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EXOI
PLANTS
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GoLDEN, GoLDEN NATURE GUIDE, and GoLDEN PRESs
ore trademarks of Western Publishing Company, Inc.
by J U Ll A F. M 0 R T 0 N
Illustrated by
RICHARD E. YOUNGER
with assi stance from
Sy and Dorothea Barlowe, Edith Singer,
and Elmer Smith
Under the general editorshi p of
VERA R. WEBSTER
Original Project Editor: Herbert S. Zim
@GOLDEN PRESS NEW YORK
Western Publ ishing Company, Inc .
Racine, Wisconsin
FOREWORD
" Exoti c, " l i teral l y, means "forei gn," but it is today pop
ul arl y appl i ed to anyt hi ng that i s gl amorous or exciti n g.
I t i s used i n a dual sense i n thi s titl e. I n most gardens,
i n any part of the worl d, the majori ty of the showy
pl ants wi l l be found to be trul y "exoti c," or forei gn .
Thi s book presents nearl y 400 pl ants of warm areas
(tropi cal and subtropi cal ) whi ch are admi red for the
beauty of thei r fowers, fol i age, or decorati ve fruits,
and whi ch are common enough to attract the eye of
the l ayman-whether they are huge trees, s hrubs,
vi nes, cacti , or low-growi ng herbs. Pl ants that are strict
ly annual s and a temporary part of the l andscape are
omitted, as are most of those that are grown more for
thei r edi bl e fruit or other crop than as ornamental s.
In the text, cul tural requi rements are gi ven when
they hel p to expl ai n the nature of a pl ant and its sui t
abi l i ty for parti cul ar situations. Means of propagati on
are shown i n the i nterest of the pl ant col l ector.
The artists, Ri chard Younger, Sy and Dorothea Bar
l owe, El mer Smi th, and Edith Si nger have portrayed
the stri ki ng features of each pl ant so as to arouse i nter
est in its beauty, and ai d i dentifcati on
Front cover illustrations
1. Passion Fl ower
2. Yellow l xora
3. Gardenia
Back Cover
1. Wi l d Plantain
2. Yesterday, Today and
Tomorrow
3. Pi nk Gl ory Bush
4. Pomegranate
J . F. M.
GOLDEN, GOLDEN NATURE GUIDE, GOLDEN PREss and GOLDENCRAFT
are trademarks of Western Publishi ng Com pony, I nc.
Copyright 1971 by Western Publishing Company, Inc. All rights reserved,
including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any means,
including the making of copies by any photo process, or by any elec
tronic or mechanical device, printed or written or oral, or recording for
sound or visual reproduction or for use in any knowledge retrieval system
or device, unless permission in writing is obtained from the copyright
proprietor. Produced In the U.S.A. Published by Golden Press, New
York, N.Y. library of Congress Catalog Card Number. 79-149094.
FOREORD
INTRODUCTION
CONTENTS
SUBTROPICAL AND TROPICAL AREAS
BOTANICAL GARDENS
LIST OF PLANT FAMILIES
(with page numbers) .
GLOSSARY OF BOTANICAL TERMS
EXOTIC PLANTS
(illustrations and descriptions)
MORE I NFORMATION
INDEX
PARTS OF A COMPTE FLOWE
2
4
6
7
8
9
10-1 53
154
156
A COMPLETE FLOWER consists
of both mle and female re
productive pars, plus petals
and sepals.
stamen
ovary wall
ovule
sepl (all sepls
form cayx)
3
INTRODUCTION
The pl ant lover demands vari ety. To achi eve it, he has
moved pl ants from t he wi l d t o hi s gar den, from hi s
neighbor's garden t o hi s own . He has sought pl ants
from other countri es and other conti nents. Pl ant i ntro
ducti on through government agenci es has been moti
vated l argel y by economi c reasons; but ornamental
pl ants have not been negl ected, for it i s recognized that
they pl ay an important rol e i n man's wel l -bei ng-hi s
materi al and spi ri tual enri chment and hi s recreation .
Thi s book i ncl udes only pl ants that are subtropi cal
or tropical and fouri sh out-of-doors al l year only i n
warm areas ( see l i st of Subtropi cal and Tropical areas,
p. 6). Some of them are grown outsi de i n the summer
i n cool er cl i mates and many are cultivated as house
pl ants or i n greenhouses i n al l parts of the worl d.
WARM AREAS can be de
fned as the strip around the
earth lyi ng between the Tropic
of Cancer and the Tropic of
Capricorn, known as the tropical
zane, and the parallel strips
north and south of this band,
known as the subtropical zones.
Wi thi n these zones there is
great variation in altitude and
consequentl y i n temperature. In
the tropical zone, for example,
t here are mountai ns that are
permanently covered with snow.
Therefore, latitude al one does
not determi ne cli mate.
A SUBTROPICAL AREA is one
i n which the average tempera
lure of the coldest month is
above 43

F and below 65

F.
4
ORNAMENTAL PLANTS, in . the
warm areas of the world, are
a vi tal part of Cail' life- cd'
regional attractions throughout
the year. And a great divejty'_
of species is necessary to have
an assortment in bl oom in any
given month and under varying
soil and other conditions. In
both subtropical and tropical
areas, there are variations i n
amount and season of rai nfall,
and these factors of aridity or
humidity have an i mportant
beari ng on the selection of
plants for certai n regi ons.
ULTRA-TROPICAL PLANTS suc
cumb wherever the average tem
perature of any month is below
65

F, and frost is likely to occur.


THE PLANT WORLD is di vided into fve primary di
visi ons: al gae; fungi ; mosses and l iverworts; ferns and
fern al l i es; and foweri ng pl ants. The frst four divisions
are col l ectivel y known as non-foweri ng pl ants. The
pl ants i n this book al l bel ong t o the foweri n g pl ants
and are arranged in the natural order of fami l i es in
accordance with L. H. Bai ley's Manual of Cultivated
Plants. Brief descri pti ons are given of the major fam
il i es. Wi t hi n the fami l y groupi ng, no ri gi d sequence i s
fol l owed, except that when presenti ng more than one
speci es i n a genus, these are kept together.
THE COMMON NAME u nder
whi ch each pl ant is described is
the one whi ch appears to be
most widely empl oyed or which
causes the l east confusi on wi th
other pl ants. In some cases, al
ternate common names are giv
en but space does not al l ow the
l i sti ng of al l col l oqui al names.
PLANT DESCRIPTIONS are de
l i berately l i mited to those de
tai l s not represented in the i l l us
trati ons. Form of l eaf i s not
specifed un less there i s notable
variation; co/or i s not stated un
less there i s a range of colors.
Size is not ci ted for all features
but may be given for a leaf
where leaves and fowers show
the rel ative s i ze of the l atter.
When leaves are compound, t hi s
i nformation i s given. Di sti ncti on
i s made between a calyx, bract,
or sepal (see glossary, p. 9) and
the true fower.
Al l pl ants vary in hei ght be
cause af inherent factors or age,
envi ron ment, or cultural atten
ti on. A range is given to convey
the opproximute si ze.
THE BOTANICAL NAMES mainl y
correspond to those preferred i n
Bai ley's Manual except where
the renami ng of certai n species
has been reported i n Baileya:
Quarterly Journal of Horticultur
al Taxonomy (Cornel l Univ.) or
elsewhere. No attempt is made
to show the botani cal synonyms.
FRUITS OR SEEDPODS OR SEEDS
are menti oned where they con
stitute attractive or curi ous fea
tures of the pl ant; or are note
worthy as poi sonous, edi bl e, or
parti cul arl y useful or undesir
able in some other way; or when
cal l i ng attenti on to thei r size or
form may ai d i n the recogni ti on
of the pl ant.
SEASONS of fl owering or frui t
i ng cannot be stated precisel y
even for a l i mited area, s i nce
they fuctuate wi th prevai l i ng
weather. Even general i zi ng, us
i ng terms such as 11SUmmer" and
"wi nter," can be misleadi ng, for
Jul y and August occur i n su mmer
north of the equator and in wi n
ter south of t he equator.
5
SUBTROPICAL AND TROPICAL AREAS
AT LOW ELEVATIONS
Bahama Islands
Bermuda
Burma
Canary Islands
Central America
East Africa
Hawaiian Islands
India
Madagascar
Mediterranean Coast
of Asia Minor
Mediterranean Coast
of Europe
Polynesia and the
South Pacific
Queensland and
New South Wales,
Australia
South Africa
Southeastern China
East Indies
Florida
Mediterranean Coast Southern California
Gulf States (coastal
strip)
of Norh Africa
Mexico
Northern South
America
Southern Japan
West Indies
West Tropical Africa
VARIATION IN CLIMATE WITH ALTITUDE
WITHIN TROPICAL ZONES
TROPICS
Sapfl ..
T
TROPIC OF CAPRICORN
6
23V2
60
meters
450
meters
30
meters
20
meters
1 0
meters
23Vz0
NOTE: Travelers should display all plant cuttings, seeds or other ma
terials for quarantine inspection when entering any country, to avoid
spreading of pests and diseases, or the introduction of any plant that
might become a nuisance. An example af such a plant is the pretty but
aggressive Brazilian Pepper (see p. 74) which has invaded vast tracts
af Florida and Hawaii and causes skin and respiratory irritation.
BOTANICAL GARDENS
(from among the many featuring tropical ond subtropical plants)
Botanic Gardens and National
Herbarium, Melbourne,
Australia
Brooklyn Botanic Garden,
Brooklyn, N.Y.
Fairchild Tropical Garden,
Miami, Fla.
Georgetown Botanic Gardens,
Guyana
Montreal Botanic Garden,
Montreal, Canada
Munich Botanical Garden,
Munich, Germany
Museum National d'Histoire
Naturelle, Paris
National Botanic Gardens,
lucknow, India
National Botanic Gardens
Honolulu Botanic Gardens,
Honolulu
of Sout Africa, Kirstenbosch
Hope Botanic Gardens,
Mona, Jamaica
Jardim Botanlco
do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Longwood Gardens,
Kennett Square, Po.
Los Angeles State and County
Aroretum, Arcadia, Calif.
New York Botanical Garden,
Bronx, N.Y.
Royal Botanic Gardens,
Kew, England
Royal Botanic Gardns,
Peradeniya, Ceylon
Royal Botanic Gardens,
Port-of-Spain, Trinidad
University of California,
Los Angeles-Arboretum
7
L IST OF PLANT FAMIL IES
(Order follows L. H. Boi l ey, Manual of Cultivated Plants)
PALM FAMILY RUE FAMILY
(Palmae) 10 CRutaceae) 65
ARUM FAMILY SIMARUBA FAMILY
lAroceae} 11 fSimorubaceaeJ 66
PINEA?PLE FAILY MAHOGANY FAMILY
(Bromeliaceae) 13 (Meliaceoe) 66
LILY FAMILY MALPIGHIA FAMILY
(LiliaceoeJ 15 fMolpighioceae} 67
AMARYLLIS FAMILY MILKWORT FAMILY
IAmaryllidaceae) 18 IPolygalaceae) 68
TACCA FAMILY SPURGE FAMILY
(Taccaceoe} 21 lEuphorbiaceae} 69
IRIS FAMILY CASHEW FAMILY
(lridaceae} 22 (Anocardiaceoe} 74
BANANA FAMILY SOAPBERRY FAMILY
lMusoceae) 24 fSapindaceaeJ 74
GINGER FAMILY MELIANTHUS FAMILY
(lingiberaceoeJ 26 CMelianthoceae} 75
CANNA FAMILY BUCKTHORN FAMILY
CCannaceae) 28 IRhamnaceae) 75
ORCHID FAMILY
LINDEN FAMILY ITil
(Orchidaceae) 29 iaceoe, incl. Elaeo
SILKY OAK FAMILY carpaceael 76
(Proteaceae) 32 MALLOW FAMILY
BIRTHWORT FAILY IMalvaceae)
IAristolochiaceae) BOMBAX FAMILY
77
34
(8ombacaceae) 81
BUCKWHEAT FAMILY CHOCOLATE FAMILY
(Polygonaceae} 35 lSterculiaceae} 82
FOUR O'CLOCK FAM ACTINIDIA FAMILY
ILY CNyctaginaceoeJ lActinidiaceae} 85
36 OCHNA FAMILY
CARPETWEED FAMILY COchnaceael
CAizoceael 37 TEA FAMILY
85
WATER LILY FAMILY CTheaceae) 86
INymphaeaceae) 38
MANGOSTEEN FAMILY
MAGNOLIA FAMILY
CGuttilerael 86
CMagnolioceael 39
BIXA FAMILY
CUSTARD APPLE FAM 18ixaceael 87
I L Y CAnnonaceae)
BUTTERCUP TREE FAM-
39
IL Y (Cochlosperma-
POPPY FAILY
ceael 87
IPopveroceael .O FLACOURTIA FAMILY
CAPER FAMILY lflacourtiaceae) 88
ICapparidaceae) .1 TURNERA FAMILY
MORINGA FAMILY CTurneraceael 88
IMoringaceael 41 PASSION FLOWER
ORPINE FAMILY FAMILY
lCranvlaceaeJ .2 (Passilloroceoe) 89
PITTOSPORUM FAMILY CACTUS FAMILY
IPittosporaceae) 44 CCactaceoe) 90
CUNONIA FAMILY MEZEREUM FAMILY
CCunoniaceae) 45 IThymelaceae) 92
ROSE FAMILY LOOSESTRIFE FAMILY
(Rosaceae} A6 ( Lythraceoe) 93
PEA FAMILY POMEGRANATE FAM-
f!eguminosoel .8 I LY (Punieaceae) 93
TERMINALIA FAMILY
lCombretaceaeJ 95
MYRTLE FAMILY
lMyrtaceaeJ 96
MELASTOMA FAMILY
(Melastomaceae) 100
EVENING PRIMROSE
FAMILY
fOnagraceaeJ 101
GINSENG FAMILY
(Araliaceae) 102
HEATH FAMILY
lEricaceae} 103
MYRSINE FAMILY
lMyrsinaceaeJ 104
LEADWORT FAMILY
lP/umbaginaceae}
104
OLIVE FAMILY
IOieacoao) 105
STRYCHNINE FAMILY
( LoganiaceaeJ 1 05
DOGBANE FAMILY
lApocynaceae) 107
MILKWEED FAMILY
( AsclepiadaceaeJ
112
MORNING-GLORY
FAMILY IConvolvu
laceae) 115
PHLOX FAMILY
CPolemoniaceae) 118
WATERLEAF FAMILY
IHydrophyllaceae)
118
HELIOTROPE FAMILY
(Boraginaceae) 119
VERBENA FAMILY
lVerbenaceae) 120
MINT FAMILY
(Labiatae)
TOMATO FAMILY
124
(Solanaceae) 126
FIGWORT FAMILY
lScrophuloriaceoeJ
133
BIGNONIA FAMILY
(8ignonioceae) 134
GLOXINIA FAMILY
(Gesneriaceoe) 140
ACANTHUS FAMILY
IAcanthaceae) 142
MADDER FAMILY
CRubiaceae) 148
HONEYSUCKLE FAM-
IlY (Coprifoliaceoe)
150
CALTROP FAMILY BRAZIL NUT FAMILY DAISY FAMILY
(Zygophyllaceae) 6 ILecythidaceao) 94 ICompasitao) 151
(*) Indicates maJor familfes which are briefly defined in text.
GLOSSARY
(Some botanical terms used in the text. See principal fower parts
on sketch, page 3.)
Axi l l ary: located in the upper
angle between a leaf and the
plant stem.
Bast: fber located between the
outer bark and the ood of a
tree or shrub.
Bract, bractlet: a type of leaf,
large or small, usually clustered
with fowers and often resem
bling a petal.
Bulb: t hi ckened port at base of
pl ant stem; has several layers.
Bulbil: smal l bul b which has de
veloped from parent bulb.
Calyx: a crown encircling the
base of a fower.
Compound leaf: a leaf com
posed of two or more leafets.
Corm: bulblike, but solid, base
of plant stem, usually under
ground.
Deciduous: sheds leaves; oppo
site of evergreen.
Drupe: a feshy fruit that does
not spl it open; has a si ngle seed
in a stony shell.
Epiphyte: an air pl ant, roosting
on another pl ant; not a parasi te.
Herbaceous: not woody.
Inforescence: fower cluster.
Legume: a pod that "splits open
at both seams."
Lanceolate: lance-shaped.
Palmate: divided like a hand.
Pi nnate: divided like a feather.
Pseudobulb: solid, thick part of
orchid stem; above ground.
Rhizome: underground stem
which creeps horizontally.
Rootstock: u nderground stem,
shorter than a rhizome and
more or less vertical.
Scarify: to scratch ar make cuts
i n the surface.
Sepal: the divisions of a calyx.
Spadix: a feshy spike covered
with small, closel y set fowers.
Spathe: a type of leaf, unlike
a foliage leaf; protecti ng a
fower cluster.
Subshrub: intermediate between
a woody shrub and a non-woody
plant.
Succulent: feshy and thick.
Trifol iate: havi ng leaves i n
whorls of t hree.
Trifoliolate: has three leafets.
Tuber: a t hickened, feshy part
at the base of a plant, usually
underground, bearing buds, or
"eyes,'' from whi ch new plants
develop.
Xerophytic: able to live wi th
ver little moi sture.
9
PAL FAMILY (Palmae) includes over 1 50 genera and
nearly 3, 000 species of the tropi cs and warm-temper
ate areas. Most are trees, with singl e or mul ti pl e trunks
-smooth, rough, hai ry or spiny; others are woody
stemmed shrubs or cl i mbers . The l eaves, unfol di ng
from a terminal bud, are either featherl i ke or fanl i ke
and some are i mmense. Flowers are smal l and cl us
tered. Fruits often l arge or showy.
PALM (Caryota mitis)
is an ornamental East I ndi an
pal m ( t o 40 ft.) wi th many
Leaves (49 ft . l ong) have
fshtai l-like leafl ets (to 6 i n.
l ong). As each I run k ages, fow
ers and fruits are borne lower
and lower until that trun k di es
( i n about 7 yrs.).
GOLDEN COCONUT !Cocos nuci
feral is a showy vari ety from
Malaya. I t begi ns t o bear when
only a few feet hi gh. As it i s
i mmune to the coconut nematode
and "l ethal yellowi ng, " it is now
in demand as an ornamental i n
Fl ori da and West I ndies.
MERRILL PALM !Veitchia mer
ril/i), a pretty Phi l i ppi ne palm
to 25 ft., has arched, pi nnate
leaves Ia 6 ft. long and stri ki ng
fruits at add seasons but espe
ci al ly at Chri stmas ti me. I t i s
compact and i ncreasi ngly pop
ular in tropical landscapi ng.
ARUM FAMI LY (Araceae) covers 1 07 genera and
1 900 speci es, mostly tropi cal . Al l are herbs; some
huge wi th stout, woody stems; some ar e vi nel i ke with
aeri al roots that cl i ng t' o supports or descend and take
root i n t he soi l . Most have tubers or t hi ck rhi zomes.
The l eaves may be si mpl e or pi nnatel y or pal matel y
di vi ded. Smal l fowers are usual ly massed on a cyl i n
dri cal spadi x shi el ded by a spathe, often col orful .
GI ANT ARUM !Amorphopho/lus
titonuml, of Sumatra, is one of
the marvel s of the pl ant worl d.
From its tuber (to 20 in. wi de)
spri ngs a fower spi ke to 4 ft.
tol l , cupped by a futed, foul
smel l i ng spathe, and l ater a
si ngl e l eaf, to 15 ft. wide, on a
stal k 6 to 1 0 ft. tol l .
F A N C Y-L E AV E D CALADI UM
!Caladium bico/orl i s a tuberous
tropical American pl ant to 2 ft.
high, with succul ent stems sup
porting thi n, s i l ky leaves (to 1
ft. l ong), whi ch di e back in wi n
t er. There are hundreds of vari
eti es. Vi vi d i n ful l sun.
CERI MAN rMonstera deliciosaJ,
from Mexi co and Central Amer
i ca, i s a sprawl i ng or cl i mbi ng
pl ant wi t h t hi ck stems and per
forated leaves (to 3 ft.). The
spi ke of tiny fowers becomes a
compound, edi bl e fruit. Eas i l y
grown from cutt i ngs in pots i n
doors or outsi de i n war m areas;
prefers shade and damp soi l .
DUMB CANE (Oielenbachia
macu/ato), from Brazi l , is an
erect pl ant (to 8 ft.) wi t h a
feshy stem and leaves bl otched
wi th white, yel low, or pal e green.
A popul ar house pl ant, i t i s
grown outdoors i n warm areas
i n shade or sun, shel tered from
strong wi nds. Cutt i ngs root
qui c kl y. The j ui ce i s poi sonous.
FLAMI NGO FLOWER rAnthurium
andrean umJ, nati ve to Colombi a,
i s a s hort-stemmed pl ant ( to 3
ft.) wi th gl ossy l eaves ( 1 0- 1 2 i n.
long. I ts yel l ow, wh ite or pi nk
s pi ke of t i ny fowers ri ses from o
waxy spathe-red, pi nk, orange,
whi te or green. Grown from
seeds or di vi si on i n subdued
l i ght and moist atmosphere.
HUNTER'S ROBE (Rhaphidophora
aurea), native to the Sol omon
I sl ands, is a l arge vi ne wi t h
aerial roots. Leaves from 6 i n.
l ong, when grown in pots or as
ground cover, t o 1 8 i n. when
cl i mbi ng trees. Ol d l eaves deepl y
and i rregul arl y di vi ded. Gro
w
n
from cuttings; prefers light s hade
and ric h soil . Rar el y bl ooms.
Formerl y Pathos ( or Scindapsus)
aureus.
PI NEAPPL E FAMI LY ( Bromel i aceae) i ncl udes 50 or 60
genera and more t han 1 , 300 speci es of tropi cal Amer
i ca and t he West I ndi es. The typi cal form i s a rosette
of more or less spi ny, strapl i ke l eaves, green or vari e
gated. Borne i n a ri gi d spi ke or l oose, droopi ng
cl uster, t he fowers and/ or bracts may be col orful .
Most bromel i ads are epi phyti c and need much moi sture;
some are terrestri al and prefer ari di ty.
PI TCAI RNI A (Pitcairnia maidi
fo/ia), occurri ng wild in Costa
Rico, Col ombi a, and Venezuel a,
i s a terrestri al bromel i od to 5 ft.
tol l wi th spi nel ess l eaves to 5 ft.
l ong and 2% i n. wi de. Flowers,
massed in a 1 2- i n. spi ke on a
stal k 3 to 4 ft. l ong, have whi te
petal s fan ked by red or purpl i sh
bracts.
BILLBERGIA (Sil/bergia vene
zuelanaJ, an epi phyte (to 3 ft.),
Is found on tal l trees in hot
lowl ands of Venezuela. Leaves
are stif and toothed. The droop
i ng Inforescence, most colorful
i n the sun, is the gaudiest i n
t h e genus. As wi th other speci es,
t he showy fowers and bracts
l ast only a few days.
AECHMEA (Aechmea chantinii),
an epi phyte from Brazi l , has
stiff, fai ntl y toothed l eaves ( t o 1
ft. l ong ond 2 i n. wi de). Showy
red or mauve l eaf-bracts ore
borne below t he branched red
and-yel low fl ower spi ke (4 to 6
i n. l ong on 1 2- i n. stal k). Prop
agated by suckers. Needs ful l
l i ght, very l i ttl e soi l . Al l brome
l i ads grown from seed or offsets.
Funnel must be kept ful l of water.
DYCKIA IDyclia altissima} is a
terrestri al bromel i ad (to 1 % ft.)
formi ng cl umps on dry pl ai ns of
northern Argentina. I ts leaves
are rigid and waxy, the
branched i nforescence 2% to 3
ft. tol l . Propagated by suckers.
Good drai nage essential .
PORTEA IPortea petropolitana},
an epi phyte from the coast of
southeastern Brazi l , occurs i n
several forms i n t he wi l d; has
spi ny-edged leaves. The fower
spi kes may be sal mon and lav
ender or green and purpl e. Var.
extenso has a carol stal k.
FLAMI NG VRIES lA IVriesia
sp/endensl, from Guyana, is on
epi phyte (to 3 ft.) with s mooth,
l eathery l eaves (to 1 5 i n. l ang),
yel low fowers, and red bracts.
Grown from ofsets and seeds
i n semi -shade. Var. major i s
cal l ed Flami ng Sword.
TILLANDSI A ITillandsia cyaneal
i s nati ve to Ecuador, Guatemal a,
and Costa Ri ca. I t i s an epi phyte
(to 2% ft.) but can be grown
in pots wi th dai ly spri nkl i ng.
Needs ful l sun. Propagated by
seed or, preferabl y, smal l of
sets in spri ng.
LJL Y FAMI LY ( Li l i aceae) embraces more t han 200-250
genera and 2, 000 speci es of temperate and tropi cal
cl i mates. They are mai nl y perenni al herbs wi th bul bs,
corms or feshy rootstocks. Onl y a few are treel i ke.
The fowers have 6 l obes or segments, 6 or 3 stamens
and a 3-cel l ed, superi or ovary, the l atter di sti ngui shi ng
the Lily from the Amaryllis famil y. These two fami l i es
usual l y share between them the 500-odd speci es some
ti mes pl aced i n the Agave fami ly (Agavaceae) . Most
l i l iaceous pl ants are showy ornamental s.
AFRICAN Lll Y CAgoponthus ofri
conus), from the Cope Peni nsul a,
i s a perenni al herb wi th ever
green, archi ng leaves (4 to 1 0 i n.
l ong) and 20-30 fowers on a
1 Y2-3 ft. stal k. Grows best above
2,000 ft. from seed or bul bs,
in sun, wel l -watered.
CANDELABRA ALOE (Aloe con
de/obrum), wi l d and abundant
i n Notal , South Africa, i s a
dramatic pl ant (6 to 1 2 ft. hi gh)
with poi nted, graceful l y arched
l eaves (to 3 ft. l ong; 6 i n. wi de
at base) i n a termi nal rosette.
In July i t i s topped by 6 to 1 2
vivid fower spi kes, 20 to 3 2 i n.
hi gh, standi ng i n candel abra
formati on. The ol d, dry leaves
beard the trunk.
15
GLORY LILY (Glorioso superbo),
from tropi cal Africa and Asi a,
is a sl ender, cl i mbi ng l i l y (to 1 0
ft.) with tendri l s at its l eaf-ti ps.
I t di es after foweri ng, the next
shoot comi ng up at o di ferent
poi nt as the tuber (whi ch is very
toxic) el ongates underground.
Needs ful l sun.
16
a vi nel i ke
from Chi l e, has wi ry, twi ni ng
stems and l eathery leaves (2 t o
3% i n. l ong) . Popul ar i n Cal i
forni a and i n greenhouses for
its bl ossoms i n spri ng. Grown
from seeds or l ayers. Needs
shade and moi sture.
Tl (pronounced "tee") (Cordy
line termino/is), native from
Austral i a to Hawai i , i s a sl en
der shrub (to 1 2 ft. ). Leaves (to
2 ft. l ong) occur i n various
shades of red, pi nk, purpl e or
green; some may be white
striped. Grown from cutti ngs or
seeds i n sun or semi -shade. Root
edi bl e; fresh l eaves used for
hula ski rts and food wrappi ng.
TORCH LILY (Kniphola uvarial,
of South Africa, is common i n
California gardens and has gone
wild i n Central Ameri ca. From
clumps of leaves (to 3 ft. long)
arise stalks (4 to 9 ft. ), beari ng
brill i ant 'pi kes i n s ummer and
fall. The .several varieties and
hybrids are propagated by di
visi on, ofsets, or seeds. Provi de
full su; much moisture.
OUR LORD'S CANDLE (Yucca
whipplei), one of the most stri k
i ng and beautiful features of
the Coast-range vegetation of
southern California
,
has been
prized i n European gardens for
over 1 00 years. From the under
ground stem arises a clump (to
6 ft. wide) of sharp-ti pped, saw
edged leaves (8 to 30 i n. long)
and an i mmense columnar fow
er cluster (8 to 1 5 ft.).
1 7
AMARYLLI S FAMI LY IAmaryl l i daceae) cont ai ns 90
genera and some 1 , 200 speci es, mai n ly of South Af
ri ca, South Ameri ca, and Mediterranean area. They
are perenni al herbs, mostl y of ari d l and, wi th l arge
bul bs, fbrous roots or rhi zomes. The fowers emerge
from a spathel i ke bract atop a central stal k and have
6 segments (3 i nner ones, petal s; outer 3, sepal s) .
Ovary usual l y i nferior. Many are pri zed ornamental s.
MI L-AND-WI NE LI LY (Crinum
ougustumJ, from Mauritius and
the Seychel l es, has o bul b to 6
i n. t hi ck from whi ch rises 2 to
J.ft. leaves and o stal k that
bends to the ground wi th the
weight of 1 2 to 30 fowers. Does
not seed. Forms ofsets sl owly.
GUERNSEY LI LY INerine sornien
sisl, of South Afri ca, i s popul ar
i n ,Cal iforni a. The fower stal k
( 2- 2% ft.) appears i n fal l , fol
lowed by fot l eaves (to 1 2 i n.
l ong). There ore several vari
eties-whi te, pi nk or cri mson.
Grown from ofsets.
BARBADOS LI LY tHippeastrum
puniceum), of the West I ndi es
and tropical Ameri ca, i s wi dely
cul tivated. The fowers (on 1 2- to
1 5- i n. stalk), may be dark-red,
salmon, or orange, and appear
before the leaves i n the dry
season. Propagated by ofsets.
KAFI R LI LY tC/ivia miniata) i s a
choi ce plant from South Africa
with thi ck, evergreen leaves and
fower cluster 1 0 t o 1 2 i n. broad.
Must be shaded. Propagated by
di vi si on. Seedli ngs bloom i n 5 to
7 years. Many varieties and hy
brids grown i n Californi a.
BLOOD LI LY !Haemanthus multi
forus) is native to tropical Africa
and each spri ng produces 'its
ball of 50- 1 0 fowers just ahead
of the sparse leaves, whi ch
wi ther i n December. Produces
few ofsets. Seedli ngs take 5 to
7 years to bloom.
RAI N LI LY tZephyranthes grandi
fora), of Central America and -----\
the West I ndi es, spri ngs up i n .. lll
summer rai ns from 1 - i n. bulbs.
fl owers, often precedi ng leaves,
are long l asti ng. Popul ar i n bor
ders, in sun or semi -shade.
1 9
CENTURY PLANT tAgove omeri
conoJ, of tropi cal Ameri ca, is
natural i zed in Europe, Africa
and East l ndjes. Its spi ne-edged
leaves reach 6 ft. I n 10 or 1 5
years, i t ma. y send up a fower
stal k (25 to 40 ft.) and then
di e. Grown from suckers.
20
HURRICANE LILY llycoris aureaJ,
from Chi no, sends up fowers
on a 2-ft. stal k duri ng hurricane
season (Aug.-Oct. ). Leaves ( to 1
ft. l ong) fol l ow and lost oi l wi n
t er. The 2- i n. bul b may be cut
i nto secti ons for pl ant i ng 8- 1 0
i n. aport. Mul t i pl i es lost in semi
shade.
TUBEROSE (Polionthes tuberosaJ,
o Mexi can pl ant popul ar i n
worm regi ons, has grassy leaves
(to 1 % ft. l ong) and very fro
grant bl ooms (on 3% ft. stal k) i n
sum mer and lol l . They or e often
sold as cut fowers. The pl ant
di es bock i n wi nter.
AMAZON LI LY lfucharis grandi
loraJ, a native of Col ombi a, has
a 2-i n. bul b and evergreen
l eaves (8 to 12 in. long) and
produces i n l at e wi nt er a fower
stal k ( 1 to 2 ft.) wi th 3 to 6
lovely, mi l dl y fragrant fowers.
Grown from ofsets, protected
from f ul l s un.
JACOBEAN LI LY (Sprekelia
formosissima), from Mexico, has
been wi del y cul tivated for 300
years. Leaves may accompany
or follow the si ngl e, bri l l i ant
fower borne on a 1 -ft. stal k.
Even i n warm areas, t he 2- i n.
bul b is usual ly t aken up for a
rest to force regul ar bl oomi ng.
T AC C A F AMI L Y (Jaccaceae)
BAT FLOWER (Tocco chantrieriJ,
from Mal aya, has a creepi ng
rootstock and gl ossy l eaves ( 1 V
ft. l ong) whi ch appear in spri ng
and wi ther i n fal l . The bi zarre
fowers (on 3-ft. stal k) are ac
compani ed by l eafy bracts and
t hreadli ke bractl ets. Grown from
seed or root-divi si on in shade
wi th pl enty of moi sture.
I R I S F AMI L Y Uridaceae)
1 . TIGER FLOWER ITigridia pa
vonial i s one of the most gl am
orous pl ants of Mexi co and
Guatemal a where i t i s abundant
i n cornfel ds. Wi del y cul tivated
and admi red, i t was grown i n
Europe as earl y as t he 1 6th
Century. I n the rai ny season,
t he bul b (to 1 % i n. wi de) puts
forth erect stems (to 2% ft.)
beari ng a few sti f l eaves and
conti nuous bl ooms (3 t o 6 i n.
wi de). I ndi vi dual fowers-red,
yel low, vi ol et or whi te, wi th
contrasti ng spots-open earl y i n
the morni ng and fade i n the af
ternoon, but fresh ones are al
ways present for 2 to 3 months.
Propagated by ofsets, or seeds
whi ch produce fowers i n 1 yr.
Needs sun and wel l - drai ned soi l .
Aztecs ate the nutl i ke bul b.
2. BLACKBERRY LI LY IBelam
cando chinensisJ, from Chi na
and Japan, is a perenni al herb
( 2 to 5 ft. ) with a creepi ng root
stock. Bl ooms in s ummer. Propa
gated by di vi si on. The fowers
and open pods showi ng the
gl ossy seeds are frequentl y used
i n arrangements.
3. PEACOCK I RIS IMoraea pa
vonio), a South Afri can herb ( 1 2
ft. h igh) has hai ry l eaves and
a s uccessi on of fowers, each
l asti ng onl y a day. Cammon
form i s scarl et with a dark-green
or bl ue- bl ack s pot; others are
whi te wi th bl ue spot, purpl e
with bl ue-bl ack spot, or pl ai n
yel l ow. Propagated by divi si on.
Needs ful l s un and fai rl y dry,
l ight soil . Resembl es true iris.
22
4. MARICA INeomarica caeru
leal i s a perenni al herb (to 2 %
ft.) from southern Brazi l wi th
short, creepi ng rootstock and
l eathery l eaves (36 ft. l ong).
The handsome fowers (i n s um
mer) may be bl ue or l i l ac,
barred wi th brown, yel l ow, or
ange or white. Propagated by
root- divi si on. Needs rich soi l
and much moi sture.
5. BUGLE LILY IWatsonia meri
anal, wi l d an the coast of South
Africa and the l eadi ng Watsonia
i n cul t ivation, i s a gladi ol us- l i ke
pl ant with sti f l eaves (to 20 i n.).
The 3-4 ft. fower stal k bears
1 2-20 fowers-red, sal mon or
pi nki sh-i n spri ng. Grown from
seeds or ofsets in sandy soi l .
Needs water and sun.
6. BABOON-ROOT IBabiana
stricto), from the Cape Peni n
s ul a, i s a hai ry pl ant ( 8- 1 6 i n.
hi gh). The fowers ( i n spri ng) ,
mi l dl y sweet-scented, may be
bl ue, purpl e, red or yel l ow.
Grown from ofsets or seed in
l ight shade and transpl anted
yearly. Baboons eat the corms.
7. WALKING IRIS ITrimeza mar
tinicensis), from tropi cal America
and the West I ndi es, has a fan
l ike cl ump of l eaves (2-3 ft. tal l )
and s l i m fower stal k ( 1 -3 ft.
hi gh). Bl ooms summer to fal l .
New pl ant l ets ar e borne on
ol d stal ks whi c h bend t o the
ground so that they may root.
Propagated by seed or di vi si on.
Not parti cul ar as to soi l . Does
wel l i n sun or parti al shade.
BANANA FAMI LY (Musaceae) is made up of 5 or 6
genera and about 125 species of large-leaved trop
i cal herbs. Some are treel i ke; few have woody stems .
PINK VELVET BANANA /Musa
velutinaJ, from Assam, is o
charmi ng mi niature, pi nk
stemmed banana pl ant (3 Ia 6
fl.) wi th upri ght fower cluster
and vel vety fruits that spl i t
open when ri pe. Grown from
seeds or suckers in part shade.
The seeds are used i n edi bl e
banana breedi ng. There are or
namental hybri ds between t hi s
speci es and M. favifora.
24
BIRD-OF-PARADISE /Strelitzia re
gi naeJ, native to South Africa,
i s a l arge herb wi th a fanl i ke
cl ump of l ong-stal ked, bl ue
green l eaves (to 5 ft. tal l ) and
an outstandi ng i nforescence
suggesti ng a bri l l i ant bi rd i n
fi ght. Propagated by divi si on or
seeds. Seedl i ngs may not bl oom
for 7 yrs. Sl ow-growi ng, does
best in ful l sun, wi th rich soi l
and abundant moi sture.
LOBSTER CLAW (l ong known as
Heliconia humi lis, now Heliconia
sp. 1 ) is native to South America
and wi del y cul tivated. I t forms
a cl ump of erect, l ong-stal ked
leaves ( t o 6 or 8 ft. tal l ) and i n
earl y s ummer bears an upri ght
spi ke of vi vi d, cl awl i ke bracts
whi ch encl ose the s mal l fowers.
Propagated by di vi si on. Needs
abundant moi st ure i n ful l sun or
semi - shade. The spikes are often
cut for decorati on .
WILD PLANTAIN (Heliconia wag
nerianaJ, native from Mexico to
Brazi l , i s commonly grown in
the West I ndi es and tropi cal
areas of the Ol d Worl d. I t i s a
stout pl ant (6- 1 2 ft. or more)
with bananal i ke leaves (2-5 fl.).
The i nforescence i s s hort
stal ked, erect and showy for
several months. Blue-coated
seeds rarely pl anted. Suckers
form large c l umps on moist l and,
i n s un or part-shade. Formerl y
cal l ed H. bihoi, syn. H. elongata.
HANGING HELICONIA (Heli
conia collinsiana), nati ve to the
lowl ands of Guatemal a, El Sal
vador and Bri ti sh Honduras,
reaches 8 to 1 5 ft. The leaves
are usual l y whi ti sh on the lower
side and the gay i nforescence
(to 1 % ft.) dangles upsi de-down,
the l i ght-yel l ow fowers protrud
i ng from t he bracts. Sal t and
foods brought to native markets
are wrapped in the leaves, and
t he i nforescences are sol d for
decorati ng churches, particul arly
at Chri stmas t i me. Another spe
ci es wi th s pectacular hangi ng
cl uster i s H. rostrata.
GI NGER FAMI LY (Zi ngi beraceae) covers 45 genera
and n earl y 800 speci es from tropi cal Asi a and Afri ca.
These pungent, perenni al herbs have feshy rhi zomes
or tuberous roots, erect, canel i ke stems, and enti re
l eaves, mai nl y l ance-s haped or oblong. The fowers, i n
termi nal heads, spi kes or hangi ng cl usters, are tubul ar,
3- parted, and often l arge and s howy. Gi ngers grow
readi l y on moi st soi l and tend to cl ump.
RED GI NGER CA/pinia purpu
ratal, from the South Paci fc
i sl ands, forms a cl ump of l eafy
stems (4 to 1 5 ft. toll) ti pped
wi th spi kes (6 to 1 2 i n.) of
thi ck, red bracts shi el di ng the
sl i m, tubul ar fowers. Young
pl antl ets devel op i n t he spi kes.
SHELL GI NGER CA/pinia spe
ciosal i s an Asiatic pl ant wi th
6- Ia 1 2-ft_ l eafy stems, beari ng
i n spri ng and summer droopi ng
cl usters of pearly buds and
open, seashel l - l i ke fowers ( t o 2
i n. l ong). The cl umps, l ush i n
semi -shade, need t hi nni ng.
TORCH GINGER (Nicolai elatiorJ,
from the East I ndi es, has archi ng
stems ( t o 1 5-20 ft.) and 3- to 5-
ft. stal ks topped by el egant
cones (to 10 i n. wide) of waxy,
red or pi nk bracts from whi ch a
few, s mal l fowers peer. Former
ly, Phaeomeria magnifca.
WHITE GINGER (Hedychium cor
onariumJ, native to I ndi a and
Malaya, for ms spreadi ng cl umps
(6-7 ft . tal l ) and i n s ummer has
termi nal spi kes of sweet-scented
bl ossoms (to 3% i n. wi de). Great
numbers are used i n leis and
i n perfume maki ng i n Hawai i.
YELLOW GINGER (Hedychium
favumJ, from I ndi a, has 3- to 5-
ft. stems t i pped wi th cl usters of
fragrant fowers (to 3 in. wi de).
Not as popul ar as whi te gi nger
for l ei s, but t hei r oi l i s mare
widel y used in t he perfume
trade for exotic scents.
CRAPE GINGER CCostus spec
osusJ, native Ia southern Asia
and t he Phi l i ppi nes, has leaves
( hai ry beneath) spi ral l y set on
stems 4 to 1 0 ft. taiL From
s pi kes of red bracts emerge
add fowers: the whi te portion ol
each is a funnel - l i ke stamen.
PEACOCK PLANT CKaempferia
roscoeana}, from Burma, i s a
stemless pl ant wi th a feshy
rhi zome and two, thi ck, hori zon
tal , sat i ny l eaves (about 4 i n.
l ang), i ridescent above, pur
pl i s h- red and hai ry beneath.
Bl ooms conti nuouslv i n summer.
CANNA FAMIL Y
ICannaceael
I NDIAN SHOT CCanna indica),
nati ve to tropi cal America (not
I ndia), has sl ender stems (3 to
5 ft.) and i s widel y grown and
natural i zed i n t he tropi cs and
southern Uni ted States. The hard
seeds are used for shot, neck
laces and Buddh is! rosaries.
OR C H I D F AMI L Y !Orchidaceae)
The orchid fami l y embraces more t han 600 genera and
20,000 s pecies of peren ni al herbs, aboundi ng i n the
tropics where they are mostl y epiphyti c. Temperate
species are usual l y terrestrial . The epiphyti c types have
aeri al roots that cl i ng to their hosts and absorbi ng
roots that take up moi sture. Most devel op pseudobul bs
or fes hy l eaves i n whi ch water and reserve nouri sh
ment are stored. The pl ants range from mi nute l eafess
for ms to l ar ge speci mens several feet in hei ght. Some
( monopodi a!) progressi vel y el ongate from a termi nal
bud; others (svmpodi al ) put out a successi on of axil
l ary shoots. The l eaves, commonly more or l ess feshy
or rubbery, may be narrow, obl ong, oval , or rounded.
The fowers may be ti ny or up to 9 i n. across, borne
si ngl y or in massi ve sprays. Some are fragrant, espe
ci al l y at certai n ti mes; others scentl ess. Natural speci es
and hybri ds occur i n many hues and combi nations of
col ors. Orchi ds are aristocrats among cul tivated fow
eri ng pl ants, and are al most excl usi vel y estheti c i n
appeal ( except for vani l l a orchi d and others yi el di ng
sal ep). Orchi ds are propagated by divi si on, ofsets,
cutti ngs, or seeds . The l atter, fne as powder, are pro
duced in great numbers and, in the wi l d, are sown by
the wi nd. In captivity, seeds are ger mi nated on nutri
ent-agar in gl ass fasks and the seedl i ngs transpl anted
t o pots . Orchi ds are usual l y grown i n osmunda (fbrous
roots of Osmunda fern), Dougl as fr bar k, or on sl abs
of t r ee fer n trunk, and they fouri sh i n a moi st atmo
sphere. On pages 30 and 3 1 are the i mportant genera.
Many more are i l l ustrated and descri bed i n the Gol den
Nature Gui de Orchids.
29
Phol oenopsi s
CATTLEYA orchi ds from tropi cal
Ameri ca ore most popul ar. A fa
vori te wi th home growers i s C.
trionaei, often wi th 100 bl ooms
( t o 7 i n. wi de). There or e t hou
sands of CaHieya hybri ds, be
tween the vari ous speci es and
al so wi th closel y rel ated genera.
PHALAENOPSIS ( moth orchi ds)
ore found in tropi cal Asia and
the East I ndi es. They hove l eafy
stems, brood, l eathery l eov2s
( mostl y 6-12 i n. l ong, some 2-3
ft.); no pseudobul bs. Fl owers, i n
droopi ng sprays, ore often
wh i te ti nged wi th rose or l i l ac.
30
VANDA speci es range from I n
di o to New Gui nea. They ore
epi phyti c and sun- l ovi ng, wi t h
out pseudobu l bs; hove leafy
stems, s hort or reachi ng to 7 ft.
Leaves strap- shaped or, rarel y,
rounded and fes hy. Fl owers
fragrant, in cl usters of 3 to 80.
CYMBIDIUM orchi ds ( mostl y epi
phytes) ore from t he For East.
Usual l y wi th pseudobul bs, they
have narrow, grass l i ke l eaves to
3 ft. l ong. Fl owers ore general l y
I orge and s howy i n tol l , archi ng
sprays whi ch l ost f r om 6 weeks
to 3 months.
PAPHIOPEDILUM orchi ds (from
tropi col Asi a) and Phrogmiped
i um (tropi cal Ameri can) are
ei ther terrestri al or epi phytic.
They are the so-cal l ed "cypri
pedi um" (l ady-s l i pper) orchi ds
of greenhouses. True Cypriped
i um speci es are not tropi cal .
ODONTOGLOSSUM ' orchi ds are
from t he hi ghl ands of tropi cal
Ameri ca. They are epi phytic,
have short rhi zomes and short,
broad pseudabul bs beari ng 1 to
3 l eaves. From t hei r bases ari se
t he crested- l i pped fowers (to
6 i n. wide) in sl ender sprays.
DENDROBIUM s peci es are epi
phyt i c, pri mari l y Mal ayan. Thei r
stem- l i ke pseudobul bs are usual
ly el ongated, wi th short, feshy
leaves. Fl owers ( to 5 i n. wi de)
are i n short spi kes or droopi ng
sprays. Some l ose t hei r l eaves
before or duri ng bl oomi ng.
PHAIUS genus ( epi phyti c or ter
restri al ) i s from tropi cal Africa,
Madagascar, Asi a, Austral i a and
Pacifc i sl ands. The renowned
nun' s orchi d (shown) has pl u mp
pseudobul bs, l eaves t o 3 ft. ,
fower spi ke to 4 ft. wi th 12 to
18 fowers to 4 i n. wi de.
3 1
SI LKY OAK FAMI L Y
(Proteaceae)
KAHILI FLOWER !Grevillea bank
siiJ i s a s mal l Austral i an tree (to
1 5-20 ft.) wi th pi nnate leaves
(4- 1 0 in. l ong), si l ky-whi te be
neath . In Hawai i , the downy
fowers (red or whi te) are used
on hats, not in neck l ei s, as they
may cause ras h. Begi ns to bl oom
when onl y 3 ft. hi gh.
SEA URCHIN IHakea Iaurino!,
from Western Austral i a, i s a
shrub or tree (1 0-30 ft.) wi th
leaves (4-6 i n. l ong) that turn
red or orange before fal l i ng.
The fower heads are covered by
bracts whi ch peel of as the
buds open. Grown from seeds.
FIREBUSH lfmbothrium coccin
eumJ, nati ve to Chi l e and thriv
ing in Cal i forni a and New Zea
l and, i s a s hrubby, suckeri ng
tree ( to 40-50 ft. ) , very s howy
in bl oom. Begi ns Ia fower when
8 ft. h i gh. Needs aci d sai l .
Propagated by seeds.
SPIKY HONEYSUCKLE !Banksia
ericifolial, from New South
Wal es i s a smal l , spreadi ng
tree or shr ub ( t o 1 5 or 20 ft.),
its dense fol i age si lvery be
neath. Fl owers (yel l ow, gol d, or
russet) l ong-l asti ng in bouquets;
ful l of nectar sought by bi rds.
KING PROTEA IProtea cyn
aroidesl, of South Africa, i s a
bush (fa 6 ft.) wi th l eathery
l eaves and fower heads (8-1 2
i n. wi de) cal l ed "honey pots" as
the copi ous sweet nectar i s made
i nto sugar. Grown from seed i n
ful l Bl ooms i n 4-5 years.
SCARLET HONEYSUCKLE !Bank
sia coccineaJ, nati ve to Western
Austral i a, i s a s hr ub to 1 2 ft.
with stif, spi ny fol i age and
abundant fowers i n spri ng.
Banksia cones ar e heated Ia
free the seeds or l ai d between
wet pads unt i l seeds ger mi nate.
SUGAR BUSH !Protea melliferal,
common on l aw mountai n s l opes
of South Africa and l ong i n cul
ti vati on, i s a shr ub or s mal l tree
(7- 1 0 ft.) wi th red, pi nk or whi te
fower heads ( to 5% i n. hi gh) .
The concentrated nectar ( "bush
syrup") i s a l ocal cough remedy.
WARATAH (Telopea speciosis
sima), of New South Wal es, i s
an erect shr ub (to 1 0- 1 2 ft. )
wi th stif, evergreen leaves and
gorgeous fower heads (3-4 i n.
wide) that l ast 2 weeks i n vases.
Seedl i ngs may bl oom i n 2 years.
Di fcul t to grow i n pots.
FIREWHEEL TREE IStenocarpus
sinuatusJ, an Austral i an tree
(from 30- 1 00 ft.), has vari abl e
l eaves, pi nnatel y I a bed ( 1 - 1 %
ft. l ong) ar u nl obed (6- 1 0 i n.
l ang), and i s spectacul ar i n
bl oom. Grown from seed; begi ns
t o fower when very young.
BIRTHWORT FAMILY
(Aristolochiaceae)
PELICAN FLOWER (Aristolochia
grandiforaJ, from Central Amer
ica and West I ndies, i s an
herbaceous vine (to 10 ft.) with
downy l eaves and amazi ng
fowers ( 1 2-20 i n. wi de; tai l to 2
ft.), pel i can-shaped before open
i ng. Grows fast from cutti ngs.
May not produce seeds.
BUCKWHEAT FAMI LY
(Polygonaceae)
CORAL VI NE IAntigonon /ep
topusJ, a native of Mexico,
naturalized in southern Texas,
Californi a, and Florida, is wide
ly cul tivated. I t is a sli m vine,
cli mbi ng (to 20-40 fl.) by means.
of tendrils at t he tips of the1
fower clusters. It bl ooms from1
spri ng to fall or later.
SANGRE DE TORO IRuprechtia
coriaceol, from northern Southl
America, is a slender tree (to. -
20 ft.) wi th 3-i n. leaves and i n-.
conspi cuous fowers ( mal e andl
female on separate trees). The1
female devel op i nto seeds with
rosy-red wings, borne i n dense
clusters in mi dwi nter in Fl orida ..
Propagated by ai r-layeri ng.
LONG JOHN (Trip/oris me/aeno
dendronl, from Central Ameri ca,
._

is a very sl ender, soft-woodedl
tree (30-65 ft.) with pal e.
s mooth, faki ng bark, shor
branches, and downy leaves ( -,
1 6 i n. l ong). Mal e trees
showy but the femal e orcdtceo
of colorful
F OU R O' C L OC K F AMI L Y INyctaginaceael
36
BOUGAINVILLEA i s a genus of
Brazi l i an cl i mbi ng s hrubs wi th
evergreen l eaves (Ia 4 i n.),
pri zed for t hei r handsome cl us
ters of papery bracts ( i n 3's)
whi ch encl ose t he smal l , white
fowers. 8. spectabilis is tal l
growi ng ( to 25 ft. ) wi th downy
stems and hooked spi nes, and
bracts of vari ous shades of red
and orange and someti mes
whi te. 8. g/abra i s more com
pact, has purpl e or cri mson
bracts, can be pruned and
grown as a shrub or pot pl ant.
The leaves of one vari ety are
variegated wi th white. Bougai n
vi l l eas are grown from cutti ngs.
FOUR O' CLOCK IMirabilis jala
pa), from tropi cal Ameri ca, i s a
perenni al herb (to 3-4 ft.) with a
t hi ck t uber and smooth l eaves
(2-6 i n. l ong). The fowers open
i n l ate afternoon; are bright
magenta, yel low or white. The
bl ack seeds contai n a white,
starchy substance formerl y used
as face powder i n the Ori ent.
Grown from seed, i n sun.
CARPETWE E D FAMI LY (Ai:oaceae)
SOUR FIG (Carpobrotus acina
ciforme), native to sandy coasts
of Cape Provi nce, South Af
rica, i s a succul ent plant wi th
l ang, thi ck, trai l i ng stems and
thi ck, 3-angl ed l eaves (1 Y- 3%
i n. l ang), j oi ned i n pai rs. Fl ow
ers (to 5 in. wide) are l argest of
al l so-cal l ed "fg mari gol ds "
(formerl y grouped in genus
Mesembryanthemum, now di
vi ded i nto over 1 00 genera i n
cl udi ng Carpobrotus, Lampran
thus, and Drosanthemum). Al l
grown from cut t i ngs i n ful l sun.
Wi thstand sal t spray.
DEWFLOWER (Drosanthemum
foribundum), found i n bracki sh
soi l on Paarden I sl and, Cape
P r o v i n c e , h a s t h r e a d l i k e
branches and is low-creepi ng
when young but rather woody
and up to 5 i n. hi gh when ol d.
Leaves cyl i ndri cal , 1 to % i n.
l ong; 1 i n. thi ck. Fl owers form a
dense carpet of col or in May and
June i n Cal i forni a. The pl ant is a
good soil retai ner. Has hi gh re
si stance to wi nd and sal t spray.
PINK FIG MARIGOLD (Lampran
thus glomeratus!, from South
Afri ca, is popul ar i n Bermuda
and Hawai i . I t s thi n stems may
be erect ( to 2 ft. ) or hug t he
ground. The l eaves are sl i m and
3-angl ed. Blooms f or several
months. In Hawai i , l ei s are made
of t he buds whi ch open after
stri ngi ng, and t he fowers last
for days. Grown from seed and
cutti ngs; needs some shade and
moi sture i n hot weather.
37
WATER LI L Y F AMI L Y !Nymphaeaceael
CAPE BLUE WATER LILY
INymphaea capensis), from
South and East Africa, has al
most ci rcul ar leaves ( 1 2- 1 6 i n.
wide), dar k green or brown. The
viol et-scented fowers (6-8 i n. )
open 4 days from morni ng Ia
late afternoon. Var. zanzibari
ensis has l arger, darker bl ooms.
38
RED BENGAL WATER LILY
INymphaea rubraJ, from I ndi a,
has nearly round leaves ( 1 2- 1 8
i n. wi de), deepl y toothed, ma
roon at frst, l ater greeni sh;
downy bel ow. Fl owers open 3 or
4 ni ghts and cl ose about noon.
Many vari eti es; al so hybri ds be
tween thi s and ot her speci es.
ROYAL WATER LILY IVidoria
amozonico), from Guyana, is
the l argest of al l aquati c pl ants.
I ts foati ng l eaves (3-7% ft.
wi de) are reddi sh and pri ckl y
beneath. Fl owers open late i n
day, turn from white t o rose.
Variety Randii has dark-red
bl ooms. Grown from 2-yr.-ol d
seeds. Wi del y known as V. regia.
(Magnoliaceae)
MAGNOLI A !Magnolia grandi
foral, of the southern Uni ted
States, succeeds i n Fl ori da and
West I ndi es and above 3,000 ft_
i n ul tra-tropi cal areas. I s a state
ly evergreen (to 1 00 fl-) grown
from seeds, l ayers and cutti ngs.
C US TAR D AP P L E F AMIL Y lAnnonaceael
ILANG-ILANG IConanga odo
rotoJ, native to t he East I ndi es,
is a sl i m, evergreen tree ( to 80
or 1 00 ft.). Bl ooms al l year. The
ri ch-scented fowers (to 311 i n.
l ong) yi el d oi l f or fne perfume
and are used in l eis. Tree de
vel ops rapi dly from seeds.
CALABASH NUTMEG IMonodora
myristicoJ, from tropi cal West
Africa, i s a deci duous tree (20-
80 ft.) wi th s hi n i ng l eaves, fra
grant fowers, and bl ack pod (8-
1 2 i n. l ong, 6 i n. wi de) con
tai ni ng nut meg-favored seeds
used for spi ce and neckl aces.
P OP P Y FAMI L Y IPapaveraceael
PRI CKLY POPPY IArgemone mex
icanal, a nati ve of tropical
America whi ch has spread to al l
warm areas, i s a spiny herb (2-
3 ft. h i gh), showy both as a
weed and as a garden orna
mental . Often depi cted i n art.
Fl owers may or yel low.
40
PLUME POPPY IMacleaya cor
datal, from Chi na and Japan, is
an herbaceous perenni al (to 5-8
ft.) wi th creepi ng rootstock and
handsome leaves (to 8 in. wi de),
wh ite on the undersi de. Fl ower
sprays reach 1 ft. i n lengt h.
Grawn from suckers or cutti ngs.
MATI LI JA POPPY IRomneya
coulteri), native to Mexico and
southern Cal i forni a, i s a bushy,
suckeri ng pl ant (3-8 ft. hi gh)
wi t h s howy and fragrant fowers
(3-6 i n. wi de). Propagated by
di vi si on; seedl i ngs sl ow to
bl oom. Thrives in full sun.
C AP E R FAMI L Y !Capparidaceae)
SPI DERFLOWER (C/eome spi
nosal, native to tropi cal Amer
ica and wi del y natural i zed, i s
a pungent, odorous herb (to
3-4 fl.) with spi ny stems and
compound leaves. Seedpods
l ong and s l i m. Seeds sprout
easi ly. L i kes ful l sun and moi st
soi l . Excel l ent honeybee pl ant.
HORSERADI SH TREE rMoringa
oleifera), from northern I ndi a,
is a graceful tree (to 25 ft.) wi th
thri ce- pi nnate l eaves (9-24 i n.
l ong) and copious fowers and
fruits al l year. The roots are
prepared l i ke horseradi sh; the
young pods, leaves and seeds
are eaten. The latter yi el d ben
oi l , valued for cul i nary use and
i n cos meti cs. Grown from seeds
or cutti ngs.
BARNA (Crateva roxburghiil,
native to I ndi a, Malaya and
Central Africa, i s a deci duous
tree (to 50- 1 00 ft.) with tri fol iate
leaves, very s howy i n bl oom.
The fowers ( i n cl usters 4- 1 2 i n.
l ong, 1 0 i n. wi de) have a garl i c
odor. Grown from seeds; i n sun.
Leaves may i nfame ski n.
ORPINE FAMILY (Crassul aceae) consi sts of 33 gen
era and 1 , 500 speci es of temperate and tropi cal re
gi ons . Most are perennial succul ent herbs or subshrubs
wi th feshy stems and l eaves, the l atter waxy, often i n
rosettes, sometimes col orful . Fl owers may be s howy.
Ideal for rock gardens; ari d situations.
ICE ROSE IEcheveria glauco),
from Mexico, is a steml ess, com
pact, saucer- shaped rosette (to
4 i n. wi de) with t hi n, rounded
l eaves. Fl ower stal k (8- 1 2 i n.
tal l ) bears cl usters of 8-20 fow
ers. Easi l y grown from ofsets;
forms dense beds.
42
SCARLET PAINTBRUSH ICrassula
falcata), nati ve to the Cape
Provi nce, South Africa, and
wi del y cul tivated i s a semi -shrub
(to 3 ft.) wi th a feshy stem and
very feshy l eaves ( 3- 4 i n. l ong).
The fowers ( bri ght-scarl ef, or
ange or someti mes white) are
in dense, fat termi nal c l usters.
Grown from cutt i ngs, leaf cut
ti ngs or seed. Needs perfect
drai nage.
MEXI CAN SNOWBALL (Eche
veria e/egans), from Hi dal go, is
steml ess and has t i ght rosettes
of 2-i n. l eaves. Fl ower stal ks (4-
1 0 i n. tal l ) bear cl usters of 5- 1 0
bl ooms. Var. simulans has red
ti pped l eaves and reddi sh-yel
l ow fowers. Grown by ofsets.
PI G' S EAR (Cotyledon undulatal,
from the Cape Provi nce, Africa,
is a shrubby plant (to 3 fl.), its
leaves (3-5 i n. l ong) coted with
a meal y, whi te or si lvery bloom.
Flowers are orange or red. Cut
ti ngs of old stems will put out
new shoots.
GUMMY AEONI UM (Aeonium
glutinosum), native to Madeira,
has an erect or prostrate stem,
very sti cky, as are t he 3- to 4-
i n. leaves. The fower cluster ( 1
ft. long and wi de) is borne on
a 2-ft., leafy stalk. Leaves used
to harden fshi ng lines.
LI FE PLANT (Kalanchoe fam
mea), from tropical East Africa,
is a succulent perennial (to 1 %
ft.) with feshy leaves (to 2 i n.
long) and yellow to orange or
scarl et fowers, i n wi nter. Grown
from seeds or sprouti ng leaves,
i n full sun.
PIT T OSP OR U M F AMIL Y IPittosporaceael
TASMANI AN CHRISTMAS BUSH
I B u r s ar i a s p i n o s a J , f o u n d
throughout Austral i a and Tas
mani a, is a s hrub (to 15 fl.) or
smal l tree (to 20-30 ft.), wi th
smal l , spi ny leaves. Termi nal
spi kes (5-6 i n. tal l ) of sweetly
scented fowers are produced in
abundance in s ummer (late De
cember i n its native home). The
red seedpods whi ch fol low are
al so ornamental . Grown from
cutti ngs.
LAUREL IPittospo
rum undulatum), from the warm
parts of Austral i a and Tasmani a,
is a beauti ful , low-branchi ng
tree (to 20-40 ft.). The leaves
(4-6 in. l ong) are l aurel - l i ke,
wavy and s hi ni ng. Fragrant fow
ers are succeeded by decorat i ve
fruits whi ch spl i t open when
ri pe. The tree is qui ck-growi ng
from seed. I t i s wi nd-resistant,
sal t-tol erant, and may be grown
as a cl i pped hedge. A popul ar
variety has variegated l eaves.

BERRY IPitosporum het
erophyllum), native to Chi na, is
a spreadi ng, droopi ng or semi
recl i ni ng shr ub (3-6 f t . hi gh, or
up to 1 2 ft. i f gi ven support).
The leaves ( 1 -3% i n. l ong) are
vari abl e in form; the fowers
very fragrant. The c lusters of
s mal l , bl ack berries stand out
because of the l i ght green of
the fol iage. Very sl ow-growi ng;
tol erant of poor, dry soi l ; hi gh
l y drought-res i stant. Excel l ent
pl ant for embankments and rock
gardens.
C U N ONIA FAMIL Y (Cunoniaceael
NEW SOUTH WALES CHRISTMAS
BUSH !Ceratopetalum gummi
ferum), an el egant shrub or
s mal l tree (to 30 ft. or more), i s
t he most commonl y cul ti vated
native pl ant of New South
Wal es. Al though the fowers are
s mal l and u nappeal i ng in scent,
t hei r mature cal yces are red and
spectacul ar i n l ate December
when cut sprays are popul ar for
decorati on. Grawn from seeds
or cutti ngs.
SWEETSHADE IHymenosporum
favum), from s ubtropi cal Aus
tral i a, may be ei ther a broad
shrub or narrow tree (to 25 or
50 ft. ). The evergreen l eaves (3
to 6 i n. l ong) are downy on t he
unders i de. Very fragrant, at
tractive fowers are di s pl ayed i n
l oose termi nal cl usters (4-8 i n.
wide) and are succeeded by
t hi c k capsul es ( 1 i n. l ong) con
tai ni ng many wi nged seeds.
Grown from seeds or cutti ngs.
ROSE FAMILY (Rosaceae) is composed of some 1 15
genera and 3, 200 s pecies, pri mari ly of t emperate
cl i mates. They range from low herbs to s hrubs ( some
cl i mbi ng) and smal l trees, and may be thorny. The
l eaves are al ternate, compound or si mpl e. A typi cal
fower has 4 or 5 petal s ( usual l y whi te, pi nk or red)
surroundi ng a tuft of stamens. Seeds may be borne
outsi de or i nsi de a feshy receptacl e commonl y cal l ed
a frui t, whi ch i s usual l y edi bl e and often ornamental .
Roses (Rosa speci es) are grown i n t he subtropi cs and
tropi cs but are better sui ted t o col der regi ons .
SILVERLEAF C OT ON E AS T E R
(Cotoneaster pannosa), from
southwest Chi no, is popul ar in
Cal i forni a and Hawai i . I t i s a
semi-evergreen shrub (6- 1 5 ft.
tol l ) with archi ng branches and
leaves ( t o 1 i n. l ong) si lvery
velvet beneat h. loaded wi th
showy frui ts i n wi nter. Grown
from seeds, cutti ngs or layers.
CHINESE HAWTHORN (Photinia
serrulata), a favorite ornamental
i n its nati ve Chi no, Cal i forni a
and other mi l d cl i mates, i s a
shrub or s mal l tree (to 30-40 ft.).
I ts leaves ore coppery-red when
young, cri mson before fal l i ng.
Fl owers ( i n 6 i n. cl usters) i n
summer; frui ts vi vi d fal l -wi nter.
Needs port shade.
IPyracantha angustifalia), a
shrub (to 1 0- 1 2 ft.) of southwest
Chi na, i s the species best suited
to mi l d cl i mates. I ts l ong, droop
ing, thorny branches are downy
when you ng. Leaves ( %- 2' i n.
l ong) are vel vety gray beneath,
and t he young frui ts gray and
fuzzy. Smoot h, ri pe frui ts make
a stri ki ng s how.
INDIAN HAWTHORN IRaphiol
epis indica), of southern Chi na,
i s a shrub ( t o 5 ft . ) wi th s l i m,
spreadi ng branches, l eathery
l eaves ( 1 % to 2% in. l ong) and
white or pi nk fowers. Very sl ow
growi ng. Stands f ul l s un, poor
soil, and sal t s pray.
YEDDO HAWTHORN IRaphio/
epis umbellota), from southern
Japan, i s an upri ght shrub (to
1 2 ft.) with t hi ck leaves ( 1 % to
3 i n. l ong) and fragrant fowers.
Of moderate growth role; very
wi nd- and sal t-resi stant. Frui ts
are pear-shaped and bl ue-bl ack.
PEA FAMI L Y (leguminosae) is the thi rd l argest
among foweri ng pl ants, with 600 genera and 1 2, 000
speci es i n t hree groups: Lotoi deae, or Papi l i onateae
( mai nl y temperate, with fowers al ways " peal i ke") ,
Caesal pi noi deae, and Mi mosoi deae ( both mai nly trop
ical ). Pl ant types i ncl ude annual and perenni al herbs,
shrubs, vi nes and trees; some aquati c, some xerophyti c.
Al l bear seed pods wi t h or without pul p. Many genera
are of great i mportance economical ly, furni shi ng food,
fodder, t i mber , gum, oi l and dye. Some are notorious
for their toxic properties; many are outstandi ng
ornamental s.
48
FLME AMHERSTI A IAmhersfia
nobilisJ, from Burma, i s a re
nowned tree (30-40 ft.) with
pi nnate leaves, the leafets 6 to
1 2 i n. l ong. Flower sprays reach
2 to 3 ft. Rare and di fcul t to
rai se. Grown from seeds (few
produced), cutti ngs or layers.
WOMAN' S tAibizia
lebbeckJ, from tropi cal Asi a and
northern Austral i a, i s a broad
topped tree (to 1 00 ft tal l ) wi th
pi nnate l eaves (to 15 i n. l ong) ,
shed i n wi nter when the abun
dant dry pods rattle i n the wi nd.
Grows rapi dl y from seed.
SI L TREE tAibizia julibrissinJ,
native to mild areas from I ran
t o Japan, i s a broad tree (to 40
ft.) wi th deci duous, feathery
leaves (9- 1 0 in. long), bl oomi ng
heavi l y in summer. Popul ar i n
Cal i forni a; and is t he common
"mi mosa" of t he South.
BAILEY ACACIA (Acacia bailey
anal, of New South Wal es, i s
hi ghl y pri zed t here and i n Cal i
forni a. A shrub or t ree ( 1 0 t o
30 ft . ) wi th bl ui sh fol i age, i t has
a ri ch show of fowers i n l ate
wi nter. Vari ety purpurea has
purpl e-ti nted fol i age.
PURPLE ORCHID TREE 18auhinia ST. THOMAS TREE IBauhinia
purpurea), from I ndi a and Chi
na, i s a f ul l - headed tree ( t o 40
f t . ) . I n fal l , i t bears orchi dl i ke,
purpl e, red or lavender fowers
(to 5 in. wide) ami dst the fo
liage ( p. 5 1 ). Later, there i s a
heavy crop of fat seedpods
whi ch snap open, scatteri ng
thei r brown seeds. A very S i mi
l ar, l avender-fowered tree (8.
voriegoto) and its white-fowered
variety candida bl oom in spri ng
after thei r l eaves hove fal l en.
These ore fast-growi ng trees,
raised from seeds whi ch re
mai n vi abl e more than a year.
lomenloso), nat ive to tropi cal
Afri ca, Chi no and I ndio, i s a
s mal l tree or shr ub (to 1 5 ft. )
wi th thin l eaves ( 1 % to 3 i n .
wi de) and droopi ng fowers that
do not ful l y open. Seeds ore
di fcul t to germi nate.
RED BAUHINIA 18ouhinia gof
piniJ, from tropi cal Afri ca, is a
drought-resi stant, s prawl i ng or
cl i mbi ng shrub wi th evergreen
l eaves (2-3 i n. wi de), bl oomi ng
profusel y al l su mmer. Woul d be
more common, but seedpods ore
scarce ond cutti ngs hard to root.
FLAME-OF-THE-FOREST lButea MOUNTAIN ROSE (8rowneo
frondosa), a native of I ndi a, i s
a homel y tree (20-50 ft. hi gh)
wi th crooked trunk and branch
es. The trifol iate leaves wi t h
gray-green l eafets ( 4- 8 i n. l ong)
are shed i n mi dwi nter. Soon
after, the ends of the branches
ore covered for 2 or 3 ft. wi th
bl ack, vel vety buds from whi ch
emerge the l ovel y fowers, mak
i ng a breathtaki ng di spl ay. The
tree i s featured i n Hi ndu cere
monies and fol kl ore. Grown
from seeds or cutti ngs i n Fl ori da.
Does wel l i n sal ty soi l s.
grondiceps), nati ve to northern
Venezuel a, i s an evergreen tree
(to 40 or 60 ft.) with pi nnate
leaves (to 15 i n. l ong), droopi ng
decoratively when you ng. The
fowers are massed i n spectacu
l ar, rose-l i ke heads (to 8 i n.
wide) i n ter mi nal spi kes. I ntro
duced i nto Europe in 1 803 and
much admi red i n tropi cal botani c
gardens, t he tree i s successful i n
Hawai i but uncommon i n Fl ori da
and Cal iforni a. Grown from
cutti ngs and seeds scari fed be
fore pl anti ng. Sl ow-growi ng.
Fl ame-of-the- Forest
Mou
nt
ain
Ro
se
BARBADOS PRIDE !Poinciana
pulcherrimo), of unknown origi n,
i s a somewhat thorny s hrub ( 1 0-
1 5 ft.) wi th deci duous, twice
compound l eaves (5- 1 0 in. l ong).
Flowers (red or yel l ow) borne
nearl y al l year. Grown from
seed i n full sun; may be pruned.
PARADISE POINCIANA !Poinci
ana gi/liesiiJ, from Argenti na,
i s a thornl ess s hrub ( to 10 ft. or
up to 20 ft. agai nst a wal l ) wi th
deci duous, feathery l eaves (to 8
i n. l ong) and upri ght s pi kes of
bl ooms al l s ummer. Grown from
seed in ful l sun. Stands 8

F.
and survives as far north as
Vi rgi ni a.
WAIT-A-BIT ICaesolpinio epi
aria), from southern Asia, is
a cl i mbi ng hrub with recurved
thorns and twice-compound, de
ci duous l eaves (to 1 fl. l ong).
I t fowers profusel y i n spri n

.
Grown from seed as a barrier
hedge; has run wil d i n Hawai i .
RED POWDERPUFF rColliondro EAST AFRICAN LABURNUM
hoemotocepholo) i s a I orge trop
i cal Ameri can shrub ( 1 2-25 ft_),
wi de-spreadi ng, wi th evergreen,
twice- pi n nate fol i age. Bl ooms i n
wi nter. Grown f r om ai r- l ayers or
cutti ngs i n sun. May be pruned
to desi red si ze.
CANDLEBUSH (Cassia olotoJ, a
tropi cal Ameri can shrub (to 1 5
ft.), often sprawl i ng, h as com
pound l eaves ( to 3 ft. l ong) and
bri l l iant bl ooms i n fal l and wi n
ter. Grown from seeds i n ful l
sun and cut bock i n spri ng.
Wi del y known as "ri ngworm
bush," the l eaves are a common
fol k remedy for s ki n afi cti ons.
(Colpurnio subdecondro) i s a
shrub or s mal l tree ( 1 0-20 ft.)
wi th evergreen leaves (4- 1 0 i n.)
and l aburnum- l i ke fowers i n
wi nter. The pods persist a l ong
ti me. Grown as an ornamental
ond as a shade for cofee trees.
53
tu/ol, from I ndi o, is a fast-grow
ing tree ( 25-60 ft.) wi t h com
pound l eaves (to 20 i n. l ong),
mostl y shed as the tree becomes
draped wi th bl ooms ( June to Au
gust). The frui ts are the Cassi a
pods wel l known i n t he drug
trade for t hei r l axative pul p.
P I NK- AND- WH I T E SHOWER
!Cassia javanical, native to the
East I ndi es, i s a tree ( 1 5-45 ft. )
with thornl i ke spurs. The com
pound l eaves (6- 1 2 i n. l ong) fal l
i n wi nter and new fol i age ap
pears i n earl y sum mer wi th the
fowers, much l i ke appl e bl os
soms. Grows rapi dl y from seed
i n ful l sun.
MORETON BAY CHESTNUT rCas
tonospermum oustroleJ, from
New South Wal es, i s a maj esti c,
low-branchi ng tree (40-90 ft., or
up to 1 30 ft. i n t he wil d). The
evergreen, compound leaves ( 1 -
1 Y ft. l ong) portl y h i de the
fowers that are massed along
t he ol der l i mbs and often on t he
trunk i n mi dsu mmer and suc
ceeded by glossy, decorative
pods. The tree i s pl anted for
shade i n Cal i forni a and on the
Riviera. Grows fast i n moist,
ri ch soil ; needs ful l sun. The
l eaves and pods ore toxi c to
l ivestock, but t he seeds, after
l ong soaki ng and roosti ng, ore
ground i nto on edi bl e meal .
GLORY PEA (Cfianthus dampi
eriJ, from Austral ia, i s a bushy
perenni al , semi -erect (2-4 ft. ) or
recl i ni ng. The stems and com
pound l eaves ( 5-7 i n.) are coated
wi th grayi sh, s i l ky hai rs. Grown
from scari fed seed but l onger
l ived if grafted onto Coluteo
orborescens. Prized for rock
gardens and hangi ng baskets.
BUTTERFLY PEA (Ciitoria terna
teaJ, found wi l d t hroughout I n
dio, i
s
a sl ender, twi ni ng vi ne
( t o 20 ft . ) wi th compound l eaves
(4-6 in. l ong). Fl owers (typi cal l y
bl ue, may be pi nk or whi te;
someti mes doubl e) appear i n
s ummer or nearl y al l year. Cut
bl ooms keep wel l . Vi ne fast
growi ng i n ful l s un, moist soi l .
55
SAPUPIRA IBowdichif virgilio
ides!, native to Guyana and
adj acent areas of Brazi l and
Venezuel a, ranges from a smal l
t ree ( 1 0- 1 5 ft.) to a forest gi ant
(up to 1 50 ft.). I ts compound
l eaves ore shed i n wi nter before
the fowers appear in I orge,
termi nal sprays. Thi n, wi ne-red
pods used i n perfumery.
COLVILLE' S GLORY (Colv_lea
rocemoso), of Madagascar, i s on
erect, moderately s preadi ng tree
(40-50 ft.) wi th toll trunk and
faki ng bark. The feathery l eaves
(to 3 ft. l ong) ore shed i n wi n
ter right after the bl oomi ng
season, whi ch l asts about 6
Flower spi kes (to 8 i n.
l ong), i n droopi ng or erect cl us
ters ( 1 %-2 fl. l ong), stand out
above the fol i age. Sl ow-growi ng
from seed, borne i n cyl i ndri cal ,
6- i n. pod, whi ch i s not produced
i n Fl ori da. Seedl i ngs may bl oom
i n 2 years or not for 1 0. Widel y
di stri buted but not commonl y
seen i n any area.
LANCEPOD (Lonchocarpus ser
iceus), native to tropi cal West
Africa and natural ized in trop
ical America and West I ndi es, is
a s hrub or tree (to 50 or even
1 0 fl.), wi th browni sh, downy
bronchl ets and pi nnate fol i age.
The fowers appear after the
l eaves ore shed i n the dry sea
son. Seeds, i n woody pod, toxi c.
JEWEL VINE !Derris scandens),
nat ive from I ndi a Ia Austral i a,
i s a woody vi ne ( I a 1 5-35 ft.)
wi th evergreen, compound leaves
and fower cl usters (to 1 ft. long)
i n s ummer and fal l . Grown from
seed or c utti ngs i n moist soi l ;
sun or partial s hade.
ROYAL POINCIANA IDelonix
regia), from Madagascar, i s an
u mbrel la-topped, l ow-branchi ng
tree ( t o 60 fl.) wi t h feathery
leaves (to 2 ft. l ong). Famed for
its vivid (red or yel l ow) blooms
i n summer; mostl y bare i n wi n
ter except for pods ( to 2 ft.).
Fast-growi ng from seed.
57
variegata var. orienta/is), native
from I ndia to Polynesia, i s a
thorny tree (to 60 ft.) wi th tri
fol iate l eaves, shed i n l ate wi n
ter, j ust before the fowers ap
pear. Cutti ngs 6 f t . l ong take
root readi ly.
58
JADE VINE (Strongylodon ma
crobotrys), a Phi l i ppi ne vi ne,
hi gh-twi ni ng, has trifol iol ate
leaves and droopi ng fower cl us
ters (to 3 ft. l ong) al l spri ng and
summer. Slow-growi ng from
seeds or ai r- layers; blooms i n
3 years. Fl owers used i n l ei s.
MOUNTAIN IMMORTELLE (Ery
thrina poeppigiana), native from
Panama to Bol i vi a, i s a spi ny
tree ( t o 80 ft.) whi ch may have
some leaves when i t fares i nto
bl oom in spri ng. Cutti ngs grow
fast. Often pl anted as s hade for
cacao and cofee trees.
MADRE DE CACAO (G/iricidia
sepium), of tropi cal Ameri ca and
the West I ndi es, i s a s mal l tree
(to 30 fl.) wi th s preadi ng
branches whi ch shed t hei r pi n
nate leaves i n l at e wi nter and
are s oon dens el y covered wi th
bl oom. Commonl y pl anted i n the
tropi cs as shade for cacao, sup
port for vani l l a and bl ack pep
per vi nes, and for l i vi ng-fence
posts, si nce l i mbs thrust i nto the
ground take root and grow
rapi dl y in dry soi l . Al so grown
from seed (in 5- to 6- i n. pods).
The fowers are cooked and
eaten. Leaves, seeds, and bark
l ong reputed to be rat poi sons
but have not proved so i n trial s.
PURPLE SARSAPARILLA IHar
denbergia vio/aceaJ, from Aus
tral i a and Tas mania, a cl i mbi ng
shr ub, has s mooth, twi ni ng
stems, stif, evergreen leaves
(1 V2 -S i n. long) and quanti ti es
of fowers i n spri ng. There are
whi te- and pi n k-fowered vari
eti es. Grown from cutti ngs.
JERUSALEM THORN (Parkin
soni a acul eatal, despite its com
mon name, i s a tropi cal Ameri
can tree (to 30 ft. ), natural i zed
from Fl ori da to Cal i forn i a and
wi del y pl anted i n t he Ol d
Worl d. I t i s green-trunked when
young and has a l i ght, ai ry ap
pearance wi th its sl i m, green
branches and curious l eaves
di sgui sed as fat, sl ender "nee
dl es" (8- 1 6 in. l ong) beari ng
sharp spi nes and ti ny l eafets
( 1 / 1 6-5/ 1 6 i n.). The fragrant
fowers appear throughout spri ng
and s ummer. Seeds are pro
duced in l umpy pods (2-6 i n.
l ong). Fast-growi ng from seeds,
cutti ngs or ai r- l ayers. Needs ful l
s un; tol erates drought, al so low,
moi st, salty soi l and i ndi rect ex
posure to sal t spray, but i s l usher
i n good soi l and i nl and l ocati on.
Popul ar i n Fl ori da l andscapi ng.
COPPERPOD (Peltophorum ptero
carpuml, from Mal aysi a, i s a
broad-topped tree (to 60 or even
1 00 ft.) with compound l eaves (1
to 2 ft. l ong), evergreen except
i n dry l ocati ons. There i s a
conspi cuous reddi sh-brown fuzz
on the stal ks and buds of the
fower cl usters. The bri l l i ant
sprays of fowers whi ch stand
out above the fol i age ( spri ng t o
fal l ) emi t a grapel i ke perfume
at ni ght. They are succeeded by
fat, maroon seedpods whi ch are
attractive u nt i l they bl acken.
Fast-growi ng from seeds. Long
known as P. i nerme. Often
cal l ed "yel l ow poi nci ana" but
this name shoul d be l i mited to
the yel low variety of Royal
Poi nci ana (Oelonix regiaJsee
on p. 57.
60
ASOKA TREE ISaraca i ndica),
from I ndi a and Mal aya, is a
tree (to 30 ft.) sacred to t he
Hi ndus. leaves are evergreen,
compound, to 1 ft. l ong. The
fowers ( i n spri ng) are orange
when frst open; l at er red. They
are fragrant and used i n dec
orati ng templ es and worn i n the
hai r. Seedpods (to 10 in. l ong)
red when unr i pe; bl ack when
ri pe. Easi l y grown from seeds.
TREE FUCHSIA ISchotia brachy
peta/a), from South Afri ca, i s a
tree (to 40 ft.) wi th compound
l eaves whi ch are s hed i n l ate
wi nter. Fl owers borne in ter
m ina I cl usters or on ol der
branches and tru n k ( i n spri ng).
Brown, woody seedpods (to 4 i n.
l ong) remai n on t he tree a l ong
t i me. Sl ow-growi ng from seed,
i n dry soi l ; tol erates drought.
MESCAL BEAN (Sophora secun
diloral, native from New Mexico
and Texas into Mexi co, i s a
shrub or tree (to 35 ft.) wi th
evergreen, compound l eaves (4-6
in. l ong). The viol et-scented
fowers i n termi nal cl usters
(spring and s ummer) are fol
lowed by si l very pods- that s pl i t
. ope. n, reveal i ng t he attractive
seeds. These contai n the al ka
l oi d, cytisi ne, and as l i ttle as
one seed has caused fatal poi
son. i ng . i n hu mans. Neverthel ess,
southwestern I ndi ans have used
the powdered seeds to produce
i nebri ati on and deep s l umber.
Sl ow-growi ng from seeds; nee.ds
ful l s un and ampl e wateri ng.
Somet i mes espal iered on a wal l .
A popul ar ornamental i n I ndi a.
Hi ghl y pri zed i n Cal i forni a.
GANSIES (Sutherlandia frutes
cens), from South Africa, i s o
downy shrub (5- 1 5 ft. h i gh) wi th
evergreen, compound leaves
( 2%- 3% i n. l ong) . The fowers
appear i n droopi ng sprays in
spri ng. Seedpods (to 2 in. l ong),
papery and i nfated, are also
showy. Fast-growi ng from seeds
or cutt i ngs i n ful l sun.
DARLING PEA (Swainsonia gale
gifolia), from Queensl and and
New South Wal es, i s a subshrub,
spreadi ng ( 1 - 3 ft. hi gh) or
cl i mbi ng i f given support. I t
has feathery fol i age and bl ooms
conti nuousl y. Fl owers may be
scarl et, bronze, mauve, pi nk, or
white. Grown from seeds or
cutti ngs. Pruned i n wi nter.
TI PA (Tipuana tipu), from Bo
l ivi a and Argent i na, is a tree
(30- 1 00 ft.), common al ong
roads i n South Ameri ca, Al geri a
and t he Ri vi era. I t has deci du
ous, compound leaves (8- 1 0 i n.
l ong), and fowers i n l oose ter
mi nal cl usters i n s ummer.
Winged seeds persi st nearl y al l
year. Grows fast i n dry soi l .
CARI B WOOD ISabinea carin
a/is!, of Domi ni ca, i s a s mal l
tree often cul tivated f or orna
ment in the West I ndi es. I ts
fne, feathery fol i age i s shed
i n wi nter, and the vi vi d fowers
emerge before the new leaves,
i n spri ng. Grown from seed ( i n
4- i n. pods) or cutti ngs, i n f ul l
sun, preferabl y on dry soi l .
GUAPI RUVU ISchizolobium par
ahyba), native from Brazi l to
Mexico, i s a sl ender tree (50-
1 20 ft.), often buttressed, wi th
fern- l i ke l eaves (to 4 ft. l ong).
The bare branches put forth an
abundance of bl ooms i n erect
cl usters (to 1 ft. tall ) i n
i n pods t o 4 i n. l ong).
Fast-growi ng from seed

i
CAL T R OP FAMIL Y (Zygophyl laceae)
VERA IBulnesia arboreal, nat ive
to northern Venezuel a ond Co
l ombi a, i s o tree (35- 1 20 ft.) wi th
o tal l , strai ght trun k and ever
green, compound leaves. Fl ow
ers are borne in short cl usters in
summer ond fall. Occurs i n ari d
regi ons. Sl ow-growi ng. Wood i s
heavy and hard and has been
used for brush backs and as
beari ngs for machi nery. Vera
posts i n 300-year-ol d rui ns were
found to be in good condi ti on.
LIGNUM VITAE !Guaiacum of
cina/e), nati ve to the West I n
di es, northern South Ameri ca
and Panama, is a tree ( 1 5-30 ft.)
with compound, evergreen l eaves
(1 %-3 i n. l ong), bl oomi ng and
beari ng cl usters of f r ui t s con
t i nuousl y from spri ng to fal l .
The sel f-l ubri cati ng, heavy, hard
wood, formerl y used for bowl
i ng balls, i s unequal l ed for
l i ni ng propel l er shafts of shi ps.
Very slow-growi ng from seed.
PUNCTURE VINE ITribulus cis
toidesl, found in Fl orida and
on most tropi cal coasts, i s a
prostrate herb wi th hai ry stems
reachi ng 20 i n. and pi nnate
leaves (1 V2 3 in. l ong). Ever
bl oomi ng fowers open in morn
i ng and cl ose at noon. Forms
great carpets of color in the wil d
and i s often pl anted as a ground
cover where its spi ny frui ts
wi l l not be troubl esome. Best
grown from cutt i ngs; grows wel l
on dry, sandy soi l and ful l y
exposed to sal t spray.
BREATH-OF-HEAVEN IDiosma
ericoides), from South Africa, i s
a bushy shrub ( to 3-4 ft. ) wi th
al ternate, evergreen, aromati c
l eaves (% to ' i n. l ong). The
fowers, wh ite or reddi sh, are
borne al l spri ng and summer.
Popul ar i n greenhouses and of
ten pl anted as a hedge i n Cal i
forni a. Stands l i ght cl i ppi ng.
Branches used i n fori sts' ar
rangements. Grown from cut
ti ngs, i n poor soi l .
MAYPOLE ISpathelia simplex),
a nati ve of Jamai ca, is a cu
ri ous tree (20-25 ft. ) wi th a
si ngl e sl ender trun k onl y 3 i n.
wi de at t he ground, unbranched
but roughened by ol d l eaf scars.
The compound, fern l i ke l eaves
( 1 6 i n.-5 ft. l ong) are cl ustered
at t he s ummit and are vel vety
on the u ndersi de. Fl owers are
borne in a ter mi nal s pray (to 6
ft. hi gh and 8 ft. broad). Si x
mont hs after produci ng seeds (
i
n
3-si ded, 3-wi nged frui ts), the
tree dies.
ORANGE JASMINE IMurroyo
poniculotaJ, from southern As i a
and the East I ndi es, i s a grace
ful shrub or s hort-trun ked,
round-topped t ree ( t o 25 ft.)
wi th attracti ve, evergreen, com
pound leaves and very fragrant
fowers fol l owed by bri ght red
frui ts. Easi l y grown from seed,
but cutti ngs di fcult to root.
Popul ar as a cl i pped hedge.
Wood has been used far canes;
roots for dagger handl es.
S I MAR U BA F AMI L Y (Simarubaceae)
BI TTERWOOD (Quassia amara) i s
a s hrub or smal l tree (rarel y
25 ft.) from northern Brazi l to
Mexi co and West I ndi es. Mature
l eaves (to 4 i n. l ong) are dark
green and glossy above, l i ght
beneat h; new l eaves are scarl et.
Fl owers ( never open f ul ly) and
s mal l frui ts hang i n l oose cl us
ters. The wood, formerl y a
source of toni c, is now used for
i nsecti ci de. Grown from seeds or
cutti ngs for showy fowers in
the tropi cs, i n southern Cal ifor
nia, and in greenhouses.
MAH OGANY F AMI L Y (Mel iaceae)
CHI NABERRY (Melia azedarachJ CAPE MAHOGANY (Trichilia
i s a tree (to 40 ft.) from western
Asia, widely grown for shade
i n warm areas. The leaves are
twi ce compound, 1 -3 ft. l ong,
wi th many l eafets, and are shed
i n wi nter. Cl usters of smal l , l i l ac
scented fowers appear in
spri ng. The abundant (but toxi c)
frui ts are stri ki ng when tree i s
bare. I t i s short- l i ved, fast-grow
i ng, from seeds whi ch are some
times strung as beads or
rosari es. Texas Umbrel l a tree i s
a broad-topped variety.
emetica) i s a handsome tree to
40 or 70 ft. or more, commonl y
found wi l d and pl anted al ong
streets from Arabi a to South
Africa. The compound l eaves are
up to 1 8 i n. l ong. Al though the
fowers are more fragrant than
s howy, the ri pe, spl i t frui ts are
stri ki ng-thei r brown or bl ack
seeds, partl y encased by the
orange ari l s, resembl i ng dol l 's
eyes. Oi l from the seeds is i m
portant i n soap maki ng. The red
wood i s used i n carpentry.
MAL P I GH I A F AMI L Y
AMAZON VI NE IStigmaphyllon
ciliatumJ i s a woody vine from
Brazi l , Tri ni dad, and Bri ti sh Hon
duras. The evergreen l eaves ( 2-3
i n. l ong) have hai rl i ke teeth on
margi ns. Bl ooms from l ate spri ng
t o f al l . The s i mi l ar, denser S. lit
torale, bears smal l er, deep-gol d
fl owers i n l arger cl usters for a
shorter season. Young l eaves of
both are reddi sh. Propagated by
layeri ng or cutti ngs. Fast-growi ng
i n part i al shade. I deal for grow
i ng on trel l i ses when pl anted i n
ground; d o not thri ve i n pots.
SARABATUCU IHeteropteris chry
sophyllaJ, a twi ni ng vine from
Brazi l , i s one of the showi est
members of its genus. I t has
reddi sh-brown fuzz on its
branches and calyces, and its
leaves (to 5 in.) are velvety
gol den- brown beneath. The fow
ers change from orange to red
dish and then gi ve way to the
attractive masses of wi nged
seeds. Propagated by cutti ngs.
SHOWER-OF-GOLD IGalphimia
glauco!, from Central Ameri ca
and Mexi co a n d wi del y c ul t i
vated, i s a shrub (3 t o 1 0 ft. )
wi t h v er y s l e n d e r , r e d d i s h
bra n c h es a n d l eaves t o 3 i n .
l ong. Fl owers ( i n s pi kes 3-4 or
up to 8 i n. tal l ) borne nearl y al l
year i n tropi cs but not i n wi nter
i n Fl ori da and southern Cal ifor
nia. Grown from seeds and cut
t i ngs. Needs dry soi l and f ul l s un.
67
VI OLET TREE lSecuridaca lon
gipedunculatal is a shrub or
smal l tree (to 20-30 ft.), wi de
spread across tropi cal Africa
and south to the Transvaal . I ts
leaves are deci duous ( %- 2% i n.
l ong). The profusi on of viol et
scented fowers, from August to
November, has i nspired many
eforts at cul ti vati on, but t hi s
coveted speci es conti nues t o be
a horti cu l tural chal lenge.
DALMAI S MI LKWORT lPolygala
dalmaisianal, a hybrid that
origi nated i n France i n 1 839,
i s a 2- to 6-foot shrub whi ch
may have bot h al ternate and
opposite leaves ( 1 i n. l ong). I t s
fol i age i s scant but it bl ooms
most of the year. Popul ar i n
greenhouses and i n southern
Cal i forni a and other mi l d areas.
Grown from l ayers; stands
drought and l i ght frost.
EASTERFLOWER ISecuridaca di
versifolial, native and common
i n forests from northern South
Ameri ca to Mexico and i n some
of the Lesser Anti l l es, i s a sl en
der woody vi ne, trai l i ng or hi gh
cl i mbi ng. The leaves ( 1 -5 i n.
l ong), nearl y round or poi nted
oval , are hai ry beneat h. Often
mi staken for a l egume becaus1
of its peal i ke fowers, rose ar
purpl e, borne in termi nal sprays
throughout February or l ater.
Grown from seed (wi nged, 1 3,-
2 3, i n. l ong). Needs parti al
shade and constant moi sture.
SPURGE FAMILY (Euphorbi aceae), one of the l arg
est and most i mportant pl ant fami l i es of warm areas,
i ncl udes some 250 genera and over 4, 000 speci es.
Spurges range from herbaceous weeds to feshy, cac
tusl i ke shrubs ( many with thorns) and l arge, woody
trees . Most have sticky, mi l ky sap ( l atex), general l y
i rritati ng to t he s ki n. Typi cal fruits contai n 3 seeds,
more or l ess toxi c. Fl owers, usual l y smal l and i ncon
spi cuous, may be enci rcl ed by col orful bracts ( modi fed
l eaves), as i n Poi nsettia ( p. 70) . Other or namental s
are pri zed for t hei r fol i age ( bel ow and p. 71 ) . The
cactusl i ke euphorbi as ( p. 70) thrive i n ar i d regi ons.
CROTON CCodi aeum variega
tum), a shrub to 15 ft. , nati ve
from Fi j i to Austral i a, i s green
l eaved i n t he wi l d form. Leaves
(3 to 10 i n.) of cul t ivated cra
tons are spl ashed or stri ped
wi th col ors; vary i n shape from
broad to narrow; may be l obed,
wavy or spi ral l y twisted. Cul t i
vat i on, as speci mens or i n
hedges, began i n t he Mol uccas
and has spread to al l tropi cal
and subtropi cal areas and north
ern conservatori es. There are
hundreds of na med vari eti es.
Smal l fowers are borne i n ter
mi nal s pi kes. The common name,
unfort unatel y, causes confusi on
wi th t he dangerous Purgi ng Cro
ton (Craton tig/ium). Propagati on
i s by ai r-l ayeri ng or 1 2- 1 8 i n.
cutti ngs whi ch root easi l y. Often
grown i n ful l s un; l usher and
more col orf ul i n semi -shade.
69
SCARLET PLUME (Euphorbia lui
gens} i s a popul ar shrub of
southern Mexico and northern
greenhouses, reachi ng 4 fl. and
havi ng s l i m, wi ry, archi ng stems
set wi th 2- to 4-i n. l eaves and
t i ny fowers enci rcl ed by showy
bracts. Sprays ore sol d by fo
ri sts i n wi nter.
CROWN-OF-THORNS (Euphorbia
mi lii} i s a sprawl i ng or cl i mbi ng
pl ant ( 1 -4 ft.) from Madagascar.
I ts cyl i ndri cal stems are thi ckl y
cl othed wi t h spi nes but sparsel y
fol i aged. Mi nute fowers are
fanked by saucerl i ke bracts,
whi ch may be red, sal mon- pi nk,
or yel l ow-and- red.
POI NSETTI A (Euphorbia pulcher
ri ma}, from Mexi co and Central
Ameri ca, i s a shrub (to 15 ft. )
bel oved as a symbol af Christ
mas. I ts whorl s af upper l eaves,
red, pi nk, sal mon, pal e-yel low
or whi te, masqueradi ng as
bl ooms ( 1 0 to 22 i n. wi de), are
actual l y spl endi d rufs enci rcl i ng
t he t rue, yel low- and-green fow
ers. Si ngl e, doubl e and pi n
wheel f or ms grow from cutti ngs.
JACOB' S COAT (8reynia nivosa),
from the Paci fc I sl ands, i s a
sl ender, erect shrub (to 8 ft.
hi gh, 4 ft. wide) with wi ry,
somewhat zi gzag branches and
dai nty l eaves ( 1 - 2 i n.), mottl ed
green-and-wh ite. Most popul ar
variety is roseo-picta (shown),
its l eaves hovi ng added hues of
red and pi n k. Fl owers are ti ny
and greeni s h. Creepi ng roots
send up new s hoots whi ch form
cl umps. Grown by root-cutti ngs.
CHENI LLE PLANT !Acalypha hi s
pidal, possi bl y from New Gui n
ea, East I ndi es or Burma, is a
shr ub (to 1 5 ft. ) wi th leaves to
8 i n. l ong. It is wi del y grown
for its droopi ng s pi kes of fe
mal e fowers, usual l y dark red,
which have i nspi red the ni ck
name "red- hot cattai l ". Vari ety
alba has ivory- whi te spi kes. I n
vari ety ramosa, spi kes are
branched. Apparentl y, onl y pi s
t i l l ate pl ant s are i n cul tivati on.
Raised from cutti ngs i n sun or
l i ght shade; moi st soi l .
COPPERLEAF !Acalypha wilke
siana), a shrub ( 1 0- 1 5 ft.) from
the South Sea I sl ands, i s grown
i n most warm areas, often as a
hedge. Leaves (to 1 0 i n.) are
vari ousl y mottl ed and blotched
wi t h brown, pi nk, red, bronze,
orange or yel l ow, and someti mes
edged wi th whi te. The Bahami an
nome, Match- me- i f-you-can, re
fects t he fancy that no two
leaves are al i ke. I n Fi j i , some
bel ieve that chewi ng t he l eaves
gi ves magi cal protecti on from
harm. Propagated by cutti ngs.
PEREGRI NA (Jatropha integer
ri ma), a West I ndian, sl ender
stemmed sh rub to 15 ft. Leaves
(to 7 in. l ong) vary from obl ong
to fddl e- shaped ar may be un
evenl y l obed. Fl owers and frui ts
occur al l year. Grown from seed
or cutti ngs. Prefers ful l s un.
CORAL PLANT (Jatropha multi
ldo) i s o soft-wooded, bushy
s hrub to 1 2 or even 20 ft . The
handsome l eaves ( to 14 i n. wi de)
and t he coral - l i ke cl usters of
s mal l fowers stand out on l ong
stal ks. The fowers are val ued
for corsages i n the Phi l i ppi nes.
Frui ts are normal l y 3-si ded wi th
t hree round, brown seeds whi ch,
t hough pl easant-tasti ng, are a
common cause of poi soni ng.
I n Mexico, the leaves are
someti mes cooked as a vege
tabl e and i n Java t he l ong t hi ck
roots have been roasted and
eaten l i ke cassava. The seed
oi l i s used for i l l umi nati on and
l ubri cati on and i n soap. Prop
agated by seeds or cutti ngs.
Thrives i n ful l sun or semi - shade.
Blooms al l year.
GOUT PLANT (Jatropha podag
ricaJ, from Central Ameri ca and
someti mes cal l ed Guatemal a
rhubarb, i s a si ngle-stemmed
shrub ( to 5 ft. ) wi th a swol l en
base. leaves are 4 t o 1 0 i n.
wi de. Mal e fowers are scarlet;
femal e, green. Grown from seeds.
CASTOR BEAN (Ricinus com
munis), from tropi cal Africa, is
a giant herb that becomes tree
l i ke (to 40 ft.) with a thick stem.
leaves ( 1 t o 3 f t . wi de) are
s i l ky and bronze when young;
l eaves of some vari eti es are
whi te-vei ned or sol i d dark red
wi th red stems. The fower spi ke
varies from 6 i n. to 2 fl. tal l .
When i mmature, the burrl i ke
fruits may be bl ue-green or
red. They turn brown when ri pe
and burst, scatteri ng the seeds
( l to 3, i n. l ong), gray or tan
mottl ed wi th brown, or al l - bl ack.
Seeds yi el d castor oi l , formerl y
much used medi ci nal ly, now of
more i mportance i n i ndustry.
They are toxi c when raw, al so
contai n an al l ergen, hence dan
gerous t o use.
CAS HE W FAMI L Y
(Anacardiaceae)
PEPPER TREE (Schinus mol/e) i s a
broad, short-trun ked Peruvi an
t ree ( t o 40 or 50 fl. hi gh) much
grown i n Cent ral Ameri ca, Mex
ico, Cal i forni a and on the Ri vi
era, though i t i s host to bl ack
scal e, a hazard to Citrus cul ture.
Frui ti ng sprays are used for
decorati on, as are those of Bra
zi l i an Pepper (5. terebinthilolius)
in Hawai i and Fl ori da. Both
trees are fast-growi ng and sel f
seedi ng; tend to become weeds.
SOAP B E R R Y FAMI L Y !Sapi ndaceael
GOLDE NRAI N TREE (Koelreutaria
lormosana), from Japan and
Formosa, i s a deci duous tree
(to 40 or 60 ft.) with twice
compound leaves (1 %- 2 ft. l ong).
I n aut umn, l arge fower cl usters
ri se above the fol i age, fol l owed
by even more showy masses of
papery, bal l oonl i ke fruits. The
s ummer-bl oomi ng K. paniculata
is sui ted to cool er regi ons.
TULI PWOOD (Harpullia pendu/a)
i s a handsome Austral i an tree
wi th weepi ng branches and
evergreen, compound leaves.
The droopi ng ter mi nal cl usters
of s mal l fowers develop i nto
very s howy bunches of frui ts
( 1 - 1 % i n. wi de), hol low except
for a s hi ny bl ack seed i n each
l obe. The Asi ati c H. arborea i s
s i mi l ar. Both are rapi d growers .
MELI ANTHUS FAMI LY '"'..
(Melianthaceae)
NATAL BOTTLEBRUSH IGreyia
sutherlandiiJ i s a South African
s hru b or s mal l tree (to 15 ft.
hi gh and 1 2 ft. wi de). I n wi nter
or spri ng i t sheds many leaves
and bl ooms profusel y for several
weeks. The fowers are 1 % i n.
l ong i n 8- 1 0 i n. spi kes. Grown
from seed or softwood cutti ngs.
Stands fai rl y poor soi l , ful l sun,
and l i ght frosts. Popul ar i n
greenhouses an d outdoors i n
subtropi cal cl i mates.
B U C K T H ORN FAMI L Y !Rhamnaceael
CALI FORNI A LI LAC ICeanothusJ.
Thi s is a l arge genus of s hrubs
or smal l trees, mostly native
on the Paci fc Coast of North
America. Only a few s peci es
are grown as ornamental s i n
war m areas. C. cyaneus ( 6- 8 ft.)
has dark, gl ossy leaves. The
fowers (May-June) are deep
bl ue, lavender, rose or white, i n
l i lacl i ke cl usters. C. azureus of
Mexico ( 1 0- 1 5 ft.) has leaves
downy-whi te below and dark
bl ue fowers i n branchi ng cl us
ters. C. arboreus (to 20 ft.),
someti mes cal l ed I sl and Myrt l e,
has gray-green l eaves, velvety
whi te bel ow, and fragrant, pal e
to medi um bl ue fowers ( l ate
wi nter-spri ng) . l i kes more shade
ond moi sture t han other speci es.
There are many l ovel y hybri ds.
STARFLOWER IGrewia acciden
talisJ i s a South African shrub
(5 Ia 10 ft. hi gh) wi th soft but
sl i ghtl y hai ry l eaves ( 1 -4 i n.),
fowers that may be pi nk or pur
pl i sh, and pea-sized edibl e
frui ts. The bush i s grown from
seeds or hormone-treated cui
as an i nformal hedge.
76
WHI P TREE (Luehea speciosaJ,
nati ve from Col ombi a to Mexico
and al so i n Cuba, i s a broad
crowned tree (80 Ia 1 00 ft. tal l )
often buttressed at the base.
I ts leaves (4- 1 0 i n.) are downy
white beneath. The tree begi ns
very young Ia bl oom profusel y.
The frui t i s woody and 5-angl ed.
HONCKENYA IHonckenya fci
loliaJ i s a woody herb or shrub
(6- 1 0 ft. ) aboundi ng i n damp
forests of tropi cal Africa. I t
has purpl i sh stems and rough
leaves, usual l y 3- Ia 7-l obed,
often entire. Flowers, purpl e,
rarel y white, are 2 to 3 in.
wide, the bristl y frui ts up to
2% i n. l ong. Rape and mats are
made with the j utel i ke stem
fber. Grown as an ornamental
from seeds ar root- ar softwood
cutti ngs, bel ow 1 30 ft.
MALLOW FAMI LY (Mal vaceae) covers 40 or 50 genera
( some say 80) and 1 ,000 or more species scattered
across the temperate and tropical bel ts. They are herbs,
shrubs, and soft-wooded trees with al ternate, si mpl e,
often l obed, l eaves. The funnel form, 5- parted fowers
are typi fed by the fusi ng of the stamens i nto a tube
or col umn around the pistil and vary in col or from
white and yel l ow to purpl e and red. The fruit i s nearl y
always a dry seed capsul e. Some members of the
fami ly are worl d crops such as cotton .
FLOWERI NG MAPLE IAbutilon MAGA IMontezuma speciosis-
megapotamicum) i s o droopi ng
Brazi l i an shrub ( under 1 0 ft.
tal l ) wi th 2 to 4- i n. l eaves.
Fl owers are borne conti nuousl y
after the frst 8 months. I n Cal i
forni a it i s popul ar as a basket
pl ant when young.
sima) i s a hands ome evergreen
tree ( to 50 ft. ) common wi l d and
cul tivated i n Puerto Ri co. I t has
thi ck, 6- to 8- i n. l eaves and
waxy fowers nearl y al l year.
Thrives i n l ow, damp soil. I ts
hard, durabl e wood i s pri zed.
78
HI BI SCUS IHibiscus
rosa-sinensis) is an Asi ati c s hrub
(to 20 ft.) graci ng al l warm
regi ons wi th its year-round
bl ooms-si ngl e or doubl e; red,
orange, yel l ow, pi nk or while;
to 10 in. wide; most lasting but
a day, some l onger. Usual l y
grawn from cutti ngs; may be
ai r-layered or grafted. Shoe
bl ocki ng and mascara ore mode
from the red fowers in Chi no.
FRI NGED HI BI SCUS (Hibiscus
schizopetalus) i s a shrub from
tropical East Africa, more sl en
der and open t han t he Chi nese
speci es. I t has archi ng branches
and rarel y reaches as hi gh as
12 ft. The l eaves vary from 2 to
6 i n. l ong. Usual l y grown from
cutti ngs al t hough i t reproduces
true from seed. I n Hawai i , its
pol l en i s much used for hybri di z
i ng wi th t he Chi nese hi bi scus.
Chi nese Hi biscus
MAHOE !Hibiscus ti/iaceusl, at
home on al l tropi cal shores,
forms low t hi ckets i n wet soil
but becomes a handsome round
topped tree to 50 ft. on h i gher
ground. Ever-bl oomi ng, 4- i n.
fowers are yel low when they
frst open i n the morni ng and
maroon before t hey foi l at t he
end of t he day. The buoyant
wood i s used as cork; t he bark
was l ong-famed for i ts fber.
I LI MA ISida fa/lax), on al l the
Hawai i an i slands up to 200 ft.,
occurs i n numerous forms
some creepi ng, some erect
shrubs to 4 ft. hi gh. Leaves are
downy, of varyi ng form. Flowers
(1 l n. ) range from yel low to
orange or dark red. Fresh bl os
soms from both wil d and cul
tivated pl ants were much used
for l eis, but paper i mitations
are becomi ng common.
79
80
TURK'S CAP (Malvaviscus arbo
reusJ, a bushy Mexi can shrub
(8 I a 1 2 ft _ ) wi th leaves 3 I a 5
i n_ l ong, is often cal l ed "sl eep
i ng hi bi scus" because its fowers
(red, white or pi nk) open onl y
sl i ghtly. Propagated by cutt i ngs
far tal l hedges.
OTAGO RI BBONWOOD fHoheria
sexsylosa) i s a s ubtropi cal tree
(to 25 ft.) from New Zealand
wi th 2- I a 4-i n. l eaves of vari
abl e form and on abundance of
sweet-scented fowers. Very fast
growi ng and sel f-seedi ng. The
wood i s used for paper pul p.
multifora)
i s a robust Brazi l i an s hrub wi th
leaves 6 to 10 i n. l ong. The ob
l ong purple corol l a of the fower
and the purpl e cal yx, which are
rol l ed together, are cupped by
numerous showy, hai ry, sl ender
red bracts.
B OMBAX F AMI L Y (Bombacaceae)
RED SI LK COTTON (Bombax mal
abaricuml i s a gi ant tree from
I ndi a and Burma, reachi ng 30
ft. i n less t han 5 years and
eventual ly 1 25 fl., wi t h trunk
over 40 ft . around and heavil y
buttressed. Leaves, 5- to 7-
l obed, and 6- 1 2 in. l ong, fal l
i n late wi nter, when the great
branches glow wi th mosses of
feshy, red or orange fowers.
The woody fruit contains si l ky
foss and many ti ny bl ock seeds.
The fss, much l i ke kapok, is
used i n saddl es and pi l l ows.
Lorge cutti ngs root readil y; put
forth fowers i n one year.
SHAVI NGBRUSH TREE (Bombox
ellipticum) is a tropical Ameri
can tree (to 30 ft.) wi th smoot h,
green bark. The leaves (usual l y
with 5 l eafets to 1 2 i n. l ong)
ore shed i n wi nter; t he fowers,
with red, pi nk, or white stamens,
open i n spri ng.
FLOSS SI LK TREE (Chorisio spe
ciosoJ is a tree (50 to 10 ft.)
from Brazi l and northern Ar
genti no, very spi ny when young.
The leaves ( to 10 i n. wide) hove
5 to 7 l eafets. The fowers ore
spectacular i n l ate fal l when the
fol i age i s scanty.
8 1
C H OCOL AT E FAMI L Y !Stercul iaceael
FLAME TREE (Brachychiton acer
ifoli um) i s a pyrami dal Austra
l ian tree to 60 ft. or more wi th
variabl e, often mapl el i ke l eaves
(to 10 in. wide), the ol dest of
whi ch drop at bl oomi ng ti me ( i n
Fl ori da, spri ng; i n Cal ifornia,
July-August). The abundance of
fowers makes a bri l l iant di spl ay.
The t hi ck bark yiel ds a l acel i ke
fber (bast) pri zed far hats, bas
kets and other arti cl es. The seed
pods furni sh dye.
BANGAR NUT (Sterculia foetidol
i s a tree to 1 00 fl. hi gh in its
natural range from tropi cal East
Africa to Austral i a where i t i s
pl anted al ong hi ghways. The
l eaves (wi th 7 to 9 l eafets) may
be 1 fl. wide and are shed in
spring when the branches are
ti pped wi th l arge cl usters of
fowers broadcasti ng a musky,
unpl easant odor. Woody pods
are pri zed for decorati on; the l
i n . seeds edi bl e after roast i ng.
PI NK BALL !Oombeya X cay
euxiil, native to Madagascar, is
o s hort-tru nked tree to 30 ft.
wi th downy l eaves, 5 to 1 2 i n.
wi de. I n wi nter fowers are
borne in n u merous pendent
bol l s, portl y hi dden by the dense
fol i age. long known as D.
wallichii.
ROSEMOUND !Oombeyo sp.),
developed in Mi ami , Fl ori da,
from seed s upposedl y from Re
uni on, is a shr ub s mal l er i n
stature and fol i age than the
pi nk bal l and s howi er. Mass
pl anti ngs lovely in the fal l .
DI NNER PLATE TREE !Pterosper
mum aceriloliuml, common wi l d
and cul tivated i n I ndi a and
Bur ma, is a sl ender but wi nd
resi stant tree to 40 f t . or more.
The handsome l eaves, from
nearl y round to spadel i ke and
up I a 1 5 i n. l ong, are downy
and conspi cuousl y pal e on the
undersi de, and i n Asi a are used
as pl ates and roof l i ni ng u nder
thatch. The fowers, fragrant
even after dryi ng, appear i n
wi nter, fol l owed by scurfy,
woody pods contai ni ng many
wi nged seeds. Rai sed from ai r
layers; somet i mes in pats.
IChi ranthoden
dron pentadactylonJ i s a huge
t ree of Mexi co and Guatemal a
wi th l eaves 5 Ia 1 2 i n. l ong,
venerated by the Aztecs and
noted f or i t s cur i ous fowers wi th
showy, fnger l i ke stamens ( i n
wi nter or nearl y al l year). The
woody frui t contai ns gl ossy
ck seeds with orange ari l s.
The seeds germi nate readi l y.
BAOBAB !Adansonia digitata) i s
one of the si ghts of tropi cal
Afri ca. The tree (40 to 70 ft.)
may have a trunk 30 ft. t hi ck,
hol l ow wi th age and used as a
tomb ar water tank. Same may
be 5,000 years ol d. The 6- 1 2 i n.
l eaves ar e shed i n wi nter. Sum
mer bri ngs t he dramati c fowers,
fol l owed by woody, vel vet-cov
ered pads with dry, aci d pul p.
AC T I N I DI A FAMI L Y !Actinidiaceael
PURPLE SI MPOH IWormia excel-
sa), one of the most beauti ful
trees of Mal aya (to 80 ft. ) has
s hi ny l eaves (4- 1 2 i n.) and up
t urned, fragrant fowers. Red
fruit buds and red ari l s in the
opened, star- shaped fruits are
addi ti onal showy features.
HONDAPARA rDillenia indica) i s
a 30- to 40-foot tree found wi l d
from I ndi a to t he Phi l i ppi nes. I t
has handsome l eaves (7- 1 2 i n. ),
scented fowers and i s popul ar
as an ornamental . A thi ck,
feshy calyx envel ops t he muci
l agi nous frui t.
OC H N A FAMI L Y
CHERRY RED OCHNA (Ochna
mechowiana) is a smal l tree of
Central Africa (to 1 0 ft.). The
lovely fowers open early i n the
morni ng; l ose t hei r petal s by
noon. The frui ts, l i ke those of
other ochnas, are attached to
very showy cal yces.
85
86
T E A F AMI L Y !Theaceael
CAMELLI AS, from Japan, Korea
and Chi na, are evergreen s hrubs
or trees pri zed i n greenhouses
and gardens for the si ngl e or
doubl e fowers-red, pi nk or
white. Camellia japonica (to 30-
40 ft.) best for corsages (Oct.
April); C. sasanqua (to 20 ft.),
laster growi ng, with smal l er
bl ooms (Sept. -Dec. ). Grown from
cutti ngs, l ayers, seeds, grafts.
MAN GOST E E N F AMI L Y !Guttiferael
PITCH APPLE ICiusia rosea) i s a
West I ndi an tree (to 30-60 ft.)
with spreadi ng branches and
th i ck, rubbery l eaves (to 1 0 i n.
l ong), beauti ful , waxy fowers,
pi nk or whi te with pi nk streaks,
and resi nous, woody frui ts. Pop
ul ar i n l andscapi ng, usual l y
tri mmed as a shrub. Grown from
B I XA F AMI L Y IBixaceael
ANNATTO (Bixa ore/lana}, from
tropi cal Ameri ca, i s a s hrubby
tree (to 25-30 ft. ). Bl ooms in fal l ;
duri ng wi nter bears bunches of
bur- l i ke pods, maroon-bri stl ed
or vivid scarl et. The s mal l seeds
are coated wi th orange pul p
rubbed by I ndi ans on t hei r bod
i es and hai r and widel y used as
food col ori ng. Grown from cut
t i ngs and seeds.
B UT T E R C U P T R E E FAMI L Y !Cochlospermaceael
BUTTERCUP TREE !Cochlosper
mum vitifoliumJ, of Central
Ameri ca, i s a sl ender tree (to
35 ft.) wi th deci duous leaves (6-8
in. wide). Si ngl e or doubl e fow
ers grace the bare branches
from l ate wi nter t hrough spri ng.
Pods contai n whi t e foss. Fast
growi ng from seeds or cutti ngs.
Blooms when onl y 2-3 ft. hi gh.
FL ACOURTIA FAMI L Y
(Fiacou rtiaceae)
FRI ED EGG TREE IOncoba spi
nasa), from tropi cal Africa, is a
shrub or bushy tree (to 40 ft.),
thorny, wi th evergreen leaves (to
4 in. long), and fragrant fowers
in summer. Grown from seeds
or cutti ngs. The hard fruits are
edi bl e but sour and seedy.
Dried, hol lowed-out shel l s used
for snuf-boxes and rattles.
T U R N E R A FAMI L Y !Turneraceael
BUTTERFLY TREE IErblichia odo
rata), native from Mexico to
Panama, i s a tree (to 50 fl.) wi th
al ternate l eaves ( 2%-5 i n. l ong),
usual l y downy beneath, and
handsome, fragrant fowers. Con
si dered one of the showiest trees
of Central America. The seed
pod i s woody, 1
%
i n. l ong.
SAGE ROSE ITurnera ulmifolial,
native to the West I ndi es and
tropi cal Ameri ca, i s a sl ender
shrub (2-4 ft.) wi th attractive,
aromati c l eaves and sunny fow
ers that cl ose at noon. Bl ooms
nearl y al l year. Propagated by
seeds, cutt i ngs, or di vi si on. The
l eof i nfusi on is a popul ar Ioni c.
IPassiforaceael
PASSION FLOWER vi nes bel on g
t o t h e genus Passifora. Of
nearly 40 speci es, most are
South Ameri can. They are ever
green vi nes that cl i mb by ten
dri l s. Some are cul tivated for
thei r edi bl e frui ts, others for the
el aborate fowers whi ch, to the
earl y Spanis h expl orers, were
symbol i c of t he Cruci fxi on. Gar
den favorites i ncl ude: Bl ue P. F.
P. caeru/ea, wi t h 5-l obed leaves
(to 4 i n. wi de), part-parent of
many hybri ds; P. racemosa, wi th
leaves (3-4V2 i n. wi de) mostl y 3-
l obed, and bl ooms in hangi ng
cl usters; and P. coccinea, wi th
2- to 3-l obed l eaves (to 5 i n.
wi de). Fast- growi ng from cutti ngs
i n ri ch, moi st soi l , i n ful l sun.
CACTUS FAMI LY ( Cactaceae) embraces possi bl y 25
gener a and 1 , 500- 2, 000 speci es, some i n North Amer
ica but most from tropi cal Ameri ca and even the hi gh
al titudes farther south. They may be terrestri al , semi
epiphyti c or epiphytic; deni zens of ari d regi ons or of
moi st forests. Onl y one genus, Pereskia, has conven
tional stems and l eaves; ot her cacti exhibi t a vari ety of
for ms-barrel -l i ke, col umnar, ri bbed or deeply futed;
or have fes hy, cyl i ndri cal , tri angul ar or fattened
stems, some formed of a seri es of j oi nts or l i nks. Some
are treel i ke; others cl i mb l i ke vi nes by means of aeri al
roots . Most cacti store water i n thei r ti ssues and have
spi nes to protect them from grazi ng ani mal s. The fow
ers are often l arge and beautiful . Cacti are sl ow-grow
i ng; propagated by seeds or cuttings . They are easi l y
grafted. Very few are toxi c.
ROSE CACTUS (Pereskio grondi
folioJ, from Brazi l , i s a s pi ny
s hrub or tree (6- 1 5 fl.) wi th
feshy, true l eaves (unusual i n
a cactus) 3-6 i n. l ong. Flowers
red or whi te. Grown for hedges
i n South Ameri ca and wi del y
cultivated as on ornamental .
GOOSENECK CACTUS !Epiphyl
lum oxypetolumJ, native from
Mexi co t o Brazi l , i s a cl i mbi ng
pl ant (to 1 0 ft.), epi phyti c or
someti mes terrestri al , wi th thi n
fat stems ( 4- 5 i n. wi de). The
fragrant fowers open i n t he
eveni ng. Needs moi st , ri ch soi l .
NI GHT-BLOOMI NG CEREUS IHy
locereus undatus), of un known
ori gi n, i s wi del y grown and nat
ural i zed i n tropi cal and subtrop
i cal areas. I t i s semi - epi phytic,
its triangul ar, j oi nted, spi ne
edged stems cl i mbi ng wal l s and
trees by means of aeri al roots.
Numerous bi g, heavi l y perfumed
fowers open for a si ngl e n ight,
i n s ummer. Buds cut i n t he eve
ni ng will open i ndoors.
deep- pi nk frui t has edi bl e fesh.
I NDI AN STRAWBERRY IEchino
cereus engelmaniiJ, native from
Mexico t o Utah, for ms cl umps of
erect, ri bbed, spi ny stems (4
Ia 1 5 i n. hi gh). The fowers, j ust
bel ow stem ti ps, open in day
time. The fruit i s red, oval , edi
ble. Grown from seed in sandy
soi l . Needs semi -shade at frst.
91
ME Z E R E U M F AMI L Y (Thymelaceael
DAI S (Dais cotinifo/ia), a South
African s hrub or tree (to 25 ft. )
has deci duous leaves (3-5 i n.
l ong) and fragrant fowers i n
l ate spri ng and s ummer. Propa
gated by seed or suckers; cut
tings do not root freel y. Fast
growi ng in full sun; bl ooms
when only 4 or 5 ft . h igh.
WRI NKLED GNI DI A (Gnidia op
positiloliaJ, a nati ve of South Af
rica, is a moderatel y branched,
erect, heath l i ke shrub (3- 1 2 ft.
hi gh) wi th s mooth, evergreen
leaves ( % in. long) and termi nal
cl usters of fowers i n s ummer.
Abounds al ong streams and
marshes.
RI CEFLOWER fPimelea lerru
ginea), a native of Western Aus
tral i a, i s an erect, compact shrub
( 2-4 ft. ) wi th evergreen leaves
( %
-
% in. long), si l ky on the un
dersi de. The fowers are pro
duced abundantly in spri ng.
Very popul ar i n greenhouses
and outdoors i n Cal i forni a. Sl ow
growi ng. Propagated by cutti ngs.
Needs subaci d soi l and moi s
t ure, drastic cutti ng back after
bl oomi ng. Var. coardica i s pros
trate; has whi te fowers. Thi s
speci es l ives l onger than others.
L OOS E S T R I F E F AMI L Y I Lythraceael
CI GAR FLOWER (Cuphea platy
centra), from Mexi co, i s a shrub
by pl ant ( 1 2- 1 5 i n. hi gh) wi th
evergreen l eaves ( 1 -3 i n. l ong).
The fowers have showy, tubul ar
calyces but no petal s. Propa
gated by seeds, cutti ngs and
divi si on; needs moi st soi l . I n Ha
wai i , fowers are used i n l ei s.
QUEEN' S CRAPE MYRTLE (La
gerstroemia speciosa), nati ve
from I ndi a to Austral ia, i s a
broad-topped tree (to 50-80 ft.)
wi th deci duous leaves (5-8 i n.
l ong) and erect cl usters of pi nk
or lavender fowers. Crape Myr
tl e (L. indica) i s a lovely, fow
eri ng shrub; l ess tropi cal .
P OME GR ANAT E F AMI L Y I Puni caceael
POMEGRANATE !Punica grana
fum), from southern Asi a, is a
shrub or tree (to 20 ft.) wi th
deci duous l eaves ( 1 -3% i n.
l ong), grown for its bri l l i ant
fowers and for its fruits (red
or yel l ow) whi ch are both dec
orative and edi bl e. Fl owers of
some vari eti es are doubl e; some
red-and-yel l ow, or white. Prop
agated by seed, cutti ngs, layers
or graft i ng. Needs ful l sun, dr
soi l . May l ive for 20 years.
B R AZ I L NU T F AMI L Y
(Lecythi daceael
CANNONBALL TREE ICouroupita
guianensisl, native from north
ern Brazi l Ia Tri ni dad, i s a tree
(to 80- 1 00 ft.) wi th deci duous
l eaves ( to 1 1 i n. l ang) and
beauti ful fowers on curl i ng
stems ( t o 7 ft . l ong) festooni ng
t he trunk fantasti cal l y al l t he
way to t he ground. The frui ts,
borne i n great numbers under
favorabl e condi ti ons, are un
pl easantl y odori ferous when
ri pe. ( They may requi re 1 8 mos.
to mature.) Grown from seed.
MEMBRI LLO IGustavia superbal,
common in wet forests of Cen
tral Ameri ca, is a tree ( to 45 ft.)
wi th few upri ght branches bear
ing termi nal c l umps of evergreen
leaves (1 Y -4 ft. long). The
fowers cl uster near branch ends.
Frui ts, l arge and edi bl e. Grows
from cutti ngs; needs rich soi l .
T E R MI NAL I A F AMI L Y
(Combretaceael
SHOWY COMBRETUM ICombre
tum grandiforum), a native of
West Tropical Africa, is a
c l i mbi ng shr ub (to 20 ft.) wi th
rough l eaves (4-6 i n. l ong),
downy on t he undersi de. New
growth, vivid red in mi d-wi nter,
adds to t he g l ory of the fow
ers. The bunches of wi nged
seeds, turni ng rosy i n earl y
spri ng, are al so ornamental .
Fast-growi ng f r om seed i n ri ch
soi l , f ul l sun. Chi l dren suck
nect ar from t he bl ooms.
RANGOON CREEPER (Quisqualis
indica), from southeast Asia and
the East I ndi es, i s a l arge cl i mb
i ng shrub ( t o 25 ft.) wi t h deci du
ous, somewhat hai ry leaves.
When the bl ades are shed, thei r
persi stent stal ks become thorns.
The fowers, i n droopi ng cl usters,
are wh ite when frst open, l ater
turn pi n k and then deep red.
Fragrant i n eveni ng. Fast-grow
i ng from cutti ngs, layers or root
di vi si on, in ri ch sai l , f ul l s un.
Seeds toxic i n quantity.
MYRTLE FAMI LY (Myrtaceae) covers from 75 to 90
genera and 2, 800 to 3, 000 speci es, chi efy Austral i an
and tropi cal Ameri can. Pl ant forms r ange from pros
trate shrubs to lofty trees but are al ways woody. Bark
of the trees may be shaggy or faki ng of i n patches,
l eavi ng the trunk two-toned. Leaves are evergreen,
usual l y opposite, with aromati c oi l gl ands and often
hi ghl y fragrant when crushed. The fowers feature tufts
of stamens (white, yel l ow, l avender or red) and many
are hi ghl y .attractive. The dr or feshy fruits have a
smal l aperture at the apex, enci rcl ed by persistent
cal yx- l obes. I n additi on to the cl assi cal myrtl e (Myrtus
communis) of the Medi terranean regi on, the fami ly
boasts spi ce and frui t trees l i ke the cl ove, al l spi ce
and guava, and many spl endi d ornamental s such as
t he eucalypts, whi ch al so furni sh val uabl e ti mber, gum,
and essenti al oi l s.
EUCALYPTUS i s a genus of 500
or more speci es from Austral i a
and Malaya, mai nly t i mber
trees. Young leaves opposite;
old, alternate. The name refers
to the bud-cap whi ch drops of
when the fowers open. Most are
non-showy in bl oom; a few
s pectacul ar. The Redcap Euca
lyptus IE. erythrocorysJ, 1 5-20 ft.
tal l , has cri mson bud-caps and
gol den stamens. Flame Eucalyp
tus IE. Rcifo/ia), attai ni ng 45 ft.,
i s the most ornamental , with red,
white or pi nk fowers in cl usters
densel y set on branch ends.
Popul ar i n Cal i forni a; stands
sal t and wi nd. The Marri IE.
calophyl/o), rangi ng up to 1 00
ft. or more, bl ooms every 3
years. The fowers are whi le,
pal e-yel low, or rose.
96
MYRTLE HEATH 18aeclia vir
gataJ, from Austral ia and New
Cal edoni a, i s an erect s hrub (to
8 or 1 0 ft.) wi th wi ry branches
and needl e- l i ke leaves ( -1
i n. l ong). I I bears l oose cl usters
of white or pi nk fowers In
spring and s u mmer. Sprays are
sol d for decorati on. Grown from
cutti ngs i n l i ght, sandy soi l .
SHOWY BOTTLEBRUSH (Callis
lemon speciosusJ, from western
Austral i a, i s a bushy tree (to 20
ft.) with stif leaves (3-4 i n. l ong).
The fowers appear several t i mes
a year i n dense, cyl i ndrical
s pi kes (the l argest among the
bottl ebrushes). Seedl i ngs bl oom
i n 3-6 years; cutti ngs i n 1 year.
The tree does best in moi st soi l .
C. vimina/is i s s i mi lar.
CAJEPUT IMe/a/euca qui nque
nervia), native from Austral i a to
Burma, is an erect, sl ender tree
(to 80- 1 00 ft_) wi th whi ti sh, pa
pery, peel i ng bark and aromati c
leaves (2-8 i n. l ong). Bl ooms
mai nl y i n f al l and earl y s um
mer. Grown from s eed sown on
water or damp soi L Thrives i n
swamps or on hi gh ground.
THYME HONEY MYRTLE IMe/a
/euca thymifo/ia), of New South
Wal es, i s a dwarf, much
branched shrub ( 1 -3 ft . hi gh)
wi t h soft, evergreen l eaves ( '-
5
/
8 i n . l ong) an d fufy bal l s of
red or purpl e fowers in l ate
s ummer. Prefers wet soi l .
MANUKA TEA TREE llepfosper
mum scoparium), of Austral i a
and New Zeal and, is a vari abl e,
bushy shrub (2-25 ft. ) wi th sti f
l eaves {J- % i n. l ong) and wi th
si ngl e or doubl e fowers rangi ng
from whi te to deep r ed. Grown
from seeds or cutti ngs.
NEW ZEALAND CHRI STMAS
TREE (Metrosideros excelsa) i s o
broad s hrub or tree (30-70 ft.)
wi th dark-green, gray, or varie
gated leaves ( 1 -4 in. l ang). I t i s
covered wi th bl oom i n s ummer
-December i n New Zeal and.
Grows from cutti ngs ( or from
aerial roots i n wet areas); stands
sal t spray and strong wi nds.
DOWNY MYRTLE IRhodomyrtus
tomentosa), from Malaya and
southern Asi a, i s a shrub (3- 1 0
ft.) wi th l eaves ( 1 % - 2% i n.
l ong) velvety white beneath.
Bl ooms profusel y i n spri ng.
Frui ts are made i nto preserves.
Seedl i ngs thrive i n moi st soi l .
MALAY APPLE ISyzygium mal
accensel, of I ndi a and Malaya,
i s a pyrami dal tree (to 30-50
ft.) wi th l ustrous leaves (9- 1 2
i n. l ong), wi del y accl ai med for
the beauty of i ts foliage, fow
ers and edi bl e fruits. Bl ooms i n
spri ng. Fast-growi ng from seed.
99
ME L AS T OMA F AMI L Y IMel astomaceael
GLORY BUSH ITibouchino Urvil
leonoJ, native to Brozi l , i s natu
ral i zed i n Hawai i and fouri shes
i n Central Fl ori da. I t is a s hrub
(5- 25 f t . hi gh) with 4-sided
stems and 3- to 7- nerved leaves
(3-6 in. long) coated with si l very
hai rs. I n bl oom from late s um
mer t o f al l or al l year i n some
regi ons. Rai sed from cutt i ngs or
ai r-l ayers. Needs moi st, aci d
soi l . Variety foribundo bl ooms
ver young.
SAN MI GUEL 18/oleo gracilis),
native to Cosio Ri co, i s a s hrub
or s mal l tree (to 9- 1 3 ft.) wi th
sl ender branches and l eathery,
5- nerved leaves ( 2%-4 i n. l ong),
gl ossy above and rusty- hai ry on
the undersi de. Fl owers are
borne si ngly or i n pai rs i n late
wi nter. Raised from cutti ngs i n
peaty, moi st soi l . The Jamai ca
Rose 18. trinervio) i s a si mi l ar
but cl i mbi ng shrub wi th 3-nerved
leaves, bl oomi ng al l year.
PINK GLORY BUSH ITibouchina
sellowionoJ, native to the Bra
zi l i an stole of Sao Paulo, i s a
lovely si ght al ong the streets
ond i n the gardens of the ci ty
of t he same name. It is a dense,
low-branched shrub presenti ng a
mul ti tude of fowers in February,
l i ghteni ng in tone OS they age.
The purpl e-fowered T. granu
losa ond its pi nk form (variety
roseo) bl oom in Apri l and are
l ocal l y cal l ed " Fl ower of Lent. "
Need abundance of water.
OSBECKI A IOsbeckio stelloto),
nat ive to I ndi o and Chi no, i s a
shrub (to 7 ft.) wi th quadrangu
l ar bronch l ets and 5-nerved
l eaves (3-6 i n. l ong) covered
with stif hai rs. The fowers are
borne a few together at the
branch ti ps. Thi s speci es i s best
known of the 60 or more found
from Afri ca Ia Austral ia, t hough
several ore grown i n northern
green houses. Propagated by cut
tings. Needs parti al s hade.
MEDI NI LLA IMedinil/o magni
fco) i s a Phi l i ppi ne shr ub (to 3
ft.) whi ch has been decl ared
one of the l ovel i est of tropi cal
greenhouse pl ants. I t has 4-
angl ed stems and evergreen,
gl ossy leaves ( t o 1 ft. l ang) .
The pi nk or carol - red fowers,
i n droopi ng, termi nal sprays,
are enhanced by showy pi nk
bracts. Grown from seeds or
hal f-ri pe cutti ngs. Needs moi s
ture and l i ght but not f ul l s un.
E VE N I N G P R I MR OSE FAMI L Y IOnagraceael
FLAME FUCHSI A !Fuchsia ful
gensl, found wi l d in Mexico, i s
a shr ub (4-6 f t . ) wi t h reddi sh,
succul ent branc hl ets and some
what downy l eaves ( 3- 7 i n.
l ong) . Fl owers dongl e from leafy
branch tips in s ummer. Grawn
from cutti ngs; needs moi sture
and s hade. Thi s s peci es is a
parent of some of t he tender
varieties. Mast fuchsi as are
hardy pl ants, u nsuited far cul
tivation i n tropi cal and sub
tropi cal cl i mates.
1 01
GI NS E NG FAMI LY
(Araliaceae)
QUEENSLAND UMBRELLA TREE
ISchefera acti nophyl/a), from
Austral i a, i s a s i ngl e- or mul
ti pl e-trun ked tree (to 50 ft. ). The
.. .- gl ossy l eaves (20-30 i n. wi de on
stal ks t o 2 ' ft. l ong) are com
posed of 7 to 1 8 obl ong l eafets
formi ng a parasol - l i ke roselle.
From the top of the tree ari ses
a spectacul ar whorl of foral
branches (to 4 ft. l ong) cl othed
wi th smal l fowers. Fast- growi ng
from seeds or cutti ngs.
RI CE-PAPER PLANT ITetrapanax
papyriferum), from southern
Chi na and Formosa, i s a sl ender
stemmed s hrub (usual l y 6-9 ft.)
wi dely admi red for its ornate
l eaves ( 1 - 2 ft. wi de), downy
whi te beneath. I n wi nter, the
s mal l , wh i ti sh fowers are di s
pl ayed i n a great topnotch of
sprays, 2-3 ft. l ong. The stem
pi th i s mode i nto ri ce paper
used by Ori ental art i sts and
fashi oned i nto arti fci al fowers.
Fast-growi ng from suckers .
HEATH FAMI LY
(Ericaceae)
BLACK-EYED HEATH (Erica can
aliculataJ, from South Africa, i s
an erect s hrub (3-5 ft.) wi th ever
green leaves ( l- ' i n. l ong),
bl oomi ng al l wi nter. Grown from
seed or cutti ngs i n sun or s hade.
Often mi snamed E. melanthera.
There are many other speci es
cul tivated i n cool cl i mates .
RHODODENDRON is a genus
that embraces about 600 speci es
of rhododendrons and azal eas,
the former usual ly evergreen
wi th bel l - l i ke fowers; the l atter
deci duous with fun nel form fow
ers. They ore propagated by
cutti ngs or ai r-l ayers; need aci d
soi l . R. javanicum, t he Java
Rhod.dendron of Mal aya, i s an
epi phytic shr ub (to 6 ft.) wi th
leaves (to 7 i n. l ong), scal y be
low. The fowers vary i n color;
pal e to deep pi n ki sh-coral . R.
japonicum, t he Japanese Azal ea
(to 8 ft.) sheds its leaves (2-4
i n.) in wi nter. Fl owers may be
rose, scarl et
HI LO HOLLY IArdisia crispa),
native to southern Asia and the
East I ndi es, and wi del y cul ti
vated, i s a shrub (Ia 10 ft.) wi th
evergreen, l eathery l eaves (Ia 3
i n. l ong) and fragrant, whi te or
pi nk fowers i n termi nal cl us
ters fol l owed by vi vi d, waxy
frui ts whi ch are showy al l wi n
ter. Sl ow-growi ng from seed;
needs partial sun. Popul ar as a
potted pl ant . A. crenu/ata, often
treated as a di st i nct species, i s
synonymous.
L E ADWOR T F AMI L Y !Pl umbaginaceae)
CAPE LEADWORT IP/umbogo ca
pensisJ i s a South Afri can shrub
wi t h sl ender stems cl i mbi ng t o
1 5 ft . but usual l y kept l ow by
cl i ppi ng. The l eaves ( t o 2 i n.
l ong) are white-scurfy beneath.
On t he cal yx af the pal e-bl ue or
whi te fowers are sticky hai rs
whi ch ai d seed di spersal by
adheri ng to coats of ani mal s.
Best propagated by suckers ar
RED LEADWORT IP/umbago i n
dica), a nati ve of southern Asi a,
i s an erect shrub (2-4 ft. ) wi th
zi gzag branches and red-ti nged
leaves ( to 8 i n. l ong). The fow
ers, in termi nal s pi kes (to 2 ft.
in l ength) vary f rom purpl i sh
red to scarlet. Var. coccineo,
wi th l arge, vi vi d bl ooms, i s the
most common form. Branches
whi ch touch ground take
OL I VE F AMI L Y
ARABI AN JASMI NE Uosminum
sambacJ, a native of I ndi o, i s a
semi - cl i mbi ng shr ub (to 5 ft.)
with t hi n, evergreen leaves (1 %-
3 i n . l ong) . T h e hi ghl y fragrant
fowers ore wh ite when frst
open; gradual l y turn purpl i sh.
Bl ooms conti nuously i n s ummer
and fal l . Hi ndu peopl e regard
the fowers as sacred; the Chi
nes e us e t hem to favor tea.
Grown from cutti ngs; prefers
dry soil and ful l s un. Grand
Duke i s popul ar doubl e variety.
PRI MROSE JASMI NE Uosminum
mesnyil, from we tern Chi na, i s
a rambl i ng s hrub that con be
trai ned as a vine (up to 1 5 ft.).
It has arch i ng, 4-sided branches
and evergreen, tri fol i ate l eaves,
the glossy l eafets 1 -3 i n. l ong.
Sl i ghtl y fragrant fowers ore
borne si ngl y in great abundance
from wi nter to spr i ng. Cut sprays
keep well . Raised from cutt i ngs
or ai r- l ayers i n port shade. Tol
erates drought. Formerl y known
as J. primu/i num.
S T R YC H N I N E F AMI L Y (Logani aceael
CAROLI NA YELLOW JESSAMI NE
IGe/semium sempervirens), na
tive to t he southern Uni ted
States from Vi rgi nia to Texas
and central Fl orida, i s a sl ender,
twi ni ng vi ne (to 20-35 ft.) wi th
evergreen, gl ossy leaves ( 1 -4 i n.
l ong). Flowers sweet-scented;
mi dwi nter-spri ng. Grown from
cutti ngs i n s un or semi -shade.
Enti re pl ant toxi c.
SUMMER LI LAC IBuddleia da
vidiil, from Chi na, i s a shrub
( t o 1 5 f' - ) wi t h deci duous leaves
(4- 1 0 i n . long), velvety white
beneat h. Fragrant fowers appear
from l ate summer t hrough fal l .
Grown from seeds or cutti ngs.
Var. magnifca i s most popul ar.
IFagraea cochinchi
nensisl, nati ve to Mal aya and
the East I ndies, is a handsome,
coni cal free ( t o 1 00 ft . ) wi th
l eathery leaves ( 4- 6 i n. l ong) .
I t bears an abundance of fra
grant, l ong-l asti ng fowers ( up
to 1 00 i n a cl uster) twi ce a
year. The s mal l , bi tter, red ber
ries are eagerly sought by focks
of fyi ng foxes (bats). The free i s
pri zed as an ornamental and
f er its wood. Of sl ow growth,
from seeds or cutti ngs.
BUTTERFLY BUSH IBuddleia mad
agascariensisl, from Madagas
car, a s hrub (to 8- 1 0 fl.), has
s l i m, whi te, arc hi ng branches
and evergreen leaves ( t o 6 i n.
l ong), d o w n y - w h i t e bel ow.
Bl ooms January-May. fast - grow
i ng from cutti ngs, in sun.
DOGBANE FAMI LY (Apocynaceae) is reported to
i ncl ude from 1 80 to 300 genera and 1 ,000 to 1 , 500
species, mostl y tropical , a few temperate. They are
herbs, s hrubs, vi nes (often enormous), and trees, hav
ing mil ky or cl ear, gummy s ap that i n some is potabl e,
i n ot hers more or l ess toxic. The l eaves are simpl e, en
ti re, opposite or al ternate and may be i n whorl s of
t hree. The fowers are 5- or 4-parted; sal ver- or funnel
shaped. Frui ts, feshy or dry, are often borne i n pairs .
Members of this famil y are rich i n al kal oids; the genus
Rauwolfa is famed for its tranquil izi ng drugs; Funtumia
i s a source of rubber; Dyera provides a chewy sub
stance for bubbl e gum, asbestos and l inol eum; Carissa
is unusual in yi el ding edibl e, popul ar frui ts. Among the
showy speci es are some of the most admired or na
mental s of warm ar eas.
WI NTE R S WE ET IAcokanthera
spectabi/is), from South Afri ca,
i s a shrub or s mal l tree (to 1 5
ft.) wi th l eathery leaves (3-5 i n.
l ong) and fragrant fowers i n
spri ng. Sl ow
-
growi ng. Cul tivated
as an ornament al but all parts,
i ncl udi ng frui ts, toxi c.
CONFEDERATE JASMI NE ITrach
elospermum ;asminoides), from
southern Chi na, i s a woody,
twi ni ng vi ne (to 1 0-20 ft.) wi l i1
evergreen, thi ck, gl ossy l eaves
( 2-3 i n. l ong). Very fragrant
fowers ore borne i n s ummer.
Sl ow- growi ng from cutti ngs.
YELLOW ALLAMANDA (AI/a
manda cathartica) is a tropi cal
Ameri can cl i mbi ng shrub ( to 40
ft. ) wi th evergreen l eaves ( to 6
i n. l ong), bl oomi ng most of year.
Vari ety Hendersoni has l arge
fowers and gl ossy, brown buds.
Grows fast from cutti ngs; i n s un.
PURPLE ALLAMANDA (AI/aman
da violaceaJ, from Brazi l , i s a
sl ender shrub (to 1 0 ft.) wi th
hai ry l eaves (4-6 i n. l ong) .
Bl ooms i n fal l . Sl ow - growi ng,
from cut t i ngs. Stronger i f graft
ed on Henderson Allamanda.
Can be grown as compact vi ne.
HERALD' S TRUMPET (Beaumontia
grandifora), from I ndi a, i s a
heavy, woody, twi ni ng vi ne (to
40 ft.) wi th mi l ky sap and con
spi cuously vei ned, e v e r g r e e n
l eaves (6- 1 2 i n. l ong) . The huge
fower cl usters are s pectacul ar
i n spri ng; popul ar far church
decorati on. Propagati on easi est
by root-cutti ngs. Fast - growi ng
wi th ampl e water and feedi ng.
Needs ful l s un.
CARI SSA (Corissa grondiforo},
a native of South Afri ca, i s a
handsome s hrub (Ia 1 5 ft.) wi th
s harp t horns and l eathery, ever
green leaves (1 %- 2 i n. l ong) . I t
bears fragrant fowers and showy
fru its al l year. The cut frui ts
exude mi l ky sop even when ri pe
but are edi bl e and agreeabl e
raw or made i nto preserves.
Propagated by seeds, cutti ngs,
layers or graft i ng. Seedl i ngs
may nat bear f r ui t . An i deal
pl ant for seasi de hedges; stands
sal t spray and wi nd. Dwarf
forms pl anted as ground covers.
CRAPE JASMI NE (frvatomio di
voricoto}, from I ndi a, i s o shr ub
(4-8 ft.) wi t h g l assy, evergreen
l eaves (3-6 in. long) and mi l ky
sop. The fowers (al l s ummer),
si ngl e or doubl e, ore fragrant
at ni ght. Seedpods ( 1 -3 i n. l ang)
i n pai rs, are green outsi de,
scarl et wi th i n; spl i t open when
ri pe; rarel y produced i n cul ti -
votion. Propagati on is by lay
ers or cutti ngs. Prefers full sun.
MADAGAS C AR P E R I WI N KL E
(Cothoronthus roseus}, nat ive to
t ropi cal Ameri ca, is a perenni al
her b (to 2- 3 ft.) wi t h s mooth
l eaves ( 1 -3 i n. l ong) , bl oomi ng
al l year. The fowers ar e whi te
or pi n k, some wi th a dark red
eye. Wi del y c ul ti vated and nat
ural i zed. Long used i n fol k med
i ci ne, it has recentl y become of
i mportance as source of drug
for treat i ng l eukemia.
OLEANDER (Neri um oleander),
from the Medi terranean regi on
i s an erect, many-stemmed shrub
( to 20 ft. ) wi t h sti f, evergreen
l eaves (4-8 in. long). The fra
grant , si ngl e or doubl e, wh i te,
pi nk or red fowers, are conti n
uaus from spri ng through fal l .
Grown from cutti ngs. Though
t he ol eander i s the most popul ar
ornamental of al l warm areas,
al l parts are hi ghl y poi sonous .
YELLOW OLEANDER (Thevetia
peruviana), a tropi cal Ameri can
shrub or s mal l tree ( 1 2- 20 ft.)
has evergreen l eaves (to 6 i n.
l ong) , s hi ni ng a bove, dul l bel ow.
Bl ooms al l year. The 4-si ded
frui t contai ns a smooth, brown
stone, often cal l ed "l ucky nut,"
stru ng i n neckl aces or carri ed as
a charm. Grown from seeds or
cutti ngs. May be cl i pped as a
hedge. Al l parts toxi c.
NOSEGAY FRANGI PANI (P/ u- WHI TE FRANGI PANI (P/ umeria
merio rubraJ, native from Mexi co
to the Gui anas, is a tree (to 25
ft.) with copi ous mi l ky sap,
stubby branches, and hand
some l eaves ( t o 1 8 i n.) shed i n
areas wi t h dry wi nters. Fl owers
ore pi nk, red or yel low; i n vari
ety acutifolia, common i n I ndi a
and Hawai i , white wi th yel low
eye. After dryi ng, large cutti ngs
root easi l y, bl oom soon.
obtusa}, nat i ve to the West I n
di es, i s a many-stemmed shrub
or tree (to 1 8 ft . ) wi t h ever
green l eaves (6-8 in. l ong) and
fowers al l year. Another whi te
fowered West I ndi an speci es i s
P. alba, a tree (to 20 ft. ), its
l eaves (to 1 5 i n. long) havi ng
recurved margi ns and whi ti sh
down on the undersi de. Both
fouri sh i n very dry regi ons.
MI LKWEED FAMI LY ( Ascl epiadaceae) embraces about
320 genera and from 1 , 700 to 2, 000 species, a few
temperate, the maj ority tropical and pri maril y from
South Africa. I n the main, they are cl imbing shrubs
or vines, but t here are al so peren nial herbs, some
succul ent and l eafess, resembl ing cacti; and most
have much mil ky l atex. Typical l eaves are simpl e,
enti re, opposite. The fowers are tubul ar or funnel - l ike
and 5- parted. General l y, the fruit is a dry seedpod
(borne singl y or in pairs), splitting and rel easing seeds
usual l y tipped with s i l ky hairs . Some mil kweeds have
useful products but the best known are or namental s.
BUTTERFLY WEED (Asclepias
curassavica!, nati ve to tropi cal
Ameri ca, i s wi del y natural i zed
and cul t i vated. I t i s an erect,
peren ni al herb (2-5 ft. h i gh)
wi th s mooth l eaves (2-6 i n. l ong)
and conspi cuous fowers (sum
mer-fal l i n Cal i forni a; al l year
i n Gul f States). I ts seedpods
contai n foss used for stufng.
The pl ant i s a host to t he mon
arch butterfy but toxi c to l i ve
stock. I t i s much used in tropi cal
fol k medi ci ne. May be grown
from seeds or cutt i ngs.
WHI TE BLADDER-FLOWER IArau
;;a sericofera), from southern
Brazi l and Peru, i s a woody,
twi ni ng vine (to 20-30 ft.) wi th
downy stems and evergreen
l eaves (2-4 in. l ong) downy
wh ite beneath. The waxy, fra
grant fowers appear cont i nu
ousl y fr om spr i ng t hrough fal l .
Fast- growi ng from seeds i n part
shade. Needs s pace. Escapes
from cul tivat i on i n Cal i forn i a.
Un pl easant odor when crushed.
GI ANT MI LKWEED IColotropis
proceroJ, native from West Trop
i cal Africa to I ndi o, i s o pol e,
conspi cuous shrub or tree ( t o 1 8
ft.) wi th mi l ky sop ond t hi ck,
rubbery stems and l eaves ( t o 1 2
i n. l ong). I t i s everbl oomi ng,
thrives on ari d coasts, whol l y
i mpervi ous to sal t spray ond
wi nd. Grown f r om seeds or cut
ti ngs. c. giganteo i s s i mi l ar
but hos poi nted l eaves. Bat h
yi el d seedpod foss and bark
fber. Al l ports of the pl ants
vari ousl y used i n fol k medi ci ne.
GOLDEN HORN ITavoresio gran
diforoJ, from southwest Afri ca,
i s a l eafess pl ant wi th succul ent
stems ( t o 8 i n. hi gh), havi ng 1 0-
1 4 verti cal ri bs beari ng bri s
tl ed teet h. Handsome, down
word-poi nt i ng fowers (3%-5%
i n. l ong) ore borne ot the bose
of young stems or branches i n
s ummer. Grown from seed on d
somet i mes grafted onto t h e Car
rion Fl ower. Needs f ul l sun and
dry s oi l ; rots qui ckl y if damp.
MADAGASCAR RUBBER VI NE
ICryptostegio modogoscoriensis)
i s a cl i mbi ng shrub from Mada
gascar with much mi l ky l atex
and gl ossy, l eathery l eaves ( 2-
5 i n. l ong) . Bl ooms al l year i n
Fl ori da. The very s i mi l ar Pal ay
Rubbervi ne (C. grandiforo),
common in Mexi co, Cal i forni a
and dry i sl ands of the tropi cs,
hos l eaves that are hai ry when
young, and l arger ond pal er
fowers. Bath ornamental
BRI DAL BOUQUET (Stephanotis
foribundal, from Madagascar, is
a twi ni ng vine (to 1 2 ft.) wi th
e v e rg re e n , gl ossy, l eathery
leaves (to 4 i n. l ong) and an
abundance of fragrant, waxy
fowers al l s ummer. They are
pri zed for weddi ngs and cor
sages. Propagated by seed (from
pod to 4 i n. l ong) or cutti ngs.
Sl ow- growi ng; needs aci d soi l ,
some shade when young.
CARRI ON FLOWER IStapelia
giganteal, from southern Afri ca,
i s o l eafess pl ant wi th mony
erect, succul ent, angl ed stems
(6-8 i n. tal l ond l ! i n. t hi ck)
whi ch mul ti pl y and cover a l arge
pl ot of ground. The hai ry fow
ers occur several ti mes a year
and emi l on un pl easant odor.
Propagated by di vi si on; grows
in ri ch soi l but may even be
found on rock.
CHRI STMAS VI NE !Parana pan
iculataJ, a nati ve of I ndia, i s a
woody, twi ni ng vi ne (to 40 ft.),
the young stems and the l eaves
(3-6 in. l ong) mi nutel y hai ry. I t
festoons tal l trees and i s a
mass of fowers in earl y wi nter.
Sprays are used for church dec
orati on. Fast-growi ng from seeds
or cutti ngs.
WOOLLY MO R N I NG- GL OR Y
!Argyreia nervosa), from I ndi a,
i s a heavy, twi n i ng vine (to 25
ft.) with downy white stems and
evergreen l eaves (4- 1 2 i n. l ong)
conspi cuousl y vel vety white on
the undersi de. Bl ooms i n l ate
s ummer. The attractive seed
capsul e, cal l ed "baby wood
rose, " i s used for corsages and
f or earri ngs i n Hawai i .
MOONFLOWER !Calonyction ac
u/eatumJ, found wi l d i n the
tropi cs and South Fl ori da, i s a
herbaceous, often pri ckl y, vi ne
( to 30 ft. ) wi th s i l ky leaves ( 3-8
i n. l ong). Fragrant fowers open
at ni ght, al l s ummer. Very fast
growi ng from seeds.
1 1 5
1 1 6
WOOD ROSE (ipomoea tube
rosa), of tropi cal Ameri ca, i s a
sl ender, aggressi ve vi ne wi th
s mooth l eaves ( 3-8 i n. wi de).
Fl owers appear i n fal l and the
handsome seedpods i n spri ng.
Grows fast from seed i n ful l
sun, s hroudi ng bushes and
trees. Pods, papul ar for decora
ti on, ore l ong- l asti ng. The l arge
tuber i s edi bl e.
PRI NCE' S VI NE Opomoea hors
falliaeJ, nat ive to the West I n
di es, i s a semi-woody vi ne (to
40 ft.) ri si ng from a l arge tuber.
The l eaves (3-4 i n. l ong) ore
dark and gl ossy; the fowers l us
trous and abundant i n fal l and
wi nter. Vari ety Briggsii i s most
pri zed. Seeds someti mes l acki ng;
cutti ngs hard to root.
BUSH MORNI NG-GLORY llpo
moea crassicau/is) i s found wi l d
and cul ti vated from Mexico t o
Peru and i s common i n West
I ndi an gardens. It i s on erect
shrub (6-8 ft.) with evergreen
l eaves (5- 1 0 i n. l ong). Del i cate
fowers open in morn i ng, cl ose
i n afternoon, al l year. Long
cutt i ngs root qui ckly.
LI TTLE BLUE HAT Uacquemontia
pentanthaJ, of tropi cal Ameri ca
and the Fl ori da Keys, i s a
sl ender, herbaceous, twi ni ng
vi ne ( t o 1 0 fl. ) wi t h evergreen
leaves ( 2 i n. l ong). The fowers
(rarel y wh ite) stand out in l oose
cl usters i n spri ng and s ummer.
In vari ety canescens, the pl ant
i s coated wi th mi nute brown
hai rs. Grown from seeds or
cutti ngs i n part i al shade.
TREE MORNI NG-GLORY (Ipo
moea wolcottianaJ, nati ve to
southern Mexi co, i s a tree (to
30 ft.) wi th i ntertwi ni ng branch
es and deci duous l eaves ( 3- 5 i n.
l ong). Fl owers open i n succes
si on for several weeks i n mi d
wi nter. New fol i age emerges i n
spri ng. Propagated by seeds .
Cutt i ngs rel uctant t o root.
P H L OX F AMI L Y ! Pol emoni aceael
VI OLET IVY (Cobaea scandens},
from Mexi co, i s a woody vi ne
( t o 25 fl . ) wi th compou nd leaves
t i pped with branched tendri l s
(l eafets to 4 i n. l ong). Fl owers
l i ght or dark purpl e or wh ite,
from s ummer to fal l . Fast- grow
ing from seeds in moi st soi l ,
s un, or shade. Oft en cal l ed
WAT E R L E AF F AMI L Y ! Hydrophyl l aceael
BORRAJON IWigandia caras
cana}, nati ve from Mexi co Ia
Col ombi a, is a hai ry s hrub ( 1 0-
1 5 ft.) wi th handsome leaves
(to 1 8 in. l ong) beari ng gl i sten
i ng hai rs that may i rri tate the
s ki n. The one-si ded, curvi ng
fower- spi kes appear i n s um
mer . Spreadi ng by suckers, the
pl ant forms c l umps i n moi st or
dry soi l .
H E L I OT R OP E F AMI L Y !Boraginaceael
GEI GER TREE (Cordia sebestenaJ,
native to the West I ndi es and
Fl ori da Keys, i s a tree (to 30
ft.) wi th rough l eaves (4-8 i n.
l ong) and orange or dark red
fowers all year. Seed encl osed
i n feshy, wh ite, edibl e cal yx.
Sl ow- growi ng from seeds or cut
ti ngs. Named by Audubon for
John Geiger, his host, a Key
West pi l ot and "wrecker. "
TEXAS OLI VE (Cordia boissieriJ,
from Mexico and western Texas,
i s a bushy s hrub or tree (to 25
ft.) with rough , aromati c leaves
(3-5 in. l ong) . Fl owers in spri ng
and s ummer or nearl y al l year.
Reddi sh- brown fruit ( 1 - 1 ' i n.
l ong) , sweet and edi bl e when
cooked. Grown from seeds;
bl ooms when very young.
ANAQUA (Ehretia elliptical, na
t i ve t o Mexico and western Tex
as, i s a bushy tree (to 45 ft. )
with ar chi ng branches and rough
leaves ( 1 - 2 11 i n. l ong) . The fow
ers cover the tree l ike s now,
mai nl y i n fal l or early wi nter,
and are succeeded by an equal
profusi on of sweet, edi bl e ber
ri es. Easi l y grown from seed.
VERBENA FAMI LY (Verbenaceae) contai ns 75- 1 00
genera and over 1 , 300 speci es of herbs, shrubs and
trees, mai nl y subtropical or tropical i n origi n. Leaves,
often highl y aromatic, are usual l y opposite, sometimes
whorl ed or al ternate. Fl owers are smal l , 4- to 5- l obed,
in cl usters. Frui t i s a drupe, berry, or capsul e. Asi de
from teak, few members are of outstanding economi c
the maj ority are ornamental .
BLUE GLORYBOWER (C/eroden
drum myricoides), from tropi cal
Afri ca, i s a compact s hrub ( Ia 8
fl.) wi th evergreen l eaves (to 5
i n. l ang), hai ry beneath. Fl owers
in termi nal s prays in fal l , fal
lowed by bl ack berries. Fast
rowi ng in full s un; best on
moi st soi l . So-cal l ed C. ugan
dense i s probabl y a vari ety.
PAGODA FLOWER (C/eroden
drum panicu/atum), native from
Mal aya t o Chi na, i s a s hr ub (5-
6 ft.) with l ong-stal ked l eaves
(8 1 2 in. l ong) . The sensati onal ,
erect fower cl usters ( to 1 8 i n.
tal l ) appear t hroughout s um
mer . Grown from mature stem
cutti ngs or root suckers. Thrives
in full sun or partial shade.
thomsoniae), from tropi cal West
Africa, i s a cl i mbi ng, twi ni ng
shr ub (to 1 5 ft.) wi t h evergreen
l eaves (to 6 i n. l ong) . Bl ooms i n
s ummer. Cri mson fowers pro
trude from i nfated cal yces, at
frst white, l ater purpl i sh. From
seed or cutt i ngs i n moi st soi l ,
part i al shade.
SHOWER-OF-ORCHI DS fCongea
tomentosoJ, from southern Asi a,
i s a massi ve, downy, cl i mbi ng
shr ub wi t h rough l eaves (to 7
i n. l ong) . Ti ny fowers nest i n
velvety bracts, i n char mi ng
sprays (wi nter t hr ough spri ng).
Grows from cutti ngs, i n ful l s un.
indicum), a native of t he East
I ndi es, i s a sl ender s hrub (to
9 ft.) wi th erect, 4-si ded stems
and evergreen leaves (to 6 i n.
l ong) . The fowers (l ate s ummer
and fal l ) ar e s ucceeded by bl ue
frui t s seated on waxy, red ca
l yces. Fast - growi ng from seeds
i n part shade; forms patches.
1 21
GOLDEN DEWDROP IDuranta re
pens), a native of tropi cal Amer
ica, i s a bushy shrub or smal l
tree (to 1 8 f'-) wi t h s l i m droop
ing, often thorny, branches and
evergreen l eaves ( 1 -4 i n. l ong).
The bl ue (or whi te) fowers
(spri ng and s ummer) are fol
lowed by l ong-lasti ng, showy
fruits, unwhol esome for h umans
but eaten by bi rds. Grows fast
from seeds or cutti ngs, i n sun.
CHI NESE HAT PLANT IHolmskiol
dia sanguinea), from the Hi ma
layan regi on, i s a l arge sprawl
ing or cl i mbi ng shrub (to 1 5-30
ft.) with sl ender, archi ng
branches, droopi ng t o t he
ground, and evergreen leaves
( 1 -4 in. l ong). The sl ender, tubu
l ar fower ri ses from a l onger
lived, saucerl i ke cal yx. Massed
on branch ends; conspi cuous al l
wi nter. Grown f r om cutti ngs,
suckers, ground- or ai r- l ayers.
Bl ooms in s hade; becomes red
der i n s un.
SNAPDRAGON TREE IGmelina
arboreal, f rom the East I ndi es,
i s a tree (to 85 ft. ) wi th deci du
ous l eaves (4- 1 0 i n. l ong), vel
vety beneath. Bl ooms i n s ummer.
Fast - growi ng (6- 1 0 ft. a year)
from cutti ngs, in moi st soi l . Val
ued for shade and t i mber.
QUEEN' S WREATH (Petrea volu
bi/is), from tropi cal Ameri ca, i s
a woody, twi ni ng vi ne (to 25 II.)
with stif, rough leaves (to 6 i n.
l ong). Bl ooms through spr i ng and
summer. The dark pur pl e fowers
soon fal l , but the l avender cal y
ces are l ong- lasti ng. Grown from
l ayers or suckers i n sun or par
tjal shade. Tol erates dryness but
becomes much more showy on
1 23
MI NT FAMI LY ( labi atae) enfol ds at l east 1 60 genera
and 3, 000 speci es, most ori gi nati ng i n temperate Asia
and the Medi terranean regi on and hi gh el evati ons of
the subtropi cs. They are nearly all herbs ( annual or
perenni al ) or shrubs, typi cal l y with quadrangul ar stems.
leaves are opposite or i n whorl s. Flowers smal l , tubul ar,
usual ly 5-, sel dom 4- , l obed, and i n erect ter mi nal
spi kes or axi l l ary cl usters. Frui t 4-seeded. Many speci es
are i mportant favori ng and medi ci nal herbs and gar
den fowers. Whi l e a number may be grown as orna
mental s i n the tropi cs or subtropi cs, only a few are best
sui ted to warm areas.
LI ON' S EAR ILeonotis leonurusJ,
from South Africa, is a shrubby
pl ant (2-7 ft. hi gh) wi th downy
l eaves (2-5 in. long), evergreen
i n warm areas. The fowers
(orange or, in one vari ety, whi te)
conti nue for weeks in fal l and
earl y wi nter. They l ast wel l i n
bouquets i f the stems are
crushed to take up water. Grown
from seed or di vi si on; in moi st
soi l , ful l sun.
OVAL-LEAVED MI NTBUSH IPro
stanthero ovalifo/ia), a native of
Queensl and and New South
Wal es, is a spreadi ng, sweetly
aromati c s hrub (6-8 ft. hi gh) with
fai rl y t hi ck, gray-green leaves
(to % in. long). Blooms profusel y
i n spri ng. A very popul ar orna
mental i n its homel and. Readi l y
grown from cutti ngs. Pruned
back after foweri ng for compact
growt h.

MEXI CAN BUSH SAGE (Salvia
leucanthaJ, from central Mexico,
i s a shrubby pl ant (Ia 2 ft. hi gh),
wool ly-whi te on its young
branches and undersi de of
leaves (2-7 in. long). Fl owers (i n
6- to 1 0- i n. s pi kes) borne in l ate
s ummer. From cutti ngs.
DOWNY SAGE (Salvia sesseiJ,
from Mexico, i s a shr ub ( 8- 1 5 ft.
hi gh), its leaves (2-5 i n. l ong)
dotted wi th yel l ow gl ands on t he
undersi de. The fowers (su mmer
foi l ) are downy; t he equal l y col
orful cal yces, s mooth. Fast
grower; pruned after bl oomi ng.
I BOZA flboza ripariaJ, from
South Africa, i s a soft-wooded
deci duous pl ant (to 1 2 fl. hi gh)
wi t h aromati c l eaves ( 1 - 2 i n.
l ong) , bl anketed wi th fowers i n
fal l . Rapi d - growi ng from cut
t i ngs. Bl oomi ng wi thi n a year.
Needs post-bl oom pruni ng.
1 25
TOMATO FAMI LY ( Sol anaceae) embraces about 75
genera and over 2, 000 speci es scattered over the
tropical and temperate zones. The pl ants range from
low herbs to woody vi nes, shrubs and s mal l trees, many
hai ry or spi ny. leaves, usual l y al ternate, may be si m
pl e or compound. Flowers, often l arge and handsome,
are mai nl y tubul ar or funnel -shaped and typi cal l y 5-
lobed wi t h 5-lobed calyces. Fruits a re dry or feshy,
contai ni ng many seeds. There are some notori ously
poi sonous pl ants in thi s fami l y, such as Ji msonweed
and Bel l adonna, as wel l as tobacco and i mportant
food crops-pri nci pal l y potato, tomato, eggpl ant and
peppers. The s howiest of the ornamental s are tropi cal
and subtropi cal .
LADY-OF-THE-NI GHT !Brunfelsia
americana), a nati ve of the West
I ndi es, i s an erect shrub (to 8
ft.) wi th narrow or broad leaves
(2-4 i n. l ong). The fowers ap
pear several t i mes a year, in
rai ny peri ods, and are enchant
i ngl y fragrant at ni ght. They
change from wh ite to yel low
with age. Grown from seeds or
cutt i ngs in semi - shade. Variety
pubescens bl ooms heavi l y.
YESTERDAY, TODAY AND TO
MORROW !Brunfelsia latifolia),
from tropi cal Ameri ca, i s a
shr ub (2-5 ft. hi gh) wi th s l i m
branches and l eaves (6-7 i n.
l ong), s mooth above, sl i ghtl y
downy bel ow. Fl owers (spri ng
s ummer) are fragrant i n day
t i me. They are l avender when
frst open, fade to wh i te i n 3
doys. Sl ow-g rowi ng from l ayers;
i n ful l sun or partial shade.
NI GHT JESSAMI NE ICestrum PURPLE JESSAMI NE ICestrum
nocturnumJ is a West I ndi an
shrub ( to 1 2 ft. ) wi t h sl ender,
droopi ng bronchei and ever
green l eaves (4-8 i n. l ong).
Bl ooms at ni g ht , several t i mes
a year, emi tti ng a heavy per
f ume. The scent and whi te ber
ri es are narcotic, the pl ant toxic
to grazi ng ani mal s . Fast - grow
i ng from seeds or cutti ngs. Day
Jessami ne IC. diurn um), with
dark purpl e fruits, i s al so toxi c.
1 26
purpureum}, from Mexi co, is an
al most ever- bl oomi ng, cl i mbi ng
s hrub (5- 1 2 f t . hi gh) wi t h vel
vety, droopi ng branches and
downy l eaves ( 2 %-5 i n. l ong) .
Fruits are reddi sh- purpl e ( t o V
i n. wi de) and devoured by bi rds,
as ore those of other cestru ms
despite thei r toxi ci ty to man.
Grown from seeds or cutti ngs i n
parti al shade. Vari ety Smithii
has rase-col ored bl ooms.
lady-of-t he-Ni ght Yesterday, Taday
and Tomorrow
ANGEl' S TRUMPET (Datura can
dida), nati ve to sout hern Mexi co
and Central Ameri ca, i s a shrub
(8- 1 5 ft . ) wi th somewhat downy
l eaves (to 16 in. l ong). Fl owers
(somet i mes doubl e), borne more
t han once a year, are strongl y
sweet-scented. If fru i t devel ops,
i t is s mooth and cyl i ndri cal .
Cutti ngs root easi l y. A popul ar
but toxi c pl ant . Frequentl y mi s
named D. arborea. Al so often
confused wi th t he s i mi l ar D.
suaveolens. The peach-col ored
angel ' s tru mpet ID. mol/is) is
from Ecuador. Bot h t hi s speci es
and D. candida bl oom at l east
t hree or four ti mes each year.
1 28
SCARLET DATURA (Datura san
guinea}, from Per u, i s a tree
l i ke shrub ( 8- 1 5 ft. ) wi th ter
mi nal cl usters of hai ry l eaves
(to 7 i n. l ong) . Fl owers nearl y
everbl oomi ng, are unscented.
The seedpod (to 3% i n. l ong) i s
yel l ow and s moot h. Usual l y
grown from seeds as cutt i ngs
not easy to root. Hardier t han
the Angel ' s Tru mpet; often seen
in gardens in Mexi co Ci ty and
Cal i forni a. Does best i n sandy
soi l . Seeds are narcoti c. They
ore used in Peru to make a nar
coti c dr i nk whi c h causes mani a
i f t aken i n excess. An oi nt ment
i s mode from the l eaves.
DEVI L' S TRUMPET (Datura me
te/), from I n di a, i s an herba
ceous shrub (4-5 ft. tal l ) wi th
smooth l eaves (7-8 i n. l ong).
The upturned fowers may be
si ngl e, doubl e or tri pl e, white,
wh ite- and- purpl e, or yel l ow.
Grows from seeds (freel y pro
duced) or cutt i ngs os an an nual
i n northern gardens. Long used
i n Ol d Worl d for i ntoxi cati on
and cri mi nal pahani ng.
DOWNY TOBACCO (Nicotiana
tomentosaJ, a native of Brazi l ,
i s a semi -woody, downy bush
( 1 0-20 ft . hi gh) wi t h erect, red
di sh stems and handsome l eaves
( 1 %-3 ft. l ang), red- purpl e when
you ng; i n one variety, mottl ed
yel low. The fowers, i n ter mi nal
sprays, open i n the eveni ng and
are very fragrant . Graws fast
seed.
PURPLE TOBACCO 1/ochromo
/anceo/atumJ, from Ecuador, i s a
soft-wooded shr ub (4- 8 ft. hi gh)
wi t h hai ry branches and ever
green leaves (to 6 in. l ong),
hai ry on the u ndersi de. Bears a
successi on of downy fowers al l
s ummer. Grows rapi dl y from
seeds or cutt i ngs, wi th pl ent i ful
moi sture. Prefers s un.
1 29
CUP FLOWER INierembergia
hippomanica), from Argent i na,
i s a perenni al herb wi th sti f,
erect, hai ry stems (to 1 ft. ) and
hai ry l eaves (to % i n. l ong).
Fl owers are white-and- pi nk, or
i n most popul ar form, variety
violacea (syn . N. caerulea), vio
l et- bl ue. Grown from cutti ngs.
CHALI CE VI NE (Solandra nitidaJ,
native to tropical Mexico, is a
woody, hi gh-cl i mbi ng vi ne wi th
aeri al roots and gl ossy, ever
green l eaves ( 2%-4 in. l ang) .
Bl ooms from autu mn t hrough
spri ng. Fl owers very fragrant;
are ivory whi te at frst; turn
ri ch yel l ow before fal l i ng.
Grown f r om cutti ngs.
WHI TE CUP INierembergia re
pens), from Argent i na, Chi l e and
Uruguay, i s a creepi ng pl ant (to
6 i n. hi gh) . Stems root at j oi nts,
form dense mat s. Leaves smooth
( 1 i n. l ong) . Fl owers ( summer)
someti mes ti nged rose or bl ue.
Grown by stem- di vi si on i n moi st
soi l and f ul l s un.
POTATO TREE !Solanum macran
thum), nat ive to Brazi l , i s a soft
wooded, brood- topped tree (to
30-40 ft.). leaves (to 1 5 i n. l ong)
are evergreen, downy, wi t h
promi nent , pr i ckl y vei ns be
neath . Fl owers (al l year) i n
crease i n si ze and fade i n col or
as they age, vari ous shades
present at t he s ame t i me. Fru its
abundant (1 %- 2 in. wide).
Grows rapi dl y from seeds or
cutt i ngs; di es after 4 years.
Needs parti al shade.
MARRI AGE VI NE !Solanum
wendlandiiJ, from Cost a Ri ca, i s
a woody, twi ni ng vi ne ( to 50 f l . ) .
leaves ( t o 1 0 i n. l ong) deci d
uous i n Cal i forni a, varyi ng from
si mpl e t o compound wi t h 1 to 7
l obes; mi dri b and l eafstal k hove
recu rved pri ckl es on u ndersi de.
Bl ooms fr om s ummer t hrough fal l
or nearl y al l year i n tropi cs.
Frui ts ovoi d ( t o 3 i n. wi de) .
Fast- growi ng (as much as 15 ft.
i n a season) i n ful l sun or part
shade wi t h much moi sture.
1 32
BRAZI LI AN NI GHTSHADE (So
lanum seaforthianum), probabl y
nati ve t o Brazi l , i s wi del y cul
tivated i n war m areas; runs wi l d
i n Austral i a. I t i s a t rai l i ng or
cl i mbi ng woody vi ne ( t o 1 0- 1 8
ft.) wi th sl ender stems and
smooth l eaves (4- 8 i n. l ong),
mostl y di vi ded i nto 3-9 deep
and i rregul ar l obes or l eafets.
The fowers ( whi te i n var. a/bum)
and t he gl ossy fruits hang i n
axi l l ary cl usters from l ate wi n
ter t hrough spr i ng. Vi ne i s fast
growi ng from seeds or cutti ngs;
beg i ns to bl oom when very
young. Needs rich soil , ful l s un.
The berri es ar e devoured by
bi rds but somet i mes i ntoxi cate
t hem and have poi soned poul try
and chi l dren.
MARMALADE BUSH (Strepto
solen ;amesonii, of Col ombi a
and Ecuador, i s a hai ry s h rub
wi t h ar chi ng branches and ever
green l eaves (1 %- 2 i n. l ong).
Fl owers i n termi nal cl usters
mai nl y i n s ummer. Grows fast
from cutti ngs i n a moi st soi l and
ful l s un. Short - l i ved.
F I GWOR T F AMI L Y CScrophul ari aceael
FI RECRACKER PLANT (Russelia
equisetiformisJ, native to Mex
ico, i s a bushy pl ant (to 4 ft.)
havi ng numerous s l i m, 4- angl ed,
green, arch i ng branches. Leaves
are few and mi nute or scal e
l i ke. Blooms conti nuousl y. Grown
from cutt i ngs or by divi si on.
Pl anted i n ful l sun as a soft
hedge or deep ground cover,
especi al l y on sl opes. Also used
i n pl anters or baskets. Drought
resi stant but l usher i f watered
moderatel y.
CAPE FUCHSI A (Phygelius ca
pensisJ, from South Afri ca, is
a bushy s hrub (4- 1 0 ft. hi gh)
wi t h s moot h, herbaceous, quad
rangul ar, purpl e branches and
evergreen l eaves ( 2- 3 i n. l ong).
The fowers range from coral to
cri mson and are present i n fal l
or nearl y al l year i n tropi cs.
Grawn from seeds or cutt i ngs i n
ful l s un or part shade. Drought
resistant. Afri can natives re
gard it as a magi c pl ant, af
fordi ng protect ion from harm.
TEXAS SI LVERLEAF (Leucophyl
lum frutescensJ, native to west
ern Texas and northern Mexico,
i s a s hru b (to 8 ft. hi gh), its
stems and l eaves (1 in. l ong)
coated with whi ti sh down.
Bl ooms i n spri ng and may con
ti nue al l s ummer. Propagated by
cutti ngs and thrives i n f ul l s un
i n ari d regi ons, or i n humi d
cl i mates on l i mestone s oi l wi th
good drai nage. Needs no care.
May be l i ghtl y pruned. Mexi can
name i s "Ceni zo" (as hes).
BI GNONI A FAMI LY ( Bi gnoni aceae) i ncl udes about
1 00 genera and over 600 speci es rangi ng from trop
i cal to temperate cl i mates. They are pri mari l y trees,
shrubs and woody vi nes, onl y a very few bei ng herba
ceous pl ants. Leaves are usual l y opposite, occasi onal ly
al ternate, mostl y compound. Flowers are tubul ar or
bel l - shaped, general l y l arge and col orful , i n cl usters .
Seedpod nearl y al ways 2-cel l ed, spl itti ng open, re
l easi ng fat, wi nged seeds ( see Afri can Tul i p, Spatho
dea, p. 1 38) . Notabl e excepti ons are the candl e trees
(Parmentiera) with feshy fruits, the wel l - known cal abash
trees (Crescentia) wi th feshy, hard- shel l ed frui ts used
for maracas, and the Sausage Tree (Kigelia, p. 1 36)
wi th curi ous woody fruits.
CHI NESE TRUMPET CREEPER
ICampsis grandifora), from Chi
na and Japan, i s a woody,
cl i mbi ng s hr ub (to 20-30 ft.) wi th
deci duous, compound l eaves
(l eafets 1 %-3 i n. l ong). Scarl et
or orange fowers, some red
stri ped i n t hroat, are borne al l
s ummer. Propagated by seeds,
cutti ngs, or raotsuckers.
SEEM TREE ITecomel/a undulatal,
native from Arabi a to I ndi a, is a
sti f shr ub or tal l -trunked tree
(to 30-40 ft.) with nearly ever
green, mi nutel y hai ry leaves (to
5 in. long). Bl ooms i n spri ng.
Grown from seeds or cutti ngs.
I t tol erates drought and i s fre
resi stant. Handsome wood i s
pri zed for cabi network.
CAT'S CLAW IDoxantha unguis
coli), native from Argenti na to
the West I ndi es, i s a sl ender
stemmed vine (to 25-40 ft.) with
evergreen, compound leaves
(l eafets to 3 in. l ong) ti pped
wi th cl awl i ke tendri l s. Flowers
for 3-4 weeks i n spri ng. Fast
growi ng from seeds, layers or
cutti ngs. Thrives i n ful l sun.
MAN GR OVE TRUMPET TREE
IDolichandrone spathaceaJ, na
tive from I ndi a t hrough the East
I ndi es to New Gui nea, is a
tree (to 45-60 ft.) wi th deci d
uous, compound l eaves (l eafets
3-6 i n. l ong). Very fragrant
fowers ( i n spri ng) open at ni ght
and fal l i n earl y morni ng, car
peting the ground. Grown from
seeds (in sl ender pods to 1 8 i n.
l ong). Thrives on seashores and
i n coastal swamps. Wood used
for foats and shoes. The bark
yi el ds tber. Bar k i nfusion used
as preservative on fs hi ng nets.
GARLI C VI NE IPseudoca/ymna
a//iaceum), nat i ve to t he Gui anas
and northern Brazi l and Peru,
is a hi gh-cl i mbi ng vi ne wi th
glossy l eafets (to 8 i n. l ong).
Flowers are borne profusel y i n
fal l and agai n i n spri ng. Vi ne
emits gar l i c odor; l ong errone
ousl y known as Cydista aequi
noctialis. Grown from cutti ngs.
1 36
BLOOD-RED TRUMPET IPhae
dranthus buccinatorius), from
Mexi co, is a c l i mbi ng shrub (to
30-40 ft.). leaves gl ossy, ever
green, compound ( l eafets 2-4
in. long); tendri l s ti pped with
adhesive discs. Fl owers s pectac
ular from spri ng to fal l or al l
year. Grown from cutti ngs i n
f ul l s un. Needs space.
SAUSAGE TREE IKige/ia pinnataJ,
from tropi cal Africa, i s a wi de
topped tree (to 35 ft. ) wi th
evergreen l eaves (to 15 i n. l ong;
l eafets 3-6 i n.). Flowers (l ate
wi nter or s ummer) open in eve
ni ng, drop in morni ng; foul
s mel l i ng; vel vety; may be orange
wi th red s pots or dark wi ne-red.
Woody "sausages" (fruits, t o 2
ft. l ong), i nedi bl e, but abundant
and curi ous. Tree grows slowly
from seed.
JACARANDA (Jacaranda mimo
saelo/ia), from Brazi l , i s a tree
(to 50 ft.) with deci duous, feath
ery leaves (to 1 8 in. l ang).
Lovel y sprays of fowers on leaf
l ess branches i n spri ng and a
second bl oom in August. Grown
from seed; al so grafted.
FLAME VINE IPyrostegia igneal,
native Ia Brazi l , i s a vi ne cl i mb
i ng by tendri l s (to 40 ft.) up
trees and over bui l di ngs. Leaves
are evergreen, compound
l ets 2-3 i n. l ong) . Bri l l i ant bl an
ket s of fowers make a gl orious
di spl ay from l ate wi nter to
spri ng. Grown from cutti ngs in
ful l s un. Needs annual pruni ng.
BOWER-PLANT IPandorea jas
minoides), from Austral i a, i s a
woody, twi ni ng vi ne (20-30 ft.).
Leaves evergreen, compound,
glossy ( l eafets 1 - 2 i n. l ong).
Fl owers (summer-fal l ) wh ite,
wh ite with pi nk throat, or pi nk.
Grows fast from cutti ngs i n sun.
Si mi l ar Podranea ricaso/iana
has pi nk bl ooms striped wi th
red, borne i n l arge cl usters.
AFRI CAN TULI P TREE (Spatho
dea campanulata), from West
Tropi cal Africa, i s on erect tree
(to 70 fl.) with evergreen, com
pound l eaves ( to 1 8 i n. l ong;
l eafets 3-4 i n. l ong). Bl ooms
spectacul arly i n late wi nter or
earl y spri ng. Seedpods boat
shaped (to 8 i n. long). Fast
growi ng from seeds, root-suck
ers or cutti ngs. Very suscepti bl e
to wi nd i nj ury.
SARI TA (Saritaeo magnifca), na
tive to Col ombi a, i s a handsome
vi ne cl i mbi ng by tendri l s (I 30-
40 ft.). The leaves (to 5 in. l ong)
ore evergreen, glossy, wi th re
cessed vei ns. Blooms mai nl y i n
fal l -wi nter i n Fl ori da; s ummer i n
Cal i forni a. Grows fast from cut
tings or ai r- layers i n ful l sun.
Long known as Arrobidoea, or
Bignonia, magnifca.
YELLOW ELDER (Stenolobium
stans}, a native of tropi cal Amer
ica and t he West I ndi es, is a
bushy tree (to 20 ft.) wi th com
pound l eaves (to 10 i n. l ong;
l eafets to 3% i n. l ong). The
tree puts out o few bl ooms i n
spri ng; covers i tsel f wi t h s unny
fowers i n l ate fal l . I n wi nter,
it i s rather shaggy with o mul t i
tude of seedpods. Grows rapi dl y
from seeds or cutti ngs.
CAPE HONEYSUCKLE (Tecomaria
capensisl, from South Africa i s a
semi -cl i mbi ng shr ub (to 25 ft_)
with l ong, trai l i ng or archi ng
branches_ The l eaves are ever
green, compound (l eafets 1 -2
i n. l ong). Bl ooms mai nly in fal l
and wi nter. Fast-growi ng from
cutti ngs, l ayers or suckers in
moist soil, ful l s un_ Serves as a
vi ne, hedge shrub, or s mal l tree.
SI LVER TRUMPET TREE ITabe
buia argenteal, nati ve to Para
guay, i s a narrow, crooked tree
(to 40 ft.). The si lver-green
leaves have 5-7 l eafets (3-9 i n.
l ong) and are mostl y s hed i n
late wi nter_ I n spri ng the tree
is radi ant with its masses of
fowers. Seeds must be pl anted
wi t hout del ay. Growth is sl ow,
but grafted trees bl oom when
onl y 3-4 fl. tal l .
PI NK TRUMPET TREE (Tabebuia
pentaphyl/a), native to Central
Ameri ca and natural i zed i n the
West I ndi es, i s an erect tree (to
60-70 ft.). The deci duous l eaves
have 5-7 l eafets (to 6 in_ l ong)_
Greatly admi red for profuse
fowers in spri ng, it is the na
ti onal tree of El Sal vador. Fai rl y
last from seed; bl ooms when 2
or 3 years ol d_ Ti mber hi ghl y
pri zed; resembl es oak.
GL OXI N I A F AMI L Y I Gesneri aceael
COLUMNEA (Columnea schied
eana), from eastern Mexico, i s o
cl i mbi ng, epi phytic pl ant wi th
feshy, hai ry branches (to 2 ft_
l ong) . The evergreen l eaves ( 2-
5 i n. l ong) are downy, t hi ck and
succul ent, wi th i ndented rosy
vei ns; they may be wi ne-red on
the undersi de_ Fl owers appear
from May Ia Jul y. Grown from
ti p cutti ngs i n hangi ng baskets;
not i n di rect s un.
GLOXI NI A (Sinningia speciosa),
from Brazi l , is a tuberous, near
l y steml ess pl ant wi th a rosette
of vel vety l eaves (Ia 6 i n. l ong).
Purpl e-fowered i n the wi l d, but
there are many cul t ivated vari
eti es and hybri ds-wh i te, or
vari ous shades of red, pi nk or
vi ol et; same doubl e, some ruf
fed. Bl ooms in spri ng. Propa
gated by seeds, l eaf cutti ngs or
divi si on. Grown i n pots_
EPI SCI A (fpiscia cupreata), from
Col ombi a, i s a creepi ng pl ant
( to 6 i n. hi gh), root i ng at the
j oi nts and grown more for its
fol iage than its bl ooms. The
leaves (2-3 in. long) of most
forms are attractivel y embossed
or "qui l ted" and furry; general
ly copper or bronze i n col or
wi th s i l ver vei ns; rarely gl ossy
green. Fl owers (al l year) bri ght
red or scarlet-and-yel l ow. Grown
from cutti ngs, layers, or divi si on,
i n hangi ng bas kets, i n shade.
AFRI CAN VI OLET ISaintpaulia
ionantha), native to tropi cal
East Afri ca, i s a l ow herb wi th
many downy l eaves ( 1 %-3 i n.
l ong). Flowers, whi ch appear
conti nuousl y, are typi cal l y l av
ender; countl ess varieties and
hybri ds di spl ay wi de col or range
-purpl e, bl ue, red, pi nk, or
whi le. Some are doubl e. Grown
from seed, l eaf cutti ngs or divis
i on i n i ndirect l i ght.
TRUMPET ACHI MENES IAchim
enes longifora), nati ve to Guote
mal a, i s a hai ry-stemmed pl ant
( 1 - 2 ft. tal l ) wi th s mal l , tuber
ous rh i zome. The furry l eaves
( 1 % -3 in. l ong) are opposi te
or in whorl s of 3 or 4. Fl owers
(sum mer) vary from viol et- bl ue
to lavender-and-yel l ow, or white
wi th yel l ow-and- purpl e throat.
Propagated by stem-cutti ngs, of
sets or di vi si on. Rh i zomes are
taken up and kept dry and dor
mant i n wi nter.
DEVI L' S BREECHES IKohleria
bogotensis), from Col ombi a, is
an erect, hai ry pl ant ( 1 - 2 ft.
hi gh) with scaly, creepi ng root
stock. The l eaves (2-4 in. l ong)
are vel vety and handsome.
Propagated by seeds or l eaf
cutti ngs, i t i s qui ck- growi ng. Of
ten l i sted as lsoloma bogotense.
A hybrid, recl i ni ng form has
sl enderer, bronze-green l eaves
and red-and-wh ite bl ooms .
1 41
ACANTHUS FAMI LY (Acanthaceae) embraces 1 80 to
200 genera and more t han 2, 000 speci es, mai nly of
tropi cal and subtropi cal cl i mates; a few reachi ng tem
perate zones. They are l argel y herbs, subshrubs, woody
shrubs, or vi nes; rarel y trees . Leaves are opposi te and
si mpl e; enti re, toothed, or l obed. Fl owers are tubul ar,
usual l y 2-l i pped, someti mes broadl y fari ng and 5-
l obed; frequentl y i n spi kes and often cupped by l eaf
l i ke, spi ny or hai ry bracts. The bracts may be s howi er
than t he fowers. Seedpod i s 2-cel l ed, expl odi ng when
ri pe. Many members of thi s fami l y are cul tivated as
ornamental s.
S I N C L A I R ' S A P H E L AN D R A
IAphe/andra sinclairiana), from
Panama, is a shrub (6- 1 5 ft.
tal l ) wi th thin leaves (to 1 2 i n.
l ong) hai ry beneath. I n spri ng
a few fowers at a t i me emerge
from the showy spi kes of over
l appi ng orange-red bracts.
Grown from cutti ngs. Pruned
after bl oomi ng, for best form.
YELLOWVEI N BUSH IPseuder
anthemum reticu/atum), from
Polynesi a or New Hebri des, is a
bush (3-5 ft. hi gh). leaves (5- 1 0
i n . l ong) t urn from yel low to
green-and-yel l ow and lastly
dark green. Blooms all year. P.
atropurpureum has purpl e-and
pi nk leaves; mauve-and-purpl e
bl ooms. Grown from cutti ngs.
SANGUI NEA IMegaskepasma
erythrochlamysJ, from Venezuel a,
is semi-woody, somewhat hai ry,
and fast-growi ng (to 10 ft.).
Prized far its handsome, ever
green leaves (Ia 1 ft. l ong) and
red bracts whi ch are the show
iest features of the ter mi nal
fower spi kes. Blooms i n fal l .
Grown fram cutti ngs.
PHI LI PPI NE VI OLET (Barleria
crisfafa), from I ndi a and Ch i na,
i s a shrub (3- 1 0 ft. tal l ) wi th
sl i ghtl y hai ry, evergreen l eaves
(to 4 in. long). Fl owers may be
viol et, pi nk, or whi te. Fal l
bl oomi ng i n Fl ori da; al l year i n
tropi cs. Grown from cutti ngs;
needs pruni ng. Whi te form i s
natural ized i n Fl ori da.
CROSSANDRA ICrossandra in
fundibuliformisl, from I ndi a, is
a shr ub ( 1 -3 ft. hi gh) wi th very
gl ossy, evergreen l eaves (3-5 i n.
l ong) . Blooms al l summer, or
conti nuousl y i n tropics. Grown
from seeds or cutti ngs, often as
a house pl ant or outsi de under
trees, since i t requi res shade.
Lasts wel l as a cut fower.
SHRI MP PLANT 18e1operone gut
total, a native of Mexico, i s a
sl ender-stemmed shrub (to 8 fl.
tal l ; usual l y pruned to 2-3 ft.).
Leaves ( 1 -3 i n. long) are ever
green, softly hai ry. Bl oomi ng
begi ns i n wi nter, conti nues for
months. Bracts usual l y reddi sh;
i n one form chartreuse. Grown
in ful l or part s un from cutti ngs.
BLUE SAGE IEranthemum pul
chelluml, from I ndi a, i s a shrub
( 2- 6 ft . hi gh) wi t h square branch
l ets. Leaves (4-8 i n. l ong) are
evergreen, wi th depressed vei ns.
Blooms i n wi nter and spri ng.
Grows fast from cutti ngs i n ful l
or parti al shade. Needs cutti ng
back i n s ummer. Long known as
E. nervosum.
C
AR I CATUR E P L ANT I Gra p
tophyllum pictum), possi bly from
New Gui nea, i s an erect shrub
( t o 8- 1 2 ft.). I t is pri zed for i t s
showy leaves ( 4- 8 i n. l ong) , ma
roon or bronze, or more often
green marbl ed with whi te, yel
l ow, or i n some forms, r ed. Fl ow
ers may appear any t i me of
year. Grown from cutti ngs.
KI NG' S CROWN IJacobinia cor
neal, native to Brazi l , i s a soft
stemmed shr ub (3-5 ft. hi gh).
Leaves (6- 1 0 in. l ong) are ever
green, downy, someti mes pur
pl i sh on undersi de. Blooms i n
su mmer and fal l . Propagated by
cutt i ngs. Needs shade, rich soi l
and moi sture, pruni ng after
foweri ng. May be espal i ered.
FI RESPI KE IOdontonema stric
tum), nati ve to Central Ameri ca,
is an erect, herbaceous pl ant (to
6-8 ft.) with evergreen leaves
(3-6 in. long). Fl owers open a
few at a t i me in s ummer and
fal l ; al s o i n wi nter i n some
regi ons. Grows rapi dl y from
cutti ngs or di vi si on i n semi
shade; bl ooms best i n ful l sun.
GANGES PRI MROSE (Asystasia
gangefica), native to tropical
Asia and Africa, i s a trai l i ng
and cl i mbi ng herb ( t o 4- 5 ft.)
wi th evergreen leaves (to 2 %
i n . l ong). Fl owers (all year) lav
ender, yel low or white. Grown
from seeds or cutti ngs.
1 46
SCARLET RUELLI A IRuellia mac
rophyllaJ, native to Col ombi a, is
a handsome, soft-stemmed shrub
( t o 3- 4 ft.) wi th l ong, downy
leaves. Fl owers (3 in. long) in
axi l l ary cl usters in summer.
Easil y grown from cutti ngs and
prized as a pot pl ant.
SANCHEZI A ISanchezia nobilisJ,
from Ecuador, i s a shr ub (to 6- 1 2
fl.) with square branches. Ever
green leaves (to 1 Y2 ft. l ong),
usual l y variegated. Flowers (yel
low wi th red bracts) in spri ng
and s ummer. Grown from cut
ti ngs, i n semi -shade.
BUSH CLOCKVI NE IThunbergio
erecto), from tropi cal Africa, is
a sl ender-branched shrub (to 6
ft.) wi th smooth leaves (to 2%
i n. l ong). Fl owers ( al l summer)
someti mes wh ite or pol e bl ue.
Sl ow- growi ng from seeds or cut
tings i n sun or partial shade.
SKY VI NE IThunbergia grandi
fora), from I ndia, i s a stout vi ne
( to 50 ft. ) wi th rough l eaves (to
8 i n. l ong). Bl ooms nearl y al l
year. Variety alba has wh ite
fowers. Grows fast from hard
wood cutti ngs; Fl owers
wilt qui ckl y
BLACK-EYED CLOCKVI NE IThun
bergio olota), from East Afri ca,
is a sl ender vi ne (to 8 ft. ) wi th
vel vety l eaves (2-3 i n. l ong).
Bl ooms i n l ate s ummer. Some
yel l ow or whi te vari eti es l ack
the dark "eye. " Grows qui ckl y
from seeds or cutti ngs.
MADDER FAMI LY ( Rubi aceae) may enfol d as many
as 450 genera and 5, 500 speci es, pri mari l y tropi cal .
They ar e herbs, shrubs, vi nes or trees . Leaves are
si mpl e, opposite or i n whorl s. Fl owers, borne si ngl y
or i n cl usters, usual l y have 4, 5 or 6 l obes and are
mai nl y whi te or red, someti mes hi gh l y fragrant. Frui t
may be a capsul e, drupe or berry. Many speci es are
i mportant food (cofee) or drug ( qui ni ne) pl ants. A
l arge number are wi del y cul tivated ornamental s.
GARDENI A (Gardenia jasmi n
oides), from Chi na though l ong
known os Cape Jasmi ne, is a
shr ub (to 8 ft.) wi th waxy, ever
green leaves (to 4 in. l ong).
Bears fragrant, si ngl e or doubl e
fowers i n spri ng or, i n green
houses, i n wi nter. Grows wel l
from cutt i ngs or layers i n aci d
soi l . I n al kal i ne soi l must be
grafted onto G. thunbergia.
CRI MSON I XORA llxora mac
rothyrsal, from the East I ndi es,
i s a shr ub (to 1 0- 1 2 ft.) wi th
gl ossy, evergreen l eaves (to 1 2
i n. l ong). Blooms several ti mes
a year. Flowers used in l ei s i n
Hawai i . Grown from cutti ngs i n
aci d soi l ; part shade for best
fol iage; bl ooms more i n sun.
(Recentl y ci t ed as I . casei . J
SCARLET I XORA llxora coc
cinea), from southern Asi a, is an
erect s hr ub (to 8- 1 5 ft.) wi th
leat hery l eaves (2-3 i n. l ong).
Blooms al l year. Grown from
seeds, cutti ngs, or root shoots,
in ful l sun; usual ly cl i pped as
a hedge. Variety lutea has
yel l ow fowers i n l arger cl us
ters, and droopi ng branches.
1 48
RED-FLAG BUSH IMussaenda
erythrophyllal, from West Tropi
cal Afri ca, i s a hai ry shrub or
vi ne (to 30 fl.; usual l y pruned
to 6-8 ft.) wi th velvety leaves
(3-6 in. l ong). Everbl oomi ng
fowers not showy but fan ked by
a bri l l i ant, enl arged sepal .
Rare; cutt i ngs di fcul t to root
and seeds not produced in some
areas. Grows i n s un or shade.
NEEDLE-FLOWER IPosoqueria
latifolia), from tropi cal Ameri ca,
is o shrubby tree or vi ne (to
1 8-25 ft. ), t he l ower branches
root i ng where t hey touch ground.
Leaves gl ossy, l eather (4- 1 0 i n.
l ong). Fl owers fragrant, abun
dant i n spri ng. Yel low, round
frui t i s seedy but edi bl e. Grown
from seeds or layers; ri ch soi l .
SWEET RONDELETI A IRonde
letia odorata), native to Cuba
and Panama, i s a broad shrub
(6- 1 0 ft.), wi th rough, l eathery
leaves (3-7 i n. l ong). Blooms
conti nuously, spri ng- fal l . Flow
ers not very fragrant. Propa
gated by cutti ngs or by ai r
layers whi ch requi re 3-4 months
to root. Slow-growi ng.
Scarl et I xora
Sweet
Rondeletia
1 49
CHACONI A r Warscewiczia coc
ci nea), native to Tri ni dad and
from Mexi co to Peru, is a s l i m
tree (to 20 ft.) with evergreen
leaves (to 2 ft. l ong). Bl ooms
al l s ummer. Prized for vi vi d se
pal s that enhance fower sprays.
Grown from seeds in moist soi l .
I VORY WOOD !Calycophyllum
spruceanumJ, from Brazi l , i s a
sl ender tree (to 50-70 ft.) wi th
faki ng, red- brown bark and
gl ossy l eaves (3 %-7 i n. l ong).
Bl ooms i n wi nter. The l arge whi te
sepal s outshi ne t he smal l fowers.
Grown from seed.
HONEYSUCKLE FAI L Y
(Caprifoliaceae)
HONEYSUCKLE !Lon
icera hildebrandiana), from Bur
ma, is a woody, twi ni ng vi ne (to
80 ft.) wi th gl ossy leaves (to
8 i n. l ong). Fragrant fowers
( summer, fall) are ivory at frst,
then change to orange. Grows
from seeds or cutti ngs, in some
or-part shade. Soi l shoul d be
moi st but wel l - drai ned. A heavy
vi ne requi r i ng strong support.
DAI SY FAMI LY (Compositae) is the l argest among
foweri ng pl ants and covers from 800 to 1 , 000 genera
and 1 5, 000 to 20,000 species di stri buted throughout
the worl d. The maj ori ty are annual or perenni al herbs,
some are vi nes and a few are woody shrubs or trees.
The sap may be mi l ky. leaves may be al ternate, op
posite or in whorl s and are often pungent. Typi cal of
the fami l y is the cl usteri ng of the fowers ( di sk forets)
i n compact heads ( smal l to l arge) , the outer fowers
(ray forets) becomi ng fat, strap-shaped, petal - l i ke
rays. The composite head with its encircl i ng rays is
popul arl y regarded as a si ngl e "fower. " Seeds are
usual l y attached to white, hai rl i ke foss, or pappus.
Many members ( such as Chrysanthemums and Zinnias),
hi ghly devel oped, are garden favorites.
FLAT TREE DAHLI A (Dahlia TREE DAI SY IMontanoa hibis
excelsal, a native of Mexico, is
a pl ant with several erect, un
branched, woody stems ( t o 20
ft.) and compound leaves ( t o 2%
ft . l ong) . Bl ooms i n late fal l .
Flowers si ngl e or doubl e. Grown
from seeds or cuttings.
cifolial, from Costa Rica and
Guatemal a, i s a shrub or tree
(to 20 ft.). Leaves enti re or
lobed ( 2- 1 0 in. long); hai ry
beneath. Bl ooms in wi nter.
Grown from seeds or cutti ngs.
Dry fruits used for decoration.
confususJ, nati ve from central to
southern Mexico, i s a sl ender,
twi ni ng vi ne (to 25 ft.) wi th
l eathery l eaves ( 1 4 i n. l ong).
Bl ooms most of year. Fastgrow
i ng from seeds, cutti ngs or ai r
l ayers. Does wel l in dry loca
tions and ful l sun. May be used
as a ground cover; stems root
ing at j oi nts.
TREASURE FLOWER IGozania
rigens), of South Africa, i s a l aw
perenni al herb wi th l eaves (4-5
i n. l ang) white-s i l ky beneath.
Fl owers (spri ng ar al l year i n
some areas) open i n sun, cl ose
i n shade or an cl oudy days.
Grown from cutti ngs i n sandy
soi l . Vi vi d ground cover i n Cal i
forni a. G. splendens and G. au
rantiaca are varieties or hybri ds.
CANARY CREEPER (Senecio
tamoides), a nati ve of South
Africa, i s a cl i mbi ng shrub wi th
smooth, green stems (to 1 5-20
ft.). Leaves are evergreen,
feshy (to 2 i n. l ong). Blooms
profusel y i n fal l . Fast-grow
ing from seed or cutti ngs.
Fl ouri shes i n part i al shade but
produces more fowers i n ful l
sun. Drought-resi stant.
MUTI SI A (Mutisia clematis), from
Col ombi a and Ecuador, i s c
semi-woody, cl i mbi ng shrub (to
20-30 fl.). leaves evergreen,
compound ( t he leafets to 1 V
i n. l ong), at frst downy, later
s mooth. Fl owers all summer.
Grown from seeds or cutti ngs i n
ful l sun. Copi ous nectar attracts
hummi ngbi rds. Thrives i n warm
locations i n southern Engl and.
TRANSVAAL DAI SY (Gerbera
jamesonii), from South Africa, is
a perennial herb (to 1 V2 ft.
hi gh) . leaves (5- 1 0 i n. l ong)
wool l y on undersi de. Fl owers
(spri ng) may be si ngl e or doubl e,
whi te, yel l ow, pi nk, orange, red,
mauve, or purpl e. Open i n morn
ing; cl ose at ni ght. Grown from
seed or by divi si on. Best i n par
tial sun. Wi l l stand moderate
amount of foot trafc.
trilobata),
from tropi cal Ameri ca, i s a some
what feshy herb (to 1 ft. hi gh)
creepi ng and rooti ng at t he
nodes, wi t h gl ossy leaves (2-3
i n. l ong). Bl ooms al l year. Fast
growi ng from cutti ngs i n sun or
shade; i s fai rl y sal t-tol erant. A
popul ar ground cover; may be
cl i pped or mowed.
MOR E I N F OR MATI ON
Publ ications of especial interest to gardeners, pl ant lovers gener
ally and travelers i n warm areas:
Al exander, Taylor R., et al . Botany. Western Publ i shing Co., I nc.,
New York. 1 970.
Blatter, E. and W.S. Mi l l ard. Some Beautiful Indian Trees. Bombay
Natural History Soc., Bombay. 2nd ed. 1 954.
Bar. N.L and M. B. Raizada. Some Beautiful Indian Climbers and
Shrubs. Bombay Natural Hi story Soc., Bombay. 1 954.
Bruggeman, L. Tropical Plants and Their Cuhivation. Thomas Y.
Crowel l Co., New York. 1 9.7.
Camp, W.H., V.R. Boswel l and J. R. Magness. The World in Your
Garden. National Geographi c Soc., Washington, D.C. 1 957.
Cowen, D.V. Flowering Trees and Shrubs in India. Thacker & Co.,
Ltd., Bombay. 4th ed. 1 965.
El iovson, S. Flowering Shrubs, Trees and Climbers from Southern
Africa. Howard Ti mmi ns. Cape Town, S. A. 1 962.
Fairchi l d, D. The World Was My Garden. Charl es Scribner's Sons,
New Y ark. 1 941 .
Graf, A. B. Exotica 3. Roehrs Company, Rutherford, N. J. 1 969.
Greensi l l , T.M. Gardening in the Tropics. Evans Bros., Ltd., London.
1 964.
Harri s, T.Y. Australian Plants for the Garden. Angus and Robert
son, Sydney. 1 953.
Herbert, D.A. Gardening in Warm Climates. Angus and Robertson,
Sydney. 1 952.
Kuck, L.E. and R.C. Tongg. Hawaiian Flowers and Flowering Trees.
Chas. E. Tuttle Co., Rutl and, Vt. 1 960.
McCurrach, J. C. Palms of the World. Harper & Row, New York.
1 960.
Menninger, E. Flowering Trees of the World: from Tropics and
Warm Cl i mates. Hearthside Press, New York. 1 962.
Menni nger, E. Flowering Vines of the World. Hearthside Press,
New York. 1 970.
Morley, B.D. Wild Flowers of the World. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New
York. 1 970.
Neal , M.C. In Gardens of Hawaii. Bishop Museum Press, Honol ul u.
Rev' d ed. 1 965.
O'Gorman, H. Mexican Flowering Trees and Plants. Ammex Asso
ciados, Mexico City. 1 961 .
Shuttl eworth, Floyd S., et al . Orchids. Western Publ ishing Co., I nc.,
New Y ark. 1 970.
van der Spuy, U. Ornamental Shrubs and Trees for Gardens in
Southern Africa. Juta & Co., Ltd., Johannesburg. 1 954.
1 54
I N D E X
(See al so Li st of Pl ant Fami l ies, page 8)
Abutilon mega
pofamicum, 7
Acacia baileyana, 49
Acalypha hispido, 71
Acalypha
wilkesiana, 71
Achimenes longiflora,
1 41
Acolonthero specfo
bilis, 1 07
Adansonia
digitoto, 84
Aechmea chonHnH,
1 3
Aeonium
glutinosum, 43
African l i l y, 1 5
African tul i p tree,
1 38
African vi olet, 1 41
Agapanthus africanus,
1 5
Agave americana, 20
Albizia julibrissin, 49
A/bizio /ebbecl, 49
Al l omando, purpl e,
1 08
yel l ow, 1 08
A//omondo
cothortico, 1 08
Allamanda violacea,
1 08
Aloe candelabrum, 1 5
Alpinia purpurata, 26
Alpinia speciosa, 26
Amazon l i l y, 21
Amazon vi ne, 67
Amherstio,fl ame, 48
Amhentio nobi/is, 48
Amorphophol/us lito
num, 1 1
Anaquo, 1 1 9
Angel 's trumpet, 1 28
Annatto, 87
Anthurium andreanum,
1 2
Antigonon leptopus,
35
Aphelhondro sine/air
iana, 1 42
Arabi an iasmine, 1 05
Araujia sericofera, 1 1 2
Ardisia crispa, 1 04
Argemone mexicana,
40
Argyreia nervosa, 1 1 5
Arum, gi ant, 1 1
Asclepias curassavico,
1 1 2
Asoka tree, 61
Asystasia gangefica,
1 46
Azalea, Japanese, 1 03
Babiana stricto, 22
Baboon-root, 22
Baeckea virgafa, 96
Banana, pi nk vel vet,
24
Ban gar nut, 82
Bansia coccinea, 33
Banksia ericifolia, 33
Baobab, 84
Barbados l i l y, 1 9
Barbados pride, 52
Barleria cristata, 1 43
Barna, 41
Bot fl ower, 21
Bauhinia galpini, 50
Bauhinia purpurea, 50
Bauhinia tomentosa, 50
Beaumontia granci
flora, 1 08
Belamcanca chinensis,
22
Be/operone guttoto, 1 44
Bi llbergia venezuelana,
1 3
Bi rd-of-paradi se, 24
Bixo ore//ono, 87
Bl ackberry l i l y, 22
Bl ack-eyed cl ockvine,
1 47
Bl ock-eyed heath, 1 03
Bl adder-fl ower, whi te,
1 1 2
8/o/eo gracilis, 1 00
Blakea trinervia, 1 00
Bl eeding heart, 1 21
Bl ood l i l y, 1 9
Bl ood-red trumpet, 1 36
Bl ue gl orybower, 1 20
Bl ue sage, 1
Bombax ellipticum, 81
Bombax malabaricum,
B1
Borroion, 1 1 8
Bottlebrush, Notal , 75
showy, 96
Bougainvillea glabra,
36
Bougainvillea speda
bi/is, 36
Bowcichia virgilioi
des, 5
Bower-pl ant, 1 37
Brachychiton acari
folium, 82
Brazi l ian ni ghtshade,
1 32
Brazi l ian pepper, 74
Breath-of-heaven, 65
Breynia nivosa, 71
Bri dal bouquet, 1 1 4
Brodiaea coronaria, 1 5
Brownea grandiceps, SO
Brunlelsia americana,
1 26
Brunfelsia latifolia,
1 26
Budd/eja dovidii, 1 06
Buddleja madagascar
iensis, 1 0
Bugl e l i l y, 22
8ulnesia arborea, 64
Bursaria spinose, 44
Bush morni ng- gl ory,
1 1 7
Buteo frondosa, S
Buttercup tree, 87
Butterfly bush, 1 06
Butterfly pea, 55
Butterfly tree, 88
Butterfl y weed, 1 1 2
Caesalpinia sepiaria,
52
Cajeput, 98
Cal aash nutmeg, 39
Caladium bicolor, 1 1
Cal adi um, fancy-
l eaved, 1 1
Cal ifornia l i l ac, 75
Calliandra haemafoce
photo, 53
Callisfemon speciosus,
96
Calonyction aculeafum,
1 25
Calotropis giganfea,
1 1 3
Calotropis procer J, 1 1 3
Calpurnia subdecan
dro, 53
Colycophyl/uM spruceo
num, 1 50
Camellia japonica, 86
Camellia sasanqua, 86
Campsis grandiflora,
1 34
Cononga odoroto, 39
Canary creeper, 1 52
Candel abra al oe, 1 5
Candl ebush, 53
Canna indica, 28
Cannonbal l tree, 94
1 55
Cope bl ue water l i l y,
38
Cape fuchsi a, 1 1 3
Cape honeysuckl e, 1 39
Cape l eadwort, 1 04
Cope mahogany, 66
Cari b wood, 63
Cari cature pl ant, 1 45
Corissa grondifloro,
1 09
Carpobrotus acinaci-
forme, 37
Carri on f l ower, 1 1 4
Caryota mi tis, 1 0
Caryoto urens, 1 0
Cassia a lata, 53
Cassia listula, 54
Cassia jovonica, 54
Castanospermum ous-
tra/e, 55
Castor bean, 73
Cathoranthus roseus,
1 09
Cat' s cl aw, 1 35
Cattl eya, 30
Ceanothus arboreus, 75
Ceanothus azureus, 75
Ceanothus cyoneus, 75
Century pl ant, 20
Ceratopetalum gummi -
lerum, 45
Ceri man, 1 2
Cestrum nocturnum, 1 26
Cestrum purpureum, 1 26
Chaconi a, 1 50
Chal ice vi ne, 1 30
Cheni l l e pl ant, 71
Cherry red ochna, 85
Chi l e bel l s, 1 6
Chi naberry, 66
Chi nese hat pl ant, 1 22
Chi nese hawthorn, 46
Chi nese hi bi scus, 78
Chi nese trumpet
creeper, 1 34
Chiranthodendron pen
tadactylon, 84
Chori si a speciosa, 81
Chri stmas bush, New
South Wal es, 45
Tasmani an, 44
Chr i stmas tree,
New Zeal and, 99
Chr i stmas vine, 1 1 5
Ci gar fl ower, 93
Cleome spinose, 41
Clerodendrum indicum,
1 21
Clerodendrum myricoi
des, 1 20
Clerodendrum ponicu
/atum, 1 20
1 56
Clerodencrum thomson-
ice, 1 21
Clianthus dampieri , 55
Clitoric ternatea, 55
Clivia mi niata, 1 9
Cl ockvi ne, bl ack- eyed,
1 47
bush, 1 47
Clusio rosea, 86
Cobaea scondens, 1 1 8
Cochlospermum vitilo-
lium, 87
Coconut, gol den, 1 0
Cocos nucilera, 1 0
Cocioeum voriegatum,
69
Columnea schieceana,
1 40
Colvi llea racemose, 56
Col vi l l e' s gl ory, 56
Combretum granciflo-
rum, 95
Confederate j asmi ne,
1 07
Congea tomentosa, 1 21
Copperl eaf, 71
Copperpod, 60
Cor al pl ant, 72
Coral tree, Indi an, 58
Coral vi ne, 35
Cordia boissieri, 1 1 9
Cereia sebestena, 1 1 9
Corcyline terminalis,
1 6
Cestus speciosus, 28
Cotoneaster, si l ver
l eaf, 46
Cotoneaster ponnoso,
4
Cotyledon undulate, 43
Couroupita guionensis,
94
Crape gi nger, 28
Crape j asmi ne, 1 09
Crape myrtl e, 93
queen' s, 93
Crossula fa leota, 42
Cratevo roxburghi i , 41
Cri mson i xora, 1 48
Crinum augustum, 1 8
Crossandro inlundibuli-
lormis, 1 44
Croton, 69
purgi ng, 69
Croton tiglium, 69
Crown- of-thorns, 70
Cryptostegio granci-
flora, 1 1 3
Cryptostegia modogos
cariensis, 1 1 3
Cup- and- saucer vi ne,
1 1 8
Cup fl ower, 1 30
Cuphea platycentra, 93
Cymbi di um, 30
Cypri pedi um, 31
Dais cotinilolia, 92
Dai sy, Transvaal , 1 53
tree, 1 51
Dal mai s mi l kwort, 68
Dar l i ng pea, 62
Datura concica, 1 28
Datura mete/, 1 29
Datura sanguineo, 1 28
Delonix regia, 57
Dendrobi um, 31
Derris scandens, 57
Devi l ' s breeches, 1 41
DevWs trumpet, 1 29
Dewfl ower, 37
Diefenbachio macu-
/ata, 1 2
Dillenia indica, 85
Di nner plate tree, 83
Diosmo ericoides, 65
Dolichondrone spatho-
cea, 1 35
Dombeyo sp. , 83
Dombeya wallichii, 83
Downy myrtl e, 99
Downy sage, 1 25
Downy tobacco, 1 29
Doxantha unguis-cati,
1 35
Drosanthemum 1/ori-
bundum, 37
Dumb cane, 1 2
Duranta repens, 1 22
Dyckia a/tissima, 1 4
East Afri can l aburnum,
53
Eosterfl ower, 68
Echeverio elegans, 42
Echeverio glauco, 42
Echinocereus engel-
moni i , 91
Ehretia elliptica, 1 1 9
Embothrium coccineum,
32
Epiphyllum oxypetal
um, 90
Episcia cupreota, 1 40
Eranthemum pulchel
lum, 1 44
Erblichia odorata, 88
Erica canaliculota,
1 03
Ervatamia divaricate,
1 09
Erythrino poeppigiana,
58
Erythrina variegate
var. orienta/is, 58
Eucalyptus calophyl
la, 96
Eucalyptus erythro
corys, 96
Eucalyptus liciloli a,
96
Euchari s grandi llora,
21
Euphorbia fulgens, 70
Euphorbia mi li i . 70
Euphorbia pulcher-
rima, 70
Fagraea cochi nchi nen
sis, 1 06
Fancy- l eaved cal adi um,
1 1
fi g mari gol d, pi nk, 37
Fi rebush, 32
Fi recracker pl ant, 1 33
Fi respi ke, 1 45
Fi rethorn, narrow
l eaved, 47
Fi rewheel tree, 34
Flame amhersti a, 48
Fl ame fuchsi a, 1 01
Fl ame- of-the- forest,
50
Fl ame tree, 82
Fl ame vi ne, 1 37
Mexi can, 1 52
Fl ami ngo fl ower, 1 2
Fl ami ng vri esi a, 1 4
Fl oss s i l k tree, 8 1
Fl oweri ng mapl e, 77
Flower of lent, 1 00
Four- o' cl ock, 36
Frangi pani , nosegay,
1 1 1
whi te, 1 1 1
Fried egg tree, 88
Fri nged hi bi scus,
78
Fuchsi a, cape, 1 33
fl ame, 1 01
tree, 61
Fuchsia lulgens, 1 01
Galphi mi a glauco, 67
Ganges pri mrose, 1 46
Gansi es, 62
Gardenia jasminoides,
1 48
Gar l i c vi ne, 1 35
Gazanio rigens, 1 52
Gei ger tree, 1 1 9
Gelsemium sempervi-
rens, 1 05
Gerbera iamesonii, 1 53
Gi ant arum, 1 1
Gi ant honeysuckl e, 1 50
Gi ant mi l kweed, 1 1 3
Gi nger, crape, 28
red, 26
shel l , 26
torch, 27
white, 27
yel l ow, 27
Gliricidia sepium, 59
Glorioso superba, 1 6
Gl orybower, bl ue, 1 20
Gl ory bush, 1 00
pi nk, 1 00
Gl ory l i l y, 1 6
Gl ory pea, 55
Gl oxi ni a, 1 40
Gmelino arboreo, 1 23
Gnidio oppositifolia,
92
Gol den coconut, 1 0
Gol den dewdrop, 1 22
Gol den horn, 1 1 3
Gol den rai n tree, 74
Gol den shower, 54
Gooseneck cactus, 90
Gout pl ant, 73
Graptophyllum pictum,
1 45
Grevi llea banksii, 32
Grewio occidental is, 76
Greyio sutherlondii, 75
Guaiacum oficino/e, 64
Guapi ruvu, 63
Gummy aeoni um, 43
Gustovia superba, 94
Hoemonthus multi -
florus, 1 9
Hakeo Iaurino, 32
Hand- fl ower, 84
Hangi ng hel i coni a, 25
Hordenbergia violocea,
59
Harpullia pendula, 74
Harvest brodiaea, 1 5
Hawthorn, Chi nese, 46
Indi an, 47
yeddo, 47
Heath, bl ack- eyed, 1 03
Hedychi um coronarium,
27
Hedychi um flavum, 27
Heliconia sp. 1 , 25
Hel i coni a, hangi ng, 25
Heliconio collinsiona,
25
Heliconia wagneriana,
25
Heral d' s trumpet, 1 08
Heteropteris chryso
phylla, 67
Hi bi scus, Chi nese, 78
fri nged, 78
Hibiscus rosa-sinen
sis, 78
Hibiscus schizopefa-
lus, 78
Hibiscus ti liaceus, 79
Hi l o hol l y, 1 04
Hippeosfrum puni ceum,
1 9
Hoheria sexstyloso, 80
Holmskioldia sangui -
neo, 1 22
Honckenya licilolia, 76
Hondapara, 85
Honeysuckl e, cape, 1 39
gi ant, 1 50
scarl et, 33
spi ky, 33
Horseradi sh tree, 41
Hunter' s robe, 1 2
Hurri cane l i l y, 20
Hylocereus undatus, 91
Hymenosporum fiavum,
45
/bozo riparia, 1 25
Ice rose, 42
l l ang- i l ang, 39
I l i ma, 79
l mmortel l e, mountai n,
58
Indi an shot, 28
Indi an strawberry, 91
lochroma lanceolatum,
1 29
Ipomoea crassicaulis,
1 1 7
Ipomoea horslalliae,
1 1 6
Ipomoea tuberosa, 1 1 6
Ipomoea wolcoffiana,
1 1 7
Iri s, peacock, 22
wal ki ng, 22
Ivory wood, 1 50
l xora coccinea, 1 48
/xora macrothyrsa, 1 48
Jacaranda mimosae-
folia, 1 37
Jacobean l i l y, 21
Jacobinia cornea, 1 45
Jacob' s coat, 71
Jacquemonfia pentan-
tha, 1 1 7
Jade vi ne, 58
Jamai ca rose, 1 00
Jasmi ne, Arabi an, 1 05
confederate, 1 07
crape, 1 09
orange, 65
pri mrose, 1 05
Jasmi num mesnyi, 1 05
1 57
Josminum .omhoc, 1 05
Jatropha i ntegerrima,
72
Jatropha multifida, 72
Jatropha podagrica, 73
Jerusal em thorn, 60
Jessami ne, Carol i na
yel l ow, 1 05
ni ght, 1 26
purpl e, 1 26
Jewel vi ne, 57
Kaempferia roscoeana,
28
Kafi r l i l y, 19
Kahi l i fl ower, 32
Kalanchoe flammea, 43
Kigelia pi nnate, 1 36
Ki ng protea, 33
Ki ng' s crown, 1 45
Kniphofia uvario, 1 7
Koelreutario formo
sana, 74
Kohleria bogotensis,
1 41
Laburnum. East Afri
can, 53
lady- of-the-ni ght, 1 26
Lagerstroemia indica,
93
lagerstroemia speciosa.
93
Lampranthus glomera-
Ius, 37
lancepod, 56
Lapageria rosea, 1 6
Laurel , Vi ctori an, 44
leadwort, cape, 1 04
red, 1 04
Leonotis /eonurus, 1 24
Leptospermum scopari
um, 98
Leucophyllum frutes-
cens, 1 33
li fe pl ant, 43
li gnum vi tae, 64
Li l ac, Cal i forni a, 75
summer, 1 06
li l y, Afri can, 1 5
Amazon, 21
Barbados, 1 9
bl ackberry, 22
blood, 1 9
bugl e, 22
gl ory, 1 6
Guernsey, 1 8
hurri cane, 20
Jacobean, 21
Kafir, 1 9
mi l k-and-wi ne, 1 8
rai n, 1 9
1 58
torch, 1 7
L i on' s ear, 1 24
l i ttl e bl ue hat, 1 1 7
lobster cl aw, 25
Lonchocarpus sericeus,
56
long John, 35
Loni cera hi ldebran
diana, 1 50
L uehea speciosa, 76
L ycoris aurea, 20
Macleaya cordata, 40
Madagascar peri wi nkl e,
1 09
Madagascar rubber
vi ne, 1 1 3
Madre d e cacao, 59
Maga, 77
Magnolia grandiflora,
39
Mahoe, 79
Mahogany, cape, 66
Mal ay appl e, 99
Malvaviscus arboreus,
80
Mangrove trumpet tree,
1 35
Manuka tea tree, 98
Mapl e, fl oweri ng, 77
Marice, 22
Marmal ade bush, 1 32
Marriage vi ne, 1 31
Mati l i ja poppy, 40
Maypol e, 65
Medini lla magnifico,
1 01
'
Megaskepasma erythro
chlamys, 1 43
Melaleuca qui nquener
via, 98
Melaleuca thymifolia,
98
Melia azedarach, 66
Membri l l o, 94
Merr i l l pal m, 1 0
Mescal bean, 61
Metrosideros excel sa,
99
Mexi can bush sage, 1 25
Mexi can fl ame vi ne, 1 52
Mexi can snowbal l , 42
Mi l k- and- wi ne l i l y, 1 8
Mi l kweed, giant, 1 1 3
Mi l kwort, dal mai s, 68
Mi ntbush, oval l eaf,
1 24
Mirabilis jalapa, 36
Monodora myristica, 39
Monstera deliciosa, 1 2
Montanoa hibiscifolia,
1 51
Montezuma speciosissi-
mum, 77
Moonfl ower, 1 25
Moraea pavonia, 22
Moreton bay chestnut,
55
Moringa oleifera, 41
Morni ng- gl ory, bush,
1 1 7
tree, 1 1 7
wool l y, 1 1 5
Moth orchi d, 30
Mountai n i mmortel l e,
58
Mountai n rose, 50
Murraya paniculata, 65
Musa velutina, 24
Mussaenda erythrophyl-
la, 1 48
Mutisia clematis, 1 53
Myrtl e, downy, 99
thyme honey, 98
Myrtl e heath, 96
Natal bottl ebrush, 75
Needl e- fl ower, 1 48
Neomarica caerulea, 22
Nerine sarniensis, 1 8
Nerium oleander, 1 1 0
New South Wal es
Chri stmas bush, 45
New Zeal and Chri stmas
tree, 99
Nicolai elatior, 27
Nicotiana tomeotosa,
1 29
-
Nierembergia hippoma
nica, 1 30
Nierembergia repens,
1 30
Ni ght- bl oomi ng cereus,
91
Ni ght j essami ne, 1 26
Ni ghtshade, Brazi l i an,
1 32
Nosegay frangi pani ,
1 1 1
Nutmeg, cal abash, 39
Nymphaea capensis, 38
Nymphaea rubra, 38
Ochna, cherry red, 85
Ochna mechowiana, 85
Odontogl ossum, 31
Odontonema strictum,
1 45
Ol eander, 1 1 0
yel l ow, 1 1 0
Oncoba spinosa, 88
Orange jasmine, 65
Orchi d, moth, 30
Orchi d tree, purpl e, 50
Osbeckia slellala, 1 01
Otago ri bbonwood, 80
Our Lord's candl e, 1 7
Oval l eaf mi ntbush, 1 24
Pagoda fl ower, 1 20
Pal ay rubber vi ne, 1 1 3
Pal m, fi shtai l , 1 0
Merri l l , 1 0
wi ne, 1 0
Pondorea iasminoides,
1 37
Paphi opedi l um, 31
Paradise poi nci ana, 52
Parkinsonia aculeata,
60
Passif/ora caerulea, 89
Passiflora coccinea, 89
Passil/ora racemose, 89
Passi on fl ower, 89
Pavonia multiflora, 80
Peacock iris, 22
Peacock pl ant, 28
Peltophorum pferocar-
pum, 60
Pepper, Brazi l ian, 74
Pepper tree, 7 4
Peregri na, 72
Pereskia grandiflora,
90
Periwi nkl e, Madagas
car, 1 09
Petrea volubilis, 1 23
Phaecranthus buccina-
torius, 1 36
Phaius, 31
Phalaenopsis, 30
Phi l i
p
pi ne vi ol et, 1 43
Photmia serrulata, 46
Phygelius capensis, 1 33
Pi g' s ear, 43
Pimelea ferrugineo, 92
Pi nk-and-whi te shower,
54
Pi nk bal l , 83
Pink fi g mari gol d, 37
Pi nk gl ory bush, 1 00
Pi nk trumpet tree, 1 39
Pi nk vel vet banana, 24
Pitcairnia maidifolia,
1 3
Pi tch appl e, 86
Pitchberry, 44
Pittosporum hetero-
phyl/um, 44
Pittosporum unculatum,
44
Pl antai n, wi l d, 25
Plumbago capensis, 1 04
Plumbago indica, 1 04
Pl ume poppy, 40
Plumeria alba, 1 1 1
Plumeria oblusa, 1 1 1
Plumeria rubra, 1 1 1
Poinciana gilliesii,
52
Poi nci ana, paradise, 52
Poinciana pu/cherrima,
52
Poi nciana, royal , 5
Poi nsettia, 70
Polianthes tuberosa, 20
Polygala dolmaisiana,
68
Pomegranate, 93
Pop
p
y, mati l i ja, 40
pl ume, 40
prickl y, 40
Porana paniculata, 1 1 5
Portea petropolitana,
1 4
Posoqueria /atifolia,
1 48
Potato tree, 1 31
Pri ckl y poppy, 40
Pri mrose, Ganges, 1 46
Pri mrose j asmi ne, 1 05
Pri nce' s vi ne, 1 1 6
Prostanthera ovali-
folia, 1 24
Proteo cynaroices, 33
Prolea mellifera, 33
Pseuderanthemum
reficulatum, 1 42
Pseudocalymma allia
ceum, 1 35
Pterospermum acerifo-
lium, 83
Puncture vi ne, 64
Punica granatum, 93
Purpl e al l amanda, 1 08
Purpl e j essami ne, 1 26
Purpl e orchid tree, 50
Purpl e sarsapari l l a,
59
Purpl e si mpoh, 85
Purpl e tobacco, 1 29
Pyracantha angusti-
folia, 47
Pyroslegia' ignea, 1 37
Queen's crape myrtle,
93
Queensl and umbrel l a
tree, 1 02
Queen' s wreath, 1 23
Quisqualis indica, 95
Rai n l i ly, 1 9
Rangoon creeper, 95
Raphidophoro aurea, 1 2
Raphiolepis indica, 47
Raphiolepis umbel/ala,
47
Red bauhi ni a, 50
Red Bengal water l i l y,
38
Red-fl ag bush, 1 48
Red gi nger, 26
Red l eadwort, 1 04
Red
p
owderpuf, 53
Rhododendron japoni-
cum, 1 03
Rhococencron iavani
cum, 1 03
Rhodomyrtus tomen-
tosa, 9
Ricefl ower, 92
Ri ce-paper pl ant, 1 02
Ricinus communis, 73
Romneya coulteri, 40
Rondeletia odorala, 48
Rose cactus, 90
Rosemound, 83
Royal poi nci ana, 57
Ro
y
al water l i l y, 38
Ru

ber vi ne, Madagas-


car, 1 1 3
Ruellia macrophyl/a,
1 46
Ruprechtia coriacea,
35
Russelia equisetilor
mis, 1 33
Sabinea carina/is, 63
Sage, bl ue, 1 44
downy, 1 25
Mexi can bush, 1 25
Sage rose, 88
Saintpaulia ionantha,
1 41
St. Thomas tree, 50
Salvia leucantha, 1 25
Salvia sessei, 1 25
Sanchezi a, 1 46
Sanchezia nobilis, 1 46
Sangre de toro, 35
Sangui nea, 1 43
San Mi guel , 1 00
Sapupi ra, 5
Sarabatucu, 67
Saraca indica, 61
Sarita, 1 38
Saritoeo magnifica,
1 38
Sausage tree, 1 36
Scarl et datura, 1 28
Scarl et honeysuckl e, 33
Scarl et i xora, 1 48
Scarl et pai ntbrush, 42
Scarl et pl ume, 70
Scarl et ruel l i a, 1 4
Schellera actinophyl-
la, 1 02
Schinus molle, 74
1 59
Schinus terebinthi
folius, 74
Schizolobium parahyba,
63
Schotia brachypeta/a,
6 1
Sea urchi n, 32
Securidaca diversi
fo/ia, 68
Securidaca longepedun-
culata, 68
Seem tree, 1 34
Senecio confusus, 1 52
Senecio tamoides, 1 52
Shavi ngbrush tree, 81
Shower-of- gol d, 67
Shower-of- orchi ds, 1 2 1
Showy bottl ebrush, 96
Showy combretum, 95
Shri mp pl ant, 1 44
Sida fa/lax, 79
Si l k cotton, red, 81
Si l k tree, 49
Si l verl eaf, Texas, 1 33
Si l verl eof cotoneaster,
46
Si ncl ai r' s ophel andro,
1 42
Sinningia speciosa, 1 40
Sky vi ne, 1 47
Snapdragon tree, 1 23
Solandra ni tida, 1 30
So/anum macronfhvm,
1 3 1
Solanum seoforfhi
anum, 1 32
Solanum wendlandii,
1 31
Sophora secunciflora,
6 1
Sour fi g, 37
Spafhelia simplex, 65
Spafhodea campanula-
ta, 1 38
Spi derfl ower, 41
Sprekelia formosissi-
ma, 21
Stapelia giganfea, 1 1 4
Starfl ower, 76
Sfenocarpus sinuatus,
34
Stenolobium stans, 1 38
Stephanotis floribunda,
1 1 4
Sterculia foetida, 82
Stigmaphyllon cilia
tum, 67
Streli tzia reginae, 24
Strepfosolen ;amesoni,
1 32
Strongy/odon macro
botrys, 58
1 60
Sugar bush, 33
Summer l i l ac, 1 06
Sutherlandia frufes-
cens, 62
Swoinsonia golegi-
fo/ia, 62
Sweet rondel eti a, 1 48
Sweetshade, 45
Syzygi um malaccense,
99
Tabebuia argenfea, 1 39
Tabebuia pentaphyl/a,
1 39
Tocco chanfrieri, 21
Tasmani an Chri stmas
bush, 44
Tavaresia grondi
flora, 1 1 3
T ecomoria capensis,
1 39
T ecomella undulafa,
1 34
Telopea speciosissima,
34
Tembusu, 1 06
Tetropanox papyrife-
rum, 1 02
Texas ol i ve, 1 1 9
Thevefia peruviana, 1 1 0
Thunbergia a/ala, 1 47
Thunbergia erecfa,
1 47
Thunbergia grandi-
f/ora, 1 47
Thyme honey myrtl e, 98
Ti, 1 6
Tibouchina granulosa,
1 00
Tibouchina sellowiana,
1 00
Tibouchina Urvilleana,
1 00
Tiger fl ower, 22
Tigridia pavonia, 22
TU/andsia cyaneo, 1 4
Ti pa, 62
Tipuana fipu, 62
Tobacco, downy, 1 29
purpl e, 1 29
Trochelospermum ias-
mi noides, 1 07
Transvaal dai sy, 1 53
Treasure fl ower, 1 52
Tree dai sy, 1 51
Tree morni ng- gl ory, 1 1 7
Tribulus cisfoides, 64
T richilia emefica, 66
Trimezo martinicensis,
22
T riplaris melaenoden
dron, 35
Trumpet ochi menes, 1 41
Trumpet tree, man
grove, 1 35
pi nk, 1 39
s i l ver, 1 39
Tube fl ower, 1 21
Tuberose, 20
Tul i p tree, Afri can,
1 38
Tul i pwood, 74
Turkscap, 80
Turnera ulmi folia, 88
Umbrel l a tree, Queens
l and, 1 02
Vanda, 30
Veitchia merrilli, 1 0
Vera, 64
Victoria amazonica, 38
Vi ol et, Afri can, 1 41
Phi l i ppi ne, 1 43
tree, 68
Vi ol et i vy, 1 1 8
V riesia splendens, 1 4
Wai t- a- bi t, 52
Wal ki ng iris, 22
Waratah, 34
Warscewiczia coccinea,
1 50
Water l i l y, cape bl ue,
38
red Bengal , 38
royal , 38
Wafsonia meriana, 22
Wedelia tri/obata, 1 53
Whi p tree, 76
Whi te bl adder-fl ower,
1 1 2
Whi te cup, 1 30
Whi te frangi pani , 1 1 1
Whi te gi nger, 27
Wigondia corascana,
1 1 8
Wi l d pl antai n, 25
Wi ntersweet, 1 07
Woman' s tongue, 49
Wood rose, 1 1 6
Wormia exce/sa, 85
Wri nkl ed gni di a, 92
Yedda hawthorn, 47
Yel l ow el der, 1 38
Yel l ow ol eander, 1 1 0
Yel l owvei n bush, 1 42
Yesterday, today, and
tomorrow, 1 26
Yucca whipplei, 1 7
Zephyranfhes grand i
f/ora, 19
BCD
EXOTI C P LANTS
A GOLDEN NATURE GUIDE
JULIA MORTON, Research Scientist i n Biology a nd Di rector of
the Morton Col l ectanea, Uni versity of Mi ami , Coral Gables,
Fl ori da, i s an i nternational l y known authori ty on ornamental
and other economi c pl ants. She has written books, numerous
arti cl es i n horticul tural and botani cal j ournal s, and weekl y gar
deni ng col umns for the Miami News. I n her fi el d work and
t ravels, s he has photographed hundreds of pl ants i n t he wi l d
as wel l as i n the world' s l eadi ng botani cal gardens. Many of
her col or sl i des have aided the artists i n i l l ustrati ng thi s book.
RI CHARD EVANS YOUNGER, an i nternati onal l y known wi l dl i fe
artist, provided t he i l l ustrations for approxi matel y t hree
quarters of this book. Hi s i l l ustrati ons have appeared in many
nati onal magazi nes and ot her publ ications. Sy and Dorothea
Barlowe are responsi bl e for the i l l ustrations on the fol lowi ng
pages: 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 52, 53, 56, 57, 60, 6 1 , 62, 63,
64, 65, 68, 69, 74, 75, 76, 77, 84, 85, 1 04, 1 05, 1 1 2, 1 1 3, 1 24,
1 25, 1 36, 1 37, 1 52, 1 53. El mer Smith i l l ustrated the orchids on
pages 30 and 3 1 , and Edith Si nger provided i l l ustrati ons for a
number of i ndi vidual species i denti fied by t he letter "S" next
to the i l l ustrati on.
HERBERT S. ZI M, Ph. D. , Sc. D. , an ori gi nator and farmer edi tor
of the Gol den Gui de Series, was al so an aut hor far many
years. Aut hor of some ni nety books and edi tor of about as
many, he is now Adj unct Professor at the University of Miami
and Educational Consul tant Ia t he American Fri ends Service
Commi ttee and other organi zati ons. He works on educati onal ,
popul ati on a nd envi ronmental probl ems.
VERA R. WEBSTER, managi ng edi tor of science publ i cati ons for
Gol den Press, has taught sci ence at al l educati onal l evels. Pri or
to her associ ati on with Golden Press she was Head of t he El e
mentary Science Department and Nati onal Sci ence Consul tant
for Harcourt Brace Jovanovi ch, I nc.
GOL DE N P R E SS NE W YOR K
EXOTI C PLANTS is a gui de to the showy ornamental
pl ants found i n gardens i n tropi cal and subtropi cal
regi ons, or in greenhouses in cool er zones Here are
the outstandi ng pl ants that attract attenti on because
of thei r col orful fl owers, conspi cuous fol i age, or
decorati ve fru it. More than 380 speci es, pri zed mem
bers of 83 fami l i es, are i l l ustrated i n ful l col or.