i n submari nes, wi t h l ight
bi ng provided by el ectri ci ty
rather than the sun.
Photosynthesi s i s the bsic dy­
nami c proess of l i fe and most
of the photosynthesi s on the
earth i s performed by algae. For
thi s reason, algae seem best
suited as the photosyntheti c key
to recycl i ng materi al s and energy
i n an artifci al envi ronment.
Bacteri a are pri mi ti ve pl ants that are simi l ar to the sim­
pl est bl ue-green al gae and al so to fungi . Li ke some al gae,
they do not have an organi zed nucl eus. Most are si ngl e
cel l s, but some form fl aments or masses . Al l of the
1,700 speci es are cl assi fed by three basi c shapes (p. 29)
and are mi croscopi c, the smal l est onl y 1 /650,000 i nch
i n di ameter. Some bacteri a requi re free oxygen; others
can l i ve wi thout oxygen.
Some bacteri a are parasi tes; others are saprophyti c.
Chemosyntheti c bacter i a get energy by oxi di zi ng i ron,
sul fur, or ni trogen compounds. A few kinds are photo­
syntheti c; they contai n green or purpl e l i ght-absorbi ng
pi gments and get thei r energy from l i ght. They do not
gi ve of oxygen as do other photosyntheti c pl ants.
Bacteri a usual l y reproduce by si mpl e di vi si on ( fssi on ) .
Fi ssi on may occur every 20 mi nutes, and the descendants
of one bacteri um coul d number 4,700,000,000, 000,-
000,000, 000 i n a span of 24 hours. Many produce
spores that can survi ve extremes of heat and col d.
smal l er than bcteri a, are viruses
and ri ckettsi as. Vi ruses are nan·
cel lul ar and are smal l enough to
pss throgh fi l ters that slap
bcteri a. Pol io, rabi es, and com­
mon colds are vi rus di seases.
Ri ckettsi a, halfay i n si ze be­
tween bcteria and vi ruses, have
a cel l wal l , reproduce by fssi on,
and can al so pss through flters.
Li ke vi ruses, they can be grown
only on l i vi ng medi a. Typhus i s
a rickettsi al di sease.
Rice dwarf vi rus as seen wi th
el ectron mi croscope
USEFUL BACTERIA i ncl ude many i mportant ki nds i ncl ud­
i ng those that cause decoy. Decoy bacteri a break down
the compl ex mol ecul es l ocked i n dead pl ants and ani ­
mal s and change them i nto si mpl er mol ecul es that ore
usabl e by other pl ants. Carbohydrates ore reduced to
carbon di oxi de and water; protei ns yi el d ni trogen in the
form of ni trates. These chemi cal s rel eased from dead
pl ants and ani mal s by decoy bacteria ore thus mode
avai l abl e for use agai n and agai n. Wi thout these bac­
teri a, al l l i vi ng thi ngs, except sul fur bacteri a and rel ated
forms, woul d eventual l y become exti nct, for carbon and
ni trogen in avai l abl e forms occur onl y in l i mi ted amounts .
Bacter i a ore al so useful i n the commerci al producti on
of vi negar, cheeses, acetone, and al cohol s.
Many pl ants and ani mal s ore l i feti me hosts for great
numbers of bacteri a, some of whi ch may b benefci al .
Cl over, al fal fa, and other pl ants of the l egume fami l y
hove roots wi th nodul es that contai n bacteri a. These
bacteri a change ni trogen from the ai r i nto ni trates.
FOD SPOILAGE is due mai nl y to bacteri a. In sui tabl e
temperature surroundi ngs and wi th sufci ent food and
water, bacteri a mul ti pl y rapi dly; and si nce anci ent times,
man has used a vari ety of methods to prevent or to sl ow
thei r growth so that food can be preser.ved.
An earl y method of food preservati on sti l l used to­
day is dryi ng. Thi s depri ves the bacteri a of the moi s­
ture needed for growth. Preservati ves, such as sal t,
prevent bacteri a from absorbi ng water. Often the two
methods are combi ned, as i n sal t-curi ng and smoki ng.
Food-spoi l age bacteri a can be ki l l ed at a hi gh tem­
perature-boi l i ng or above. Mi l k i s pasteuri zed by heat­
ing i t onl y high enough to ki l l di sease-causi ng bacteri a.
Foods are al so frozen or kept under refri gerati on to
retard bacteri al growth. Bel ow-freezi ng temperatu res
not onl y stop the growth of bacteri a but al so el i mi nate
the water they need.
COUNTI NG BACTERI A di rectly is
i mpossi bl e because they ore usu·
al ly so abundant; counti ng i s gen­
eral l y done i ndi rectly by maki ng
a di l uti on seri es, as shown below.
A measured amount of mi l k,
or other l iqui d to be tested, i s
wi thdrawn and di l uted with steri l e
water. Thi s i s repeated, and then
too many
col oni es
._mi l k
to be
the same amount is withdrawn
from each di l uti on and used to
i noculate the steri l e agar pl ates.
Each bacteri um starts a colony
on the plate. When onl y a few
col oni es are present, whi ch wi l l
occur i n a l arge di l uti on, the count­
ing then becomes easy. The pro·
cedure is i l l ustrated below.
countabl e
sampl e
Bacteria of al l three shapes ( rond,
ro, and spi ral) cause i nfectious
diseases of man . ..
bacteria Ol6 transmitted [!)
through food ( botul i sm, undul ant
fever); ( 2) by i nhal i ng respi ratory
secretions ( scarlet fever, pneu­
moni a, tubercul osi s, whooping
cough) ; ( 3) by i nti mate contact
( anthrax, venereal i nfections);
and ( 4) by i nsects or other ani ­
mal s ( buboni c pl aue)-
pus-formi ng
mi crococci
from O boil


Vibrio comma,
cause of
Asi ati c chol era
PATHOGENIC BACTERIA, those that cause di seases,
produce a toxi n that poi sons the host_ Endotoxi ns are a
part of the bacteri al cel l and are rel eased onl y when
the cel l di es_ Exotoxi ns, whi ch are much more potent,
are secreted around the cel l s_ Bacter i a may be so spe­
ci al i zed that they i nfect only one or a cl osel y rel ated host_
Di sease bacteri a cause many di seases of pl ants, man,
and other ani mal s but the damage they do through
di sease and decay i s far outwei ghed by thei r val ue i n
the ni trogen cycl e and as i ntesti nal symbi onts_ Some
soi l bacteri a have proved to be a source of anti bi oti cs,
whi ch are useful agai nst bacteri al i nvasi ons_
ore all caused by rod-shaped
baci l l i . Some cause pl ant ti ssues
to become "spotted" as the cel l s
around the i nfection di e. Bl i ghts
and rots ore al so caused by bac­
teria. Others cause wilt, by a
mechani cal bl ocki ng of the xyl em
so that. water does not move up
freely from the roots. Sti l l others
cause gal l s or other abnormal
growths .
crown gal l on
al mond tree rot
Did erma
SLI ME MOLDS ( Myxomycophyta) are fungus-l i ke pl ants
that, l acki ng chl orophyl l , are ei ther saprophyti c or para­
si ti c. Total i ng about 500 speci es, these mol ds are wel l
named, for t he moti l e body i s a t hi n, sl imy mass of proto­
pl asm, wi th many nuclei and no cel l wal l s. The "naked"
protopl asm, or pl asmodi um, may be yel l ow, vi ol et, or
other col ors, dependi ng on the speci es. I t i s someti mes
branched or netl i ke and can fow, i n amoeboi d manner,
over moi st soi l , l eaves, and l ogs rapi dl y enough for i ts
movement to be seen. Sl ime mol ds di gest and absorb
whatever food the protopl asm contacts. They produce
beauti ful l y scul ptured spore cases ( sporangi a).
ALGA-LIKE FUNGI ( Phycomycetes) i ncl ude water mol ds,
bl ack mol ds ( p. 34), downy mi l dews, and bl i ghts ( p. 35) .
Some are saprophyti c; some parasi ti c. Most of t he 1 , 500
speci es i n thi s group are branched, formi ng cottony
masses of threads that absorb food from the materi al s
i n whi ch they l i ve. The mass of threads i s t he mycel i um,
and each thread i s a hypha. These fungi are more l i kel y
to occur on vegetabl e than on ani mal matter, but they
do not ordi nari l y attack wood.
WATER MOLDS occur most com­
monly in fresh water, but many
l i ve i n moist soi l . Most are sapro­
pytes l ivi ng on dead i nsects or
other ani mal s or on dead pl ants;
a few are prasites.
Water mol ds reproduce asexu­
al ly by formi ng spores that de­
vel op i nto new pl ants. The spores
swim by waing thei r whi pl i ke
flagl l a. As they l ook and move
l i ke oe-cel l ed animal s, they are
cal l ed zoospores. Some water
mol ds also reproduce sexual l y.
Water molds contr i bute to the
carbon and ni trogen cycles in the
same manner as decay bcteri a,
but have l ittl e val ue otheri se.
Some spci es of Saprolegnio are
o common pest on fsh eggs and
young fsh i n hatcheri es. Aquari um
fsh often become covered wi th
the whi ti sh masses of these water
molds . The mol ds can general l y
b ki l led by pl aci ng the fsh
temporari l y i n a gal l on of water
in whi ch 211 tabl espons of sal t
hove been dissolved.
BLACK MOLDS i ncl ude common
bread mold and others that grow
on overrip fruit, cheese, and
other foos. Black mol ds get
thei r name from their masses of
bl ack spores. A few species are
parasi tes, some causi ng skin and
eye di seases of man.
Bred mold is typi cal of al l
bl ack molds. The ai r i n any room
may contain hundreds of thousands
of its mi croscopic spores. I f a
spare fal l s on a pi ece of moi st,
Bread Mol d
Rhizopus stol onifer
Asexual Reproduction
mycel i um, with
spore cases
fresh bread, i t germi nates and
grows at a ver rapi d rate. The
whitish mycel ium develops qui ckl y
and branches out by extending
runners ( stolons) . Ti ny root-l i ke
structures ( rhi zoids) penetrate
the bread and absorb foo.
Asexual reprouction i s by tiny
spores produced i n rounded spre
cases that spl i t open to rel ease
thei r contents.
Bred mol d spores are so l ight
in weight they l i teral l y fat i n
the ai r. Sex cel ls ( gametes) are
prouced when hyphae of mol ds
from oppsite [ ¬ and -) strai ns
meet. Gamtes uni te to form a
feri l i zed cel l , or zygote, that
devel ops a thick-wal l ed spre
case. Growth of mold spores in
commercial bakery proucts is
now i nhibited by addi ng cal ci um
propionate or si mi l ar chemi cal s.
Bread mol d i s general l y sapro­
phytic, but under soe ci rcum­
stances wi l l grow as a parasite,
on strawberri es, for exampl e.
Sexual Reproduction
di seases of cros, appearing as
cottony spts on the l eaves and
stems of plants they parasitize.
I n grapes, the downy spts ap­
par on the leaves, whi ch change
from pl e green to yel l ow or
brown as the mi l dew matures.
The hyphae digest the epidermi s
of the grape leaf and penetrate
the parenchyma ti ssues, absorb­
ing the pl ant's j ui ces and caus­
ing i t to wi l t. I f the disease i s
not control l ed, the l eaves di e
and drop of. The graps rot,
and ul ti matel y the plant di es.
Control i s by sprayi ng with Bor­
deaux mi xture ( coppr sul fate
and l i me).
Blights, such as the ptato bl i ght
that devastated I rel and in 1 8-5,
are al so caused by downy mi l dews.
These alga-l i ke fngi al so cause
fungus rot, a di sease of beets
and other vegetabl es. Many kinds
attack seedl i ngs, causi ng rots
to rot. Others grow into rots
and stems at the soil l ine and
cause a plant to wi l t.
WHI TE RUSTS are common on
pl ants of the mustard fami l y. Al l
of the organi sms can remai n
viable i n the soi l or on dead
plant pars making control difcul t.
Plasmopara, a
downy mi ldew
of grapes
Albugo, a
white rust
on spi nach
l eaf   � ���
Yeast ascus with
four ascospores
( enl argd)
Morel , or
SAC FUNGI (Ascomycetes), about 30, 000 speci es, make
up the l argest cl ass of fungi . They may be si ngl e-cel l ed
pl ants, as in yeasts, or of many cel l s in ei ther a l oose
or a compact mycel i um. They range i n si ze from the
mi croscopi c to as much as 1 2 i nches tal l . Al l form a
sacl i ke reproductive structure, the ascus, that usual l y
produces Û spores. Yeasts reprouce al so by buddi ng.
Saprophyti c sac fungi i ncl ude Penicillium, yeasts, cup
fungi , trufes, and  orel s. Many speci es l i ve on organi c
matter i n soi l s.
Parasi ti c sac fungi cause Dutch el m di sease, powdery
mi l dews, peach l eaf curl , chestnut bl i ght, ergot, and
other di seases. The ergot fungus destroys such grai ns as
wheat and rye, whi ch are covered wi th a dark purpl e,
poi sonous mycel i um, whi ch i n thi s case i s cal l ed a
scl eroti um. Medi ci nes used for treati ng mental di sorders
and for reduci ng hemorrhage are prepared from ergots.
Yeasts, i mportant in the baki ng and brewi ng i ndus­
tri es, deri ve thei r energy from sugar through fermen­
tation. The end products of fermentati on are carbon
di oxi de and al cohol . The carbon di oxi de causes the
bread to ri se, and the smal l amount of al cohol evapo­
rates duri ng boki ng.
Cup fungi , morel s, and trufes grow i n moi st humus,
or decayi ng wood. The above-ground cupl i ke or sponge­
l i ke bodi es grow from the mycel i um netork bel ow.
Spores are produced by these l arge frui ti ng structures.
Morel s and trufes are pri zed as food.
molds are sac fungi that co­
monly grow an jel l i es, l eather,
fabrics, ci trus, and ather frui ts.
Same spcies of Penicillium spi l
foo: others are used in making
Roquefort and Camembrt cheeses.
The bl ue patches i n Roquefort
are the spres. Peni ci l l in, the
antibiotic, was frst prepred
fro Penicillium notatum but is
obtai ned now fo a more pro­
ductive speci es. Another speci es,
P. gresioflvin, produces a sub­
stance that cures fungal ski n
di seases. One speci es of related
genus, Aspergillus, i s cul tivated
commerci al l y to make citric aid;
another spcies of Aspergillus
causes a pul moary disease.
Penicillium of diferent speci es i s used by man i n a vari ety of ways;
to ri pen cheese, fr example.
Blue Mold in
Rouefort cheese
Peni ci l l i n, an ati biotic mae from
a mol d, Penicillium, is shown
here bing i njected i n an arm.
CLUB FUNGI ( Basi di omycetes ) i ncl ude mushrooms, toad­
stools, pufbal l s, smuts, and rusts . All produce thei r t i ny
spores on knobbed or cl ub-shaped structures ( basi di a).
The 25,000 s peci es of cl ub fungi are the most advanced
of the fungus groups. Mushrooms are the spore-produci ng
bodi es of underground mycel i a that absorb food from
decayi ng l eaves or other organi c mater. A " fai r ri ng"
of mushrooms ori gi nates from a si ngl e underground my­
cel i um that grows l arger each year. ''Fai ry ri ngs' ' may
have a di ameter of more than 100 feet. Each " frui ti ng"
body, or mushroom, consi sts of a stal k and a cap. On
t he undersi de of the cap are gi l l s -thi n spore-beari ng
pl ates. Many mushrooms are edi bl e, but there i s no
rel i abl e rul e of thumb for di sti ngui shi ng the edi bl � from
the poi sonous speci es.
Pufbal l s do not have caps or stal ks. Young pufbal l s
have a soft, whi te i nteri or that i s usual l y edi bl e. When
mature, pufbal l s are fl l ed wi th spores that are rel eased
i n a smokel i ke puf when the ri nd i s ruptured.
Shel fl i ke, woody brackets that grow on tree trunks
are the reproducti ve structures of pore fungi . Spores
escape through pores openi ng on the undersi de of the
bracket. Many are found on l i vi ng trees, and though
they grow mai nl y in the dead wood cel l s, thei r enzymes
may ki l l the l i vi ng cel l s and eventual l y ki l l the tree.
Some pore fungi cl osel y resembl e gi l l mushrooms .
Rusts and smuts are al so parasi ti c fungi . Smuts, whi ch
have bl ack spores, i nfect cereal crops. Rust fungi may
requi re ei ther one host or to al ternate hosts. Bl ack
stem rust i s perhaps the si ngl e most i mportant pl ant
di sease; it parasi ti zes both wheat and barberry. Whi te
pi ne and cur rants or gooseberri es are al ternate hosts
of whi te pi ne bl i ster rust. Cedar-appl e rust al ternatel y
i nfects cedar and appl e trees. Rusts usual l y can be
control l ed by el i mi nati ng one of the to hosts .
a fairy ring of mushrooms i n a l awn
i nfected
wheat stem
SYMBI OTI C FUNGI l i ve in cl ose associ at i on wi th other
pl ants. Thi s rel ati onshi p i s known as symbi osi s. If bt
members of the partnershi p beneft, as i n l i chens ( p. 4 1 ),
the rel ati onshi p i s cal led mutual i sm. I n a parasi te-host
rel ati onshi p, one benefts at the expense of the other.
Some of the hi gher plants, such as pi nes, heaths, and
orchi ds, l ack root hai rs and can grow successful l y onl y
i f thei r roots are surrounded and penetrated by fungus
fl aments ( mycorrhizae) . Thi s fungus-root rel ati onshi p i s
an exampl e of mutual i sm. The fungus fl aments presum­
abl y i ncrease the absorbi ng surface of the roots and
may al so make avai l abl e to the pl ant vari ous mi neral s
from the soi l that woul d otherwise remai n unavai l abl e.
The fungus grows i nto the outer cel l s of i ts host ' s roots
and gets its energy from the food stored there.
seedl i ng grown
without mycorrhizae
section of root,
showing hyphae
of fungus
Foresters frequentl y wont to
i ntrouce o spci es of pi ne to
an area where it i s not native.
To do thi s successfully, they
have found i t necessary to mix
the proper mycorrhi zal fungi i n­
to the soi l . I n the i l l ustration,
trees A ond 8 ore the same age.
Some l i chens grow tightly
pressed ogoinst brk, rocks, or
soil; this growth habit i s crustose.
Those adhering less closely to
the surface have a foliose growth.
Branched types that grow on land
or hang from trees are classifed
as fruticose.
LICHENS form a group of pl ants in whi ch numerous
speci es of fungi , i n both sac and cl ub fungus groups,
grow i n prtnershi p wi th si mpl e bl ue-green or green
al gae. The al gae are contai ned i n a network of fungal
threads, or hyphae. Food manufactured by the al gae
i s shared wi th the fungus, whi ch furni shes a protecti ve,
moi sture-retai ni ng habi tat for the al gae. The fungus and
the al ga reproduce by the methods characteri sti c of the
i ndi vi dual speci es, or the entire structure may fragment
and the pi eces grow.
Li chens, whi ch total abut 1 5, 000 ki nds, are adaptabl e
to meager environments and hence are wi del y di stri buted.
They appear on barren, rocky areas and start the for-
. moti on of soi l i n whi ch mosses, then ferns and l arger
pl ants can grow. Li chens known as rei nder "mosses"
furni sh food for cari bou i n arcti c areas. Li tmus dye and
a perfume stabi l i zer are made from l i chens.
water not needed for f . rti l i,otion,
pol l en producers
wel l-devel oped conducti ng syste
non-fowenng pl ants;
produce naked seeds
foweri ng pl ants; produce
covered seeds
Thi s great group shows many adaptati ons for l i fe on
l and. The development of pol l en el i mi nates the need for
water in ferti l i zation. A waxy cuti cl e over stems and
leaves prevents excessive water loss, as do the stomates
that hel p control the exchange of water and ai r between
the l eaf cel l s and the atmosphere. Wel l -developed vas­
cul ar systems permi t rapid i nternal movement of water.
Al l of the Embryophytes produce a many-cel l ed embryo
that devel ops from the ferti l i zed egg, or zygote. The
l i fe hi story is compl ex, an asexual , spore-produci ng
generation ( sporophyte) al ternati ng wi th a sexual gen­
erati on ( gametophyte), as shown on p. 7. The two gen­
erati ons di fer not onl y i n appearance but al so i n num­
ber of chromosomes. I n Bryophyes, the gametophyte
is the domi nant pl ant, and the sporophyte is mostl y
parasi ti c. I n vascul ar pl ants, the sporophyte develops
i nto the domi nant, i ndependent pl ant, on which the
gametophyte is mostly parasi ti c.
TIONS requi res a reduction in
the number of chromosomes b·
fore sexual repouction occurs.
A mature sprophyte ( 1 ) develops
spore mother cells ( 2) and then
spores by a reduction division
( meiosi s) ( 3), i n which each spre
receives onl y n chromosomes, or
half as many as i n the sprophyte' s
�n vegetative cel l s. After meiosis,
the spres ( 4) germinate and pro-
1 n " chromosome set
duce gametophytes. Gametophytes
( 5) then prouce sex cel l s, or
gametes-eggs and sperms ( 6) .
When a sprm fertil i zes an egg,
the resulting cell, or zygote ( 7) ,
has 2n or tice the chromosome
numbr of a single gamete. The
zygote develops i nto an embryo
( 8) that is at frst prasiti c on the
femal e' s gametophyte. l n mst vas­
cular pl ants, the embryo i s in
the seed.
i .
7. embryo

- -

1 n

1 n


1 n
BRYOPHYTES ( l i verworts, hornworts, and mosses) are
smal l , green pl ants that prefer moi st habitats, al though
most can tolerate seasonal dryi ng. Al l produce gametes
HORNWORTS, as Anthoceras,
have a simple gmetophytic thai·
Ius. The horn-shaped sprophyte
has stomates with guard cells
like higher plants and, at its bse,
a meristem that enables it to
continue growing i n height. As
spores mature, the apx spl its
to release them. The chloroplasts
bear starch-storing pyrenoids.
LIVERWORTS, such as Marchan·
tia, have a liver-shaped plant
by, or thal l us, with probably
the frst photosynthetic tissue
adapted fr functioning on land.
Marchantia's male and female
gametophytes have sexual struc­
tures that difer, as shown. Spro
phytes develop from ferilized eggs
within the archegonia under the
rays of the female sexual struc­
ture. Mature spores germi nate to
form new gametophytes, as do
the asexual gemmae fored in
cuplike structures o the upper
surface of the thal l us.
Perella, O "l eafy" l iverwort,
has stalked antheridia and urn­
shapd archegonia that may devel­
op on the same plant.
sporophyte develops
within archegoni um
in mul ti cel l ul ar sex organs. Sperms swi m through water
to ferti l ize the egg which devel ops in its protective
archegoni um. Rootl i ke rhi zoi ds grow from the conspi cu­
ous gametophyte pl ants on whi ch the sporophytes are
essenti al l y dependent.
MOSSES are primary sai l builders,
growing an and spreading over
bare surfaces. Hai rcap Moss
i l l ustrates the typical moss
structure. Gametophytes are the
free-living generations ( see life
cycle, p. 1 04). The sprophyte
i s usual l y green during develop­
ment but bcomes brown at
maturity. Through a fot imbedded
i n the gametophyte, it obtains
liquids and foo as needed.
Sphagnums ( bog mosses) are
commercial l y important bcause
of the great water-absorbing and
holding capacity of dead cel l s.
Haircap Moss
Moss gametophytes have some
features considered to be evolu­
tionary i n the change from living
in water to l i fe on l and. Many
appear to have stems, leaves,
and roots, but onl y superfcially
like those of higher plants, since
they lack vascular tissues. Moss
protoplasm has the abil ity to
survive drought. Shortly afer a
rain, dry and dead-looking moss
wi l l bcome green and active.
Such features have hel ped make
mosses successful as land pl ants;
they occur profusely from the
tropics to the pol es.
Details of

Psi l opytes i n a Devoni an l andscap, from a reconstruction
based on fossi l s 400 mi l lion years ol d.
PSI LOPHYTES, once wi del y di stri buted, are rare pl ants
today found onl y in i sol ated pl aces. They are l i vi ng
exampl es of a pri mi tive, once much l arger group. These
pri mi ti ve pl ants l ack true roots and have onl y scal el i ke
l eaves or none at al l . Thei r vascul ar ti ssues-xyl em,
for conducti ng water and mi neral sol uti ons from the soi l ;
and phl oem, for transporti ng food-were and are sti l l
rel ati vel y si mpl e systems. These adaptati ons produced a
sti fened supporti ng stem that hol ds the pl ant upri ght.
Sporophytes of some exti nct speci es, known onl y as
fossi l s, are reconstructed above. Al so shown are some
l ow "strap-l eaved" pl ants structural l y i ntermedi ate be­
tween the algae and the vascul ar pl ants. Psilophyton
had spi ny stems, and the ti ps of i ts branches were
coi l ed l i ke fern "fddl eheads" (p. 50) . Rhynia i s re­
garded as an ancestral type from whi ch other vascul ar
pl ants probabl y arose. I ts upri ght, l eafess stems grew
from creepi ng underground rhi zomes. Spore cases de­
vel oped at the ti ps of the aeri al stems.
TMESI PTERIS, one of three l iv­
i ng speci es of psi lopytes, i s
found onl y i n Austral ia and on
adj acent Pacifc I s lands. I t usual l y
grows as an epi phyte on trunks
of tree ferns. The leaves, whi l e
onl y abut three quarters of an
i nch l ong, are sti l l larger than
those of Psilotum and have sto­
mates i n the epi dermi s; also have
a defnite mi drib of xyl em sur­
rounded by phl oem. The l eaves
shown here are sl ightly smal l er
than actual si ze.
PSI LOTUM ( Whi sk Ferns) i ncl ude
two speci es, P. complanatum
and P. nudum, that are wi del y
di stributed i n the tropics and
subtropi cs. Their branched green
stems, about a foot tal l , ri se
fro horizontal stems cal led
rhi zomes. Buds formed on the
rhi zome wi l l grow into new stems .
The leaves of Psilotum are
mere smal l , poi nted scal es scat-
open sporangi um
( enlarged)
Tmesi pteri s
tered along the aeri al branches;
the epi dermi s l acks stomates.
The sporangi a are brne i n
cl usters of three at the ends of
very short l ateral branches. Ger­
mi nating spres devel op i nto
smal l gametophytes that grow
underground and prouce both
eggs and sprms i n many-cel l ed
sex organs. Gametophytes l ack
chlorophyl l and appear to obtai n
nouri shment through associ ation
with mycorrhi zal fungi .
stems, and l eaves, al l wi th wel l -developed vascul ar
ti ssue. Coal -formi ng carboni ferous pl ant deposi ts were
composed mostl y of now-exti nct tree-si ze members of
this pl ant group. Unl i ke the anci ent forms { p. 1 34) ,
modern speci es ar e rel ati vel y smal l . Most of t he 1 , 200
speci es requi re a damp, shady, tropi cal habitat.
L YCOPODI UMS have onl y one
si ze spore, wi th termi nal , club­
shaped spre-bearing canes that
suggest the name Cl ub Moss. The
vegetative l eaves are smal l and
singl e-veined, with stomates and
photosynthetic ti ssues. The vas­
cul ar ti ssue vari es in arrangement
but is l argl y of the pri mi ti ve
central core type.
I SOETES ( qui l lworts) are semi ­
aquati c pl ants. Because of fossi l
evidence and thei r ki nd of l ife
cycle, qui l lwors are pl aced with
the club mosses.
SELAGI NELLA produces spores
in to sizes. The smal l er spores
( mi crospores) develop i nto sperm­
proucing mi crogametophytes. The
egg-prouci ng megagametophyte
develops within the largr spore
( megaspore) whi le sti l l retained
in its megsprangi um, as i n seed
plants. This suggests a possi bl e
l i nk between these pri mi ti ve pl ants
and modern seed bearers.
Some speci es of Se/aginel/a
and Lycopodium l ok al i ke. They
can be seprated on the basi s
of cone and spore diferences;
Se/aginel/a i s more evolved.
archegoni um
Li fe cycl e of common horsetai l , Equisetum
HORSETAI LS fouri shed in the swamps in Carboni ferous
ti mes. Gi ant speci es of Calamites grew nearl y 1 00 feet
tal l . The few l i vi ng speci es ( about 25) are remnants of
this l arger group; al l bel ong to the genus Equisetum. The
sporophyte, the domi nant stage, i s an herbaceous pl ant,
most speci es growi ng al ong roads and i n wet meadows.
The erect stems of horsetai l s grow from underground
rhi zomes that bear roots. The ri bbed stems are hol l ow
between the j oi nts. Whorl s of scal el i ke l eaves grow from
sheaths that surround each j oi nt. The brushy steri l e, or
vegetati ve, shoots of some speci es gi ve the pl ants the
name horsetai l . Spores are formed i n strobi l es at the
ti ps of ferti l e shoots.
Some horsetai l stems are rough and abrasive due to
si l i ca deposi ts i l the epi dermi s. The stems of these so­
cal l ed scouri ng . rushes were used for cl eani ng pots and
pans i n col oni al days.
FERNS, about 1 0,000 speci es, have conspi cuous sporo­
phytes wi th l arge, showy leaves, their vei ns equal l y
branched. A typi cal fern l eaf, or frond, has a stal k,
or peti ol e, and an expanded bl ade. Some are undivided
( enti re) , but i n most, the bl ade i s broken i nto l eafets.
Fern l eaves devel op from "fddl eheads " that unco.i l at
the ti p as they grow. I n some ferns, spore cases ( spor­
angi a) commonl y occur i n cl usters, or sori, on the under­
si de of the l eaves or l eafets. Others have speci al spore­
bearing l eaves, l eafets, or spi kes.
Some ferns grow i n the open and i n rocky or dry
soi l s . A few are aquati c. Typi cal ly, however, ferns are
found in moi st soi l and shade. In the tropi cs, where
ferns are most abundant, many grow as epi phytes on
trees and a few as cl i mbi ng vi nes. Ferns from vari ed
habi tats and wi th a vari ety of growth habi ts and spore­
bear i ng structures are shown here. Marsilea is a rooted
aquati c fern; Salvinia, a foati ng aquati c. The woodl and
Wal ki ng Fern forms new pl ants wherever a l eaf ti p
touches the soi l . Shi el d, Mai denhai r, Adder' s Tongue,
and I nterrupted Ferns are al so woodl and speci es. The
grassl i ke Shoestri ng Fern i s an epi phyte on tree trunks .
Tropi cal Tree Ferns may grow to a hei ght of 60 feet,
wi th l eaves 6 to Û feet l ong. ( life cycl e is on p. 1 05. )
Water Cl over
Water Fern
Shiel d Fern
Shostri ng Fern
spi ke
( spore beari ng)
Seed pl ants hove on obscure ori gi n, but evi dence of
seedl i ke structures occur on fossi l pl ants of the earl y
Cool Ages. Many of these pl ants-the seed ferns-l ooked
l i ke ferns but hod "seeds" rather than spore cases on
thei r l eaves. Others resembl ed modern coni fers. I n seed
pl ants, the seed- beari ng sporophyte is domi nant; the go­
metophyte i s on i nconspi cuous parasi te on the sporophyte.
Seeds appear to hove evol ved fol l owi ng the develop­
ment of to types of spores: I orge megaspores ( femal e)
and smal l mi crospores ( mol e) . The seed devel ops from
the megaspore contai ni ng a megosporongi um, or ovul e.
A mature seed consi sts of on embryo that i s frequentl y
surrounded by a food resere ( endosperm) and a protec­
tive coot. Mi crospores develop i nto pol l en groi ns that ore
transported to the ovul es by wi nd, i nsects, or other
means to bri ng about ferti l i zati on [pp. 1 08- 1 09] .
leaf of Emplectopterus,
a seed fem ( restoration)
the seed ferns, such as Emp/ectop­
terus shown here. Seed ferns be­
came extinct, but other seed­
bearing plants of the Mesozoic
( 65-230 mi l l ion years ago) sur­
vived and gave rise to the mod­
ern gymnosprms ( p. 53) and
angiosperms ( p. 56) . Cordaites,
an early gymnosprm, may b
the ancestral stock of moern
cone-bearing plants. Fossils of
the earliest angiosperm-l i ke
pl ants are about 200 mi l l ion
years ol d. Fossi l s with charac-
branch with
teristics of moern angiosperms
cones ( strobi l i
are found in rocks abut 1 25
mi l l ion years ol d.
ZAMI A, a cycad, is a tropical
and subtropical pal ml i ke ever­
green that prouces male and
female cones on seprate pl ants.
Fossil cycads are known from as
far back as the Tri assi c.
GINKGO, or Maidenhair Tree, is
the onl y surviving spcies of a
gymnosper group that was
widespead abut 1 50 mi l l ion
years ago. Seeds develop from
ovul es prouced o log stal ks.
Ü NML ÎcKN ( about 700 speci es) i ncl ude four ex­
tant orders: Coni feral es, Cycadal es, Gi nkgoal es, and
Gnetal es. Gymnosperms are wooy pl ants that bear
" naked" seeds: that i s, not encl osed i n an ovary. Most
gymnosperms grow to tree si ze, but some of the pri mi ­
ti ve cycads, such as Zamia, have underground stems.
WELWI TSCHIA, one of three very
pculiar plants of the Gnetal es
order, grows onl y i n the desert
of southwest Africa. It never
prouces mre than to leaves,
which battered by windstorms be­
come very tattered. The plant
may l i ve for centuri es. Ephedra,
Gnetum, and Welwitschia share
some features wi th angiospers.
PODOCARPUS, "fot frui t ", be­
longs to a group of Coni feral es
in whi ch the seed i s associ ated
with an ari l , a fleshy outgrowth
from the ovule stal k. The ovul e
structure i s a modifed cone.
stami nate cones
I n spri ng, the mal e cone ( 1 j pro­
duces pol l en ( 2) that, bl own by
the wi nd, ferti l i zes the eggs in
female cones ( 3) . The cone grows
¦ «j ond matures i n two years ( 5),
wi th each scal e ( 6) bearing twa
seeds that drop { 7) and grow i nto
new pl ants ( 8 ) o
cone scal e
CONI FERS, such as pi nes, frs, cedars, spruces, and
redwoods, form the l argest group ( about 500 speci es)
of l ivi ng gymnosperms. They are most abundant i n col d
and temperate regi ons. Nearl y al l coni fers have needl e­
l i ke or scal el i ke l eaves and bear mal e and femal e cones
on the same tree. Unl i ke the more pri mi tive gymnosperms,
coni fers do not have moti l e sperms. I nstead, the mal e
cel l s are i n pol l en grai ns that are spread by the wi nd.
I n most conifers the seeds devel op on cone scal es. Coni ­
fers are cl assi fed mai nl y by types of cones and by the
number and pl acement of their l eaves.
Coni fers furni sh about 75 percent of the worl d' s
l umber and most of i t s pul pwood. Some Coast Redwoods
are over 350 feet tal l . A Montezuma Bal dcypress near
Oaxaca, Mexi co, wi th a trunk di ameter of 36 feet i s
· bel i eved to be 4,000 to 5,000 years ol d, as are some
of the smal l Bri stl econe Pi nes i n the Southwest.
of the Southern Hemi sphere;
big cones and seeds, branches
commonl y whorled. Two genera.
trees with short- stal ked feshy
seeds and smal l , evergreen nee­
dles. One genus, Japan and
Southeast Asi a.
CUPRESSACEAE: shrubs and trees,
mostly with fattened branches and
scal el i ke leaves, opposi te or
whorled. The ló genera, wi del y
distributed, i ncl ude cedars, j uni -
prs, cypress,
nd arborvitae.
PI NACEAE: mostl y 1rees, with
woody cones and needl e-l i ke
l eaves i n cl usters. The l0 genera,
found mai nl y i n Northern Hemi ­
sphere, i ncl ude pi nes, frs,
spruces, hemlocks, Douglas-fr,
larches, and true cedars.
shrubs; leaves needl e-li ke or
fattened, usual l y spi ral ed. Cone
scal e bearing seed usual l y feshy.
Mostl y Southern Hemi sphere; i n­
cl udes 7 genera.
TAXACEAE: smal l t o medi um­
si zed trees with seeds surrounded
by a feshy ari l . Five genera,
mainly i n Northern Hemi sphere,
i ncl ude yews and torreyas.
TAXODI ACEAE: mostl y trees,
with needl e-l i ke or scol el i ke
l eaves and smal l , woody ,cones.
Asia and North Ameri ca; l0
genera, i ncl udi ng sequoi as, bal d­
cypresses, and dawn redwood.

FRUITS occur only i n angiosperms.
They may contain one or many
seeds, dependi ng on the fower.
The cherry is a feshy fruit with
a single seed; the toato, many­
seeded. Others, l i ke the pea, are
dry pods. See fruit types on pp.
1 1 4- 1 1 5.
Garden Pea
PMÜÍLbÏc Nb ( fower i ng pl ants) have fowers and bear
seeds encl osed i n a protective coveri ng, or a frui t, that
devel ops from the fower ovary and someti mes other
fower parts (pp. 1 07 - 1 1 5) . The type of fower, seed,
and frui t i s usual l y di sti nctive for each fami l y. I n angio­
sperms some of the xyl em cel l s enl arge greatl y, l ose
thei r end wal l s, and j oi n, formi ng vessel s. These vessel s
do not occur i n most gymnosperms.
Fl oweri ng pl ants, the most recentl y evol ved and the
domi nant pl ants today ( about 250, 000 speci es) , i ncl ude
woody trees, shrubs, and vi nes, but the maj ori ty are
herbaceous. Angi osperms are di vi ded i nto' two cl asses:
di cotyl edons ( p. 58), i n whi ch the embryos have two
seed l eaves; and monocotyl edons ( p. 59) , in whi ch the
embryos have one seed l eaf.
GROWTH HABI TS, structure,
size, and range vary ' greatly i n
angi osperms. Some of these varia­
tions are shown on the next page.
Peas, corn, and many others are
annual s, bearing seeds and dying
i n one growi ng season. Biennial s,
such as carrots and celery, pro­
duce seeds at the end of the
second growing season, then die.
Perenni al s fower and produce
seeds repeatedly year after year.
Woody perennial s-trees, shrubs,
and vi nes-commonly grow for
several years bfore they fower
for the frst time. Soe bmbos
may grow vegetatively for as
l ong as 60 years bfore they
fower, produce seeds, and then
wither and di e.
SOME EXTREMES i n sizes and
growth habits of angiosperms are
shown here. Australian eucalyptus
trees, the giants of the group,
grow to 300 f.; smallest i s the
rootless aquatic Wolfa, no big­
ger than a pinhead. Rafesia, a
parasite on stems and roots of
other plants, has the largest
fpwer-up to 3 feet across and
Wol fa
X 30
si ze
weighing 1 5 pounds. Leaves of
some bananas grow 1 0 to 1 2 feet
lang and 3 fet wide, whi le those
of most cacti are tiny ( V2 i n. )
or lacki ng. Cacti carr on photo­
synthesis in the oter, green
layer of thei r thi ck stem. Stone
plants grow al mst completel y
. buried in deser sand. A trans­
prent cover l ets li ght i nto leaf.

( enl arged)
Frui t
seed cot
_ embryo with
2 cotyl edons
DI COTYLEDON embryos have two seed l eaves, or coty­
ledons. Fl ower parts are usual l y i n fours or fves, and
the vascul ar ti ssues of the stem are arranged i n a ri ng
of bundl es surroundi ng a central pi th. The l eaves have
branchi ng, netl ike vei ns. Di cotyl edons i ncrease their
gi rth regul arl y by a di vi si on of the cambi um cel l s.
Secondary thi ckeni ng produces bark on perenni al pl ants.
Exampl es of di cots i ncl ude deci duous trees and shrubs,
l i ke mapl es and l i l acs; broadl eaf evergreens, such as
magnol i as and l i ve oaks; roses, gerani ums, and other
foweri ng perenni al s; tomatoes and most vegetabl es;
and weeds, such as dandel i ons and hawkweeds. There
are about 200,000 speci es of di cotyl edons.
Frui t
seed coot �
[ enl orged|
embryo wi th
1 cotyledon
xyl em
phl oem
porol l el vei ns
MONOCOTYLEDON embryos have onl y one seed l eaf,
or cotyl edon. They usual l y have narrow l eaves wi th
paral l el vei ns. The bundl es of vascu l ar ti ssues are
di stri buted throughout the stem' s l arge, thi n-wal l ed
parenchyma cel l s . A cambi um is l acki ng in most mono­
cots so they do not become woody. However some do
have a speci al type of wood-l i ke growth. I n grasses
and some other monocots, the stems are hol l ow except
at nodes. Fl ower parts are i n threes or in mul ti pl es of
threes. Thi s is the smal l er of the two cl asses of foweri ng
pl ants; i t i ncl udes orchi ds, grasses, grai ns, l i l i es, pal ms,
rushes, arums, and their al l i es. There are more than
50,000 speci es of monocotyl edons.
ore shown i n the obove chort
of 24 i mportont groups or orders.
Most botoni sts bel i eve thot oll
dicotyledons evolvedfrom o pri mi -
tive ki nd of buttercup. The most
recentl y evol ved groups ore
shown toword the top of the two
moi n di vi sions, with the order
contoi ni ng oster

[ Composi tol es|
consi dered the most odvonced.
Componul ol es
A complete chort of l i vi ng di-
cots woul d i ncl ude obut 250
fomi l i es. Mony chorocteristi cs ore
considered in determi ning evol u-
tionory relotionshi ps. Morpho-
logicol feotures, such os the
number, size, ond shope of pl ont
ports, ore i mportont, os ore
the onotomi col detoi l s of con-
ducting ti ssues ond other vegeto-
tive pds.
5peci ol ottenti on is given to
howers ond seeds¬to the form
of the ovory, colyx, corol l o,
pol l en, ond

embryo. Relotion-
ships ore olso shown by the
. number ond shope of the chromo-
somes ondby biochemicol onol ysi s
of ol kol oi ds or other unique com-
pounds. 5tudi es of fossi l plonts
ond of the geogrophi col di stribu-
tion of pl onts ore ol so i mportont.
Polemonol es
5tudies moy show thot plonts
dihering greotly in si ze, form,
ond growth hobit ore neverthe-
l ess cl osely reloted. | n the · rose
order ore such trees
os oppl e,
peor,ondcherry, oswell os roses,
strowbrri es, ond other smol
hemoceous pl onts. Whi l e they
diher in generol oppeoronce,

inotion of thei r ñower ports
reveol s thei r ki nshi p.
SHIP ofthe most comon orders
ore shown obve. Monocoty-
ledons, l i ke di cots [ pp. 60-6 1 ),
ore bel ieved by mony btoni sts
to hove evolved hom dicots, pr-
hops from o pri mi ti ve bttercup-
l i ke oncestor, bt the pottern of
thei r evolutionory development
i s not completel

|i l i oles
l i l y
The gross fomily, with obout
4,500 species, i s one of the
lorgest ond pssi bly the most
importont plont fomi ly econom-
icolIy. | ncl uded ore cereol groins
[wheot, borley, rye, ots, corn,
ond rice) os well os sugor cone,
ond bombos. The
orchi d fomily,
contoi ni ng morethon 1 0,000 spe-
ci es,is themosthi ghly spci ol i zed.
Classifcation of plonts is com-
pl i coted becouse of the vost
omount of doto involved. Fos-
si l records i ndi cote thot hower-
ing plonts hove been evolving
for obut 1 50 mi l l i on yeors.
| n thi s ti me they hove di verged
ond chonged i n greotdegree from
the oncestro| stok. New evi-
dence i s being uncovered. 5ci-
entists ore usi ng computers to
help orgoni ze this informtion.
As knowledge of fossi l ond l i v-
ing pl onts i ncreoses, conti nued
revi si ons of the orrongement ond
evol uti onory plocement of pl ont
groups hos become both possi bl e
ond necessory. 5everol systems
ore i n use tqoy, ond ol l ore
undergoi ng chonge.

ANAI ON¥ OF 5 b b D F L ANI 5
ROOTS, stems, and l eaves reach thei r greatest com­
pl exi ty i n structure and functi on i n the angi osperms.
Roots anchor the pl ant in the soi l , but thei r mai n rol e
i s to absorb water and di ssolved mi neral s that ore
needed by the pl ant in the manufacture of food and for
other uses. Food, especi al l y starch, may be transl ocated
and stored in the roots and i s the mai n source of energy
for growth at thei r ti ps. Root ti ssues ore si mi l ar to
those of stems, but root systems occur bel ow ground.
Shoot systems ( stems and l eaves ) occur above ground.
A YOUNG ROOT lengthens
ropi dl y by conti nuol cel l division
ond elongotion neor its tip. | n
thi s woy it contocts new soi l
oreos di l y. The di vi di ng cel l s
ol so form o thi mbl e-l i ke protec-
tive cop over the tip.
Just behi nd the tip, the cel l s
stop di vi di ng, becomel onger, ond
begin to moture. | n thi s region
the epidermol cells develop root
hoi rs, through whi ch woter ond
Young Root
root hoi rs
zone of
zone of
cell di vi sion
minerol s ore obsorbed. | n ehect,
the rot hoirs increose the ob-
sorption surfoce of o root by 5
to 20 ti mes.
The root hoi rs bend ond twi st
os they grow oround the soi l
porti cl es. Root hoi rs ore groduoll y
sloughed oh ond new ones pro-
duced os the root ti p grows.
Competition with other pl onts
i nhuences both the l oterol ond
vertico| extent of root systems.
Enlorged portion of root hoi r
zone wi th rot hoi rs [ si ngl e cel l s|
pushi ng through soi l
MONOCOT [5mi|ox)
drown from stoined
root cross sections DI COT [konuncu|us)
MATURE ROOTS ore usuol l y
cyl i ndricol i n cross secti on The
si ngl e outer l oyer of cel l s, the
epidermi s, protects the under-
l yi ng ti ssues. | mmediotely beneoth
i s the cortex, composed mostly of
lorge thi n-wol l ed cells [ pren-
chymo| with numerous i nterspoces.
Woter ond goses di huse eosi l y
through these l oosel y orronged
cel l s, whi ch ol so store foods. l n-
si de the porenchymo, o si ngl e
ROOT SYSTEMS of mony plonts
grow deepr ond spreod wider
thon the hei ght ond spreod of
the plont obove grond. Alfolfo
roots, for exompl e, moy extend
z5 feet down i n o ~o-yeor-old
held ond hove been found os
deep os I10 ft. i n mine shofts.
Roots of Common Mesquite hove
been found i n o pi t mine I ï5
feet deep. Meosurement of o
si ngl e rye pl ont reveoled olmost
I « mi l l i on rots, combined length,
obout 1s0 miles, totol surfoce
oreo, z,500 squore feet, roughl y
50 ti mes more thon the plont' s
stems ond leoves.
l oyerof cortex cel l s [endodermi s)
controls the direction of woter
movement. 6ronch rots originote
from the next i nner l oyer of cel l s,
the pricycle.
A di cotyledon root di hers
from o monocotyledon root
moi nl y i n hovi ng o combi um
loyer. Xylem cel l s i nsteod of
porenchymo cel l s occupy the
root' s center. Cl der di cotyledon
roots moy become wo
STEMS are the connecti ng l i nk beteen the roots and
l eaves. They support the l eaves and are the transporta­
tion route al ong whi ch water and di ssol ve mi neral s
move t o the l eaves and down whi ch foo travel s from
them ( p. 68) . Stems are often used to propagate new
pl ants by vegetati ve reproducti on ( non-sexual process) .
Young Twig
YOUNG STEMS ore commoly
green ond corry on photosyn-
thesi s. Like leoves, these ore
covered with o protective coot,
the cuticle, thot l i mits woter l oss
through thei r surfoce. 5tems moy
be cl ossihed os her
ceous [non-
woody) or wody.
| n wi nter mony stems ore leof-
l ess. 6uds, l enti cel s, ond bork
color, pecul i or for eoch spe-
ci es, oid identihcotion. Twigs
of mony wody plonts show suc-
cessi ve bud-scole scors morking
onnuol i ncrements i n length.
MONOCOT stem conducti ng cel l s
occur i n bundl es thot l ock com-
bi um. These bundl es ore di s-
tri buted throughout the stem.
No wel l-dehned pith oreo occurs,
but some hove o centrol 'pith
covity' thot mokes them hollow.
Monocot stems ordinorily do not
grow i n di ometer, di cot stems do.
DI COT stem condJcting cells con-
si st of mony bundl es thot contoin
combi um. These form o dehnite
ring oround the pith. Growth in
diometer begi ns when o ri ng of
combium forms by bridgi ng from
bundle to bundl e. Woodi ness de-
velops os xylem cel l s occumu-
Cross secti ons of
ceous stems

epidermi s

Stems are usual l y conspi cuous and esi l y di sti ngui shed
from the roots and leaves . Some, however, are very
short and hidden under a crown of l eaves, as i n beets
and carrots. Others grow underground ( rhi zomes and
tubers) , servi ng al so in asexual reproducti on. Modi fed
stems i ncl ude thorns and vi nes.
WOODY STEMS of dicotyl edns
ond gymnosprms i ncreose i n
di ometer due to di vi si ons of com-
bi um cells duri ng mony growi ng
seosons. Cel l s developd by the
combi um O i ts outer si de bcome
the phlom tissue, end wol l s ore
perforotedwi thsi evel i keopni ngs.
Cork combi ums developed i n
the outer pl om prquce woter-
prof cel l s. These together wi th
ol l phloem moke up the bork.
Cel l s pr
uced on the i nsi de
of the combi um develop into
xylem. Vessels ore formed from
xylem cel l s thot lose thei r con-
tents ond end wol l s, formi ng l ong
tubes through whi ch woter moves
eosi l y. Cther common xyl em cel l s
oreknownostrochei ds ondhbers.
As new xyl em cel l s ore pro-
duced, both the combi um ond
phl oemored|spl ocedou~ord,ond
the stem i ncreoses i n di ometer.
Commonly, lorge xyl em cells torm
i n eorly spri ng, smol l er ones in
summer. Thi s pottern of di herent-
sized cells mokes onnuol ri ngs
thot con be counted to determi ne
o tree' s oge.
GREEN LEAVES usual l y have a thi n, broad bl ade that
afords a maxi mum surface for l i ght to penetrate the
green cel l s. Most photosynthesi s takes pl ace here. The
vei n meshwork i s the l eaf' s ri gid, supporti ng skel eton,
as wel l as i ts system of conducti on.
A l eaf consi sts of vari ous ti ssues: ar
epi dermi s cover­
i ng the uppr and lower surfaces; a mi ddl e l ayer, or
mesophyl l ; and the conducti ng ti ssues that form the
vei ns. Xyl em occupi es the upper part of the vei ns;
phl oem, the l ower part. The vei ns transport raw ma-
terial s, water products of photosynthesi s.
THE MESOPHYLL consi sts of
cel ls between the two epi demol
l oyers. Except for the vei ns, these
cel l s contoi n chl oropyl l , hence
ore foq mokers. Typi col ly, cel l s
ot the topore tol l ond cyl i ndri col ,
mming the pol i sode l oyer. Cel l s
bl ow the pol i sode loyer ore i r-
regul or in shope ond hove lorge
spces btween them. They form
o spngy loyer through whi ch
corbn dioxide ond oxygen move .
THE EPIDERMIS, bth uppr ond
lower, usuol l y consi sts of o
si ngle loyer of tightly htti ng
cel l s thot do not contoi n chloro-
phyll. | t i s covered with o woxy
coot, the cuti cle, thot hel ps
to prevent excessi ve loss of
STOMATES ore pores thot occur
obundontly i n the lower epidermi s
ond i n much l esser number i n the
upper epidermi s. 5tomotes ore
chorocteri sti c of Embryophytes,
ore unknown in the Thollophytes.
A si ngl e ok l eof moy contoi n os
monyos 150,000 stomotes. Cor-
bn dioxide ond oxygen pss in
ond out through these pores.
Woter thot i s evoporoted i n
tronspi rotion [ p. ï9j olso psses
out through the stomotes.
eoch stomote. Unlike the other
epidermol cel l s, the guord cel l s
contoi n chlorophyl l ond con monu-
focture food.
hi s i s thought
to be ossocioted with their
obi l ity to control the si ze of
the openi ng. 6y doy they hove o
concentrotion of sugor thot
couses woter to dihuse i nto
them from surroundi ng cel l s.
The wol l of o guord cell i s thi ck
LAVES ore orronged orond the
stem i n o dehnite order, or phyl -
lotoxy, so thot eoch leof gets o
moxi mum exposure to the l ight.
on the side toword the pore .¸Cn
the opposite si de i t i s thi n.
Due to the i ntoke of woter, the
cel l swel l s on its thi n-wol l ed
si de, ond the thi ck wol l on the
pore side bws toword the thin
woll. Thi s opens the pore. At
ni ght, when photosynthesi s stops,
the sugor content of the guord
cel l drops. As the cel l ' s excess
woter dihuses into the surround-
ing cells, the pore cl oses.
stomote open
Pl ants, l i ke ani mal s, need energy for growth, reproduc­
ti on, and tissue repai r. Foods are the source of thi s
energy. Al l pl ants that possess chl orophyl l s ( or thei r
equival ent) manufacture food by photosynthesi s. Sol ar
energy i s necessary i n the process, hence the sun i s
the basi c source of energy for al l l i vi ng thi ngs. Pl ants
produce more food than they uti l i ze and become di rectl y
or i ndi rectl y the food suppl y of al l ani mal s.
ENERGY i s received, stored, and
transferred between the molecules
of living cells by two phosphate
compunds: adenosine diphos·
phote (ADP) and adenosine tri·
phosphate (ATP). These high­
energy compounds ore frmed
of adenine ( a nitroen com­
pound), ribse ( a sugar), pl us
The addition of a phosphate
group to ADP con be compared
to charging a battery. A TP,
with three phosphates, i s ful ly
charged. When one of these
phosphates is removed, energy is
mode available for work. Some
A TP is prouced during photo­
synthesi s, but most of it is frmed
during respiration (p. 84 ).
Plus P
Energy Stored
Energy Released
Minus P
' /

Ç ¡ H 0 0 0
- Ç " �_�� � Ç
| | | | | ||
� _  C
N ¸ , , ¸
-P -
-) -
-P -O
Ç "
j | |
| ' H
C-coron, N-nitroen, H-hydrogn, 0-oxygen, P-phosporus,
PHOTOSYNTHESIS converts sol ar energy i nto chemi cal
energy through the action of l i ght and chl oroµhyl l s O and
b. Raw materi al s entering the process are water and
carbon di oxi de. End products are sugar, oxygen, and
A very smal l percentage of the sol ar energy fal l i ng on
the pl ant i s uti l i zed i n photosynthesi s. Yet thi s chemi cal
process annual l y combi nes some 25 bi l l i on tons of
hydrogen wi th about 1 50 bi l l i on tons of carbon to pro­
duce about 300 bi l l ion tons of sugar. About 400 bi l l i on
tons of oxygen are rel eased i n the process. About 80
percent of al l photosynthesi s takes pl ace i n mari ne al gae
or phytopl ankton.
carbn si mpl e
di oxi de ¬ water
light energy
sugar ¬ oxygen ¬ water
¬ i 2
, _
rophyll a
CHLOROPHYLLS, the green pig·
ments contained i n chloroplasts
(p. ï2j, act as solar energy ab­
sorbrs and are involved i n the
changing and transferring of
energy unti l the energy fnal l y
i s stored i n the sugar molecul e.
The chlorohyll molecule l i nks
energy from the sun wi th al l life on
earth. Chlorohylls a and b are
the most common of the several
kinds of chloropyl l s that difer
ho each other i n chemical cor­
psition. Note the diferent
amounts of hydroen and oxygen
in the chemical formulae for
chl oroh
l l s a and b above.
Such external factors as tem­
perature, light intensity, and
avai l abi l ity of water and carbon
dioxide afect the rote of photo­
synthesi s. Most plants corry on
photosynthesis over a wide tem­
perature range-from 50 ÎO i00
degrees F. For a few, the opti mum
i s above or below' these extremes.
Nitrogen. and magnesi um al so oc­
cur · i n the chlorophyll molecule,
but the elements iron, potassi um,
phosphorus, and zi nc ore bl ieved
al so to be essential i n chlorophyl l
formation. The detai l s of the
photosynthetic proess ore much
the some i n al l green plants.
sect| on
(m| croscop|c)
Photosynthesis cont' d.
CHLOROPLASTS or e t he cel l
bodi es thot contoi n chl orophyl l s
o ond b wi th other pi gments,
the corotenoids. Theyore bel i eved
to function like photoel l s, trons-
torming sol or energy i nto the
chemicol energy ot toods. An
overoge l eot cell moy contoi n
obout 50 chloropl osts.
Chloroplosts ore vi si bl e even
under low mogni ficoti on. Mogni -
hed 1 ,z50 times they oppeor
gronul or, showing dense oreos
col l ed grono. Grono consist ot
closely stocked plotes, the l omel -
loe. Wi der spoced loml l oe con-
nect the grono.
LAMELLAE ore tormed ot ol-
ternote l oyers of protei n ond
Iotty moteriols [ l i pi ds| i nsi de the
chl oroplost. When o smol l sec-
tion ot o chloroplost i s mogni -
hed obout z«,000 ti mes by on
electron mi croscope, mny plotes
ot l omel l oe con be seen. The
orrongement ot the pigment
mol ecul es i n the l omel l oe i s be-
l i eved to be very i mprtont in
bringing obout the necessory
energy tronster otter l i ght is
obsorbd. The l omel l oe ore sus-
pended i n the stromo, o cl eor
l i qui d thot contoi ns enzymes ond
di ssolved sol ts.
LIGHT REACTI ONS, whi ch toke
ploce in the grono, ore one of
the two groups of chemicol pro-
cesses thot ol ternote i n the
photosyntheticcycl e. When o pho-
ton of l i ght stri kes on electron
i n o chlorophyll molecule, the
chlorophyl l i s 'octivoted, ' ond
the electron i s roi sed to o hi gher
energy level . El ectrons from these
octivoted chlorophyl l mol ecul es
spl i t woter mol ecul es i nto hydro-
gen ond oxygen-hydrogen compo-
nents. The el ectronsond hydrogen
otoms ore received by hydrogen-
occeptor compounds, ond oxygen
i s given oh. | n spl i tti ng woter,
some ATP i s produced. Fi nol ly the
chlorophyl l mol ecule i s returned
to its ori gi nol i noctive stote, it i s
not used up i n the process.
either i n l i ght or i n dork but
do not requi re l ight energy di-
rectl y. They uti l i ze corbon di-
oxide, plus the hydrogen of the
occeptor compounds ond the ATP
from the l i ght reoctions. The
corbn dioxide goi ns on octivoted
sugor molecule with only 5 otoms
of corbn to moke o ó-corbon
sugor molecul e. This molecule
chonges ogoin ond forms gl ucose,
o common si mpl e sugor. Woter i s
ol so produced. The hydrogen-
occeptor compounds ond the ADP
i n the process ore then ovoi lobl e
ogoin for onother l i ght reocti on.
6oth reocti ons requi re onl y froc-
tions of o second, but o l i ght
reoction i s mony ti mes fosterthon
o dork reoction.
Li ght
Reocti ons
|i n gronoj
Energy Looded
5ugor ¬ �0
onsport mol ecul e
[ energy unlooded}
AUTOTROPHIC NUTRITION is characteri sti c of most
pl ants. For growth, they need onl y i norgani c substances
and an energy source. I f l ight i s the energy source, the
pl ant i s known as a photoautotroph. I f a chemi cal re­
acti on i s the energy source, the pl ant i s a chemoautotroph.
Bacteri a are usual l y heterotrophs ( p. 76) , but two
excepti ons, the photosynthetic and chemosyntheti c bac­
teria, are descri bed below.
possess bacterial chlorophylls
and other pigments. Bacterial
chlorohyll has minor chemical
diferences from the chlorohyll
of other pl ants; however, l ike
green plants, photosynthetic bac·
teria require solar energy.
Most common of the photo­
synthetic bacteria are the purple
sulfurs. I n photosynthesi s, they
use hydrogen sul fde rather than
water as a hydroen source, and
they depsit sul fur i n their cells
instead of releasi ng oxygen.
Non-sulfur purples use organic
substances rather than sulfur
compunds i n photosynthesi s.
important i n the nitrogen cycle
(p. 1 45), secure energy by
oxidizing simple compunds of
hydrogen, nitroen, sul fur, or
iron. They contain no chlorophyl l
and can l ive i ndependent of l i ght.
Several ki nds of bacteria get
energy by changing soluble iron
compunds i nto i nsol ubl e com­
pounds. A common rod-shaped type
forms a twisted band of iron
hydroxide around its cel l . Con­
centrations of iron by such bc­
teria may be responsi ble for soe
of the world' s major i ron de­
psits. Some iro bactera can
oxidize manganese as wel l .
The carni vorous pl ants below are photoautotrophs wi th
an unusual abi l i ty to suppl ement thei r nutri ti on. These
pl ants trap i nsects and other smal l ani mal s and "di gest"
them. From the di gested bodi es they obtai n usabl e ni tro­
gen as wel l as other chemi cal s that are frequentl y de­
fcient i n their bog habi tat. Onl y smal l ani mal s are
trapped, so stori es of man-eati ng pl ants are pure
fabri cati on.
SUNDEWS hove leoves thot ore
covered w|th long, stout, sen-
s| t| ve ho| rs, eoch ho|r be|ng
t|ppd w|th o sh| ny st|cky gl obul e
conto| n| ng d|gest|ve enzymes.
When touched, the ho| rs bnd
over ond hold on | nsect or other
prey wh| l e the j u| ces d|gest | t,
then retum to the| r norml pos| -
t|on. 5undews grow obout on
| nch tol l ond two | nches ocross.
A VENUS' FLYTRAP hos l eoves
'h|nged' olong the m|dr|b. When
on |nsect touches one of the
tr|@er ho| rs on the surmce of
the blode, the leof closes l|ke o
trop. 5p| nes o the morg| ns of the
leof |nterlock ond hol d the |n-
sed. Enzymes, secreted by glonds
on the leof, d| gest the |nsect,
then the leof opens. The leoves
ore obout four | nches long.
PITCHER PLNTS hove leoves
w|th o vose-shopd bose con-
to| n| ng woter m|xed w|th d|gest|ve
enzymes. |eoves of some p|tcher
plonts ore obout two feet toll .
Ho| rs p| nt| ng downword on the
hollow | ns| de prevent troppd
|nsects fo escop|ng. They drown
ond ore d| gsted. 6octer|o |n
the l|qu|d pro
bly olso o| d |n
the d|gest|ve process.
HETEROTROPHIC NUTRITION is characteri sti c of
pl ants that must have external sources of organi c sub­
stances for growth. These substances can be obtai ned
from dead or from l i vi ng pl ants and ani mal s. Pl ants
dependent on the dead for thei r nutri ti onal needs are
saprophytes; those that depend on the l i vi ng are para­
si tes. Some pl ants may obtai n nutri ti on ei ther way, de­
pendi ng on condi ti ons. Most pl ants can be cl assi fed on
a nutri ti onal basi s, though i n some cases thi s i s not easy.
FUNGI begi n to couse the decoy
of plonts ond oni mol s i mmediotely
ofter their deoth. Their oction
el i mi notes orgoni c l i tter ond re-
turns elements ond compunds to
food ond energy cycl es. Decoy of
soft mesophyll cel l s of o leof moy
occur ofter o leot fol l s. The veins
decoy loter.
chlorophyl l . They grow i n ri ch,
moist soi l s, from whi ch thei r
ñeshy rootstocks obsorb orgoni c
motter. They ore ossi sted by
mycorrhizol fungi thot surround
the roots, obsorbing woter ond
mi nerol sol ts. Most orchi ds, i n
controst, ore green ond con
monufocture thei r own foo.
SNOW PLANTS ñower i n eorly
spri ng i n the mountoi ns of west-
ern U. 5. Cftentheyoppeorbefore
the lost snows. 5now Plonts ore
closely reloted to the widely di s-
tributed | ndion Pipe. These plonts
ore pecul i or soprophytes i n their
dependency on mycorrhi zol fungi
to obtoi n thei r fod trom the
ri ch forest humus. The relotion-
shi p moy b o form of mutuol i sm.
In I ndi an Pi pe, for exampl e, the exact nutri ti onal
rel ati onshi p of the mantl e of mycorrhi zal fungi (p. 40)
to the pl ant ' s root and t o the organi c substances i n
the soi l around i t i s not cl ear. Mi stl etoe i s commonl y
cl assi fed as a parasi te. I t i s photoautotrophi c ( p. 7 4)
but i s dependent on i ts host for water and mi neral s.
Some cal l i t a partial parasi te. By use of radi oactive
markers some of the sugars produced in the mi stl etoe
l eaves are found to be transl ocated to the host.
FUNGI ore common. 5oft rots,
crown gol l s, ond hre bl i ghts
oreomongthemonyplontdi seoses
coused by porosi ti c bocterio.
5muts, mi ldews, rusts, ond bl i ghts
[ pp. 11-15j ore fungus prosi tes
of pl onts. Fungi couse Dutch
el m di seose ond chestnut bl i ght.
6octeri ol ond fungus porosites
ore responsi bl e for mony oni mol
di seoses. Typhoi d i s o bocteriol
di seose. Ringworm i s coused by
o fungus porosi te.
DODDER, oneofthefew porosi ti c
howering pl onts, i s reloted to
morni ng glori es. The yellowish
plont, whi ch l ocks chlorophyl l ,
grows from seed os o slender,
threodl i ke leohess stem thot
elongotes until i ts ti p touches
ond coi l s oround the stem of o
host pl ont. Then i t produces
modihed roots [ houstorio) thot
penetrote the host pl ont ond
obsorb food ond woter.
MI STLETOES ore only portiol
porosi tes. They con monufocture
foq, but lock rots, obtoi ni ng
the row moteri ol s, woter ond
mi nerol s, from their host.
5oft Rot on lettuce
FOODS-carbohydrates, fats, <nd protei ns ( pp. 79-8 1 )
used by pl ant cel l s i n growth and repai r as i n ani mal s­
are al l dependent on sugar producti on by photosynthesi s.
The annual food producti on by pl ants i s enormous -2 t o
3 tons on an average woodl and acre, 30 t o 35 tons per
acre i n fel ds of sugar cane.
The sol ubl e sugar i s moved from the cel l s i n the
l eaves where i t i s made to other parts of the pl ant
for storage or modi fcati on. I t i s general l y changed
i nto starch, an i nsol ubl e carbohydrate (p. 79), or i nto
fats or protei ns ( pp. 80-8 1 ). The chemi cal reacti ons
necessary for these changes are control l ed by enzymes
i n the cel l s. Enzymes are mostl y compl ex mol ecul es of
protei n that can act to bri ng about very compl i cated
chemi cal changes wi thout damage to the cel l s.
Fl ower Hed
H ~ C - H
5tructurol Formul o for
Gl ucose CgH¡
C =O
x X� `
, ¸
Glucose ond Fructose
ore combined to
| l
form the mote compl e·
sucros e molecule
energy _
, ,
,, -j
CAkbOHYDkATE5¬such os sug-
ors, storches, ond cel l ul ose¬ore
compunds of corbon, hydrogen,
ond oxygen.
Gl ucose, o si mpl e sugor, moy
be used di rectly in respirotion
[p. 84) or moy b tronspded,
chongedi ntoothercompounds,ond
stored. 5ucrose, o more complex
sugor,i socommon formofstoroge
sugor. | t i s formed by o reoction
between gl ucose ond fructose.
5torches, whi ch ore i nsol ubl e
in woter, ore the most common
form of corbhydrote storoge.
5torch groins ore di stinctive in
shope. The storch molecules ore
compsed of l ong, coiled or spi-
roled choi ns of si mpl e sugor
molecul es.
During the doy, some of the
excess gl ucose bi ng produced
in the leof i s tronsformed im-
mediotely i nto storch ond stored
tempororily i n the chloropl osts.
When photosynthesi s stops with
dorkness, this storch is chonged
into glucose, moved i n solution
to other pods of the plont, ond
deposited ogoin os storch.
Cel l ulose is mode of mony
gl ucose sugor molecules l inked
together, forming hbrous bundl es.
| t is the principol constituent of
cell wol l s but i s not used os o
fod i n the pl ont in which it is
formed. Mony fungi , however, do
digest cel l ulose i n thei r nutri-
tionol processes. Thi s is the couse
of woq decoy.
5torch groin ot left i s i ntoct, ot right, it i s portly digested, the choins
roken by removol of oxygen l i nk.
5torch groin Cxygen link

g5ugor molecul e
• Cil 4 Protei n 5torch
FATS AND OI LS contoin corbon,
hydrogen, ond oxygen, like corbo-
hydrotes, but the proportion of
hydrogen to oxygen i s greoter.
At normol temperotures fots ore
sol i ds, oi l s ore l iqui ds. 6oth
ore i nsol uble in woter. They
oppeor os dropl ets i n protoplosm
or i n cell vocuol es.
Fotsore ri ch sources of energy,
one grom of fot yi el di ng twice
os much energy os o grom of o
corbhydrote. Mony seeds ond
nuts ore rich i n fots ond oi l s os
wel l os in protei n.
Fots ore bui l t in the pl ont by
j oi ni ng one mol ecul e of glycerol
with three mol ecul es of fotty
oci ds.• Woxes, whi ch form the
thi n, protective cuti cl e over leoves
ond stems, ore reloted compounds
i n which the glycerol hos been
reploced by olcohol mol ecul es.
Vegetoble oi l s, such os those
obtoined from the frui t of olives
ond from the seeds of coconut,
oil polm, peonut, ond cotton,
ore i mportontto mon both osfood
ond for other purposes. Cl eomor·
gori ne ond cooki ng oi l s ore mod·
ern uses of plont oils os foods.
Coconut ond pol m oi l s ore used
i n quontity for soop producti on.
|i nseed oi l , prepored from hox
seed, hos the unusuol property
of forming hl ms when exposed
to oir. Cil points owe thei r
protective cootto thi s oi l .
CLElC ACl D-C, , H,,C,
H H H H H H " H H H H H H H H H H H
s � ==c - -
| I Í I l l I l I I I l l
� H

PALMl Tl C ACl D-C, ,H,,C,
0 H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H
Î I I l l l l I l l l I I l l l
HC 0

� �H
0 Ll NC|El C ACl D-C, ,H,C,
_H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H
� � I l l l l l l l I
, -- ~ - �~



| I I I I I I I
H . H H H H
• Cne molecule of wotet [ H_Q) i s spl i t oh by eoch uni on [3 HCH' s l ost )
POTEI NS, tHe l orgest ond most
complex of the food molecul es,
ore the chi ef constituents of
protopl osm. They ore found olso
i n enzymes, i n cell membrones,
ond i n chloroplosts. | n seeds
they ore commonl y stored os
gronul es.
The bosi c units i n protei ns
ore omi no oci ds, obout z0 of
whi ch ore considered essenti ol
to l i fe. Gl yci ne, the si mplest
omi no oci d, contoi ns corbon,
hydrogen, oxygen, ond ni trogen.
A few of the mre coqlex omi no
oci ds ol so contoin sul fur. Eoch
kind of protei n consists of por-
ti cul or ki nds, numbrs, ond se-
quences of the z0 omi no ocids.
They occur i n l ong choi ns, l i nked
end to end ond usuol l y i n o com-
plex ond dehnite shope.
ELEMENTS that are essenti c: l i n plant nutri ti on number
about 1 6 of the 1 05 known. Those needed i n l arger
quanti ti es i ncl ude carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, ni trogen,
sul fur, phosphorus, potassi um, magnesi um, i ron, and
cal ci um. Si x trace el ements al so are now consi dered
es.senti al : boron, cobal t, copper, manganese, mol ybdenum,
and zi nc. Most are obtai ned from the soi l ; others are
added to soi l s in commerci al ferti l i zers. leaf, or fol i ar,
anal ysi s is now wi del y used as a means of detecti ng
nutri ti onal defci enci es, excesses, and i mbal ances i n
pl ants, t hus hel pi ng t o gui de soi l ferti l i ty.
Ferti l i zers ar e not pl ant foods, but are raw materi al s
contai ni ng essenti al el ements that l i vi ng cel l s can i n­
corporate i nto thei r protopl asm. Onl y l i vi ng cel l s can
accumul ate el ements i n sol uti on . To get ferti l i zer sal ts
i nto sol uti on, a fl m of water must exi st between the
soi l µrti cl es i n whi ch a pl ant ' s roots are growi ng. The
sal ts move by di fusi on through thi s water to the roots.
6l ue

erry Leof: Fol i or 5ymptoms of El ement Defìci enci es
normol | ron
Û 1
WATER is neces�ary for photosynthesi s, respi rati on,
di gesti on-and al so for the movement of foods and
mi neral s. For each pound of pl ant materi al produced,
wheat needs about 60 gal l ons of water; potatoes, about
80; and corn, 40. An acre of corn takes i n more than
300,000 gal l ons of water from the soi l each season,
but onl y about 2 percent i s retai ned and used.
Arrows i ndicote di rection ot woter
F| usme|yzed Ce||
OSMOSI S i nvol ves dihusion, or
spreod, of mol ecul es ot o l i qui d
or gos trom on oreo ot greoter
concentrotion to one ot less. The
movement i s through o semi -
permeoble membrone. A cel l
membrone permi ts some mol e-
cul es to poss through but not
others. Movement ot woter i nto
o pl ont' s roots occurs lorgely by
osmosi s.
TURGR i ncreoses os cel l s toke
in nore woter by osmosi s ond
imbibition [p. s1j . A turgi d cel l
octuol ly bul ges, its cell vocuol e
i s so hl led with woter the
cytoplosm pushes the cel l mem-
brone ogoinst the cel l wol l . Turgor
keeps stems ot herbs erect ond
occounts tor some plont move-
ments. Guord cel l s oround sto-
motes open due to turgor, i ncreos-
ing tronspi rotion.
PLASMOLYSIS, the opposite ot
turgor, i s the shri nkoge ot cyto-
plosm trom the cell wol l . Thi s
occurs when sol ts or sol ubl e
toods [ sugors| ore i n greoter con-
centrotion outside thon i nside the
cel l . As o resul t, woter moves out
ot the cel l by osmosis, ond the
cytoplosm shri nks owoy from the
wol l . Killing weeds by pl oci ng
soltoroundthei rrootsinvolves thi s
Water moves i nto and through a pl ant by the pro­
cesses descri bed below and on faci ng page. Measure­
ments show that an acti ve absorption of water occurs
at a rate faster than can be expl ai ned by osmosi s and
i mbi bi ti on . Acti ve absorpti on of water ( requi ri ng respi ra­
tion) , sti l l not full understood, occurs onl y i n l i vi ng cel l s
and requi res expendi ture of some energy.
i mbibed

I MBI BI TI ON is the sooking up
ot woter by cel l wol l s ond by
other orgoni c substonces. The
pressures developed by i mbi bi -
tion ore tremendous, strong
enough to rupture thick seed
wedges i nto crocks i n rocks,
soked the wedges, ond i mbi bi -
ti onol swel l i ng spl i t the roks.
TRANSPIRATI ON i s the evoporo-
tion ot woter trom the oeriol
ports ot pl onts. Two ki nds ore
recogni zed: stomotol [ occounti ng
tor most| ond cuticulor, whi ch
occurs through the woxy coveri ng
ot leoves ond stems. The process
i s controlled i n port by turgi di -
ty ot the guord cells [p. 69) .
Evoprotion otwotertromtheleot
i n tronspi rotion hel ps prevent the
leot trom overheoti ng i n the sun.
Woter l ost through the l eoves i s
reploced through the root system.
Tronspi rotion
Woter loss by tronspi rotion
con be excessive ond couse the
deoth ot o pl ont. 6ecouse tron-
spi rotion connot be completely
controlled, pl onts survi ve only
when on odequote ond conti nuous
supply ot woter i s i n the soi l .
l t too much woterhoods the soi l ,
the roots suher trom lock ot
oxygen, l i te processes stop, ond
no woter i ntoke occurs. The
pl onts wi l t.
Plonts ore voriousl y odopted
to moisture extremes. The roots
ot some, such os cottoi l s, get
oxygen trom the leoves. The
plonts thrive i n woter. At the
other extreme, desert plonts hove
smoll leoves with thick cuti cles
ond protected stomotes. These
odoptotions hel p reduce tron-
spi rotion i n the desert ond ol low
survivol even with very l i mited
roi ntoll. Woter uptoke must bol-
once loss by tronspi roti on.
REPI RATION is a compl ex seri es of chemi cal reactions,
i nvol vi ng many di ferent enzymes, that rel eases the
chemi cal energy of foods. Al l l i vi ng cel l s depend on
thi s process to provi de the energy needed for thei r l i fe
processes ( p. 1 0) . Thus, respi rati on must occur con­
ti nuousl y, day and ni ght, i n al l l i vi ng thi ngs.
Respi rati on i n most pl ants i s aerobi c, uti l i zi ng free
oxygen from the ai r i n compl etel y oxidi zi ng the food
( mai nl y carbohydrates and fats) . Aerobi c respi rati on
gi ves a hi gh energy yi el d. I n anaerobi c respi rati on, no
free oxygen i s ut i l i zed, and the amount of energy re­
l eased i s l ow. Some hi gher pl ants may survi ve for short
peri ods by anaerobi c respi rati on. Yeasts and some bac­
teri a may l i ve by anaerobi c respi rati on al one.
MITOCHONDRIA or e t he ce| l
structures i n whi ch respirotion
occurs, just os chl oroplosts ore
the si te of photosynthesi s. These
smol l , colorless rod-shoped or
sphericol bqies ore scottered
through o cel l ' s cytopl osm.
· Electron microscops reveol
thot eoch mi
ochondrion i s sur-
rounded by o doub|e membrone.
The outer membrone covers the
mi tochondrion smoothl y. The
i nner membrone hos mony fol ds
thot ehectively i ncreose its
surfoce ond ol |ow for propr
posi ti oni ng of the severol respiro-
tory enzymes. These enzymes
i n the mi tochondrio control the
chemi col reocti ons i n respirotion.
Enzymotic control prevents the
build-up of hi gh temperotures thot
would b destructive to the cel ls.
Energy Exchange
_ energy for

GLYCOLYSI S i s the process by
which gl ucose, the simpl e sugor,
is broken down i nto two smol l er
molecules of pyruvi c ocid i n o
number of seporote chemicol
steps. Glycol ysi s does not require
oxygen ond is the hrst step in
both oerobic ond onoerobic
5ugor must b mode chemicol l y
octive before glycol ysi s con be-
gi n. This is occompl ished by the
oddition of two high energy phos-
phote bonds, uti l i zi ng ATP pre-
viously produced by respirotion.
At the end of the process, how-
ever, there i s o net goin of
ATP since more is produced in
glycolysis thon i s used.
leoses only pr of the potentiol
chemicol energy of o food. A
common exompl e is the ol coholic
fermentotion of sugor by yeosts.
5ome bcterio ore strictly on-
oerobic su~i vi ng i n oxygen free
| n yeosts, the pyruvic ocid
molecules formed in glycolysis
ore chonged to corbn dioxide
ond ethyl olcohol, in which most
of the energy of the origi nol
food remoi ns, pl us o smol l omount
of ATP. Corbon dioxide, formed
os yeost cel l s respire, couses
dough to rise in boking. Yeost
fermentotion is ol so the bosis of
brewing, wine moking, ond sev-
erol importont chemicol indus-
tries. Respirotion of ocetic ocid
bocterio i s fundomentol in moking
vinegor. Loctic ocid bocterio,
which produce no corbon dioxide,
ore uti l i zed i n souring processes
in the cheese ond doiry industries
ond i n moking souerkrout.
.... �

o greoter

omount of
ATP prced
oIcohol , loctic
ocid, ocetic ocid,
or other fermentotion
Anoerobic Respirotion,
or Fermentot|on,
yields i n ATP opproximotely
4% of originol energy
oxi d|zi ng process, o kind of sl ow
'burni ng' i n which the tempero-
ture i s controlled by enzymes i n
the mi tohodri o [p. s=j . Energy
i s releosed. Thus oerobic respiro-
tion i s essenti olly the chemi col
erse of photosynthesi s i n which
energy i s stored.
| n oerobic respirotion, the
pyruvi c oc|d molecules result|ng
from the glycolys|s of sugor
[p. s5j lose some corbn os cor-
bon di o
i de ond then bcome in-
volved i n the Kreb' s cycl e, o
compl icoted series of chemicol
reoctions thot proeed stepwi se,
rel eosi ngsmol l pockets of energy.
The Kreb's cycle reoctions moy
i n some coses ol so be the i niti ol
steps i n the synthesi s of fots or
protei ns. Cr fots ond protei ns
moy be digsted, ond the re-
sul ti ng smoller molecules wi l l
enter i nto the Kreb' s cycl e ond
b respired, rel eosi ngthei renergy.
The energy tronsfer i n Kreb' s
cycle i s occompl i shed byelectrons
being possed from one molecule
to onother¬i n concept, l i ke the
how of electric current through o
The end products of oerobic
resp|rotion ore corbon dioxide,
woter, ond energy thot i s stored
temprori l y os hi gh-phosphote
bonds of ATP. The ATP moves
through the cel l cytopl osm ond
releoses its energy by tronsfer
of the phosphote groups to other
compounds os needed for repoi r
or forgrowth movements [ such os
cytoplosm|c streomi ng). As ATP
loses one of its phosphotes, i t
becomes ADP whi ch goes bock
i nto the respirotory cycle ogoi n.
TRANSLOCATION OF SUGAR in pl ants occurs in water
sol uti ons. Nei ther di fusi on nor streami ng of cytopl asm
through the cel l can account for the speed wi th whi ch
sugar mol ecul es travel . Di ferences i n osmoti c concen­
trati on creati ng a pressure fow system may be partl y
responsi bl e. For thi s system to work, green cel l s i n the
l eaves act as sugar producers. I n non-green cells i n
the roots and i n some l eaf and stem cel l s, the sugar
i s converted to starch and stored. Phl oem and xyl em
( p. 9) connect the l eaf and root cel l s; thus a sort of
ci rcui t i s compl eted for the ci rcul ati on of sugar and water.
Gl ucose marked wi th radi oacti ve carbon has been
shown to move three feet per hour i n stems. The di recti on
of movement i s al ways toward the area of maxi mum use.
Movement of mol ecul es from cel l to cel l may occur through
very smal l connecti ons of cytopl asm ( pl asmodesmata)
that run through cel l wal l s.
MOLECULES moving from cel l to
cel l pass through cel l membranes
that are selectively permeable.
This prevents the cel l ' s molecules
from leaking out as water and
salts enter.
Soluble fods al so pass from
cel l to cell through these mem­
branes, which are a living par
of each cel l . A¡º provides the
energy needed in some of these
transfers. Enzymes are probably
involved also.



under l ight
under electron
mi croscop
Under an electron microscope,
these unit membranes appear .as a
pair of fne parallel l ines with a
clear area between. The lines
are believed to consist of pro­
tein molecules; the clear area to
be a complex fat ( phospholipid)
cotai ni ng posphors anc nitro
gen. Avarying amount of stretch­
ing of the protein molecules moy
control the si ze of the pores and
thus controls whi ch soluble fo
molecules can pass through.
biochemical interpretation
Pl ants respond i n a vari ety of ways to sti mul i i n thei r
envi ronment. Movement, growth, and foweri ng are com­
mon reacti ons. They are al l i ncompl etel y understood and
are subjects of current research. li ght, gravi ty, and
contact are among the sti mul i that bri ng about these
reacti ons, but no response can be expl ai ned as a di rect
resul t of a si ngl e sti mul us. Many sti mul i at work si mul ­
taneousl y pl ay a part i n a pl ant' s growth and devel opment.
usual l y slow but are permanent
( nonreversi bl e). They are fre­
quently called tropisms. Aresponse
to gravity, for example, i s a geo­
tropism; to l ight, a phototropism;
to touch, a thigmotropi sm.
Hormones ( p. 90jare generally
involved in the process. Rots or
stems bend because the cells on
their opposite side grow unequal­
l y. This is brought abut by a
diference in the di stribution of
growth hormones.
( touch)
Engl i sh pea
seedling in
moist chamber;
rots grow
downward and
stem upward
´/ '
( l ight)
top i l l umi nation
( gravity)
al l y rapi d and are reversible,
not permanent. When a Mimosa
plant i s touched ( stimulated),
cel l s in the enl argement ( pul vi nus)
at the base of the leafets and
in the leaf petiol es leak water
into the spaces between the
cel l s and thus lose their turgor
pressure (p. szj, the normal ten·
si on due to fuids i nside the cel l .
This causes the leafets to fold
and the leaves to droop-al l
within seconds. Recovery takes
abut I 5 minutes. Mimosas are so
sensitive that they were once
suspected of having a nerous
system, like ani mal s.
detai l of
pul vinus
( touched)
Loss of turgor pressure causes
Venus' Flytrap leaves to shut
quickly ¦I -z seconds) and trap
an insect that has touched them.
I n many plants, as i n the fower of
the Sausage Tree, the lobed
stigmas close and enclose pl l en
grains that have l anded there.
Turgor movements account for
the sleep movements of Oxalis and
of many clovers, peas, locusts,
and other legumes. Their leaves
are spread open to the sun dur­
ing the day but close at night.
The turning of a plant' s leaves
and fowers i n fol lowing the course
of the sun during the day appear
al so to involve turgor movements.

HORMONES are organi c compounds that act as chemi cal
messengers and hel p to coordi nate pl ant acti vi ti es.
They are i nvolved, for exampl e, i n the devel opment of
fowers and frui t and may ei ther sti mul ate or i nhi bi t
growth. A hormone i s produced i n onl y smal l amounts and
then i s transported to another l ocati on where i t exer­
cises i ts control . over some pl ant process. Concentrati ons
as l ow as one part i n a bi l l i on parts of water may be
efective i n some cases.
Si nce the di scovery of natural pl ant hormones i n 1 928,
many synthetic substances have been made that al so afect
growth and other pl ant processes. These growth regul a­
tors, a term that refers both to natural ly produced and
to synthetic compounds, are i mportant tool s i n modern
horti cul ture and agri cul ture.
AUXI NS, bst known of the plant
hormones, occur in a plant' s grow·
ing and developing parts-as in
seeds, stem tips, fruits, young
leaves, and buds. Light, gravity,
and some ki nds of chemicals i n­
fuence thei r production and di s­
tri bution. I f l ight shi nes on only
one side of a plant, more auxi n
is distributed to the dH side.
Thi s causes the cells there to
elongate and cures the stem to-
coleoptil e
( sheath)
I .
ward the light. In uniform light,
the auxin i s distributed in equal
amounts on al l sides, and the
stems grow upright.
The amount of an auxin needed
for normal growth i s very smal l .
Stem ti ps require more than do
lateral buds or roots. To much
auxin disturbs a plant' s blance
of growth, and may cause death.
This makes possible the use of
growth regulators as weed ki l lers.
Auxi n is prouced by
the tip of an oat sheath
(coleopti l e). When the
ti p i s removed ¦I),
and placed to one side
( 2), growth occurs as
shown ¦ 1j . The hor­
mone difuses dawn
only one side, stimu­
lating cel l enlargement
there and causing
LI NS were frst re­
ported by Japanese botanists who
were studying the "fol i sh seed­
ling disease" of rice. They found
that a parasitic fungus growing
on the rice plant produced a
hormone, Gi bberel l i c acid, that
caused the rice to grow abnor­
mally tal l .
Gibberel l i ns are efective
mainly on stems, and plants treat­
ed with very smal l amounts of
gibberel l i ns wi l l grow many times
taller than untreated plants.
Treatment can be made by apply­
ing the hormone as an aerosol
spray to the entire plant or by
dabbing a smal l amount of a
lanolin-gibberel l i n mixture on
the plant' s young stems.
KINETI NS seem to b associated
with auxins i n control l i ng plant
growth and development. The three
fasks blow contain tobcco tis­
sues. All were given the same
amount of auxi n. The tissue in
the fask with no kinetin devel­
oped neither rots nor buds. Those
i n the fask with a small amount
of ki netin developed only rots;
those in the fask with a larger
amount developed buds al so·.
favors root
Cabbge i s a biennial
that normal l y takes two
years to produce its
fowering stem, but
plants treated with
gibbrel l i n fowered
i n one year. Non-vining
bush bans wi l l de­
velop the vining habit
if treated with the hor­
mone giberel l i n.
DORMI NS bel ong to a group of
plant hormones that i nhibit
growth and apparently provide a
system of checks and balances in
the hormone systems.
Other pl ant hormones are
known, and probably many more
wi l l be discovered. Vitami ns 81
and 8
both produced by leaves, .
are essential for rot growth.
Some plants also require nico­
tinic acid for root growth.
PHOTOPERIODISM is the efect of day l ength ( hours
of l i ght) on pl ant devel opment, especi al l y foweri ng.
At the equator, day and ni ght are of about equal l ength
al l year; i n other l ati tudes, day l ength changes wi th
the season. I n some pl ants, temperature al so pl ays a
si gni fcant rol e. The phytochrome pi gment ( p. 95) and
probabl y fori gen, a hormone, are al so i nvol ved i n
foweri ng.
Pl ants can general l y be pl aced in one of three photo­
peri od cl asses: short day, l ong day, or day neutral . A
l ong-day pl ant is one that wi l l fower on day l engths
l onger than the cri ti cal mi ni mum for the speci es. The
cri ti cal day length for both spi nach and red cl over,
for exampl e, i s 1 2 hours. These pl ants wi l l fower onl y
on days when there i s l i ght for 1 2 hours or more. A
short-day pl ant fowers onl y when day l engths are shorter
than the cri ti cal mi ni mum for the speci es. Poi nsettias
are short-day speci es that al so have a 1 2-hour cri ti cal
day l ength. They fower onl y when they have l i ght for
l ess than 1 2 hours. Chrysanthemums, al so short-day spe­
cies, have a cri ti cal day l ength of 1 5 hours. A day­
neutral speci es fowers regardl ess of day l ength. Re­
centl y matured l eaves seem to be the best receptors for
l i ght. The red portion of the l i ght is most efective in
produci ng the foweri ng efect.
Sal vi a
Red Clover
String Bean
Sal vi a,
a short-day plant
trolled i n part by photoperiods.
Short-day plants are common
near the equator. Both short­
and long-day species are found
i n temperate zones. Plants that
grow at latitudes greater than
ó0 degrees, bth norh and
south of the equator, are mostly
long-day species. Day-neutral
species occur at al l latitudes.
Short-day species usuall y fower
i n early spring, late summer, or
fal l . Long-day plants fower in
late spring and early summer.
a long-day plant
Florists can control the time
of fowering by changing the
length of day artifcially. Short­
day plants, such as chrysanthe­
mums, can be kept from fowering
i n winter by usi ng lights to ex­
tend the length of the short win-·
ter days. Short-day plants can
be mode to fower i n long days
of summer by covering them with
a light-prof cloth i n late after­
noon. This permits "programmed
fowering" to meet market needs.
Ultraviolet Violet
Blue Blue- Green Green
430 470 Û Ô
PHOTORECEPTORS are necessary for the uti l ization
of light energy i n plant processes. These are the pl ant
pi gments that absorb particul ar wavel engths of l i ght.
The part of the el ectromagnetic radi ati on spectrum shown
above i ncl udes the vi si bl e portion ( 390 to 760 mi l l i ­
mi crons) whi ch we see as whi te l i ght and whi ch al so
produces most of the responses studied i n photobi ol ogy.
These l i ght waves are a part of every pl ant envi ronment,
and di ferent wavel engths i nfuence di ferent growth
processes. Three mai n groups of photobi ol ogi cal process
are known: ( 1 ) responses of chl orophyl l i n photosynthesi s
(p. 71 ) ; ( 2) responses to bl ue and red l i ght ( bel ow); and
( 3) responses of the phytochrome system ( p. 95) .
absorbed by the chloroplasts in
photosynthesi s. Both chlorophylls
and carotenoids are the photo­
receptors. Most of the energy
for food synthesis comes from
the red wavelengths. Blue light
i s respnsible also for photo-
tropi sms. Thi s is shown below where
the plant stem bends and grows
only toward the blue light. Thi s
bendi ng i s brought abut by an
adjustment of plant hormone bl­
ance (p. 90). The blue light
photoreceptor appears to be beta
note that only tip of plant
i n the blue light i s bnt
Yel low Orange Red
I nfrared
0 650 660
730 760
PHYOCHROME, frst isolated
i n 1 959, i s a blue protein pig­
ment that functions as an impr­
tant photoreceptor. I t is involved
i n systems that control photo­
perioism, elongation of stems
between nodes, formation of plant
pigments ( especially i n the ripn­
ing of frui ts), germination of
seeds, and probbly other pro­
cesses as wel l .
Phytochrome exists [n reversi­
ble forms, referred to by code
numbrs: P660, which has a light
absorption peak i n red light
(660 mi l l i mi cros), and P730,
whiCh has a l ight absorption pak
in far-red ( 730 mi l l imicrons) . If
P660 i s exposed either to sun­
light or to red light, it changes
do not
to. P730. If the P730 i s then ex­
posed to far-red l i ght, it changes
quickly back to P660. Thi s change
al so occurs slowly i n darkness.
Experiments wi th lettuce dem­
onstrated that seeds of some va­
rieties normal l y contain P660 and
wi l l not · germinate unless exposed
either to red light or to sunl ight,
changing the inactive P660 to
the active P730. This explains
why some seeds wi l l not germi­
nate i f buried too deeply. But if
the soil is turned and the seeds
are thus expsed to l ight, they
will then sprout. I n this way
their own fod-manufacturing
process begi ns bfore their stored
seed fo i s exhausted. Normal
growth i s thus pssible.
si zed chemi cal equi val ents ( growh regul ators) , are i m­
portant to horti cul turi sts, fori sts, gardeners, orchardi sts,
and others who depend on pl ant producti on and per­
formance for thei r l i vel i hood. Appl i ed to pl ants, the
auxi ns wi l l produce thei r efects, someti mes accel erati ng
and someti mes retardi ng growth.
auxi n, common in green plants, is
indoleacetic acid ( I AA}. Produced
synthetically, I AA i s mixed with
indolebutyric acid and other simi­
lar growth stimulators and ap­
plied to cuttings to promote
rooting. This method is used in
nurseries to propagate plants
that do not rot easily.
The efects of auxin var i n
detail according to the speci es,
the stage of growth, the en­
vironmental conditions, and the
amount of dosage.
Hol l y
extended in potatos, oni ons, and
other vegetabl es. They may be
either sprayed or placed in a vapor
of auxin-like substances to delay
sprouting and prevent shri nkage
for as long as a year. This holds
their market value to a maximum.
I f
³ bnzyl aenine i s applied
ds a past-harvest dip, brocoli
will keep longer and stay greener
bcause the norml rate of chloro­
phyll loss is slowed down. These
treatments can b used to sup­
plement low temperature storag.
WEED KI LLERS, notably 2,4-D,
are auxi n-l i ke substances that ki l l
weeds by di sturbing thei r normal
growth. I n small quantities, these
auxins actual l y stimulate plant
growth. I n heavy concentrations,
they ki l l . Most grosses are re­
si stant to their efects, hence
weed ki l lers are used to destroy
brodleaved weeds.
lated by auxins that are ordi­
narily produced by developing
seeds. I f some of the egg cel l s
i n an appl e fower are not ferti­
l ized, they fai l to prouce both
seeds and auxi ns. The result is
a mi sshapn apple, fattened on
one side.
By applying auxi n-l i ke sprays,
even unpl l inated fwers can be
made to produce wel l-shapd
fruits which will be seedl ess. A
normal and a honmone-treated
tomato are shown here.
H£MAIUk£ FkU| I DkOF may
be prevented by spraying the
maturi ng frui t with auxi n-l ike sub­
stances. Auxi ns prouced by young
fruits keep them frmly attached to
the twi gs. As the frui t matures, the
auxin supply decreases, and cel ls
at the base of the frui t stem
di si ntegrate. Fruit often drops
when these separation ( abscis­
sion) layers develop prematurely.
Sprayi ng with auxin-like sub­
stances delays the formation of
the abscission layer.
Auxin-like sprays are used
al so to delay the ripening of
fruit for shipment and to prevent
the production of fowering
stal ks ( "bolting") i n lettuce
and si mi lar leafy vegetables.
Dandel ions i n untreated
grass ( above); none in
treated grass ( below) .
with seeds

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL of the form and shape of
pl ants can be observed in natural habi tats. A knowl edge
of hormones and responses to sti mul i makes i t easi er to
understand the way pl ants grow.
gerani um bending toward l ight
wound 2 yrs.
cavity later
HOUSE PLANTS tend to grow
toward the nearest window. Thi s
i s a phototropic response i n whi ch
hormone di stribution i s 'involved
(p. 90). The plants must be ro­
tated regularly to make them grow
with uniform shape.
TREES that lose branches in ice
or wi nd storms usually develop
a smaller, more compct crown.
Loss of the terminal buds removes
the source of a hormone that
usual l y suppresses growth of the
lateral buds. In the pl ants' re­
covery, the lateral buds grow
vigorousl y and give the trees
their new appearance. This same
mechani sm causes pruned hedges
to become bushier.
TREE WOUNDS are common, yet
the trees conti nue to live.
Wounded plant ti ssues prouce
traumatin, a hormone that causes
cell s of the cambium around the
wound to reproduce rapidly and
form a cal l us. New brk produced
by the cal l us eventually covers
the wound.
STREET TREES commonly respond
to street lights near them. As
the days get shorter i n autumn,
a photoperioic response (p. 92)
causes t he leaves t o t um color
and eventual l y drop. But the
leaves that are near street lights
are i n an artifci al l y long day.
They do not change color as soan,
and they stay on the tree longer.

Flowers are specialized reproduc­
tive structures. The grass spikelet
here i s a perfect fower (p. I07),
surrounded by moifed leaves.
modifed leaf
(gl ume)
Every l ivi ng thi ng has the capaci ty to reproduce-to
form new i ndi vi dual s of its ki nd. In si mpl e one-cel l ed
pl ants, reproducti on consi sts of di vi di ng to form to
i ndependent cel l s. When condi ti ons are favorabl e, some
bacteri a divi de about every 20 mi nutes, thus qui ckl y
bui l di ng up an enormous popul ati on. I n other l ower
pl ants and i n some of the more advanced speci es, frag­
ments of a pl ant may break of and form new i ndi ­
vi dual s. I n both of these methods the ofspri ng are
geneti cal l y i denti cal to the parents.
I n sexual reproducti on, the ofspri ng recei ve heredi tary
materi al s from to parents and thus bear trai ts of both.
Thi s resul ts in the great vari ety that occurs among i ndi ­
vi dual pl ants that reproduce sexual l y. The most advanced
pl ants form seeds that permi t a del ay i n the devel op­
ment of the new pl ant unti l envi ronmental condi ti ons are
favorabl e for growh.
cel l di vi sion of
a simple alga
ASEXUAL REPROD UCTION i s the devel opment of a
new pl ant from a si ngl e parent. It is restricted mai nl y
to one-cel l ed pl ants and i nvol ves ei ther a di vi si on
of si ngl e-cel l ed pl ants i nto two or the producti on of
spores. In yeast cel l s, a bud grows from the parent
cel l and eventual l y breaks of to grow i ndependentl y.
Fi l amentous al gae may break i nto fragments, each con­
ti nui ng to grow and becomi ng a new fl ament. Some
hi gher pl ants produce ofspri ng vegetativel y from thei r
roots, stems, or l eaves ( p. 1 1 6) . Some banana pl ants,
for exampl e, can reproduce i n no other way.
ASEXUAL SPORES are often pro­
duced in large numbers. Wind
or water may aid in distributing
them. Many aquatic plants, such
as Vaucheria below, produce
spores that can swim ( zospres) .
Other spores are thick-walled,
serving as a dormant stage in
which pl ants survive such un­
favorable conditions as cold or
zoospore of
a green alga
drought. In bcteria, the cel l
may simpl y devel op a thick wal l
around· itself, as in Tetanus
shown below. In some plants,
spores are produced in special
structures ( sporangi a). When con­
ditions are favorable, a spre
germinates and grows i nto a new
plant. Saprolegnia, a water mold,
produces sprangia of thi s tpe.
spores bi ng
released from
resting cel l
i n several ways . Fi ssion involves
a division of the nuclear material
and surroundi ng cytoplasm. A
constricting ring forms around
the cell wall and grows inward,
cutting the cel l i n two. How the
cel l ' s hereditary material (chro­
mati n) i s dupl icated by this
method is not ful l y understood.
Most cell divi sion is by mitosis
and cytokinesis in cells with a
wel l-defned nucl eus. I n many­
celled plants, mitosis increases the
number of vegetative cel l s.
I n mitosi s, the chromatin i s
frst organized i nto threads that
become a defnite number of chro­
mosomes (p. I I sj . The nuclear
membrane then di si ntegrates.
Each chromosome has been dupli­
cated to produce two chromatids.
A spindle forms, and the chrom­
atids seprate and move toward
opposite ends, or pal es, i n the
cel l . After the chromatids ( now
chromosomes) collect at the ples, '
each nucleus reorganizes. A plate
develops at the center of the
cell and grows outward to wal l
of the mother cel l . The daughter
cells have hereditary material
identical to that of the prent
cell and mature into cel l s l ike the
parent cel l .
I. chromosomes
divide into
a motile green
2. chromatids
separate; spi ndle
3. chromatids
move to
opposite pales
4. chromatids
( now chromosomes)
reach the pl es;
with fonation of
cell plate
5. chromosomes
reorganize into
ó. two daughter
cells emerge
from old cel l
1 Û1
( female)
SEXUAL REPROD UCTION i nvolves a uni on of two
gametes. Gametes of some l ower pl ants ( as in Spirogyra
above) l ook al i ke ( i sogametes) . Thei r uni on i s cal l ed
ferti l i zati on. I n most pl ants, the sex cel l s are of two
di ferent types ( heterogametes) . The smal l er mal e gamete
( sperm) swi ms; the l arger femal e gamete ( egg) is non­
moti l e. The zygote formed by the uni on of these two sex
cel l s contai ns the chromosomes present i n each gamete.
Thi s di pl oi d ( 2n) number of chromosomes i s al ways the
same for each speci es and i s found i n al l of the pl ant' s
body cel l s. The di pl oi d number must be di vi ded i n hal f
by a reducti on di vi si on, or mei osi s, to arri ve at the
hapl oi d ( 1 n) number of chromosomes i n the sex cel l s.
I n some al gae and fungi , mei osi s occurs soon after
the zygote forms, hence the plant exi sts wi th 2n chromo­
somes for onl y a short ti me. But i n most pl ants the
zygote and the cel l s formed from i t di vi de by mi tosi s
as the pl ant grows and enl arges, and the 2n number of
chromosomes i s mai ntai ned unti l sexual spores are formed.
Thi s may be a year or, as i n most woody pl ants, many
years l ater. Then mei osi s occurs, reduci ng the chromo­
some number of the gametes to the hapl oid ( 1 n) number.
1 ÛZ
2. chromosomes
with like
l. mother cel l with
six chromosomes
MEIOSIS, or reduction divi si on,
involves two phases in the divi­
sion of the nucl eus:
I n Meiosis I ¦ I -5j , al l of the
chromosomes come together and
those with determiners fo the
same traits are paired. Each
chromosome doubles, but the
two halves remain attached. The
doubl e chromsome pairs sep­
rate and move to oppsite ends
of the cel l .
I n Meiosi s I I ¦ ó-sj , a second
chromosome division occurs, and
the resulting four grops orgnize
into nucl ei. Thus, four nucl ei are
prouced. I n most plants that
reproduce sexual l y, meiosis is
one phase in an alternation of
generations (p. «1j .
¦ ó-sj
1. paired
double and
align on
4. chromosomes
move toward
opposite pales
5. reorganization
begins but i s
not usually
s. cell divides to
form « haploid cel l s
7. chromosomes
move to poles
ó. chromosomes
align at equator
1 03
fusion of egg
and sperm in
( 2n)

( l n)
REPROD UCTION IN MOSSES i nvol ves an al ternati on
of a gametophyti c wi th a sporophyti c generati on. The
sex cel l s ( gametes) are produced i n many-cel l ed sex
organs, the archegoni a ( femal e) and antheri di a ( mal e) .
These are usual l y l ocated i n the ti ps of separate femal e
and mal e gametophytes. The sperm l eaves the antheri di um,
swi ms through a fl m of water, and uni tes wi th the
egg i n the archegoni um. Thi s produces the zygote that
grows i nto a stal ked sporophyte, i ts base embedded i n
the femal e gametophyte from whi ch i t obtai ns nouri sh­
ment. At i ts ti p, a sporangi um devel ops i n whi ch spores
are formed by mei oti c di vi si on ( p. 1 03) . Each spore con­
tai ns the hapl oi d ( 1 n) number of chromosomes. When ex­
pel l ed from the ri pe sporangi um, the spores germi nate
on damp soi l . They form protonema, the buds of whi ch
become gametophytes.
1 04
rm entering
egg ( fertil ization)
producing a zygote ( 2n)
REPROD UCTION IN FERNS al so i nvol ves two genera­
ti ons, but each grows i ndependentl y. The conspi cuous
sporophyte has true roots, stems, and l eaves. Spores
devel op by mei osi s i n sporangi a, usual l y i n cl usters
( sori ) on the undersi de of the l eaves. When mature, the
sporangi a break open and rel ease the spores. Wi nd­
carri ed spores that fal l on damp soi l may devel op i nto
fat, heart-shaped gametophytes.
On thei r undersi de the gametophytes produce eggs
i n archegoni a and sperms i n antheri di a. Eggs and sperms
on each pl ant usual l y mature at" di ferent ti mes, assuri ng
cross-ferti l i zati on. The resul ti ng zygote has a di pl oi d ( 2n)
chromosome count and divi des by mi tosi s t o form an
embryo that devel ops i nto the sporophyte fern. The
gametophyte di es after the sporophyte has become
establ i shed as an i ndependent pl ant.
Ì Û0
REPRODUCTION IN SEED PLANTS i nvol ves an al terna­
ti on of generati ons, as does that of mosses and ferns
( pp. 1 04-1 05) . The sporophyte, wi th 2n chromosomes,
i s the l arge and i ndependent pl ant. The gametophyte,
mi croscopi c and parasi ti c on the sporophyte, has the
hapl oi d ( 1 n) chromosome number as a resul t of mei osi s.
I n most gymnosperms, the gametophytes are borne on
the cone scal es, as shown i n the l i fe hi story of pi nes
on p. 54.
Angi osperm gametophytes are produced i n fowers, the
most hi ghl y evolved structures for pl ant reproducti on.
The femal e gametophytes, or embryo sacs, form i n the
fower ovul es; the mal e gametophytes form from the
pol l en grai ns produced i n the anther. A pol l en grai n
must be transferred to a fower' s sti gma for pol l i na­
ti on to occur. Sperms devel op i n the pol l en tube, and
ferti l i zati on of the egg occurs i n the embryo sac.
1 ÛÓ
ovory wol l
ovul e
sepol [ ol l sepols
form colyx|
of both ml e ond femol e re-
pl us petol s
[ ol l petol s

rm corol l o|
Poinsettia Flower Head
FLOWERS produce the seeds from
which new plants grow. Many fow­
ers ore inconspicuous and ore
neither beautiful nor fragrant.
Nor do all fowers consi st of
the some ports. A fower that
locks any of those ports shown
on pge I 0ó i s incomplete.
A perfect fower has both types
of reproductive structures, though
i t may lock other prs. The gross
fower on p. 99 i s a perfect fow­
er that locks petal s and sepal s.
Flowers wi th only one type of
reproductive organ, as the oak
fowers shown here, ore imperfect.
Those with only mole reproductive
organs ore stami nate; those with
only female organs, pi sti l late.
The smal l staminate and pi sti l l ate
fowers of Poinsettia grow sepa­
rately on the some fower · head.
Red leofike bracts that grow
below the fowers ore commonly
mi staken for petal s.
Sunfowers hove a foral head
of complete fowers surrounded
by incomplete "roy" fowers.
( 1 n)
one ¦In) megaspore
develops; three
divides twice,
forming four ¦In)
THE LIF CYCL of angiosperms
difers from that of gymnosperms
in the unique double feri l ization
that occurs i n the gametophyte.
True fertilization ( fusion of the
sprm and egg) i s accompnied
by another fsi on proess ( that
of a· second sperm with the polar
nucl ei ). Thi s feature i s shown i n
the diagram abve, as are the
meiotic divisions of the megaspore
and microspore.
1 08
one megaspore
mother cel l i n ovule
To trace the sequence of events
in the diagram, start with the
complete fwer. Red arrows in­
dicate the femal e gametophyte
· generation ( 1 n); blue, the male
¦ I n); and green, the sporophyte
( 2n) , and the endosprm ( 3n) .
I n the ovule, meioti c divi sions
followed by mitotic divi sions of the
megaspre resul t i n a ¦In) mega­
gametophyte contai ni ng eight
nuclei. Of these, six develop cell
nucl eus
pol l en grain
( 1 n)
mi tosi s
Seedl i ng
wal l s, one of which bcomes the
egg cel l . The twa remini ng are
the polar nucl ei .
Divi si ons that ocur in the anther
prouce numerous pllen grai ns,
each wi th twa nucl ei . When a
pl l en grain reaches a receptive
stigma, it is held fast, geni nates,
and develops a tube that grows
down throgh the style. I nside i s
a tub nucl eus, pl us two spenns
that are fnned by di vi si on of the
each ( 2n) mi crospre
mother cel l
divides twice
to form four ( 1 n)
mi crospres
mei osi s
� • microspre
mother cel l
anther, i n which
thousands of microspore
mother cel l s develop
generative nucl eus. The tube
enters the ovul e, penetrates the
megaametohyte, and releases
the sprms. One of the spens
unites with the egg to form the
zygote; the other uni tes with
the two fused polar nucl ei to
fnn a Jn endospenn nucleus. The
endsprm nucl eus divides many
times, bcoming the foo storing
tissue for the developing embryo
( p. 1 1 1 ) .
1 09
Corn flowers
OLLI NA TION occurs when pol­
len i s transferred from a stamen
to a stigma. I n self-pol l ination,
the pollen i s from the same fower
or from another fower on the
same plant. Sel f-pll ination, which
tends to limit genetic variation,
i s prevented i n many plants by
diferences in rate of maturation
of stamens and pi sti l s.
I n cross-pol l ination, pol l en i s
transferred to a fower on an­
other pl ant of the same species
by wind, i nsects, or other means.
Wi nd-pl l i nated fowers are usu­
al l y smal l and not showy. I n corn
( above), the pi sti l late fowers
form the ear. Staminate fowers
form the tassel.
flowers pol l i nated by i nsects
typically have glands that se­
crete nectar and also have bright­
ly colored petals or bracts. Some
have special devices that aid
insect pl l i nation. In Sal via
( below), the pressure of a bee
pushing agai nst the bck of the
fower causes the anthers to di p
down. Pol l en i s brushed of on
the bee' s back, and when it vi sits
an older fower on which the
stigmas have matured and ore
receptive, the pl l en is picked up
by them. Cross-pl l ination i s en­
forced when staminate and pistil­
late fowers ocur on seprate
plants, as in the case of hol l ies
and wi l lows.
3. i n more mature
fower, elongated
stigma picks up
pol l en from bee' s
Sal vi a
1 1 Û
MENT begi ns with the frst
division of the zygote. Whil e
the young e"mbryo develops,
the endosperm nucleus divides
many times. Cel l walls eventual l y
form btween the many endo­
sperm nuclei, making the multi­
cel l ul ar endosperm tissue that
frnishes fod for the embryo.
The ful l y developed embryo con­
sists of a radicle ( embyoni c rot),
which develops into the primary
root; the hypootyl ; one or · two
cotyledons; and a pl umul e, or
epicotyl (the frst bud) . The pro­
tective seed cot forms from the
outer layers, the i nteguments of
the ovul e.
Grai n
when seeds are placed i n a suit­
able environment, such as moist
soil. I mbibition and osmosis
( pp. 82-83) account for the i n­
take of necessary water. Mitosi s
occurs i n the pl umul e and the
radicle, giving rise to a rapidly
elongating embryo. The hypocotyl,
just blow the cotyledons, may
i ncrease in length rapidly al so.
I n some seeds thi s i s i mportant
as i t quickly l ifts the cotyledons
and pl umule above the soi l .
Photosynthesis starts in the
cotyledons as soon as they turn
green in the light. In other seeds
the hypootyl does not develop
as extensively.
[ superi or: obove
other horol
FRUITS develop from ovori es, ond
seeds develop from the ferti l i zed
ovul es. A fruit moy develop fro
one or more moture ovories ond
i ncl ude ony other structures thot
ripn with it [ pi sti l , ond in some
coses the receptocl e ond other
horol orgons| . The ovory woll of
the ripe frui t is col led the peri-
corp ond moy consist of two or
three di sti nct loyers. The pericorp
moy vory, i t moy b soft or hord,
dq or heshy.
1 1 2
I N THE PEA [ obove| , the ovory
wol l forms o dry pq thot spl i ts
when ri p ond rel eoses the seeds.
Cther dq frui ts, such os groi ns
ond nuts, usuol l ycontoi n only one
or few seeds ond do not opn.
THE APPL [ below| i s col led on
occessory frui t becouse most of
the edi bl e prtion develops from
the horol tube. The seeds ond the
surrounding ovory woll form the
core of the oppl e.
[ i nferior:
below other
horol prts)
does not begi n unti l the e@ i s
tertil ized, however, both pl l en-
growth hormnes ond synthetic
growth substonces con stimulote
the development of on ovory
without ferti l izotion. |n such
coses, the fruit develops, the
seeds do not. Novel oronges,
nonos, pi neoppl es, ond soe
gropes ore huits thot regulorly
develop without the usuol neces-
si ty ot seed tormoti on.
dri ed
wol l
[ peri corp|
BOTANI CALLY, o `hui t' | s
cl eorly di sti nguished from the
common concept of its being only
o soh, sweet, edible plont port.
Mony so-col l ed vegetobl es [ the
word vegetoble is not o btoni ¸
col tem| ore huits-stri ng bons,
tootoes, squosh, ppprs, cu-
cumbrs, ond others. The fo

texture, ond structure of frui ts
vory. Vori ous typs ond thei r
cl ossi hcotion ore shown on pges
I I «-I I 5.
Ì Ì 3
devel op from one ovary; compl ex
frui ts devel op from more than one. By starti ng at the
center and readi ng outward i n the chart, many common
1 ¡ 4
Mul brry
frui ts can be cl assi fed accordi ng to thei r structural
characteri sti cs. Dehi scent frui ts open by spl i ti ng or other
means when ri pe. l ndehi scent frui ts do not.
1 1 5
Í M H c K Í 1ÅML c
EVery pl ant produced by sexual reproducti on resembl es
i ts parents basi cal l y. Yet, no two i ndi vi dual s are exactl y
al i ke. However, both the si mi l ari ti es and the vari ati ons
are due to heredi ty. Even when heredi tary make-up
is very si mi l ar, envi ronment may sti l l cause di ferences
i n appearance and behavi or. Di ferences that are brought
about by envi ronment are not i nheri ted.
Geneti cs i s the study of how characteri sti cs are i n­
heri ted. Studi es range from observi ng vi si bl e features
to the chemi stry of chromosomes, which are the carri ers
of heredi tary trai ts. Sexual reproducti on, i n whi ch
there i s a mi xi ng of geneti c materi al s from two parents,
i s the greatest source of vari ati on. I n asexual repro­
ducti on, vari ati ons occur onl y through mutati ons ( p. 1 26) .
not paired 2n
CHROMOSOMES are nuclear structures
that bar hereditary fators. Each species
has a specifc number of chromosomes, which
can be seen and. counted during mi tosi s and
meiosis (pp. 1 01 and 1 03 ). Chromosomes
are formed of two equal longitudi nal halves,
or chromatids, vi si bl e under high manifca­
tion. Bits of chromosomes cosi sting mainly
of DNA ( p. 1 29) form genes that bear the
hereditary factors.
DI PLOI D NUCLI contain two sets of paired
chromosomes ( 2n) , formed when the sex
co|þ unite. Each chroosome in a pir bears
fctors for the same traits.
HA�LOI D NUCLI have only a si ngl e set of
chr es ( 1 o}. This condition i s character­
istic of
Is and arises during meiosis
( p.
1 03).
acting on
THE I NTERACTI ON of heredity
and enviroment determines the
expression of a geneti c choroder­
istic. For instance, sun-red corn
normal l y has yel low kemels but
develops a red pi gment when the
kernels ore expsed to sunl ight.
Al l of the kernels on the ear above
hove a si mi l ar heredity, but por­
tions of the husk were cut away
to spll the word LI GHT. The
kernel s expsed to the l ight
turned red, . demonstrating the
efects of enviromental factors.
Y-yel low

LI NKAGE refers to the position, or order, of
genes on a chromosome that resul ts in groups
of genes functioni ng as a unit. The genes
for color and shap of seeds, for exampl e,
may be on the some chromosome, and thus
ore i nherited together due to l inkage. Genes
i nfuencing Aower color, however, may be
on chromosomes other than those for color
and shape of seeds. Seed and Aower traits
ore assorted and i nherited independently.
·¸ \_/
DOMI NANT TRAITS ore those most com­
monly seen in a population; those seen less
fequently ore usual l y recessives. If two
genes for a particul ar trait ore unl i ke, they
are heterozygous; i f al i ke, homozygous. I n
the diagram, YY repesents homozygous yel­
low; g¿ homozygous green. Yy is hetero­
zygous, but appears yel l ow because the
yellow color is dominant over green.


l l
r r
1 1 9
Purebred Yel l ow Seed Purebred Green Seed
ofspring: al l yellow-seeded hybrids
NcMÜcLÌPM ÜcMcÌ Lb bgan wi th Gregor Mendel ' s ex­
peri ments in pl ant breedi ng about 1 860. Pl ant breeders
before hi m had assume that a pl ant' s apparance i n­
di cated i ts geneti c makeup and that i f i t w
re crossed
wi th a pl ant l i ke i tsel f the ofspri ng woul d l ook the
same. They assumed, for exampl e, that yel l ow-seeded
garden peas coul d produce onl y yel l ow-seeded ofspri ng.
When Mendel crossed a yel l ow-seeded pea pl ant wi th
one beari ng green seeds ( above), al l of the ofspri ng
were yel l ow-seeded. Further, when these ofspri ng were
mated ( bel ow) , both yel low- and green-seeded ofspri ng
occurred i n the rati o of three yel l ows to one green.
Thi s showed that some trai ts in the geneti c make-up of
a pl ant may be hi dden, or recessi ve.

1 20 ofsµing: 3 yellow·see�ed, l green-seeded
ofspring: oil heterozygous yel low
GENES, the determiners of i n­
herited trai ts, are the complex
bits of chromatin that occur
along the chromosomes. For every
trait or characteristic, a plant
usually receives two genes-one
from each prent. When sprms
and eggs are produced, these
paired genes separate so that
each sperm or egg receives only
one of the genes from each pair.
For example, a pea plant that
is purebred for yel low seeds has
two genes for yel low color, one
on each of the pired or homolo­
gous chromosomes. This i s shown
abve as YY. When a purebred
yellow-seeded pa plant i s crossed
with O purebred green-seeded
plant, shown abve as yy, the
ofspring are genetically mixed or
heterozygous, indicated as Yy.
The heterozygous seeds pro­
duced in such a coss appar yel­
. low because the yel low i s domi­
nant whenever present. Green is
recessive and shows only when
bth genes are for green color.
Crossi ng two heterozygous yel­
low-seeded ofspring (Yy and Yy,
below) provides prof that the
green gene is present but masked.
Three ofspring are yellow-seeded
-one i s YY, two Yy. The fourth
i s a green-seeded homozygous
recessive, yy. These raios are
seen only by examining individuals
fro numeros crosses.
1 2 1
GENE COMBINATIONS may occur in such a great range
of possi bi l i ti es as to be al most unbel i evabl e. A si mpl e
cross of two pai rs of hybri d genes may produce 1 6
vari ati ons, as shown i n the chart. A tri hybri d cross
( three trai ts, as for seed shape, col or, and si ze) can
produce 64 gene combi nati ons i n the second generati on.
Four trai ts may resul t in 256 di ferent combi nati ons.
Every addi ti onal pai r of genes mul ti pl i es t he number
of possi bl e gene combi nati ons i n the ofspri ng by four.
1 ZZ
Each pl ant contai ns thousands of genes, hence the
total number of combi nati ons possi bl e i n the ferti ­
l i zed egg runs i nto the mi l l ions. Each pl ant i s thus
unquesti onabl y uni que i n i ts geneti c make-up, and ob­
servabl e vari ati ons occur wi th regul ari ty.
For yel low and green color and for round and wrinkled shape.
Yel low and round are dominant traits.
A DI HYBRID CROSS, as charted,
shows the genetic compsition of
each possible combination of
sperm and egg. The four pssible
chromosome combinations in the
sperm are shown across the top
of the chart, and the four pos­
sible kinds of eggs along the lef
side. The checkerbard i s then
fl l ed out by combining each kind
of sperm with each kind of egg.
I n genetic make-up, the kinds
of ofspring pssible from such
a cross are: yel l ow-round, yellow­
wrinkled, reen-round, and green­
wrinkled, in U theoretical ratio
of 9: 3: 3: 1 . Actual l y O very large
population, or feld sample, i s
needed i n order. to reach such a
ratio in nature.
I n practical genetics, the
checkerbord method, with a few
traits, can b used to work out
the genetic make-up of either
the ofspring ar the prents.
I f enough ofspring are examined
to have a sampling af all the vari­
ous genetic types that might
be expressed, these con b
plotted on the checkerbard. Then
the actual gene compsition of
the two prents can b determined.
Knowledge of genetic bock­
ground i s commonly used i n plant
breeding Ia develop breedi ng
stock wi th such desi rabl e features
as resistance to disease and
greater productivity. I n fowers
and shrubs, a more desirabl e ap­
parance may be the prpse.

l st generotion 2nd generotion
1 23
( homozygous)
cross-pl l i nation


R g r P ºº
, heterozygous
sel f-pl l i nation
of hybrid male gametes female gametes
1 24
2 pink
I NCOMPLEE DOMI NANCE someti mes occurs when the
two genes of a pai r seem equal l y efecti ve in thei r
i nfuence on a trai t. I f purebred red-fowered four- o' ­
cl ocks ( RR) are crossed wi th purebred whi te-fowered
pl ants ( rr) , the ofspri ng are all heterozygous ( Rr) but
have pi nk fowers. When these pi nk-fowered pl ants are
crossed, thei r ofspri ng appear in the rati o of one red,
two pi nk, and one whi te.
Domi nance may al so be afected i n some pl ants by
the envi ronment. Temperature, i ntensi ty of l i ght, and
other external factors may cause a change i n the ex­
pected resul ts. Chi nese pri mroses grown at 68° F. , for
exampl e, wi l l produce red fowers, but if the pl ants
are grown at 80° F. , they produce whi te fowers.
CROSSI NG OVER may occur i n
meiosi s. When the chromosomes
pir and twist together, they may
beok apart in such a way that
an exchange of chroatin has
occurred at their points of con­
tact. Thi s changes the original
order ( l inkae) of the genes, and
new hereditary combinations arise.
DELETI ONS occur when small
bits of a si ngl e chromosome
break of. They may be lost,
and the genes carried on that
portion of the chromosome do not
appear in the daughter nucl ei.
Or they may become attached to
another chromosome ( translo-
cated) and thus alter the inheri-
tance pattern.
I NVERSIONS occur when a
si ngle chromosome breaks and
then recombines itself i n such
a way that the original order of
the genes i s altered. No genes
are lost in an i nversion, but
the compl icating factor of their
new psition may afect the i n­
heritance ptter.
results from interaction of
several incompletely dominant
genes. Their cumulative efect
may cause a variation in a trait
or character. In wheat, for
example, four genes infuence
grain color. When red and white
grain varieties are crossed and
their medium-red ofspring are
interbred, the grain color in
the next generation ranges from
red to white.





dark red

R¡ R¡

r, r,
MUT A liONS are abrupt i nheri tabl e changes brought
about by al terati ons i n a gene or a chromosome or by
an i ncrease i n chromosome number. Pl ants showi ng these
changes are cal l ed mutants. The rate of mutation oc­
currence can be i ncreased arti fci al l y, but the resul ts
cannot be control l ed. Navel oranges, nectari nes, many
vari eti es of potatoes, and vari egated shrubs are mutants
asexual l y propagated to retai n desi rabl e features .
Novel Orange
cl ude ( 1 ) changes i n the normal
number of chromosome sets, lead­
ing to a condition cal led polyploidy
(p. 1 27), ( 2) loss of or addition
of a chromosome or chromosome
port; and ( 3) abnormal fusions
duri ng crossi ng over. Gene muta­
tions ore changes i n si ngl e genes.
Usual l y recessi ve, they may b
unexpressed for generati ons.
Mutati ons ore produced by
internal di sorders, such as in­
accurate gene duplication, and
by natural external forces, such
as severe temperature changes
and radiations. They ore induced
experimental l y by use of atomic
radiation, X-roys, chemical s,
and sudden temperature changes.
In laboratories, plants ore bom­
barded with gamma or X-ray radia­
tion to prouce mutati ons. Re­
searchers check the results for
new types of plants with desirable
features. Tens of thousands of
pl ants may b treated before a
desirable trait i � obtained.
C!onges due to
atomi c radiation
1 Zó
colchi ci ne
spindle hbers
during meiotic
di vi sion
di vi si on stops
ond nucl eor
forms oround
di ploid nucl eus
POLYPLOIDY refers to the num-
ber of chromosome sets i n o cel l .
Hoploid ¦In| i s one set, di pl oi d
[ 2n| , two sets. A plyploid i s ony
number more thon the di pl oi d. A
sex cel l [ gomete) is normolly
hoploid, but i f o cel l woll foi l s
to form duri ng mei osi s, sex cel l s
devel op with two sets of chromo
somes [ di pl oi d, or 2n| . | f one
of these 2n sex cells i s ferti-
l ized by o In sex cell, o triploid
[ Jn| pl ont i s produced. | f two
ehects of
colchi ci ne
weor oh ond
spi ndl e forms
split ond
di ploid gometes
di ploid sex cells unite, o tetro-
ploid [ 4n| plont resul ts. Poly-
ploidy moy occur noturolly or
moy be i nduced by use of colchi -
ci ne, os shown obove.
Polyploid plonts ore usuol l y
more vigorous thon di pl oi ds, but
some ore steri l e. 5eedl ess woter-
melons, 6ol dwi n oppl es, Pi nk
6eouty tul ips, ond Jopnese how-
ering cherries ore tri ploi ds. Most
cul tivoted irises ond mony l i l i es
ore tetroploi ds.
INBREED ING ( sel f-pol l i nati ng) resul ts fnal l y in a
homozygous popul ati on. Thi s establ i shes a l i ne that
tends to breed true, wi th both desi rabl e and undesi r­
abl e traits. For corn hybri di zati on ( bel ow), i nbred l i nes
are sel ected to ofset the undesi rabl e recessi ve trai ts
of one l i ne wi th desi rabl e domi nant expressi ons of the
same trai ts i n another.
HYBRID IZATION ( cross-pol l i nati ng) of two i nbred l i nes
al l ows expressi on of the desi rabl e domi nant trai ts of
both l i nes. Thi s usual l y resul ts al so i n "hybri d vi gor "­
pl ants more vi gorous than those of ei ther i nbred l i ne.
Si ngl e-cross and doubl e-cross hybri d corn devel oped i n
thi s manner al wcys gi ve greater yi el ds than· non-hybri d
types . When the trai ts are segregated agai n in thei r
ofspri ng, thi s vi gor may be l ost. For thi s reason farmers
pl ant hybri d corn seed produced under control l ed condi ­
ti ons rather than seeds from thei r own crops.
| nbred 6 | nbred C
| nbred A
1 2 8
| nbred D
Abut ï generotions
of sel f-pol l i notion
[ i nbreedi ng| produces
neorly homozygous
lines A, 6, C, ond D.
A ond D ore detosseled,
6 ond C furni sh pol l en.
MO0ERN OFNFT| CS ori gi nated when chemi cal anal ysi s
reveal ed that chromosomes contai n to cl asses of mol e­
cul es: protei ns ard nucl ei c aci ds. The nucl ei c acids oc­
cur in the cel l in to forms: ri bose nucl ei c aci d ( RNA)
and deoxyri bonucl ei c aci d ( DNA) . The i nheri tance mes­
sage seems to be coded in the structure of DNA.
DNA i s found mostl y i n the
chromosomes of the nucleus. | n
structure i tconsi stsof two spi rol i ng
choi ns of sugor mol ecul es olter-
noti ng wi th phosphoric ocid mol e-
cul es. The sugor mol ecul es of one
choin ore l i nked to the sugor
molecul es of the other choi n by
poi rs of ni trgenos boses, of
whi ch there ore four: thymi ne,
guoni ne, cytosi ne, ond odeni ne.
Thus, the enti re mol ecul e is be-
l i eved to look somewhot l i ke o
long, spi rol lodder with pi rs of
ses forming the
rungs. The i mportont pint i s
thoteoch `crossrung'ol woyscon-
si sts ofone oftwo poi rs: cytosine-
guoni ne or thymi ne-odeni ne.
A CHROMOSOME contoi ns
specihc omounts of DNA wi th
boses hel d together, one oher
the other, i n mony diherent se-
quences. Thus, genes ore thought
to be speci hc sequences of these
units contoi ning speci fic numbrs
of ni trogen
ses. Gene function
i s lorgely thot of prgrommi ng
protei n producti on.
The bosi c uni t of DNA consists of
o nucl eotide, consi sting of phos-
phoric oci d [ P) , sugor [5), ond
one nitrogenous bose-guoni ne
[ G} , cytosi ne [ C} , odeni ne [ A} , or
thymi ne [ T) . Four nucleotides
! ??
. . DUPICATION, or repl i cati on, i s
the biol ogi sts ' term for the way
DNA makes copi es of hereditary
informtion, which i s the basi s by
which orgni sms make copies of
themsel ves. How the repl i cation
takes place is not ful ly known,
but is sometimes described as the
"zi pper efect" -the sepration
of the two halves of the "spi ral
l adder" ( as shown) . Each hal f
then supposedly attracts to i tsel f
the necessary substances to re­
pl ace its separated prner to form
a new hel i x.
RNA, whi l e present i n the chromo­
somes i n smal l amounts, ocurs
pri nci pal ly outsi de the nucl eus
i n the cytopl asm, although it i s
apprentl y made i n the nucl eus.
RNA is very si mi l ar in mol ecul ar
arrangement to DNA with three
diferences: First, the sugar mole­
cul e i s ribose i nstead of deoxy­
ri bse. (The sugar i n DNA has
one l ess oxygen atom than that
of RNA. ) Second, uraci l repl aces
thymine. Fi nal ly, most RNA con­
tai ns many si ngl e-stranded sec­
tions i nstead of a doubl e hel ical
Three ki nds of RNA are known
to exist: ¦ I j ribosomal ( r-RNA) ,
¦ zj transfer ( t-RNA), and ( 3)
messenger ( m-RNA). Each has
i ts own fncti on; but the mai n
resul t i s that RNA carries genetic
i nformtion coded i n DNA fom
the nucl eus tc protein bui ldi ng
sites ( ri bsomes) i n the cyto­
plasm surroundi ng the nucl eus.
The i mprance l i es i n the fact
that a particul ar protei n is always
a prt of a prti cul ar enzyme
( the "one gene-one enzyme"
concept). I n tur n, parti cul ar en­
zymes control speci fc processes.
1 30
TRA NSCRIPTI ON • phosphoric acid
3 kinds
• ri bose sugar

uraci l
( nitrogen

_ µ
Ç ~ Þ -Ç=¿ <
'` '
. .
� , "
� · � ·ª u
� ¯
structure of one
compnent of RNA
mol ecul e
GENE EXPESSI ON woks through
protei n synthesi s di rected by a
universal , orgni smi c, genetic
"l anguage. " Thi s coed language
di rects the sel ection and order of
parti cul ar amino aci ds i n a par­
ticular enzymatic protei n. There
ore twenty ami no aci ds i n all and
the l anguage codi ng them con­
si sts of only three-l etter words.
The letters used: A, C, G, T, and
U stand for the nitroen bses
of DNA and RNA. The DNA
model poerly shows bose pair­
ing: AT or TA; GC or CG.
3-l etter
combi nations
make a coe
for each of
twenty ami no
aci ds
ri bose
- phosphori c aci d
G- C _
A - T
A - U
pai rs of
ni trogen
Doubl e-stranded DNA ( at ri ght above) separates and the
l eft strand coes RNA for two ami no aci ds as shown.
mi grates from the nucl eus and
associ ates closel y wi th a ri bsome
and is r-RNA. Transfer RNA
locates i ts coed ami no aci d i n
the cytoplasm and j oi ns i t chemi ­
cal l y. Thi s t-RNA, l i nked wi th i ts
ami no acid, then mi grates to the
ribsoe wi th the m-RNA. Here
the some codi ng rules posi ti on the
ami no acid as regul ated by the
code on the m-RNA. Other t-RNA
molecul es bri ng thei r coed amino
acid into posi ti on on the m-RNA
at the r ibosome. Fi nal ly, the en­
ti re code of the m-RNA i s used
and on enzyme protei n is created.
I n thi s way, DNA wi th i ts genes
oprates through RNA to give
genetic expressi on through en­
zyme control of essenti al l i fe
processes. I n other words, what
on orgni sm is and what i t does
i s the combi ned resul t of i ts me­
tabol i sm and the efects of i ts
envi ronment. Modern geneti cs has
become a combi nati on of Men­
del i an and mol ecul ar concepts.
1 ö Ï
Evol uti on, the conti nual change of l i vi ng thi ngs, is the
resul t of vari ati ons transmi tted by geneti cs and screened
through ti me. Evi dences of these changes are many. A
hi stori cal record is provided by fossi l s. Changes are
reveal ed al so by compari sons of pl ant structures and by
pl ant physi ol ogy. Further cl ues are found in pl ant di stri ­
buti on and geography, i n bi ochemi stry, and i n geneti c
anal ysi s.
EVOLUTION bgan to receive
world-wide attention after Charles
Darwin publi shed The Origin of
Species by Means of Natura/ Se·
/ection, i n 1 859.
Darin noted that no two sexu­
al l y produced individuals are ex­
actly al ike. A population of plants
or animals prouces more ofspring
than its environment can supprt.
Only the best adapted surive,
passing their characteristics to
their young. This process of natu­
ral selection was the core of Dar·
wi n' s theory. The mechani sm of
heredity was discovered later.
A ppulation changes constantly
due to the combined efects of en­
vironment and heredity. In A, the
i nterchange of genes was complete.
We know now that evolution i s
the result of bath heredity and
environment. A spcies that is
better aapted to its environment
as a result of a change in its
genetic mke-up survives { surival
of fttest); a spcies that loses
features ftting it to its environ­
ment may die out. A new speci es
may appar suddenly as a resul t
of a mutation. I solation of breed­
i ng units prevents the exchange
of genes in sexual reproduction
and, as shown below, may also
prouce new speci es over a l ong
priod of ti me.
I n 6 a geographic brrier has
interrupted this gene interchange.
New spci es may develop from the
i sol ated ppul ation.
FOSSI LIZATION occurs when
minerals repl ace ori gi nal struc­
tures i n such a way that even
cel l detai l s are presered. The
famous ptrifed forest of Arizona
i s an excel l ent example. It con­
si sts l argely of ancient members
of a pl ant group ( Araucari a), once
worl d-wi de, that now occurs onl y
i n a l imited pr of Soth Ameri ca
and i n Austral i a. Someti mes fos­
si l i zation i nvolved mi neral ization
that produced stones of gem
qual ity.
petri facti on
showing wod detai l
FOSSI LS, whi ch are preserved evi dences of l i fe of the
past, provi de one of the cl earest proofs of evol uti on.
Some are actual remai ns, though such preservati ons
are rare. More commonl y, fossi l s are i mpressi ons or re­
pl acements l eft i n anci ent muds or sands that l ater
changed to rocks.
Evi dences that l i fe on earth has prevai l ed over 3
bi l l i on years is substanti ated through anal ysi s of radi o­
acti ve mi neral s. The record reveal s an i ncreasi ng com­
pl exi ty i n pl ants from the ol dest to the youngest rocks.
fossi l i mpressi on
i n rock
photo of
fossi l bacteria
L. b. bör¶h00r4
3 1 0
fwering habit
seed-bearing cones
perenni al hobit
wooi ness: treel ike
evergreen habit
345 seed-bearing ferns
l ife cycle domi nated by
of stems,
and leaves
elopment of some ti ssues
fr growth on l and
500 green algae and o
with nucl ei and plastids
fungi ond al gae that repro­
duce sexually and al so
by mitosis
blue-green al, capable
of phctotynllis
SlQi t-cclle< organisms
without nuclei, reproucing
by fssion
EOLUTION OF LAND PLANTS began in the Devoni an
Peri od some 400 mi l l i on years ago ( pp. 1 34-1 35).
Land pl ants gradual l y devel oped vascul ar ti ssues in thei r
stems, gi vi ng them support. Thei r fowers are speci al i zed
LEPIDODENDRON, typical plants
of warm Pennsylvanian swamps,
formed much of our col . More
than 1 00 fossi l species of these
giant trees have been found in
coal beds. Some grew 1 25 feet
tal l . The ptioles of their nar­
row, fve-foot leaves left spirals
of diamond-shaped scars on the
branches. lepidodendron' s few
livi ng relatives, the club mosses,
are smal l .
1 öÓ
PSilOPHYTON, one of the
Devonian land plants, grew about
3 feet tall from an underground
stem, or rhi zome, which had
developed a si mpl e vascular
tissue. I n some species, the aerial
stem was covered with short,
stout spines, and the tips of the
leafess branches were coiled.
Photosynthesis took place in the
green twigs, which contained
openi ngs, or stomates.
reproducti ve structures that i nsure sexual reproducti on
wi th a maxi mum exchange of geneti c materi al s. Some
si gni fcant pl ant fossi l s and restorati ons of the pl ant
structures are shown here.
CYCADS were typical of the
kinds of gymnosperms common dur­
ing the Jurassic. They bre fower­
like reproductive structures on
their bul bus trunk, from which
grew frondlike leaves much like
those of the moern Zamia. The
closely related Wil/iamsonias,
resembling palms, grew as far
north as Greenl and. Present-day
cycads consist of about 65 spe­
cies that grow i n the tropics or
ANDROMEDA represents the
fowering plants, or angiosperms,
that arose during the Tertiary.
Azaleas and rhoodendrons are
among its fami l i ar modern rela­
tives. The fower shown here i s like
those presered i n the fossi l
resin ( amber) of conifers that
also grew in those times. Many
other families of plants common
today became established duri ng
Tertiary times.
RELIC PLANTS, or "l i vi ng fossi l s, " are rare speci es that
are found al so as fossi l s. These l i vi ng l i nks to the past
provi de i mportant cl ues to anci ent cl i mates as wel l as to
the geol ogi cal age of groups of pl ants, for i t i s assumed
that the pl ants persist today i n areas where the cl i mate
has remai ned much the same as in thei r ori gi nal range.
Cycads (p. 1 37) , for exampl e, were once wi despread. Thi s
i ndi cates that the geographi cal areas where the fossi l s
are found were tropi cal or subtropi cal when the pl ants
grew there.
REDWOODS, among the largest
and ol dest of all living thi ngs, for­
merly grew as far eastward as New
Jersey. It was especi al ly abundant
i n central Col orado. Today, the
Coast Redwood grows onl y in
the " " fag bel t, ' " a narrow strip
al ong the Cal ifornia and Oregon
1 38
woo, once grew throughout the
Northern Hemi sphere, as for
north as the Arctic Ci rcl e. As the
cl i mate cool ed, the tree •s range
di mi ni shed. . It was known onl y
as a fossi l unti l a l ivi ng forest was
found i n a remote pr of south­
western China in 1 944.
THE DI RECTI ON OF EVOLUTI ON is usual l y progres­
si ve-that i s, from the si mpl e to the more compl ex.
Evol uti onary trees ( p. 1 37) i l l ustrate thi s common path.
A speci es i s general l y sui ted for a speci fc · set of
envi ronmental condi ti ons. I f the envi ronment changes,
a hi ghl y speci al i zed type may not be abl e to adapt
and wi l l become exti nct whi l e a speci es fol l owi ng
a si mpl er, more general i zed di recti on conti nues to
evol ve. The reverse coul d al so occur, however. Two
common evol uti onary di recti ons are shown bel ow.
Witch weed
RETROGRESSIVE evol ution re­
sul ts i n structural l y si mpl er types
from the more compl ex. All the
l ants above evolved from ances­
tors with chl orophyl l . Al l now
either have l i ttl e or no chl orophyl l .
They exist as parasi tes or parti al
Cereus Euphorb|o
Lovevi ne I ndi an Pi pe
PARALLEL evol uti on occurs when
pl ants of diferent genera or
even diferent fami l i es have
evolved i n si mi l ar di rections.
Often, as shown below, species
of diferent fami l i es l ook so much
al i ke they can be di sti ngui shed
onl y by careful exami nati on.
Pineappl e Lil y
Hect|o Aloe
1 39
DOMESTIC HYBRIDS someti mes resul t in new speci es,
hence represent accel erated evol uti on. They may have
l i ttl e resembl ance to thei r wild ancestors as shown in
the cul ti vated vari eti es produced from wi ld cabbage. Evi­
dence i ndi cates, too, that hybri ds occur regul arl y in
nature. New speci es of weeds have appeared in areas
where man has destroyed ori gi nal bi oti c communi ti es.
HYBRI DS ore crosses between
two species . Usual l y they ore
steri l e di pl oi ds. Occasional l y,
however, the chromosome number
i s i ncreased i n faulty meiosis
(p. 1 02-1 03) . Most commonl y a
tetrapl oi d ( doubl ed chromosomes)
i s produced. Tetropl oi ds ore fer­
tile, crossi ng freel y with one on-
other and l ess so· with thei r
di pl oi d ancestors . Thus th

y may
produce new speci es rapidl y,
often withi n a few generati ons.
Scott' s Spl eenwort, · a hybrid
between Ebny Spl eenwort and
the Wal ki ng Fern, occurs natu­
ral l y and con also b dupl i cated
i n control led breedi ng.
i s another exampl e of an evolu­
tionary process i n recent limes.
I I may become to plant science
what the story of the evolution of
the horse i s to ani mal sci ence.
AI least five types of corn are
now reconi zed: pop ¦1 ) , fint ¦ 5j ,
four { 3, 4) , dent ¦ ój , and sweet
( 2). The origin of these modern
typs of corn i s not cerai n, though
it i s clear that they developd
somewhere i n the American tro­
ics. Pollen grains estimated to be
80,000 years od have ben found
in l ayers 200 feel below grond
at Mexi co City. They have been
i denti fed as bi ng from wi ld corn
and suggest strongly that corn ha
a Mexi can origi n.
Teosi nte ond Tri psocum, two
l i vi ng wi l d relati ves, have been
hybridized with modern corn to
obtain pssi bl e genetic evidence
of corn' s origi n. Studi es of ac­
cumul ated trash i n dry caves
where man l ived i n prehistoric
limes have so far been most re­
vealing, however. I n the lowest,
hence oldest l ayer of the for
i n a cave i n Mexi co, tiny ears
of corn l ess than an i nch long
have been found. This corn, which
dates to abut 5000 B. C. , i s prob­
ably much like the ori gi nal wi l d
corn from whi ch man developed
the fiVe mdern types. This pri mi ­
ti ve corn i s now exti nct.
I n shal l ower, more recent l ay­
ers of the cave a fai rl y sequen­
ti al record of corn development
i s found. Some of the fossi l spci­
en mund mete resembl e the
corn that is grown today i n some
of the warm regions of Norh
and South America.
(wild maize
Pri mi ti ve

Gene pol
1 4 1
Natural communi ti es are formed of pl ants and ani mal s
that depend on the same envi ronment and on each other
for raw materi al s and food from whi ch they deri ve ener­
gy. Each natural communi ty, or ecosystem, has a wel l ­
organi zed structure and appears to be stabl e. Studi es
reveal , however, that communi ti es change constantl y.
These changes, whether l arge or smal l , are usual l y measur­
abl e onl y over a l ong peri od of ti me. Often one change
tri ggers another and thus creates a chai n . reacti on. I n
ti me, a total pl ant popul ati on changes.
mi ni ng the ki nds of. plants in o
community ore mai nl y cl i mate and
soil. Temperature, l i ght, and
preci pi tation are the pri nci pal
cl i mati c factors. Some pl ants, for
exampl e, grow only i n hot deserts;
others, i n cool bgs. Some can
tolerate varied conditions .
di rection of
drying or
cold wi nd .

Soli s are the source of mois­
ture and mi neral s. Soi l texture
afects the amount of oxygen
aai lable for seed geri nation,
root growth, and bcterial action.
Physi cal factors may be lo­
cali zed. A wi ndbreak potects
plants from winds and also reduces
l oss of water by transpiration.
protected area
1 42
ani mal s that eat
other ani mal s
Primary Foo Producers­
Plants That Manufacture Fod
complex, i ncl udi ng i nterdepen­
dencies of organi sms that are food
producers, or starers, and food
consumers, or users. I n nature,
these factors worki ng toether
bring about a bal anced condition
that tends to perpetuate the
system yet al l owi ng for slow
At each step in a fo chain
the numbr of consumer organi sms
and the avai lable energy de­
creases; the si ze of the individual s
i ncreases. Thi s concept is i l l ustrated
by the pyrami d abve.
The three-step fod chai n be­
low i s one of the si mpl est. Most
fod chai ns i nvolve many steps
. and overlap other food chai ns.
1 ,000 l bs.
of phytopl

1 00 lbs_ of kri l l
Three-Step Fod Chai n
CYCLES of materi al s and energy are necessary to sup­
port l i fe. In the process there is a recycl i ng of materi al
deri ved from both l i vi ng and dead organi sms. Mi cro­
organi sms pl ay an i mportant rol e in these cycl es, whi ch
vary from one habi tat to another. Some i mportant ex­
ampl es are gi ven here.
CARBON is found i n oi l organic
compounds. I n the form of carbon
dioxide i t i s uti l ized with water
i n photosynthesi s of basi c foods
by pl ants. In thi s proess, oxy­
gen i s rel eased i nto the atmos­
phere. Thi s i s virual l y the onl y
mens of oxygen repl eni shment
to the atmosphere. Both pl ants
and animal s rel ease carbon
di oxi de in respi rati on returni ng
it to the i norgni c real m of water
and air. Carbon in the plant and
animal tissues i s also returned to
the cycle by decay. Thus, the same
caron atoms are used over and
over. Sometimes, as i n col and
l i mestone, the carbn atoms may
b out of ci rcul ation for long
periods. Today, pol l uti on i s a
maj or concern as it favors l ok­
ing carbn into C02 •
Li ght Energy
1 44
pl ants
bui l d up
protei ns,
and fats
A trspheric
pl ant ¡
respi ration

NI TROGEN is as essenti al to
l i fe as is carbon. It is a prt of
al l ami no aci ds and protei ns. From
the ai r i t cannot b used di rectl y
by ani mal s or by most pl ants.
Some ki nds of bcteri a, however,
can convert atmospheri c nitroen
i nto usabl e organi c compounds.
Some of these bacteria l ive i n
the rot nodul es of legumes, such
as cl over. The nitroen componds
they form are eventual l y rel eased
in decay and rel ated proesses
as ammoni a, then ni trites and
nitrates. The ammoni a and ni trates
are absorbd by rots of pl ants
and uti l i zed i n bui l di ng protei ns.
Ani ma Is that eat these pl ants then
convert the compounds i nto ani ­
mal protei ns.
WATER i s another essenti al ma­
terial that i s i ncorporated i n al l
l i fe forms. Though i ts distribution
is not uniform, the supply of water
an earth i s adequate and i s re­
usabl e. I t i s ci rculated from the
atmosphere H lond ond water­
then bck i nto the atmsphere.
Mi neral sal ts are circulated i n
sol uti on in water.
Plants return much water to
the atmsphere by transpiration
(p. 83) . They also intercept
rai nfal l , thus aiding i n its im­
mediate evapration. On the other
hand, the shade afored by pl ants
and thick l ayers of dead l eaves on
the soi l col s the soi l , sl ows down
evaporation, and i ncreases water­
hol di ng capcity of soi l .

1 45
Desert and semi-desert
Grassl and and savanna
Forest C-coniferous
scl eropyl l us ( dry)
rain forest ( wet)
brodleaf evergreen
or dry scrub
BIOMES is the term used by ecol ogi sts to defne the
l argest plant communi ti es, coveri ng broad areas of the
earth. They establ i sh the character of a regi on-as, for
exampl e, the tropi-cal rai n forests al ong the equator and
the extensi ve coni ferous forests of the North. Bi omes
consi st of many smal l er associ ati ons of pl ants that are
generoI I y named for the domi nant pl ants in them. Thus,
oak-hi ckory and beech-mapl e forests are associ ati ons i n
deci duous forests. Man ' s setl ements and agri cul ture have
al tered al l bi omes.
1 4ó
THE MAP abve shows the di s­
tri bution of major pl ant bi omes
that requi re abot the some type
of envi roment. The adoptabi l i ty
of plants to thei r envi roment
leads to si mi l or�i es of form i n
pl ants on di ferent conti nents,
thogh the pl ants may be of dif­
ferent speci es or fami l i es. For
exampl e, succul ent cacti of Ameri ­
can desers look very much l i ke
the succul ent spurgs that grow
i n the deserts of southern Africa
1 39) .
Plants grow al so i n such hosti l e
environments as Greenl and and
Antarctica ( not shown on the
mop). Thei r very presence in such
environments demonstrates the
great adoptabi l ity of l i ving thi ngs.
Both areas ore col d desers, wi th
perptual i ce and snow. I I\ . Ant­
arcica, three spci es of fowering
plants, some mosses ood l i ver­
worts, and numeros l i chens thri ve
on the roky outcroppings. Green­
land has vegetation only along i ts
southern edge.
Ï 4Ï
PLANT SUCCESSION i nvol ves the orderl y, progressive
changes as one type of pl ant community gradual l y
repl aces another. General l y i t i s the domi nant speci es
i n each stage that al ters the envi ronment i n a way
that ushers i n the next stage. I n some cases, the pl ants
and ani mal s that make up each successi on stage and the
durati on of each stage can be predi cted. The eventual
resul t of

uccessi on i s the cl i max stage, a bal anced or
stabl e communi ty that tends to remai n the same unl ess
the envi ronment i s di sturbed. The total of al l the pl ants
and ani mal s, or bi omass, al so i ncreases as a state of
equi l i bri um i s approached.
Most successi ons are sl ow, requi ri ng many years to
move from one stage to the next unti l the cl i max stage
i s reached. One of the fastest ( shown at ri ght) i s
the "ol d fel d successi on" that occurs i n abandoned
cotton fel ds near pi ne forests in southeastern Uni ted
States. The successi on that occurs in a shal l ow pond
may be even faster, dependi ng on the ori gi nal si ze
and depth of the pond, the type of surroundi ng l and,
and the l ength of the growi ng season. Ponds i n fat
country usual l y fl l up more sl owl y than do those i n
hi l l y areas.
ampl e of a community successi on.
The change fo an aquatic
to a dry-l and communi ty i s often
rapid, sometimes completed dur­
ing a man' s l i fetime. As shown
here, a new pnd in a temperate
region gradual ly fl l s with deposits
( si l t and soi l ) that wash i n fo
the surroundi ng area or build up
from the dead remains of plants
and animals that l i ve i n the water
or nearb. The pnd bcomes
shal lower.
Ì 4Û
As the water becomes too shal ­
l ow for the pl ants of one stage,
new kinds of vegetation appear.
The amount of opn water at the
center continues to decrease as
the l ake fl l s i n from the edges.
Common plants of the foating
stage are water l i l ies and pnd­
weeds. Swamp-stage plants are
cattai l s, bul l rushes, and arrow­
heads. At the cl i max stage, a
forest may grow where oce
there was pnd water. A cl i max
community usual l y prsi sts.
Completed i n 200 yeors.
ndoned Cotton Fiel d






held, it moy be
interrupted ot ony
seedl i ng pi nes

e ond begi n
ogo|n ot 0.
ond young pines
0 thick stond of ._
pines wi th
needl es

Advonce of Trees
pines lorger,
thi nner,
brod leof
[gums ond
promi nent
Advonce of Trees
Æ Diometet of Loke ^
Criginol Di ometer of Loke
W •
CLIMAX COMMUNITIES occur when the pl ant popu­
l ati on of an area appears to be stabl e, or at equi ­
l i bri um wi th the envi ronment. Pl ants that di e are then
repl aced by more of the same speci es. Dependi ng on
the cl i mate and soi l , a cl i max may be a forest, grass­
l and, or desert.
I n the same geographi cal regi on, a di ferent number
of successi on stages may be requi red to reach the same
cl i max stage, as shown bel ow. A change i n the soi l
or the cl i mate may al so i nterrupt the successi on pat­
tern and di rect i t to a di ferent cl i max.
BEECH-MAPLE cl i max forests,
typical of northeastern United
States, may b reached on either
rock or sand areas.
More steps and more time are
required i n reachi ng the cl i max
on the rock si te. Aci ds from
early-stage or pioneer plants
must start breaki ng down the
rocks. Roots then grow i nto
smal l cracks and wedge the rock
apart. Debri s and moisture ac­
cumulate, formi ng soi l i n whi ch
other species of pl ants can grow.
Successi on i s faster i n the fnel y
divided sand.
where the annual rai nfal l i s I00
or more i nches, the temperature
from ó5 to 9 5 degrees F. Broad­
leaved evergreens produce for­
ests of huge trees, their crowns
formi ng a dense canopy. The
dense shade restricts low-growing
plants, but epi phytes and woody
vi nes are abundant i n the canopy.
The fragi l e bl ance i n these
forests i s easily di sturbed. Re­
covery, i f i t occurs, i s ver slow.
I t may never occur. Thi s typ
forest i s l east understoo.
ESTS are belts of trees on the
sides of mountai ns. latitude,
moisture, temperdture, and sl ope
al l play a QN in thei r pattern.
In Arizona mountai ns, for exampl e,
the cl i max types change from des­
ert at the mountai n base to pi n­
yon pi nes and j uni pers, then to
Ponderosa Pi nes as moi sture i n­
creases and the temperature be­
comes lower wi th i ncrease i n
el evation. Abve the pi nes are
Dougl as-frs, and fnal l y, a spruce­
fr community at the ti mberl i ne.
cl imax types where rai nfal l is l ess
than I0 i nches per year. Deserts
may be either hot or cold. Thei r
pl ants consi st of four types:
( 1 ) xerophytes, wi th extensi ve
but shal low root systems, reduced
leaves, and thick cuti cl es; ( 2) an­
nuals that can sprout, fower,
and produce seeds withi n a few
weeks; ( 3) phreatophytes, with
deep root systems that penetrate
to the water table; and ( 4) suc­
cul ents, feshy· plants that ab­
sorb and store moisture.
1 52
MI CROECOLOGY deal s wi th the smal l but very si gni ­
fcant envi ronmental di ferences that occur i n every
pl ant communi ty. Not uncommonl y, for exampl e, a tem­
perature vari ati on as great as 1 5 degrees F. occurs
between the soi l surface rmd a few feet above. So a
smal l amount of soi l or water may be the control l i ng
factor that permi ts or restricts the growth of some ki nds
· of pl ants.
the pl ants growing nearby. Along
the shore, the relative humi dity
i s higher and the li ght at ground
level more i ntense than only a
short di stance into the surround­
ing vegetati on. Shores on the
downwind si de are sl ightly warmer
i n winter, so ki l l ing frosts do
not occur as early i n autumn or
as late i n spring.
BARE GROUND oreos may b
warmer on cold ni ghts then weedy
areas, because the weeds i nter­
fere with the upward radiation
of heat from the ground. On frost
nights, plants surrounded by
bare areas have a greater chance
of survi val than do those in
areas covered by a thi ck ground
cover and l eaf l i Her.
DEPESSI ONS in the surface of
the earth can ac as cold ai r
traps. On wi ndl ess ni ghts, cold
ai r fows downhi l l and, l i ke water,
collects i n l owl and pckets. Cold­
. sensitive pl ants mq b absent
from these low areas, though
they may thrive on the neary,
warmer hi gh ground. The efect
of frost pckets i n vegetation can
be seen in sl i ghtl y rol l i ng terrai ns
especi al l y i n subtropics.
TREE CANOPI ES protect the
pl ants that grow underneath. I n
cold weather, the canopy re­
fects heat bock to the ground.
I n summer, the s(,ode prevents
the temperature from becoming
high. At ti mes onl y a few degrees
of diference i n temperature may
be recorded, but this may be the
critical diference for survival. Hu­
mi dity i s also i mprant.
come cl ose to the surface i n
some areas of deserts and change
compl etel y the character of the
vegetation compared to the sur­
roundi ngs. These areas ore cal led
oases. I n the Kofo Mountai ns of
southwestern Ari zona, for exampl e,
pal ms grow i n a steep, desert
canyon where water seeps out
of the rocks.
they grow. I n O foel d of groin or
gross, for exampl e, the tempera­
ture, humidity, and wi nd may
vary consi derabl y from the
ground to the top of the plants.
I nsects adopted to particul ar
ni ches move up or down the pl ants
to remai n comfortable as the
mi croenvi ronment changes.
GREENHOUSES ore useful mi cro­
habitats i n whi ch temperature,
l ight, and moisture con be con­
trol l ed. Even within a greenhouse,
mi crocl imotic conditions exi st.
Plants that requi re ful l sunl i ght
ore hung from the roof; those
with i ntermedi ate needs ore •
placed on the benches in semi ­
shade; those that need al most
complete shade ore pl aced under
the bnches.
1 53
I NTERACTI ONS occur as l i vi ng thi ngs respond to each
other and to thei r envi ronment. Ecol ogi sts someti mes
descri be the complex rel ati onshi ps as [1 ) commensal i sm
and mutual i sm, i n whi ch the rel ati onshi ps are ei ther
benefci al or neutral ; and ( 2) competi ti on, parasi ti sm, and
predati on, i n whi ch they are i nhi bi ti ng or harmful .
COMPETI TI ON i s the pri nci pal
i nteraction among pl ants. Pl ants
of the same species are the most
strongl y competitive, because
they have the same needs and the
same structures for obtai ni ng
them. They interfere wi th or
prevent each other from getting
sunl i ght, water, and mi neral s.
Some plants el i mi nate competi­
tors of their own species by pro­
ducing growth-i nhibiting sub­
stances. Roots of the desert
Creosote Bush, for exampl e,
secrete toxi c substances that ki l l
young seedl i ngs that germinate
nearby. Thi s resul ts i n the natural
wide spaci ng of the bushes, as
shown in the i l l ustration below l eft.
Encel i a, another desert shrub, and
Bl ack Wal nuts are other pl ants
that i nhibit growth of thei r own
seedl i ngs when nearby.
Pl ants may also el i mi nate com­
petition from other speci es, as
shown in the aeri al view below
right. The ptches of gray-green
sagebrush are separated from the
green grassl ands by narrow bands
of soi l . Leaves of the shrubs
gi ve of a gaseous chemical that
ki l l s the grass, whi ch is yel l owed
and dead where it has grown
toward the shrub i sl ands.
pol l uti on. I n some cases symptoms appeari ng on crops
or on wi l d pl ants are the frst evi dence that pol l uti on i s
occurri ng, hence serve as a warni ng system. Mi l l i ons of
dol l ars are bei ng l ost each year due to damage by
atmospheri c pol l utants to crop and wi l d pl ants.
AI R POLLUTI ON capable of
ki l l ing pl ants frst become evi·
dent years ago with the e·xpansi on
of industri es. Smoke was the frst
obvious cause.
The ai r borne toxicants re·
sponsi bl e for most plant ki l l s
today are ethyl ene, ozone, ai de·
hydes, fuori des, sul fur and nitro·
gen di oxi de, and several campo·
nents of smog. Ethyl ene can
damage some pl ants at concen­
trations i n the ai r as low as 5
parts per hundred mi l l ion. Shown
here are some vegetables damaged
by smog i n Cal i forni a. I n this
condition the vegetabl es are not
sal abl e.
RADIATION efects on pl ants
range from sl i ght, al most unde­
tectable o n1 unes to abnormal
growths, growth stoppage, and
even death. To study its efect
on a plant community, gamma ra­
diation sources were placed i n an
oak-pine forest. About six months
later, the efects were easi l y
Pi nto Bean
i njury by i njury by
ozone normal l eaf sul fur di oxi de
seen as far as 1 20 feet from the
source. Sedges were the most tol­
erant speci es, pines the least.
Obviousl y, uncontrol l ed radio­
active pollution can al ter plant and
ani ml communi ti es i n ways that
may be vi tal l y i mportant to man.
bl ue pi nes, oaks, heaths, sedges
al l al ive
green pines ki l led
orange w pins and oaks ki l led
yel low ¿ pi nes, oaks, and heaths ki l l ed
@ al l pl ants dead
red • source of radi ati on
Relative Tolerance of
Pl ants to Radiation
1 55
MAN'S ECOSYSTEM is dependent upon pl ants. Pl ants are
the basi s of hi s food and are the l i nks to al l energy
and materi al cycl es between the earth and the sun.
Man has repl aced l arge forested areas wi th l ow-growi ng
seasonal crops, roads, and ci ti es . I n so doi ng, ferti l e
soi l s have been destroyed and natural drai nages al tered.
Extensive drought areas appear, persi st, and i ncrease
year after year. Due to i ncreased rel ease of carbon
di oxi de i nto the atmosphere, beyond the capaci ty of
green pl ants to control , a "greenhouse efect" at hi gh
al ti tudes i s causi ng the earth to become warmer. More
changes to the envi ronment seem i nescapabl e as man ' s
popul ati on conti nues t o i ncrease. We must make more
i ntel l i gent use of our resources i f we are to survi ve.
Many sci enti fc advances hel p. I mproved vari eti es of
food pl ants are bei ng produced gi vi ng greater crop
yi el ds. A cross between wheat and rye, for exampl e, has
produced an enti rel y new speci es and a superior grai n.
I mproved pl ant sources of drugs, fbers, and raw materi al s
for i ndustri es are bei ng di scovered regul arl y.
Adj ustments to changes wi l l al ways be necessary as
more i s l earned about how to control and to di rect the
envi ronment. I t i s essenti al to keep a huge area of
the earth i n pl ants as a basi s for the pyrami d of l i fe.
I ncreasi ng numbers of humans wi l l requi re an even
broader pl ant base for thi s pyrami d.
1 56
F Ok F U k T H E k k E F E k E N C E
Ful l er, Harry J. , and Carothers, Zane ô. , Îhe Pl ant World, 4th ed. , New
York, N. Y. : Hol t , Ri nehart ö Wi nston, 1 963.
Mi l ne, Lorus and Margery, Li vi ng Plants of the World, New York, N. Y. :
Random House, 1 967.
Northen, Henry T., I ntroductory Plant Science, 3rd ed., New York, N. Y. :
Ronal d Press, 1 968
Raven, Peter H. , and
urti s, Hel ena, Bi ology of Plants, New York, N. Y. :
Worth Publ i shers, 1 970
Shuttleworth, Fl oyd b. , and Zi m, Herbert S. , Non-Floweri ng Plants, New
York, N. Y. : Gol den Press, 1 967
Tortora, Gerard J. , Ci cero, Donal d R. , and Pari sh, Howard Î . , Pl ant Form
and Function, New York, N. Y. : Crowel l Col l i er ö Macmi l l an, 1 970
Wi l son,
arl L. , and Loomi s, Wal ter P. , Botany, 4th ed. , New York, N. Y. :
Hol t, Ri nehart ö Wi nston, 1 967
Absorpti on, 1 0 Archegoni a, 1 04 reproducti on, 43
Adeni ne, 70 Ascomycetes, 36 Bul bs, 1 1 6
ADP, 70 Asexual reproduction,
Aerobi c respi rati on, 86 1 00 Cambi um, 67
Ai r pol l uti on, 1 55 Assi mi l ati on, 1 0 Carbohydrates, 79
Al gae, 1 4, 1 8·27 ATP, 70 Carbon cycl e, 1 44
bl ue-green, 1 8 aerobi c respi rati on, Carboni ferous pl ants,
brown, 20 86 48
cul ti vati on, 26 gl ycol ysi s, 85 Carni vorous pl ants, 75
evol uti onary ori gi n, Auxi ns, 90, 96·97 Cel l di vi si on, 1 00· 1 01
1 34 Cel l structure, 6
fi l amentous, 1 00 Baci l l us, 29 Cel l ul ose, 6, 79
and fungi , 41 Bacteri a, 4, 28·3 1 , 74 in al gae, 26
gol den, 22 anaerobi c, 85 Chemosyntheti c
green, 24 counti ng, 30 bacteri a, 74
photosynthesi s, 71 decay cycl e, 1 44 Chl orophyl l s, 6, 71
red, 1 9 evol uti onary ori gi n, al gae, 24
Al ternati on of 1 34 Chl oropl asts, 6, 72
generati ons, 7, 43, food· spoi l age, 30 Chromati ds, 1 0 1
1 03, 1 04, 1 06 fossi l , 1 33 Chromosome set, 43
Ami no aci ds, 8 1 , 1 3 1 parasi ti c, 77 Chromosomes, 1 1 8
Anaerobi c pathogeni c, 3 1 DNA, 1 29
respi rati on, 85 saprophyti c, 76 mei osi s, 1 03
Angiosperms, 1 5, 56 usefu l , 29 mi tosi s, 1 01
fossi l , 1 37 Bacteri al forms, 29 mutati ons, 1 26
gametophytes, 1 06 Bark, 67 � Cl assi fi cati on, 1 2 - 1 3
l ife cycl e, 1 08 Basi di omycetes, 38 of pl ant s, 63
roots, 64 Beech-mapl e cl i max, Cl i max communi ti es,
Ani mal s 1 50 1 48, 1 50
characteri sti cs, 6 Bi omass, 1 48 Cl ub fungi , 38
l i fe cycl e, 7 Bi omes, 1 46 C |ub mosses, 48
Annual ri ngs, 67 Sl ack mol ds, 34 Cool , A
Annual s, 1 34, 1 51 Bl i ghts, 35 Coccus, 29
Antheri di a, 1 04 Botany, defi ni ti on, 4 Col chi ci ne, 1 27
Anti bi oti cs, 3 1 , 37 Bread mol d, 34 Commensal i sm, 1 54
Appl e, 97, 1 1 2 Bryophytes, 1 5, 42, 44 Competi ti on, 1 54
1 57
Cones, evol uti onary
ori gi n, 1 34
Conifers, 1 5, 54, 55
Cork, 67
Corms, 1 1 6
devel opment, 1 41
hybri di zati on, 1 28
Cortex, 58
ossi ng over, 1 25
Cross-pol l i nati on, 1 1 0
Cutti ngs, 96
Cycads, 1 5, 1 37
Cytopl asm, 8
Dark reacti ons, 73
Darwi n, Charl es, 1 32
Day l ength, effect, 92
bacteri al , 29, 1 44
fungi , 76, 79, 1 44
Deci duous trees, 58
Del eti ons, 1 25
Desert communi ti es, 1 51
Desert pl ants, 83
Desmi ds, 24
Di atomaceous earth, 22
Di atoms, 4, 22
Di cotyl edons, 1 5, 58
rel ati onshi ps, 60
roots, 65
stems, 66
Di gesti on, 1 0
Di hybrid cross, 1 22
Di nofl agel l ates, 23
Di pl oi d nucl ei , 1 1 8
Di sease bacteria, 31
DNA, 1 29
Domi nance, genetic,
1 1 9, 1 24
Dorm i ns, 91
Doubl e ferti l i zati on,
1 08, 1 34
Dupl i cati on, 1 3q
Ecosystem, 1 42,1 56
El ements, ö1
Embryo, 1 1 1
Embryophytes, 1 4- 1 5,
seedl ess, 44
wi th seeds, 52
Endosperm, 1 1 1
Endotoxi ns, 31
1 58
Energy cycl e, 84, 1 44
Energy pyrami d, 1 43
Envi ronment
control of, 98
and heredi ty, 1 1 9
hosti l e, 1 47
and pl ants, 1 42- 1 56
Enzymes, 78
Epi dermi s, 69
Ergot fungus, 36
Eugl enoi ds, 1 7
Evol uti on, 1 32- 1 41
chart, 1 34
di recti on, 1 39
on, 1 0
Exotox·i ns, 31
Fai ry ri ngs, 38
Fats, 80
Fermentati on, 85
Ferns, 5, 50
evol uti onary ori gi n,
1 34
l i fe cycl e, 1 05
seed ferns, 52
Ferti l i zati on, 1 02
Ferti l izers, 8 1
Fi ddl eheads, 50
Fi el d succession, 1 48
Fi ssi on, 28, 1 01
Fl ori gen, 92
Fl oweri ng pl ants, 56
see also
Angi osperms
Fl owering and
day l ength, 92
Fl owers
compl ete, 1 06
evol uti onary ori gi n,
1 34
i ncompl ete, 1 07
perfect, 99
reproduction, 1 09
Food chai n, 1 43
Food preservati on,
30, 96
F·ood production,
pl ants, 78-79
Food spoi l age, 30
Food storage
structures, 78
Fossi l stems, 1 36
Fossi l s, 1 33, 1 37
l i vi ng, 1 38
Fructose, 79
Frui ts
auxi n stimul ati on, 97
cl assi fi cati on,
1 1 4- 1 1 5
ni ti on, 1 1 3
devel opment, 1 1 2
in nutri ti on, 78
Fungi , 1 4, 32-41
as decay agent,
76 .79, 1 44
evol uti onary ori gi n,
1 34
Gal l s, 31
Gametophytes, 43
moss, 45
Genes, 1 2 1
code, 1 3 1
combi nati ons, 1 22
Geneti c trai ts, 1 1 9
Genetics, 1 1 8- 1 31
Genus, 1 2
Geographi c barri er,
1 32
Geotropi sm, ö
Gi bberel l i ns, 91
Gi nkgo, 1 5, 53
Gl ucose, 73, 79
movement, 87
Gl yci ne, 81
Gl ycol ysi s, 85
Grafti ng, 1 1 7
Grass fami l y, 62
Greenhouse effect, 1 5
Growth, 7, 1 1
Growth i nhi bi ti on, 1 54
Growth movements, 88
Growth regul ators, 90
Guard cel l s, 69
Gymnosperms, 1 5, 53
coni fers, 54
fossi l , 1 37
l i fe cycl e, 1 08
Hapl oi d nucl ei , 1 1 8
Heartwood, 67
Herbaceous stems, 66
Hormones, 90-91
practi cal uses, 96
Hornworts, 44
Horsetai l s, 1 4, 49
Hybri di zati on, 1 28
Hybri ds, 1 40
Hydrogen-acceptor, 73 Mei osi s, 43, 1 02- 1 03, Peni ci lli um, 37
Hypha, 33 1 08 Petrifacti on, 1 33
Hypocotyl , 1 1 1 Mendel i an geneti cs, Phl oem, 9, 67, 68
1 20 Phosph<>l i pi ds, 87
I mbi bi ti on, 83 Meristem, 8 Photoautotro1h, 7 4
I nbreedi ng, 1 28 Mesophyl l , 68 Photoperiodi sm, 92
l ndehi scent, 1 1 5 Metabol i sm, 1 0 Photoreceptors, 9.
I nheri tance, 1 1 8- 1 3 1 Microecol ogy, 1 52 Photosynthesi s, 27,
I nteguments, 1 1 1 Microorgani sms, 1 4- 71 -73
I nteracti ons, 1 54 Mi l dews, 35 in energy cycl e, 1 44
I nterdependenci es of Mi tochondri a, 84 l eaves, 68
organi sms, 1 43 Mitosis, 1 01 , 1 08 stems, 66
I nversi ons, 1 25 Mol ds, 32-34 thal l us pl ants, 1 6
I ron, 74 Monocotyl edons, 1 5, 59 Photosyntheti c bacteri a,
rel ati onshi ps, 62 74
Kel p, 5, 21 roots, 65 Photosyntheti c cycl e, 73
Ki netics, 91 stems, 66 Phototropi sm, 88, 94
Kreb's cycl e, 86 Montane coniferous Phreatophytes, 1 51
forests, 1 51 Phycomycetes, 33
Lamal l ae, 72 Mosses, 5, 1 4, 1 5, 45 Phytochrome pi gment,
Land pl ants, evol uti on, l ife cycl e, 1 04 92, 95
1 36 Mul ti pl e gene Phytopl ankton, 71 , 1 43
Leaves i nheri tance, 1 25 Pi ne, l i fe hi story, 54
evol uti onary ori gi n, Mushroom, 5, 38 Pi tcher pl ants, 75
1 34 Mutati ons, 1 26 Pl ant breedi ng, 1 22
in nutri ti on, 78 Mutual i sm, 4, 1 54 Pl ant characteri sti cs, 6
photosynthesi s, 72 Mycel i um, 33 Pl ant communi ti es, 1 46
propagative, 1 1 6 Mycorrhi zae, 40 Pl ant di seases, 3 1 , 77
structure, 8, 68 Myxomycophyta, 32 fungi , 36, 38
Legume, 1 1 3 Pl ant groups, evol uti on,
Lepidodendron, 1 36 Nami ng of pl ants, 1 2 1 35
Lettuce, 93 Natural communi ti es, Pl ant Ki ngdom, 1 4- 1 5
Li chens, 41 1 42 Pl ant l ife cycl es, 7
Life on earth, 1 33 Ni trogen cycl e, 1 45 Pl an
nutri ti on, 70- 87
ori gi n, 1 6 Nostoc fi l ament, 1 8 Pl ant successi on, 1 48
li ght Nutri ti on, 1 1 , 70-87 Pl ant ti ssues, 8
day l engths, 92 autotrophi c, 74 Pl asmol ysi s, 82
energy cycl e, 1 44 heterotrophi c, 76 Pl umul e, 1 1 1
as energy source, 74
Oi l deposi ts, 22
Pol l i nati on, 1 06, 1 08,
phototropic response, 1 1 0
Oil pl ants, 80
Pol l uti on, pl ants as
sensi ti vi ty to, 1 1 , 88
Ori gi n of l ife, 1 6
i ndi cators, 1 55
wavel engths, 94
Osmosis, 82
Pol yphosphates, 70
see also
Qvary, 99
Pol ypl oi d", 1 27
Photosynthesi s
Oxygen, 10
Pond successi on, 1 48
Li ght reacti ons, 73
in space uni t, 27
Popul ati on changes,
Li nkage, 1 1 9
Pal i sade l ayer, 68 1 32, 1 42
Unnaeus, 1 2 Pal ms, 1 53 Potatoes
liverworts, 1 5, 44
Paral l el evol uti on, 1 39 bl i ght, 35
Locomoti on, 6
Parasi tes, 40, 76 water requi rements,
Long-day pl ants, 93
Parasi ti sm, 1 54 82
Pasteuri zati on, 30 Predati on, 1 54
Man, dependence upon Parenchyma, 8 Protei ns, 8 1
pl ants, 1 56
Peat moss, 45 Proti sta, 6
1 59
Protonema, 1 04 anatomy, 64 Thal l ophytes, 1 4- 1 5, 1 6
Protopl asm, 6 , 8 reproduct1 on, 1 06 Thi gmotropi sm, 88
Psi lophytes, 1 5, 46
Seedl i ng devel opm�nt, Ti mber l i ne, 1 51
Puffbal l s, 38
1 1 1 Ti ssues, pl ant, 8
Pyrami d of l i fe, 1 56 Seeds Trace el ements, 8 1
Pyruvi c aci d, 8 5
embryo, 1 1 1 Transl ocati on, 1 0
Quantasomes, 72
evol uti on, 52 Transpi rati on, 83
geneti cs, 1 21 Traumati n, 98
Qui l l worts, 1 4, 4
l i fe cycl e, 1 09 Tree canopi es, 1 53
Radi ati on, effect on
in nutri ti on, 78 Tree wounds, 98
pl ants, 1 55
Sel f-pol l i nati on, 1 1 0
Turgor, 82
Radi cl e, 1 1 1
Sensi ti vi ty, 1 1
movements, 89
Rai n forest, 1 51
Sewage puri fi cati on, 27
Twi g, 66
Recessi ve traits, 1 20
Sexual reproducti on,
Red tides, 23
1 02
Uni t membrane, 87
Redwood, 4, 54, 1 38
Short-day pl ants, 93
Rel i c pl ants, 1 38
Sl eep movements, 89
Vascul ar bundl e, 58
Reproducti on, 1 1 , 99- 1 1 7
Sl i me mol ds, 1 4, 32
Vascul ar pl ants, 1 5, 42
asexual , 34
Smuts, 38
Vegetabl e oi l s, 80
embryophytes, 43
Soi l , temperature
Vegetabl es, 1 1 3
sexual , 34
vari ati on, 1 52
Vegetati ve propaga-
Sol ar energy, 71
li on, 66, 1 1 6
propagati on, 1 1 6
Space-uni t food factory,
Veins, b, 59
Respi rati on, 1 0, 84-86
netted, 58
Retrogressi ve evol uti on,
Speci es, 1 2
paral l el , 59
1 39
Species ori gi n, 1 32
Vi ni ng, 91
Rhi zoi ds, 34
Sporangi a, 1 00
Vi ruses, 28
Rhi zomes, 67, 1 1 6
Sporophytes, 4
Ri bose, 70
exti nct species, 4
Water, 82-83
Ri ckettsi a, 28
Stamen, Ý
RNA, 1 30
Starches, 79
di stri buti on, 1 45
Root hai r, 64
sNms, 66
i nfl uence, 1 52
Root structure, V
evol uti onary ori gi n,
underground, 1 53
Root systems, 65
1 34
Water mai ds, 33
i n nutri ti on, 78
Waxes, 80
angi osperms, 64
propagative, 1 1 6
Weed ki l l ers, 97
evol uti onary origi n,
structure, 9
Weeds, 82
1 34
Sti gmas, 99
new species, 1 40
fungus fi l aments, 40
Sti mul us response, 1 0,
Wh ite rusts, 35
growth- i nhi bi ti ng,
Wi l t, 3 1
1 54
Stol ons, 34, 1 1 6
Wi ndbreak, 1 42
in nutri ti on, 78
Stomates, 69
Wood, 67
propagati ve, 1 1 6
Stoneworts, 1 5, 25
Rusts, 38
Successi ons, 1 48 X-ray radi ati on, 1 26
Succul ents, 1 51 Xerophytes, 1 51
Sac fungi , 36 Sugar, 73, 78 Xyl em, 8
Sal ts, 82 gl ycol ysi s, 85 l eaf, 68
Saprophytes, 76 transl ocati on, 87 stems, 67
Sapwood, 67 Survival of fi ttest, 1 32
Sargasso Sea, 20 Symbi osi s, 4
Yeast, 36, 85
Sci ons, 1 1 7 Symbi oti c fungi , 4
Seed germi nati on, effect Synthesi s, 1 0
Zi pper effect, 1 30
of l i ght, 95
Zoospores, 1 00
Seed pl ants, 1 5, 52 Tetrapl oi ds, 1 40
Zygote, 4, 1 02
1 60
TAYLQK K. ALLXANULK is a Professor of Bi ol o
y at the
Uni versi ty of Mi ami , where, i n addi t i on to hi s teachi n
dut i es, he i s doi n
extensi ve research i n ecol o
y. A reci p­
i ent of both State and Federa l
rants, Dr. Al exander is spe­
ci al i zi n
i n pl ant ecol o
y as i t rel ates to the i mpact of
man' s act i vi t i es. He i s maki n
a study of t he ve
etat i onal
es i n t i me to di scover what happens to nat i ve spe­
ci es. Such research wi l l serve as a base for measurement
practi ces and fut u re deci si ons, pr i mar i l y i n Fl ori da and t he
Southeast. Dr. Al exander i s al so an author for t he Gol den
Gu i de, Ecol o
y, as wel l as for over twenty-fi ve art i cl es that
have ecol o
i cal i mpl i cat i ons.
K. WI LL bUKNLTT, Ph. D. , i s Professor of Sci ence Educat i on
and Chai r man, Department of Secondary and Cont i n u i n
Educat i on, Uni versi ty of I l l i noi s. He is aut hor or co-aut hor
of over J0 books i n sci ence and sci ence educat i on.
HLkbLKT 5. ZI ¾, Ph. D. , Sc. D. , i n i t i ated t he Gol den Gui de
Seri es and was both aut hor and edi tor for many years.
Author of some ni nety books and edi tor of about as many,
he i s now Adj unct Professor at the Uni vers i ty of Mi ami and
Educat i onal Cons ul tant to t he Amer i can Fr i ends Servi ce
Commi ttee and other or
an i zati ons. He works on educa­
t i on, popu l at i on and envi ron mental probl ems.
raduated f r om the Yal e School of
Ar t and Archi tectu re wi th a B. F. A. de
ree. She has i l l us­
t rated nu merous j uveni l e books, and has cont ri buted to
many encycl opedi as and textbooks as wel l .












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