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are trademarks of Western Publishing Company, Inc.
Zoo ANImAIN
BY
DONALD F. HOFFMEISTER
Di rector, Not ur al Hi story Mus eum

an d Pr ofessor of Zool ogy, Un i versi ty of
Under the ed i tors hi p of
HERBERT S. ZIM and GEORGE S. FI CHTER
You ng
Asi an
El ephant
I l l ustrated by
ARTHUR SI NGER
A GOLDEN NATURE GUIDE
LLW FK W YLKK
YOsfOrn |ubshng Lompony, |nc.
1NM
In the mid-1960's, the world had at least 440 zoos
including about 1 20 in the U.S. and 1 75 in Europe. New
zoos are being built, and in total they attract many
millions of visitors annually.
Thanks are due many individuals for their aid in pre
paring this book. James H. Amon, Ronald Blakely, Roger
Conant, Lee Crandall, Gene Hartz, Harry Henriksen,
S. C. Kendeigh, Ray Pawley, George Pournelle, Henry
Saunders, and Hobart M. Smith were especially helpful.
Special thanks are due Arthur Singer for his excellent
illustrations.
D.F.H.
MLTL LKL1T:
Bethlehem Steel, Z; Brookfeld Zoo, Chi cago, (bottom), (bottom),
(top r i ght); Bul l erman, Mi l waukee County Zoo, (top), 1 (bottom
ri ght); George S. Fi chter, (middle), (top); lincoln Park Zoo, Chi cago,
(top); Monkmeyer Press Photo Servi ce, (bottom); Arthur Si nger,
(bottom), (bottom left); Fred J. Zeehandel aar, (top); H. S. Zi m. 1
(top l eft).
Copyri ght by Western Publ i shi ng Company, I nc. Al l ri ghts reserved,
i ncl udi ng ri ghts of reproducti on and use in any form or by any means, i n
el udi ng the making of copi es by any photo process, or by any el ectroni c or
mechani cal devi ce, printed or written or oral , or recordi ng for sound or
vi sual reproducti on or for use in any knowl edge retri eval system or device,
unl ess permi ssi on i n writi ng i s obtai ned from the copyri ght propri etor. Pro
duced i n the U.S.A. by Western Publ i shi ng Company, Inc. Published by
Gol den Press, New York, N.Y. L i brary of Congress Catal og Card Number:
-71Z
L111
I NTRODUCI NG ZOOS .. ............ . .. . .. . .. .. . .... . . .. 4
MAMMALS --------------------------------------------------- 14
Monotremes . . . . ...... .... .. .. . . . . . .. ..... . .......... . ... . . . 14
Mar su pi al s . . ...... . ..... .. ... . ..... . .. .. .... . ...... . ...... 15
Pl acenta I s ... .. .......... . .... .. . . ... .. .... . . .. ..... . . ...... 19
Pr i mates .... . . . .. ... .. . ....... .. ...... . ..... . ... . ... . . . ..... 19
Car ni vores ..... . .... .. . . ..... .. ........... . . ... . . ..... ...... 36
Rodents . ... . .. .. ....... . . . .. . .... . .... . ..... .. ............... 56
Si mpl e-toot hed Mammal s . ... .. . . .. . ......... ...... 63
Even-toed (Arti odactyl ) . ......... . ... .. . . .. .. .. ... . 64
Hyrax...................................... ................... 94
Odd-toed ( Peri ssodactyl ) ........................... 94
El ephants --------------------------------- 100
BI RDS ------------------ 102
F l i ghtl ess -------------------------------------------- 103
Pengu i n s ---------------------------------------- 105
Fi sh-eaters ------------------------------
-
--

- 106
Waders ------------------------------------------------ - ------ 107
Swans, Geese, an d Ducks ........ .. .. . . . ..... . .... 110
Bi r ds of Prey .. .. .. .. . .. . . . .. ..... .. ......... ...... .... . .... 113
Fowl
-
l i ke ----------------------------------------------- 116
Cranes ------------------ 118
Shor ebi r ds --- ----------- 119
Pi geons an d Doves .. .. .. .. .. ... . . .. ... . ..... . . .... . .... 120
Turacos --- --- 121
Parrots an d Al l i es . ....... . . . ..... ... .. .... .... ...... . . 122
Frogmout hs ---------------- ---- 126
Owl s ---------------------------- 126
Trogons ...................................................... 127
Hu mmi n gbi r ds - ------------- 127
Ki ngfsher s an d Al l ies - - 128
Woodpeckers an d Al l i es -- 129
Perc hi ng Bi r ds-------------------------------- ------- 130
REPTI LES AND AMPHI BI ANS ------------------------- 135
Crocodi l i ans ----------------------------------- 136
Turt l es . . ... . .. ....... . ... .. . .... .. . ..... .. .. ... .. . . ... ... . ..... 138
li zard s.......................................................... 141
Snakes ...... . . .. ... . ... ... . ...... ... ........ .. .. .. . ........ . . . .. 144
Frogs an d Toads.......................................... 152
Sal amanders -- ---------------- 153
NEAR-MAXI MUM AGES .. ........... . ............ . .. .. 154
SCI ENTI FI C NAMES --------------------------------- 155
I NDEX ---------------------------------- ------------ 158
111ML11 >
Zoos are maintained for the education and enjoyment
of visitors and for scientifc work with animals. Many of
the animals are from parts of the world where the visi
tors are not likely to travel. Zoos exhibit such well-known
animals as lions, bears, and monkeys; many also include
interesting local animals. In modern zoos, animals are
kept in habitat settings that are as nearly natural as
possible. Zoos serve an important function as sanctuaries
for rare, wild animals.
Working behind the scenes in most zoos are zoolo
gists, veterinarians, medical doctors, and other scientists.
They study breeding and reproduction, nutrition, physi
ology, behavior, diseases, and special housing.
WI LD ANI MALS have pr obabl y
been kept i n capti vi ty t hrough
al l hi story. The ol dest zoos on
record were i n Egypt i n 1 400
B. C. an d Chi na in 1 1 00 B. C. The
l arge col l ect i ons of t he Romans
i ncl uded l i ons, t i gers, and ot her
feroci ous beasts t hat were pi tted
agai nst gl adi ators. Many ear l y
r ul er s kept pr i vate menageri es of
4
i nterest i ng or u n us ual an i mal s
mai nl y for per s onal enjoyment .
Publ ic zoos wer e establ i shed i n
Pari s, Fr ance, i n 1 793. Ol dest i n
t he U. S. , t he Phi l adel phi a Zoo,
was started i n 185Y, opened i n
1 874. Zoos i n Peki ng, Chi na,
Bronx, N. Y. , and San Di ego,
Cal i f. are among l ar gest. Near l y
al l bi g ci t i es now have zoos.
From quar ant i ne cor r al in Kenya, c rated gi rafes travel to N. Y.
ZOO ANI MALS are obtai ned i n
a vari ety of ways. A cent ury ago,
expedi ti ons to far-of pl aces were
common. These have been l arge
l y repl aced by purchases from
profess i onal col l ectors and by
exchanges, t r ades, or pu rchases
from other zoos, or from for ei gn
wi l dl i fe and game depart ments.
Professi onal ani mal deal er s are
ski l l ed at capt ur i ng an i mal s
safel y and i n car i ng for t hem
pr oper l y d u ri ng t he qu arant i ne
per i od before they ar e s hi pped.
They know how 1o condi ti on an i
mal s to t hei r new di et in capti v
ity and how to s hi p them, often
by ai r, for safe a rr i val .
There a re man y ways to cap
t ur e an i mal s. Bi r ds and porpoi ses
o re netted . Some bi rds can be
caught by usi ng o l ong pol e wi t h
a st i cky materi al ot t he t i p to
entangl e t hem. A sol vent removes
t he sti cky substance from t he
feathers. Traps, s nares, an d cor
r al s are used t o capt ur e mam
mal s. Speci al g u ns t hat s hoot a
non- l et hal dose of a t ran qui l
i zi ng or par al yzi ng d r ug a re t he
most efecti ve and al so t he most
humane method u sed t oday.
Many zoo an i mal s ar e bor n i n
capti vi ty. These zoo- r ear ed an i
mal s represent generati ons t hat
have known n o l i fe i n t he wi l d.
Seal s ar e s hi pped by ai r f r om one zoo to an ot her .
Baby Macaque is spoon fed in n u rsery.
Rejected "j oey" i s reared i n zoo.
ANI MALS BORN I N THE ZOO
ore gi ven speci al core. They ore
i mporta nt in ma i ntai ni ng the dis
pl oys and or e speci al attracti ons
whi l e they are young. The
gr owth rates of these zoo babi es
are chec ked and recorded regu
l ar l y by the zoo veter i nar i ans.
Many ani mal s wi l l not breed
i n ca pti vi ty; other s wi l l do so
onl y under control l ed condi ti ons
or di ets. Pens ar e often provi ded
for expectant femal es. If the
mother does not care for her
young or rej ects t hem, the i n.
fonts may be removed . Many
newborn an i mal s , especi al l y
those of some of the pr i mates
and cots, are pl aced i n i ncu
bators much l i ke t hos e us ed i n
hospital s . Others are put i n a
n u rsery wher e the temperature
and humi di ty a re control l ed.
They ar e watched caref ul l y and
or e f ed s peci al di ets.
For mul as for i nf ant an i mal s i n
the zoo nur seri es i nc l ude pow
dered or eva porated mi l k, sugar
syr u p, mu l t i pl e-vi tami ns, and
ant i bi oti cs. The young must be
f ed at freq uent i nterval s ni ght
and day. As t he baby a ni mal
grows, i t s for mul a i s g radual l y
changed unt i l fi nal l y it is abl e to
eat adu l t foods.
Bi rds i n a zoo may mate, nest,
t hen l ay eggs and hatch them. I f
ferti l e eggs are negl ected, s ome
may be hatched i n i ncu bators.
Eggs of snakes, t urtl es, and l i z
ar ds may al so be hatched in i n
cu bators i n whi ch t he humi di ty
i s kept hi gh.
Newbor n Col l ared Peccary i s f ed b)
bottl e whi l e sti l l i n t he i nc u bator.
ZOOS CONSERVE RARE ANI
MALS, and some kinds live today
only because they have been pre
served in breeding groups. Among
these animals are Pere David's Deer,
Wisent, Arabian Oryx, White
tailed Gnu, Blesbok, and Prze
walski's Horse. Other animals that
are nearly extinct in their native
lands may be saved if zoos are
successful in breeding them. The
Gorilla, Pigmy Hippo, various le
murs, White and Indian rhinoc
eroses, the Galapagos Tortoise,
Whooping Crane, Trumpeter Swan,
and Nene are among species in
danger of extinction as their natural
environments are being destroyed.
To assure thdr survival, zoos de
velop special areas where these
animals can breed and rear of
spring. On the list of rare and en
dangered animals that need pro
tection are several hundred species.
Tr umpeter Swan

DI SPLAYS in modern zoos create as nearly as possible


the natural environment in which an animal or grou
p
of
animals is found. In some displays, the animals appear
to be living together but are actually separated by
moats or by concealed fences. Many animals, however,
are compatible and can be kept safely in the same
enclosure. These include such African waterhole species
as zebras, ostriches, and elands; emus, wallabies, and
kangaroos from the Australian plains; rheas, guanacos,
and cavies from the South American plains. Groups of
monkeys, usually baboons or macaques and sometimes
other primates, are commonly kept on a rocky island
in a pond large enough to prevent their escape. Males
often fght, and it may be necessary to remove all but
one to keep peace.
Flight cages for birds may be indoors or outdoors
but are large enough for trees and for pools of water.
In them, birds can fly, court, nest . and rear their young.
Small delicate animals are usually kept in special
buildings in which the temperature, humidity, and light
can be controlled. Here desert animals can be exhibited
in the coldest weather or penguins when it is hottest.
I n many zoos, moas separate peo
pl e and an i mal s . for each ki nd of
an i mal the d epth and wi dth of the
moat i s specific, dependi ng an the
8
ani mal 's abi l i ty to j ump. The moat
may be dry or fi l l ed wi th wat er.
Shown here are t hr ee ki nds of moats
for di ferent ki nds of an i mal s .


El ephants, r hi nos, an d at her Asi an
ani mal s s har e s ame zoo exhi bi t.
Pol ar Bears and Stel l ar Sea Li ons
occupy adj oi ni ng spaces.
Some hummingbirds and many amphibians and reptiles
require air-conditioned quarters. Aquatic animals, such
as penguins and seals, are displayed most efectively
with viewing areas above and below surface of water.
Pen gui n s swi m in Bronx Zoo' s
encl osed, ai r-con di ti oned pool .
Fennec Fox and ot her noct ur nal s
are di s pl ayed i n di m r ed l i ghts.

FOODS AND DIETS of zoo animals are so varied that


a zoo's "kitchen" must be well stocked. Staples include
fresh fruits, vegetables, grains, hay, bean and nut oils,
sunfower seeds, horse meat, and milk, plus the vitamins
and minerals added to nearly all diets. Without ade
quate and balanced diets (some must be accurately
proportioned and weighed) , zoo animals will neither
thrive nor breed and also become susceptible to diseases.
HER B I VORES
al so fed con
centrates of
grai ns, soybean
ail , sal t, vita
mi ns, often as
pel l ets
CARNI VORES
raw meat, with
vitamins and
mineral s
smal l mammal s
f ar birds of prey
and s nakes
horse meat for
l arger carnivores
SPECIAL DIETS must be provi ded
for many zoo a ni mal s.
Amo ng the a nimal s requi ri ng
special di ets (below) a re the
seal s a nd pengui ns that need
f ish. L iz ards and f rogs requi re
meal wo rms, cri ckets, roaches, o r
other l ive i nsects. f l ami ngos,
scarl et ibises, a nd other bi rds
with bri ght pl umage may be
MANY CAGED B IRDS
boi l ed
eggs
vitamins and
mi nerals a
dd
ed
OMNI VORES
" cake mix11
of meal , gra i n,
vitami ns, dry
meat
meal
frui t
kept i n good color i f thei r diets
i ncl ude carrots, beets, o r ot her
foods r i ch i n r ed a nd yel low
pi gments ( carotenoids) . Anteat
ers a re fed a sou py mi x of hard
boi l ed eggs, mi l k, a nd cooked
meat; hummi ngbi rds, a honey o r
sugar sy rup; lori keets, a sweet
ened porri dge. Koal as requi re
eucaly ptus tree l eaves.
MEDI CAL CARE of si ck or i n j u red
ani mal s i s provi ded i n the zoo's
hospi tal , where veteri nar i ans
perfor m operati ons, s et bones,
and c u re di seases. These speci al
ists in ani mal medi ci ne use the
l atest dr ugs an d equi pment.
Newl y acqui red a n i mal s are
hel d i n i sol ati on rooms u nti l i t
can be determi ned t hat they are
free of di sease an d parasites.
Recovery areas give si ck ani mal s
a quiet pl ace to regai n heal th.
A meerkat, cut i n
fght wi th cage com
panions, is a nesthetized
whi l e the wound i s
cl eaned and treated
by veter i nar i an at
Cr andon Park Zoo,
Mi ami .
Mi nor but essenti al procedures
i ncl ude tri mmi ng nai l s, cl aws,
a nd hoofs; removal of a ntl ers;
ond repai r and extracti on of
teeth. Ani mal s were once hel d
quiet i n squeeze cages. Nearl y
al l zoos n ow use t ranqui l i zer
dr ugs that can be i njected from
a distance with a gun . I n thi s
way even the l argest and most
danger ous an i mal s can be given
medi cal attenti on wi thout dan
ger to ani mal s or attendants.
Veter i nar i ans an d
members of staf
at Chicago' s
Brookfel d Zoo
operate on an a nes
theti zed Reti cul ated
Python, to remove a
tumor from its stomach
regi on.
Chi l dren ore treated to a r i de in a
decorated goat car t at t he zoo i n
Mexi co City.
CHI LDREN' S ZOOS ore one of
t he most i mportant ports of most
zoos. I n these speci al l y desi gned
areas, you ng peopl e con o p
preach and even handl e many
ani mal s, bot h wi l d and domesti c.
Here they con see sheep, c hi ck
ens, d ucks, geese, pi gs, ponies,
and other f or m ani mal s, too.
They con watch cows bei ng
mi l ked, sheep shorn, an d eggs
hatchi ng. Wi th a keeper' s g ui d
on ce, chi l dr en may al so handl e
Ducks and gees e l i ve i n OD open
pond al most wi t hi n r eac h at
Br onx Zoo. Chi l dren feed t hem.
At t he zoo i n Mexi co Ci ty,
t rai ned I ndi an El ephants perform
stunts dai l y for vi si tors.
baby l i ons, mon keys, par r ots.
raccoons, and ot her ani mal s. A
r i de on a gi ant tortoi se i s al ways
a t hri l l .
Some zoos have 11shows," i n
el udi ng trai ned ani mal act s . The
feed i ng of such ani mal s as sea
l i ons, the I or ge cots, and some
ki nds of bi rds i s on i nteresti n g
show i n itsel f. Some an i mal s pu t
on performances of t hei r own.
Bear s wi l l cl own, and monkeys
wi l l caper to attract attent i on .
An Al askan Brown Bear c l owns
soberl y for on aud i ence at t he
Mi l waukee County Zoo.
WTWWT1>
Mammals are the only furred animals. They have
mammary glands to provide milk for their young, which
are air-breathing and active when born. Specialized
teeth of several types are set in sockets in the upper and
lower jaws. The 1 5,000 species are diverse in size, ap
pearance, and habits. Of those kept in zoos, many
require special diets and controlled conditions.
MONOTREMES, the most primitive mammals, lay eggs
and have mammary glands without teats. The milk is
secreted onto areas of the skin and hair. Echidnas and
the Platypus live only in the Australian region.
ECHIDNAS, o r Spi ny Anteaters
(1-2 ft. long) , are covered with
spi nes. Toothl ess, they use t hei r
stic ky tongues to entangl e ter
mites and ants. I n captivity they
eat ground meat, chapped eggs
a nd mi l k. A si ngl e egg i s i ncu
bat
e
d i n f emal e's po uc h wher e
newbo rn remai ns u ntil too l arge.
14
PLATYPUSES, sel dom seen but
not uncommo n i n thei r native
Austral ia, are rare i n zoos be
cause of export restri ctio ns. They
have a d uckli ke bi l l , swim wi th
webbed feet, and l ay 1 or 7
eggs in under grou nd nest. Mal es
2 ft. lo ng, wei gh 3 l bs. I n zoos,
eat worms, shrimp, i nsects.
MARSUPIALS, of t he Austral i an regi on, South Ameri ca,
and a few i n North Ameri ca, are mammal s i n whi ch t he
young, very i mmature at bi rth, conti nue to grow and
nurse i n t he femal e's abdomi nal pouch.
WOMBATS (36 i n . ) ar e heavy
bodi ed, s horttai l ed, bu rrowi ng
mar supi al s of Aust ral i a. They
feed on g rass, hay, roots, vege
tabl es, and bar k. Noctu r nal bur
rowers, hence di s pl ay poorl y.
KOALAS ( 28 i n. ; under 30 l bs. )
ar e Austral i an mar s upi al s t hat
feed on t he oi l y, t oug h l eaves of
eucal ypt us t r ees i n whi ch they
l ive. The si ngl e young l ives for 2
mont hs in t he mot her's pouch,
l at er cl i ngs to her back. Near l y
exti nct, Koal as a re found i n onl y
t wo zoos outsi de Aust r al i a.
TASMANI AN DEVI LS (26 i n.) ,
f ound now onl y on t he isl and of
Tasmani a, feed an smal l mam
mal s, frogs, bi rds. Pouch opens
to r ear , as i n some ot her marsu
pi al s and u n l i ke kangaroos.
KANGAROOS AND WALLABI ES are long-footed,
jumping marsupials of Australia and New Guinea. The
largest kangaroo, the Great Gray, measures over 7 ft.
and weighs 200 lbs. Wallabies are smaller kangaroos,
some no larger than rabbits. Some of the heavy-bodied
kangaroos are called wallaroos. Kangaroos of all kinds
have short front legs, long hind legs, and a thick, round
tail that provides support when sitting and a balance
when jumping. In zoos, kangaroos may be fed mink and
monkey chow, hay, vegetables, even fruit. They fre
quently breed and rear young in captivity. The young,
usually one, weighs 1 oz. at birth, lives in pouch until it
grows too large to get in.
16 POUCHED MAMMALS
Br ush-ta i l ed
Rack Wal l aby
RED KANGAROOS, near l y as
l arge as Gr eat Gr ays, ar e excel
l ent j umpers, travel i ng for mi l es
wi th l eaps of 1 0 ft. or more and
at speeds u p to 25 mi l es an hour .
Mal es ar e us ual l y r ed, femal es,
bl u i sh g ray. Reds and Great
Grays frequent l y l i ve together i n
groups cal l ed "mobs. "
ROCK WALLABI ES ar e s mal l
bod i ed, 1 8-28 i n . The padded
sol es and s t i f hai r s on t hei r hi nd
f eet prevent t he ani mal s f r om
s l i ppi ng on r ocks . They eat
grasses, l eaves, and bar k. The
Br ush-tai l ed an d Ri ng-tai l ed ar e
t wo of t he several. speci es.
GREAT GRAY KANGAROOS ( 7
ft. ; 200 l bs. ) ar e someti mes cal l ed
Foresters, for they l i ve i n t he
grassl ands of the open forests of
Austral i a. Mal es, l ar ger t han
femal es, a re "boomers"; t he
young, "j oeys. " When t oo l arge
l O get i nto the pouch, a j oey
i nserts i ts head to n u rse.
RED-NECKED WALLABI ES a re
med i um- si zed-body about 30
i n. ; tai l , 27 i n . They prefer br ush
cou ntry and, u n l i ke t he Red an d
Great Gray kangaroos, r ar el y
vent ur e i nto open g rassl a nds .
I n al most oi l t he s houl der s ar e
reddi sh br own.
POUCHED MAMMALS 17
TREE KANGAROOS (26 i n . ) hop
i nto trees to feed on l eaves. They
use thei r l ang hands for graspi ng
br anches, t hei r tail as a prop.
Dur i ng the day, they usual l y
sl eep or hi de i n trees.
AMERI CAN OPOSSUMS ( 1 8 i n . )
have a l ong, scal y t ai l , l eafi ke
ears, and g raspi ng feet. They
feed on pl ant or ani mal matter,
l i vi ng or dead. To avoi d enemies,
they r un, hi de, or pl ay dead.
WALLAROOS, al so cal l ed Rock
Kangaroos, pr efer g u l l i es and
steep sl opes of rocky country.
Sever al ki nds (to 5 ft. tal l ) ar e
wi del y d istr i buted i n Austral i a.
I n capti vi ty, mal es may fght .
MOUSE OPOSSUMS, about t he
si ze of l ar ge mi ce, a re f ound
from Mexico to South Ameri ca.
They eat i nsects and frui t; i n
capti vi ty, dog food ond mil k.
Femal es l ack pouches.
PLACENTALS are mammals in which the unborn
young, more developed than in monotremes and mar
supials, are nourished directly by the mother through
a special tissue, the placenta.
PRIMATES have a well-developed brain, eyes directed
forward, and, in most, fattened nails on fngers and
toes. Included are apes, monkeys, lemurs, tree shrews,
and tarsiers. The manlike apes have long arms, short
legs, no tail, and no cheek pounches.
GORI LLAS ore t he l argest of
the opes. Mol es may stand over
5 ft. tol l and wei gh more t han
500 l bs . ; femal es or e s mal l er .
Mount ai n-dwel l i ng gor i l l as of
Cent r al Afri ca hove bl ock coots;
l owl and, or coastal , gor i l l as o re
r usty gray. I n capt i vi ty, on adul t
eats 30 to 40 l bs. of f r u i t, vege
t abl es, and meat o day.
ORANGUTANS ar e stocki l y bui l t
apes from tropi cal forests of
Borneo an d Sumatra. Mal es
wei gh about 200 l bs. an d may
devel op fabby cheek pads and
t hroat sacs. Or angs avoi d wal k
i ng. Wi th an ar m spread of
near l y 8 ft. , they swing grace
f ul l y t hr ough t he trees i n whi ch
they bui l d nestl i ke homes. I n
captivity, or angs ar e del i berate,
often i nacti ve. Ol d or angs ( 30
yrs. ) may be mean .
GI BBONS, smal l est (24-30 i n.) of
the apes, spend t hei r t i me hi gh
i n tree. You n g of these l ong
ar med apes cl i ng ti ght l y to t heir
mother's waist a's she swi ngs from
l i mb to l i mb. Whi te- handed Gi b
bons of t he Mal ayan Peni nsul a
f eed on n uts and fr uits. Sia
mangs,. of Su mat ra, i nfate a
t hroat sac to make bar ki ng or
hooti ng sounds, whi ch can be
hear d f or great distances.
CHI MPANZEES, or Chimps, are
tree dwel l ers from tropi cal
Africa. They weigh 130 to 140
l bs. ( rarel y to 190). Chimps can
stand er ect ( 5 ft.), but they
prefer to wal k an al l fours, usi ng
t he kn uckl es on t hei r hands.
Thei r orms extend bel ow thei r
knees even when the a nimal s ar e
standi ng strai ght.
Chi mps ar e good s howmen i n
zoos. They enj oy appl ause, which
they may start themsel ves when
they have fnished a perform
anc. Chi mps al so have temper
tant r ums. Because of their hi gh
i ntel l igence, chimps have been
studi ed intensively. I n their ear l y
l ife t hey seem to l ear n and de
vel op faster t han humans. They
master simpl e skil l s qui ckl y and
al so show some abi l ity to reason.
Both i n the wil d and i n zoos,
chimps are highl y sociabl e.
Adul ts or e often danger ous. Like
al l primates, t hey shoul d have
war m, dry cages with hi gh hu
mi dity. Chi mps r el i sh a var i ety
of fr uits ( appl es, bananas,
g rapes, or anges). vegetabl es
(car rots, l et t uce, cel ery, pota
toes), and cooked meats. Thei r
di et i s not much difer ent from
that of Orangs and Goril l as.
Chimpanzee
APES 21
OLD WORLD MONKEYS i ncl ude macaques, some so
cal l ed apes, baboons, l anguors, and other monkeys of
Afri ca, Asi a, and I ndi a. Many are tai l - l ess; i f they have
a tai l , i t i s not prehensi l e (graspi ng) . The nostri l s are
cl ose together and di rected downward, most speci es
have cal l osi ti es on the buttocks, many have cheek
pouches, and al l have onl y 32 teeth . Bar bary Apes and
some other l arger speci es are kept outdoors i n warm
months; others ar e housed i n gl ass-fronted cages to
prevent t hem from acqui ri ng human- bor ne di seases a nd
to avoi d di srupti ng t hei r normal habi ts.
CELEBES CRESTED APES, or Bl ock
Apes (22 i n . ), ore not t r ue a pes
but cl osel y rel ated to the
macaques. When exci ted, they
erect a t uft of hair on top of the
head. Like macaques, they have
a knobl ike tail and a l ong,
strai ght nose. They are native t o
I sl and of Cel ebes.
BARBARY APE, or Magot (30
i n. ) , a species of macaque, lives
al ong the Bar bary Coast of
Afri ca and on Gibral tar. I n cap
tivity as in the wi l d, they stay in
l arge g roups. Captives stare at
visitors. Some devel op the bad
habit of throwing stones and
spl ashing water.
Bar bary Ape
22 OLD WORLD MONKEYS-MACAQUES
Brown
St ump-tai l ed
Macaque
L MACAQUES
speci es) al l have very short
The 30 i n. Brown Stump
of Sout heast Asia has a red
You n g a re cr adl ed i n the
ar ms, somewhat hi dden by f ur .
RHESUS MONKEYS (22 i n.) ar e
macaques t hat ro-am i n l arge,
noisy, semi organ i zed troops from
I n di a to Chi na and Formosa.
They do wel l i n capti vi ty: breed,
eat nearl y anyt hi ng, wi thsta nd
col d. Rhesus mon keys are used
extensi vel y i n medi cal research.
JAVAN MACAQUES are smal l
(20 i n. ) , easi l y tamed but mis
chi evous, even destr ucti ve. Li ke
most macaques, they usual l y be
come mean with age. Longer
t ai l ed t han most macaques.
Pi g-tai l ed
Macaque
carry t hei r erect or
someti mes cur l ed. Gr oups l i ve i n
dense l owl and forests of South
east Asi a. Somet i mes trai ned to
harvest cocon uts.
OLD WORLD MONKEYS-MACAQU ES 23
De Brazza's
Monkey
DE B RAZZA'S MONKEYS (24 i n . )
ore b ri ght-col ored g uenons wi th
promi nent goatee. De Br ozzo's
Mon keys a re strong j umpers, an d
they use t hei r l ong t ai l as a
bal anci ng organ .
MONA MONKEYS ( 20 i n. ) are
guenons, a group of l ong-tai l ed
tree-dwel l ers of West and Cen
tral Afri ca. Most have bl uish
faces; many have whi te beards.
Travel i n troops hi gh i n trees.
Di spl ayed singl y or in pai rs.
DI ANA MONKEYS ( 1 8 i n . ) are
"white- bi bbed" guenons; they
have a white g oatee. Di anas l ive
in trees an d hi de in the fol i age.
li ke al l g uenons, they make a
vari ety of sou nds, an d caged
adul ts may become mean, espe
ci al l y if not gi ven proper care.
GREEN GUENONS, or Vervets
(22 i n. ) , si mi l ar to Monas, d o
wel l i n capti vi ty. They are active,
agi l e, an d i deal showmen. I n
parts o f East Afri ca, Vervets a re
common i n ci ty parks.
24 OLD WORLD MONKEYS-GUENONS
Mustached
Mon key
Palos
Mon key
MUSTACHED MONKEYS (23 i n .)
have mustache-l i ke marki ngs on
t he u pper l i p. These g uenons are
someti mes cal l ed Bl ue-faced Man
keys. Cheek bear ds ar e espe
ci al l y l ong. They travel i n gr oups
feedi ng on f r uits, l eaves, an d
smal l ani mal s. This West Afri can
speci es l ives in treetops in tropi
cal forests. Captives da wel l .
SPOT-NOSED MONKEYS ( 20 i n . )
are d isti n gu ished by the whi te
spot an the n ose an d the l ack
of a bear d. They l i ve i n t he tree
laps af dense j u ngl es from the
Congo to Li ber i a. They eat the
l eaves, fowers, and f r uits af the
trees i n which they l ive.
PATAS MONKEYS (30 i n . ) a re
reddish wi th a hai ry face an d
whi ti sh chi n whiskers. Unl i ke
most other g uenons, Palos a re
pr i nci pal l y gr ound dwel l ers an d
r un dogl i ke across t he g rassy
pl ai ns of north- central Afri ca.
Thei r habi t of j umpi ng up an d
down resul ted i n t h e name Danc
i ng Mon keys. Others t hought
thei r red-col or ed coals resem
bl ed those of the Hussars.
25
JAVAN LANGURS (24 i n. ) have a l ang, strai ght t ai l an d
a short n ase. Al l l angurs, whi ch l ive i n sout her n Asi a, are
excel l ent cl i mbers an d ar e l eafeaters. I n zoos, t hei r d i et
may i ncl ude soft l eafy vegetabl es and f r uits. Captives are
gener al l y, but nat al ways, i nactive, and they ar e usual l y
shart l i ved . Cages must be l ar ge enough to gi ve them
space for l ea ps of 20 feet or more.
BLACK AND WHI TE GUEREZAS, or Col obus (24 i n . ) , are
l eafeat i ng monkeys of Afri ca. This col orf ul monkey i s
bl ack, wi th a whi te faci al whorl , white ma ntl e, and a
whi te tassel ed tai l . The young are compl etel y bufy.whi te.
Guerezas move through the treetops wi th agi l i ty and are
excel l ent j umpers. They ar e sl ower and mor e awkward on
the gr ound. Guerezas ar e l arge mon keys, some mal es
wei ghi ng mor e t han 20 l bs. I n capti vity, t hese mon keys
usual l y l i ve onl y about 1 year, t hough one has su rvived
mor e tha n 20 years. li ke most ot her mon keys, t he zoo
di et consists of f r u its and vegetabl es; meats ar e refused.
26 OLD WORLD MONKEYS-LANGURS, GUEREZAS
Gray-cheeked
Mangabey
R AY - C H E E K E D (C R E S T E D)
MANGABEY (24 i n. ) is bot h a
t ree a nd gr ound dwel l er. Feeds
most l y on f r uit s, l i ke ot her man
gabeys-al l of eq uatori al Afri ca.
RED-C ROWNE D (WHI TE- COL
LARED) MANGABEYS (36 i n.) are
somet imes cal l ed Cherry Heads
bec ause of t hei r cr own of r ed
hai r. l i ke ot her mangabeys, t hey
have conspic uous seat pads . I n
capt ivit y, t hey need hi gh perches
on whi ch t o cl imb.
MANGABEYS ( 19 i n.)
are not ed for t hei r gent l e di s
posit i on. Thei r nea rl y hai rl ess
face i s quit e exp ressive as t hey
wi nk and bl i nk t hei r whit e eye
l i ds whi l e t hey chatt er. Smack
i ng t hei r l ips may be a n exp res
si on of greet i ng or of p l easure.
27
CHACMA BABOONS (34 i n.) live
in the rocky country of South
Afri ca. Other speci es l ive el se
where i n Afri ca ond northward
i nt o Ar abi a. Al l of these muzzl e
faced monkeys are mai nl y
g round dwel l ers, r unni ng on al l
f ours a nd travel i ng i n wel l -organ
i zed troops. Dri l ls and mandri l ls
are baboons al so. Chacmas are
usual l y displ ayed i n barred or
moot ed cages. Some captives
throw o bjects at vi si tors. Baboons
are hardy and breed and rear
young i n captivity.
GELADA BABOONS (24 i n. ) have
l ong manes, d isti ncti vel y up
t urned muzzl es wi th the n ostri l s
on t he fat upper surface, a con
spi cuous red chest, and white
eyel i ds. Mal es a re much larger
t han t he femal es.
HAMADRYAS BABOONS (28 i n. )
are t he "sacred baboons11 of an
c i ent Egypt and ar e often pi c
lured i n earl y templ es. Mal es, i n
contrast t o femal es and young,
have a heavy mane. Al l can
make l oud, dogl i ke barks.
DRILLS (26 i n .), al most tai l - l ess,
live in t he forests of the Cam
eroons i n West Africa. Sl i ght l y
smal l er and l ess col orful t han
the cl osel y rel ated Mandri l l , t hey
occasional l y climb t r ees and
s l eep t her e at night. The col orful
rear patches of mal es are used
i n attracti ng mates. like t hei r
MANDRILLS ( 29 i n.} a re the
most bizarre of al l mammal s . No
other mammal has a f ace as
brightl y col ored as t he mal e
Mandri l l 's. Deep f urrows l i ne t he
l ong s nout. The head i s l arge,
the tail stubby. Femal es are l ess
brightl y col ored. Mandril l s
usual l y travel i n smal l g roups.
They live mai nl y i n the forests
l ong-tail ed rel atives, Dril l s usual
l y travel i n troops, often consist
i ng of as many as 50 a nimal s.
Thei r growl s and barks are a
means of commu nicati on. Both
the Dril l and t he Mandri l l have
lived to an age of more t han
20 years ( one reportedl y to 46
years) in captivity.
but may at times travel f ar i nto
the open country to fnd t heir
food. I n captivity, the diet of
both the Mandri l l and t he Dril l
is much the some os t hat for
other baboons: fr uits and vege
tabl es, which ar e s uppl emented
with meats to toke the pl ace of
the smal l birds and mammal s
that t hey eat i n t he wi l d.
OLD WORLD MONKEYS-BABOONS 29
NEW WORLD MONKEYS are tree dwel l ers of the
tropics of South and Central Ameri ca ond Neico.
I n contrast to Ol d Worl d monkeys, their nostri l s ar e more
separated and open to the sides rather t han downward.
They l ack cheek pouches and cal l us pads on t he but
tocks, and many have a l ong pr ehensi l e tai l . Except for
mar mosets, they have a f ul l set of 36 teeth . I n gener al ,
t hey do l ess wel l i n zoos.
NI GHT MONKEYS are bu shy
toi l ed, soft-f u rred (13 i n.) mon
keys of centrol and norther n
South Americ a. They a r e cal l ed
Owl Mon keys becouse of tei r
l ar ge eyes and faciol morki ngs
a nd because, u n li ke other mon
keys, they are noc! u rnol. I n dey
ti me, they sl eep i n hol l ow trees.
30 NEW WORL D MONKEYS
WOOLLY MONKEYS, of the Ama
zon Basi n, have "c rew hai rc uts"
on d wool l y f u r. Thei r toi l i s
sli ghtl y l onger t han thei r 25-in.
body. In the dayti me, troops of a
dozen or mor e Wool l y Mon keys
commonl y f eed hi g h in tr ees on
f r ui ts and l eaves, of ten wi th
Capuc hi ns and Howl ers. I n c ap
ti vi ty, of ten i n acti ve, short- li ved.
B rown
Cap uchi n
SPI DER MONKEYS ( 1 8 i n .) hove
a l ong toi l and sli m arms and
l egs . The end of the tai l l acks
hai r . Usi n g a nl y the tai l , they
cli n g to li mbs and pi ck u p ob
j ects. Groups of Spi der Mon keys
move t hr ough treetops wi th great
speed . Several femal es may be
c aged wi th one mol e.
CAPUCHI NS ( 1 2- 1 5 i n .) are the
organ gri n der' s monkey. B ec ause
they coi l thei r l ong tai l in a
ri ng, they are of ten cal l ed Ri ng
toi l ed Monkeys. They live in
troops. Ca puc hi n s or e f asci nati ng
to watc h-but us ual l y are di fcul t
to keep as pet s and event ual l y
become unmanageabl e.
NEW WORL D MONKEYS 3 1
UAKARI S ( wa-car-e) are
bal d, wr i nkl y faced, 21- i n.
zon monkeys wi t h chi n whiskers,
l arge, s u n ken eyes, a short tai l.
One speci es i s red; another,
nearl y white. Unc ommon, shy,
and di fc ul t to keep i n c aptivity.
TI TI MONKEYS (30 i n.) have a
smal l head, l ong wool l y fu r, and
a very l ong prehensi le tai l u sed
i n c l i mbi ng. Del icate and of ten
shy, they do poorl y i n captivity,
u s u al l y l ivi ng onl y a f ew months.
I n the wi l d, eat i nsects, eggs,
bi rds, fru its, and l eaves.
SAKI S are gent l e bu t del icate
and di fc u l t to keep. They re
q u i re warm q u arters an' d
branc hes f or exerc i se to keep
them heal t hy. White-faced Saki s
(22 i n.) i n habi t tropical f orests
of northern South America. Oth
er ki nds are the Monk, White
headed, ond Red-bac ked.
SQUI RREL MONKEYS (two s pe
c i es of tropic al Central an d
South Americ a) ar e s mall (12 i n.)
bu t have a l ong toi l (16. i n.) .
They eat f r uit ond i nsects; i n
c apti vity, eggs and c an ned meat.
Ti ti
.I den
1 rmoset
Mar mosets have
c l aws rather
t han nai l s on al l
except bi g toes.
MARMOSETS ar e sq ui rrel- sized,
l ong-tai l ed monkeys of Central
and South Americ a. They have
hooked c l aws i n stead of nai l s
on al l except t hei r bi g toes. F or
best c are, they s houl d be kept
i n pai rs and provi ded wi th ul t r a
vi ol et l amps and vi tami ns to
suppl ement the l ac k of s uns hi n e.
Gol den Marmosets (9 i n.) are
al so cal l ed li on- headed or Si l ky
Marmosets beca use of the l ong,
si l ky hai r that c overs t hei r head
and shoul ders. They li ve i n t he
tropic al forests of B razil.
Common Marmosets {9 i n.)
have conspic uous ear tufts and a
ri nged tai l. Fat hers often c arry
and care for the 1 to 3 young.
Al l make a vari ety of hi gh
pi tc hed noi ses. Long- li ved and
usual l y doci l e i n capti vi ty.
Pygmy Marmosets (6 i n.) are
the smal l est of al l monkeys; they
wei gh onl y 4\ ou nces. They fre
q uent t he hi gher br anc hes of
tropic al forests of the Upper
Amazon regi on.
33
TREE SHREWS, from I n di a,
l aya, and the Phi li ppi nes, were
ori gi nal l y cl assi fed as sh rews.
These chi pmunk-sized pri mates
wi t h l ong t ai l s , are carni vor ous
i n the wi l d bu t eat f r ui t and
other f oods i n z oos. Several wi l l
live together i n a cage.
TARS I E RS, rat-siz ed, wei gh
5 ou nces. I n the bamboo thi ckets
of the Phi l i ppi nes and East I n
di e, they f eed at ni ght on i n
sects and l izards. Captives dri n k
mi l k; eat l izards, mice, i nsects.
Rare and short- l ived in zoos.
COMMON POTTOS of West
Af ri ca are about the size of
house cats . They l ive i n t rees
where they eat l eaves, frui t, i n
sects, and l izards. Pottos sl eep
du ri ng the day and move as
sl uggi s hl y as sl oths.
34 PRI MI TI V E PRI MATES
GALAGOS, or B ush B abi es ( 10
i n .), are f urry, thi n-eared f orest
dwel l ers of Afri ca. Al l 4 speci es
have l ong, bushy tai l s and are
noctu r nal. They tame readi ly;
eat i nsects, cooked meats. They
can cur l and unc url thei r ears.
Ri ng-toil ed
Lemu r
RI NG-TAI LED LEMURS ( body 30
i n.; toi l 18 i n.) ore one of about
16 speci es of p ri mit ive pr i mates
t hat l ive onl y on Madagascar.
Al l ore squi rrel - l i ke i n habit s,
appearance, and size. Ri ng
toil ed Lemurs are active dur i ng
t he day, do wel l i n capt ivit y,
and ore a pop ul ar zoo speci es.
Young hong ont o t he adult s as
t hey run about t he cage.
MONGOOSE LEMURS and B rown
Lemurs ( body 24 i n.; tai l 12 i n.) -
ore di spl ayed in a few zoos.
T hey move rapi dl y over t hei r
cl i mbi ng perches and around
t he si des of t hei r cage, st ayi ng
of t he foor. L emurs eat vege
t abl es and fruit, rarel y meat.
RUFFED LEMURS ( body 26 i n .;
toil 14 i n.) ore block and whit e
wit h a coll ar or r uf about t h e
neck. On e for m i s r ed and bl ack.
T hi s speci es nor mall y feeds and
moves about at ni ght or i n d usky
l i ght. Rarel y di spl ayed.
SLOW LORI SES, of I ndonesi a
and t he Phi l i ppi nes, are sl ow,
sl uggi sh, 14-i n . tree dwell ers,
act ive at d usk or dar k. They curl
up d uri ng t h e day t o sleep.
F r uit is t hei r mai n zoo food.
i n capt ivit y.
35
CARNIVORES are fesh- eat i ng mammal s wi th speci al
|zed teeth for graspi ng prey and shear i ng fesh . Some
have l ost t he fesh- eati ng habi t. Most ar e strong r unners;
many are good cl i mbers. Bears, raccoons, weasels,
ci vets, hyenas, cats, and dogs are carni vores.
BEARS are fat-footed, al most tai l - l ess. Some feed ex
tensi vel y on frui ts and i nsects. Al l except t he Spectacl ed
Bear of South Ameri ca l i ve i n t he Northern Hemisphere.
POLAR BEARS of norther n snow
and i ce fel ds f eed mostl y on
seal s and fsh; mal es attai n a
wei ght of 1,000 lbs. E xcel l ent
swimmers, they enj oy f rol icki ng
in a pool, summer or wi nter, and
seemi ngl y sufer no more from
heat than do cats or other c aged
animal s. The P ol ar Bear's zoo
diet consists of horse meat, fsh,
and br ead, to whi ch vit ami n
suppl ements are added.

BROWN BEARS have a pro
nou nced h u mp between thei r
shoul ders, l ong cl aws on the
f ront feet, and a hol l ow f ace.
Several ki nds l ive in the north
ern part of North America and
E u rasi a. These i ncl u de the l arg
est carnivorous l and mammal-
8 f t. i n l engt h, 4 ft. hi gh at the
shou l der, and 9 ft. high stand
i ng on thei r hi nd f eet. At bi rt h
t hey are rat -sized and helpl ess.
Grizz l y Bears, sli ght l y smal l er
but ot herwi se si mi l ar to B rown
B ears, l ive f arther south i n
North Ameri ca. B oth ki nds a re
usual l y kept o utdoors in mooted
cages the year a round. Bears
may sl eep f or l ong peri ods i n
wi nter but do not hi ber nate.
Ad u l t bearr may eat 20 l bs. of
meat , bread, and veget abl es a
day. Vi sit ors shoul d never ofer
them food.
B l ack Bear
(t wo col or phas es )
BL ACK BEARS ( about 5 ft . l ong)
are a Nort h Ameri can speci es ,
us ual l y bl ac k i n col or but same
ti mes brown, ci nnamon, or near
ly whit e. Their cl aws are not
especi al l y l ong. B l ack B ears feed
pr i ncipal l y on fr uits, i ns ects ,
s mal l ani mals , and ha ney, but
are omnivorous. D uri ng t he col d
wi nt er mont hs , t hey are oft en
dor mant , ar ousi ng onl y t o eat .
D uri ng t he dor mancy, femal es
gi ve birt h t o cubs , each l ess
t han a pou nd-l ess t han V per
cent of mot her's wei ght .
S UN BEARS (4 ft . l ong) ar e t he
smal l est bears and us uall y wei gh
l ess t han 1 00 l bs . They li ve i n
dens e j ungles of Sout heast Asia.
E xcell ent cli mbers. Crescent on
chest may r es embl e risi ng s u n,
hence name.
SLOTH BEARS (SY2 ft . l ong) are
s l ow- movi n g , s h a g g y-c oat ed
bears of Ceyl on and I n di a. Their
diet i n nat ur e i ncl udes honey,
t er mit es , s ugar cane, rodents .
Excel l ent cli mbers , feed i n trees
as wel l as on gr ound.
cub
Gi a nt
Panda
GI ANT PANDAS l ive i n the dense
bamboo j u n gl es, 5, 000 t o 1 4,000
ft . above sea l evel , i n T i bet and
Chi na. Ad ult s are nearl y 6 ft .
l ong, weigh 200 t o 380 l bs. Cap
t ives are fed bamboo shoot s,
thei r pri nci pal f ood in the wil d,
suppl ement ed with c or n st al ks,
twi gs, and even a por ri dge of
oat s, mil k, an d cod-l iver oil.
Gi ant Pandas a re shown in zoos
i n Ch i na and el sewhere present
l y onl y i n Moscow and i n Lon
don. Gi ant Pandas are now con
si dered cl ose r el at ives of and i n
the s ame famil y as the bears.
RACCOON AND WEASEL FAMILIES include a number
of small mammals kept in zoos. Raccoons, Lesser Pandas,
Kinkajous, and Coatimundis have a long tail (usually
ringed) and are fat-footed. Weasels, skunks, badgers,
otters, and mink have scent glands and luxuriant pelts.
lESSER PANDAS, members of the
raccoon famil y, l ive in f orest s
above 6,000 ft . in the H i mal aya
Mount ai ns. They are the size of
hou se cat s but have a heavi er
t ail and are excell ent cl i mbers.
I n captivity, l esser Pandas ar e
fed bamboo l eaves and a vari et y
of f r u it s and veget abl es.
l esser
Panda
WE ASELS, RACCOONS AND
KI NKAJOUS ( 20 i n.) , mon key-l i ke
rel ati ves of the Raccoon, live in
Cent ral and Sout h Amer ica. I n
capt ivit y, t hey do wel l but can
not withstand col d. The l ong t ai l
i s used as an ext r a hand when
cl i mbi ng i n trees wher e t hey
move about wit h great dext erit y.
They feed on fruits and honey.
Oft en cal l ed Honey B ears.
COATI MUNDI S ( 24 i n.), al so
cal l ed Coati s and Ch u l as, have
l ong, bl ack- ri nged t ai l s. They
move about noi si l y, searchi ng
for worms or gr u bs wit h t hei r
l ong snout . Coat i s t ravel and
feed d ur i ng t he day, oft en i n
groups of 30 or more. They l ive
fr om Sout h Amer ica nort h t o
Ar izona. Oft en part i al l y tamed.
RACCOONS (32 i n.) are f at
foot ed, block- masked, r i ng-t ai l ed
mammal s of the Ameri cas. They
feed on crayfsh, frogs, i nsects,
f r u its, and rodent s. Washi ng
their f ood i n wat er i s not a
necessity, bu t t hey may do so.
Dog food, horse meat , fr uit , and
vit ami ns provi de a sati sfact ory
cage di et. Raccoons often use
hol l ow t rees as dens.
HOG-NOSED SKUNK ( 1 6 i n.) i s
t he l argest skunk i n Nort h Amer
ica. Uses hogl i ke snout to r oot
in grou nd for i nsects. Li ke al l
sku nks, scent i s st ored i n two
gla nds u nder t ai l. St riped Skunks
( 1 3 in.) are common i n meadows
and fence rows. Spott ed Sku nks
(1 0 in.) ar e real l y st riped but
short bands gi v i l l u si on of spot s .
WOLVERI NES ore l arge ( 32 i n.;
35 l bs.) weasel s of North Amer i
con and E u rasi an boreal forests.
T hey kill game of all sizes
squi rrel s to deer. I n capt ivit y one
will consume nearl y 4 l bs. of
meat a day. Lor ge cages per mit
t i ng exerci se are most s uit abl e.
F u r i s used t o l i ne parka hoods,
for it sheds moistur e.
TAYRAS ore t ree cl i mbi ng,
weosell i ke an i mal s of t he Amer
ico n tr opics. Alt hough over 3 ft.
l ong, a third of thi s i s toil. T hey
ore shortl egged and block ex
cept for t he l i ghter col ored head
and neck. Toyros ore act i ve i n
t he dayt i me. They hunt i n trees
for t he small mammal s, birds,
and fr uit on whi ch they feed .
HONEY BADGERS (28 i n.). or
Rot el s, ore fond of honey and
rai d nest s of grounddwell i ng
bees, oft en foll owi ng bi rds call ed
Honeyg ui des to fn d these nests.
Honey Badgers l ive i n Africa and
sout hern Asi a. Among t he several
ot her ki nds of badgers, all short
l egged, fot bodi ed, and excel
l ent di ggers, ore E uropean,
Amer i can, and Sand badgers.
RI VER OTTERS ore f nel y furred,
aquat i c, weosell i ke mammal s .
T hei r body i s streaml ined and
t heir feet webbed . Some otters
ore cl awl ess. E xhi bited speci es
i ncl ude: Ameri can Ri ver Ott er
( about 2V2 ft . l ong) and the
Amazon Fl at-toil ed and Afri can
Gi ant ot ters ( bot h about 5 ft.
l ong). Capt ives eat fsh or horse
meat mi xed wit h vegetabl es. I n
t h e wil d, t he Afri can Gi ant Otter
eat s mai nl y shell fs h.
H oney B adger
Meerkat
BI NTURONGS, l argest af t he
civets, ar e 4Y2 ft . lang, but near
ly half of t hi s l ength is a bushy,
graspi ng tai l u sed i n cl i mbi ng.
T hey l ive i n t he t ropi cal forests
of sout heast er n Asia, and t hey
feed mai nl y on frui t.
CI VETS AND MONGOOSES are slender-muzzled, long
tailed animals of southern Europe, Africa, Asia. Their
scent-gland secretion is used in perfumes.
PALM CI VETS are cat- sized cl i mb
ers of t he forest s of Asi a and
equat orial Africa. Ci vets, l i ke
s ku n ks, can di schar ge a nau seat
i ng f u i d from scent gl ands. All
pal m civet s, i ncl u di ng t he
Masked, do well in zoos.
42 C I VE T S AND MONGOOSE S
MONGOOSES ( 24 i n.) are coarse
hai red ani mal s of E u rasi a and
Afri ca. Good rat ki l l ers, they
have been i ntrod uced for thi s
pu rpose and t hen become pests.
Laws prevent i mpor t to U.S. Re
l ated Meerkat al so banned.
HYENAS are noctur nal , 4-5 ft. , dogl i ke ani mal s wi th
l arge heads, weak hi ndquarters, and a general l y un
gracefu l appearance. The short tai l i s frequent l y carri ed
between the l egs. Hyenas are someti mes cal l ed laughi ng
Hyenas because t hey make a vari ety of noi ses resembl i ng
cri es, cackl es, barks, and l aughs. These scavengers pi ck
over the scraps that remai n after the feasts of ot her
ani mal s, especi al l y of l i ons. They even eat l eftover bones,
usi ng t hei r strong teeth and powerful j aws to crush t he
bones of antel opes and bufal oes.
SPOTTED HYENAS, of Central
and Sout h Afr i ca, hove short ,
rounded ears and dar k spot s
over most of t h e body. Young ore
darker and mor e spott ed. Shy
and ret ir i ng, t hey do not di s
ploy well .
STRI PED HYENAS, f ound from
I ndio t o Nort h Afr i ca, hove a
str iped body and l ong ears.
Br own Hyenas of Sout h Afr i ca,
not oft en shown i n zoos, have
str ipes onl y an l egs and coarse
hai r on body.
H Y E NAS 43
CATS of many di ferent si zes and mar ki ngs occur wor l d
wi de except i n Austral i a. Al l have sharp, sheari ng teeth
and cl aws that retract i nto sheaths (except Cheetahs) .
Cat s ft i nto three groups: l i ons and ot her l ar ge cats
that roar but cannot pur r; smal l er cats ( l ynxes, ocel ots,
and others) that purr; Cheetahs that gi ve bar ki ng howl s
and bi rdl i ke chi rps. I n capti vi ty, cats are fed raw meat
forti fed wi th vi tami ns and mi ner al s.
FUR
PATTERNS
OF CATS
44 CATS
l i on
Ti ger Si beri an Ti ger Leopa rd
LI ONS are among the most i m
pressive car nivorous mammal s
and attract much att enti on i n
zoos. They reach mat u ri ty at 5
or 6 years. Mal es have a mane
that appears at about 1 Y years.
Manes i n zoo a ni mal s may be
bushi er t han t hose i n the wil d
si nce they ar e not t or n by t he
br ush. Nubi an Li ons l ack manes.
L i ons breed readil y in capti v
it y, produci ng cubs wit h spot s
t hat usually di sappear in about
6 mont hs. Li ons begi n to be ol d
at age 10. I n capti vit y, however,
t hey have l ived for more t hao
25 years.
Li ons hunt and travel i n
gr oups call ed pr i des. They l i ve
in much of Afri ca and formerl y
al so from Greece t o I ndi a. Now
onl y a few remai n i n I n dia .
Li ens prefer t he open, grassy
pl ai ns and avoid the dense,
tropical forest s. They prey mai n
l y on hoofed mammal s-zebras,
wil debeests, antel opes, even
bufal oes. I n hu nti ng, they
charge but do not pu rsue l ong
i f t hey fail t o make the kill .
Adult mal es wei gh to 425 l bs.,
one reportedl y over 500. Fe
mal es are small er, wei ghi ng t o
about 250 l bs.
Bengal Ti ger
mal e
TI GERS are the l ar ge cats wi th
pr omi nent, bl ack or brown,
stripes. T hey are common i n
j ungl es of I ndi a and Java, but
range as far as t he s nowy, for
ested mountai ns of Si beri a. Si
beri an T i gers usual l y have pale,
l ong, t hi ck fur. Bengal Ti gers
of the tropi cs have s horter f ur
and bri ghter colors. Mature
mal es usuall y wei gh around 400
l bs. ; a Si beri an T i ger was re
ported Ia reach 650 l bs. l arge
an i mal s are about 3 ft. hi gh at
t he s houl ders.
T i gers us ual l y are sol i tary
hu nters. Very powerf ul , they at
tack an i mal s as l arge as young
el ephants, water bufal oes, and
crocodi l es. Ti ger s are good
swi mmers and enj oy water, ofte.n
enteri ng to cool of. I n captivity,
they do not l ive as l ong as l i ons
nor produce and rear young as
successf ully. Cubs wei gh between
2 to 3 l bs. at bi rth. T hey mature
i n about 4 years. A mal e ti ger
and femal e l i on may produce a
li gon; t he reverse, a l i gon. Such
hybri ds occ ur onl y i n zoos.
LEOPARDS, i nf requent l y cal l ed
Pant hers, are f orest i nhabit ant s
of Asi a and Af ri ca. They ar e not
especi al l y l ar ge cat s, wei ghi ng
bet ween 1 00 an d 200 l bs. , but
are good h u nt ers, usi ng st ealt h
a n d ambush. Us ual l y t hey hunt
at ni ght . The col or is vari abl e,
but most commonl y L eopards are
yel l owi sh wit h f ou r or fve dark
brown spots i n rosett es. B l ack
i ndi vi d ual s are common i n I n
di a. Diferent col or s and pat
t er ns may occur i n L eopard c ubs
of t he s ame l it ter.
SNOW LEOPARDS ( 3 ft .) i nhabit
the col d part s of t h e Hi mal aya
and Alt ai mount ai ns. Thei r coat
i s dense and l ong. Zoo quart ers
may need cool i ng i n s ummer t o
keep t hem c omf ort abl e. Al so
cal l ed t he Ou nc e.
CLOUDED LEOPARDS, of Sout h
east Asi a, have a mi xtu re of
spots and stripes. Mature ani
mal s wei gh l es s t han 50 l bs. and
ar e about 3 f t . lang. Shy and
reti r i ng i n c apti vi ty; active at
ni ght i n the wi l d.
L EOPARDS 47
JAGUARS, l ar gest (5 ft.) of t he
Americ an cat s, wei gh up to 300
l bs. They c an roar, l i ke Li ons
and Ti gers. Jaguar s prey on a
vari et y of ani mal s, i nc l udi ng
fsh and t he Capybara (p. 62) .
They l i ve al ong wat erways i n
j ungl es of tropic al Amer ica. Ex
cell ent cl i mbers and l eapers,
t hey are kept i n wel l - barr ed
cages, r arel y i n moot ed cages.
Kitt ens heavi l y spott ed at birt h.
B
l
ack phases common; occasi on
al l y near l y whit e ones occ ur.
48 JAGUAR, CH EETAH
CHEETAHS ( 5 ft.) , most u n usual
of t he cat s, ar e dogl i ke in ap
pear ance, make bar ki ng howl s
and, unl i ke al l ot her cat s, have
no sheat hs i nt o whic h cl aws c an
retr act . They l i ve i n open coun
t ry fr om sou
i
her n As i a t o Afr ica.
Cheet ahs c an r u n as fast as 70
mi l es per hour f or short d i s
t anc es, enabl i ng t hem to catc h
t he swift est of the ant elopes. I n
I ndi a t hey ar e trai ned a s hunt
ers. Sel dom repr oduce i n c aptiv
ity; young are di fc u lt to raise.
Caracal
CARACALS (3 ft.), found i n des
ert s from Afri ca to I ndi a, have
poi nt ed, t uft ed ears. Good h unt
ers of small game, t hey wei gh
up t o 40 l bs. I n zoos, requir e
heated quart ers duri ng col d
mont hs. Caracal s were used by
Arabi ans as h u nti ng cat s.
SERVALS ( 2V2 ft.) ar e l ong
l egged, short -t ail ed Afri can cats.
T hey are yell owi sh wit h bol d
bl ack st ripes and spot s. Servai s
prowl at ni ght i n marshes or
al 'ng banks. T hey rarel y repr o-
duce i n capti vi t.
OCELOTS ( 3 ft .), commonest cat s
of t ropi cal Ameri ca, are short
l egged tr ee- dwell er s. T hey are
someti mes call ed Ti ger Cats be
cause of dar k spot s, bl ot ches,
and ri ngs . Ocel ot s tame easily.
GOLDEN CATS ( 3 ft.), found
fr om T i bet t o Sumatr a, ar e
usually reddish brown, but
some are spott ed, ot her s
bl ack. Anot her speci es l ives
in west -cent ral Afri ca. Oft en
displ ayed i n z oos.
Gol den Cat
SMALL CAT S 49
Mount ai n
Li on
LYNXES ( 2Y2 ft.) are broad-fool
ed, slump-t ail ed cat s wit h promi
nent ear t uft s and a bl ack-t ipped
t ail . Young spott ed. l ynxes hunt
at ni ght , preyi ng mai nly on rab
bi ts. Found i n nort her n parts of
t he New and Ol d Worl ds, t hey
can be kept outdoors.
MOUNTAI N LI ONS, al so call ed
Pant hers, Cougars, Pu mas, and
other names, are a soli d tan or
br own. The c u bs are stri ped or
spotted. F ound only i n North
and South America, these l arge
cats ( t o 8 f t . ; 200 l bs.) scream;
Ol d Wor l d l i ons r oar .
50 CATS
J aguar undi
BOBCATS, al s o cal l ed Wil dc ats
or Bay l ynxes, are bobtail ed,
li ke the l ynx, but ar e sli ghtl y
smaller, have smal l er feet, and
shorter ear t ufts. Bobc ats I ive i n
many parts o f North Americ a.
They f eed mai nl y on rodent s and
birds; someti mes eat vegetabl es.
JAGUARUNDI S ( 3Y24 ft.) have
shor t l egs, a long tail, and a
sli m body. They li ve i n t he tr op
ics from sout hernmost U nit ed
Stales to South Americ a. Jag ua
r u ndi s vary i n col or from r ust y
red (often call ed Eyra) t o grayi s h
blac k and soli d blac k.
THE DOG FAMILY is worl d- wi de in di stri buti on. Mem
bers have l ong muzzl e, a bushy tai l , and pr omi nent
cl aws; al l ar e good r un ners. Most do wel l i n capti vi ty.
Some are noctur nal , hence s l uggi sh i n the dayti me. They
are fed dog food or horse meat, wi th suppl ements.
WOLVES (T i mber or Groy), l ar g
est members of t he f ami l y, are
4V2 ft. l ong, wei gh up to 1 75
l bs. T hey l i ve in col d regi ons of
North Amer ic a and E ur asi a.
Wol ves mate for l i fe, and pups
remai n wi th parents a year or
more. Tend to be quar rel some.
COYOTES ( 3 ft.) l i ve i n sparsel y
wooded regi ons of Nort h Amer
ic a; ar e most abundant i n the
West. Someti mes c al l ed Prair i e
Wol ves, they us ual l y wei g h l ess
t han 60 l bs. They makel a var i ety
of eeri e howl s. Coyotes wi l l eat
near l y anyt hi ng. Pups number
up to 1 2 per l itter .
DHOLES (Asi ati c Wi l d Dogs or
Red Dogs) ar e soci abl e, frequent
l y hu nt i ng i n packs of as many
as 20. P ups ar e dusky gray.
Dhol es ( 3 ft.) l ive from Russi a to
Korea and sout hward to Java.
May br eed wi th domesti c dogs;
U. S. i mportati on prohi bited.
JACKALS ( 2V2 ft.) are f ound i n
Asi a and Afr i ca. I n habi ts and
c haracter istics, they are the
counterparts of t he North Amer i
c an Coyote. They often feast on
wh at i s l eft after t h e bi g cats
have made a ki l l . T here ar e sev
er al ki nds: Yel l ow or Asi atic,
Bl ac k- backed, and Si de-str iped.
RED FOXES (2 ft. ) persi st in
nor t her n Asi a, Eu rope, and North
Ameri ca. I n addi t i on to reddi sh
col ored coats, t here are bl acks,
si l vers ( bl ack hai r t i pped wi th
whi t e) , and "crosses" (reddi sh
wi th bl ack) . Several foxes can
be penned together.
FENNECS ( l -l V2 ft . ) ar e I orge
eared, desert foxes of Nort h
Afri ca and t he Near East. Ki t
Foxes of North Ameri ca' s western
deserts are s i mi l ar. Both are shy.
Fennecs do best i n zoos.
ARCTI C FOXES ( 2-2V2 ft. )
whi t e coats, matchi ng the
of t he Arcti c t und ra, but
are a l ways bl u i sh- gray
Foxes) . Thei r smal l ears a re near
l y hi dden i n fur. Us ual l y do not
l ive l ong i n capti vi ty.
52 FOXES
GRAY FOXES (2 ft. ) , found i n
North Ameri can wooded regi ons,
can c l i mb trees. They feed on
smal l mammal s, bi rds, an d ber
ri es, and frequent l y di g bur rows.
Thei r grayi sh- red coat and bl ock
t i pped t oi l is char acteri sti c. Li ke
most foxes, act i ve ot ni ght.
Fennec
BI G-EARED FOXES ( I V ft.) a re
al so cal l ed Bat-eared and long
eared foxes. I n t hei r nat ive
sout her n and easter n Af ri ca,
these an i mal s feed on s mal l
mammal s, rept i l es, bi r ds, and i n
sects. They di g dens for s hel t er
and rear i ng of t he young.
MANED WOLVES ( 4 f t . ) , from
t he Sout h Ameri can pampas,
are strangel y proporti oned . They
have st i l t l i ke l egs, a short tai l ,
and l ong ears on a foxl i ke head.
They eat l i zards, s nakes, rodents,
and fru i ts. Though not common
i n zoos, they apparent l y req ui r e
no s peci al car e.
DI NGOES, or Austral i an Wi l d
Dogs, l ook l i ke l arge, reddi sh
col ored, domesti cated dogs . They
can not l ay t hei r ears down,
however, and t hey yel p or howl
rather t han bark. Di ngoes a re
t he onl y non- mar s upi al meat
eati ng mammal s in Austral i a.
CAPE OR AFRI CAN HUNTI NG
DOGS are l ar ge (3-3Y2 ft. ), pow
erful h u nters wi t h r ounded ears,
a spotted body, and l ong l egs .
I n t hei r nati ve Af r i ca, they com
monl y r un i n packs of 30 or
more, ki l l i ng a nt el ope and ot her
bi g game. They remai n u nf r i end
l y i n capti vi ty.
FIN-FOOTED (PINNIPED) carni vores are modi fed to
l i ve i n t he water. Thei r fl i ppers ai d t hem i n swi mmi ng;
t hei r short, t hi ck fur provi des i nsul at i on; t hei r torpedo
shaped body hel ps t hem g l i de t hrough t he water. I n
cl udes seal s, sea l i ons, el ephant seal s, and wal ruses.
ELEPHANT SEALS are l arge, fat,
and doci l e in ca pti vi ty. Thei r l ong
nos e droops many i nches bel ow
t hei r mout h, somewhat l i ke an
el ephant' s tru nk. Thi s s nout i s
parti al l y i nfl ated as the ani mal
exhal es. Mal es may be 1 8 f t .
l ong an d wei g h 2Y2 t ons . They
l i ve in Paci fc coastal waters,
north to sout hern Cal iforni a.
SEA LI ONS c an t ur n t hei r pad
d l e- l i ke hi nd fl i ppers forward
and use them as "feet" to pul l
themsel ves out of t he water t o
s un or to "wal k" on l and. The
Cal i for ni a Sea Li on i s common
i n zoos. Mal es may wei g h 600
l bs. ; femal es, 200. They bar k
l oud l y. Mal es eat about 8 l bs .
of fi sh a day; femal es, 4.
WALRUSES l ive in waters of t he
Arcti c Ci rcl e. Mal es have l arger
t usks t han femal es and wei gh
more-up to 1 Y2 tons . Thei r up
per l i ps a re covered wi t h st i f
br istl es. Adu l ts a re wr i n kl ed an d
near l y hai r l ess; you n g have a t h i n
coat of coarse h ai r . Al t hough
t hei r s i ze and u n us ual appear
ance attracts at t ent i on, they re
qui re muc h car e and ar e not
often kept i n zoos . A 1 , 000-
pound ani mal may eat 40 l bs .
of fi sh ( prefer abl y fl l eted) and
cl ams per day. Bef or e bei ng fed
to a Wal r us, the food i s en ri ched
wi t h vi tami n s and mi neral s .
HARBOR SEALS ar e s mal l
( l engt h, about 5 ft. ; wei ght ,
about 200 l bs . ) and l i g ht col
ored. They ar e shy, have di f
cul ty movi ng on l and, an d
us ual l y remai n i n t h e wat er,
mostl y s ubmer ged. For t hese
reasons, Harbor Seal s ar e not
commonl y kept i n zoos, t hough
t hey ar e i nt er est i ng and al ways
attract attent i on when di s pl ayed .
I n t he coastal waters wher e t hey
l i ve, seal s feed on fshes, mol
l us ks, and cr ustaceans . I n cap
t i vi ty, two dai l y feed i ngs total i ng
5 l bs. of fs h, s ome stufed wi t h
vi tami n capsu l es, wi l l sufce.
RODENTS, mostly small mammals and excellent gnaw
ers, are found on every continent and from the tropi s to
the Arctic. Not only are there many kinds but many in
dividuals, because most rodents mature rapidly and
breed frequently. Nearly all rodents are active at night
and hide or sleep during the daytime. These rodents are
difcult to display in zoos. Some can be kept active
in the daytime in cages that are dark except for small
red lights. Many are kept in cages with glass fronts
in smal l mammal houses where climatic conditions can
be controlled throughout the year (pp. 60-61 ) .
BEAVERS are l ar ge ( 2%-4 ft. ),
water-dwel l i ng r odent s wi th val u
abl e f ur coat s. They feed on
bar k, cattai l s, an d aquat i c vege
tat i on. Beaver pool s wi th t hei r
beaver houses i nt r i gue zoo vi si
tors as much as do t he an i mal s.
B
eavers sl eep or are s l uggi sh
du ri ng t he day, however, a nd
u nl ess t he pens or e dar kened or
the ani mal s have adj usted t o
dayt i me condi t i ons, t hei r acti vi
ti es ar e n ot seen by t he vi si tors.
North Amer i can and E u ropean
beavers are much al i ke. Leaves
and branches ar e a s u it abl e
f ood, but a vari ety af vegetabl es
con be s u bsti tuted.
webbed
foot
PORCUPI NES ( 2% ft . ) have hai r
modi fed i nt o s har p, strong
spi nes, cal l ed qu i l l s. These
s pi nes, l i ke al l hai r, ar e shed
peri odi cal l y. They c an not be
t h rown but do pu l l ou t easi l y
and often l odge i n t he fl esh of
attackers. Bar bs make t he spi ns
di fcul t to remove from t he fl esh.
Porc upi nes g naw on bar k, roots,
and f r u i ts. Nor t h Amer i can por
cu pi nes often c l i mb hi gh i nt o
tres and may stay t her e for
days whi l e feed i ng on t he i nner
bar k. At bi r t h t he s i ngl e young i s
l arge and al ready covered wi t h
spi nes. Few a n i mal s prey on
porcupi nes, bu t t he weasel - l i ke
Fi s her fl i ps t he porc upi ne over
and attacks i ts u n protected bel l y.
Crested Por cupi nes have near
l y 2 f t . l ong s pi nes on t he bac k
t hat f or m O c rest when t he an i
mal is di st ur bed. These s pi nes ,
freq uent l y erected and rat t l ed or
vi brated t o war n potent i al at
tackers, are smoot h or g rooved
and l ack t he bu rs or bar bs on
s pi nes of Nor t h Amer i can Por cu
pi nes. E u ras i an and Af r i can por
cu pi nes us ual l y den i n bu rrows
d ug by other an i mal s . Porcu
pi nes of Mal ayan r egi on have
short er spi nes and onl y at rear.
GROUND SQUI RRELS rest and
nes t i n u nder gr ound bur rows but
ar e acti ve on warm days on t he
su rface. Thi rteen- l i ned Gr ound
Squi r r el s (6 i n . ) l i ve on open
pr ai ri es, pastu res, and even gol f
courses of mi dwestern Nor t h
Ameri ca. They si t erect al ongsi de
t hei r hol es, al ert f or enemi es.
Ant el ope Ground Squi r r el s (5 i n) ,
wi t h whi t e si de st ri pes and white
tai l , are desert i nhabi t ant s. Eur
asi an Gr ound Squi rrel s, or Sus
l i ks ( 1 0 i n . ) , ar e f ound on sandy
wastel ands an d give a hi gh
pi t ched war ni ng whi st l e.
58 RODENTS
PRAI RI E DOGS ar e s qu i r r el - l i ke
rodent s t hat l i ve i n col on i es ( dog
towns) on pra i ri es and i n moun
ta i n meadows of wester n Nort h
Amer i ca. They l i ve bel ow gr ound
i n deep bu rrows. Above gr ound,
t hey s un and feed on grasses
and seeds. A mound of soi l as
much as a foot hi g h bui l t ar ound
each ent r ance, serves as a l ook
out pl atform and keeps out r ai n
wat er . I n wi nter, pr ai r i e dogs
hi ber nat e i n u nder grou nd cham
ber s . Of t he sever al speci es, t he
Bl ack-tai l ed ( 1 2 i n. ) i s t he one
most commonl y s hown i n zoos.
PACAS AND AGOUTI S, from
Sout h Amer ica nort h to sout her n
Mexi co, have l ong hi nd f eet wi t h
hoofl i ke t oes and a scarcel y vi si
bl e tai l . They l i ve i n col on i es.
Pacas ( 26 i n. ) , conspi cuousl y
spotted, di g bu rrows for shel ters
and nests, olten i n banks of r iv
ers or l akes. Agout i s (20 i n. ) , t he
s i ze of s mal l r abbi ts and wi t h no
vi si bl e t ai l , travel by hoppi ng or
r unn n@. They t ame readi l y.
Acouchi es ( 1 4 i n . ) are s i mi l ar but
have a vi si bl e t ai l . Al l eat g reen
vegetat i on and r oots; i n zoos,
f r ui t, seeds, an d b read.
Pat agoni an
Cavy
PATAGONI AN CAVI ES ( 28 i n. ) ,
nat ive t o s out her n Sout h Amer
i ca, are much l i ke l arge j ackrab
bi ts, dashi ng a bout i n hoppi ng
r uns . Often t hey ar e cal l ed
"hares/' Cavi es do wel l i n cap
ti vi ty, t hri vi ng on a vari ety of
foods i nc l udi ng pl ant mat er i al s,
and become q u i te tame. Pr omi
nent l ashes protect t hei r eyes
from the s un's gl are. Thei r f ur
i s l ong and dense. Patagoni an
Cavi es rest and nes t i n b'u rrows
dug t hemsel ves or by other a n i
mal s. The short-l egged Gu i nea
pi g ( 1 0 i n . ) i s a l so a Cavy.
RODENTS 59
WOODCHUCKS ( 20 i n . ) , t he
Groundhogs of easter n U. S. and
Canada, d i g u nder g rou n d homes
near rock pi l es and woods or i n
fel ds an d pastu res where they
forage. I n wester n U. S. , the re
l ated Yel l owbel l i ed Mar mot l ives
i n mou ntai n val l eys; others l ive
in Eu rasi a, Al aska, and Canada.
CHI PMUNKS (6 i n. ) , br i ghtl y
col ored, stri ped squi r rel s, i nhabi t
forests or forest edges i n parts
of Nort h Ameri ca, Si beri a, and
nort her n J apan. Acti ve onl y d ur
i ng the day, t hey feed mostl y on
n uts and seeds. Some are t ree
cl i mbers; others pr efer to scam
per about on the g rou n d.
AFRI CAN GI ANT RATS a re near
ly 3 ft. l ong an d more t han hal f
the l engt h i s a near l y hai r l ess
tai l . The t ai l i s used as a bal a nc
i ng organ when t he ani mal s r u n
or c l i mb. Afri can Gi an t Rats are
omn ivor ous an d car ry food i n
t hei r l ar ge c heek pouches, hence
t hei r name, Pouched Rat.
SPI NY MI CE ( 3 i n . ) have s pi nes
and mod i fed hai r on t he back
and si des. These d oci l e mi ce, na
t i ve to Afr i ca and I ndi a, ar e now
commonl y kept as pels. The t ai l
i s easi l y br oken an d can never
be r epl aced. Spi ny Mi ce eat a
vari ety af foods: seeds, f r ui ts,
and mouse chow.
Banner-tai l ed
Kangaroo Rat
KANGAROO RATS ( 5 i n . ) have
short front feet and can j u mp
abou t on t hei r l ong hi nd feet,
l i ke mi ni at ure kangaroos. They
have cheek pouches i n whi ch
they car ry seeds to st or e i n t hei r
nests. Kangaroo Rat s are i n
compati bl e, hence onl y one
can be kept i n each cage.
CHI NCHI LLAS are s qui rrel -si zed
rodents wi th si l ky fur u sed i n
maki ng expensive coats, capes,
and stol es. They are now rare i n
t hei r nat ive west ern Sout h Amer
i ca but are r ai sed on fur farms.
Chi nchi ll as reproduce i n captiv
ity, frequent l y havi ng two l i tters
of one to f our young each year.
JERBOAS (5 i n. ) , of Nort h Afri
can and Asi an deserts, have l ong
ears and a tufted tai l . They are
good j u mpers but di g burrows
i n the sand and stay i n them du r
i ng the dayt i me. Cl awed Ger bi l s,
or J i r ds (5 i n. ), a re al so ex
hi bi ted i n zoos and someti mes
used as l aboratory ani mal s .
GI ANT TREE SQUI RREL, t he
Rat ufa or Mal abar, of sout heast
ern Asi a, i s

bout 3 ft. l ong. Be


cause of its l ar ge si ze an d day
time activi ti es, it i s per haps t he
most frequent l y d i spl ayed of tree
s qui rrel s. I n i ts nat ive j ungl es,
the Gi ant Tree Squi rrel i s n oi sy
and cons pi cuous .
NUTRI A, or Coypu, i s a South
Amer i can r odent t hat l i ves i n and
near streams, l akes, and swamps.
I t i s an excel l ent swi mmer . The
Nut r i a has coarse g uard hai rs
and fne, soft under f ur, used i n
maki n g capes, coats, and other
fur appar el . I t i s rai sed on f u r
f ar ms i n North Ameri ca. A
Nutri a' s t hi ck, r ound, al most
hai r l ess tai l i s near l y ps l ong
as i t s 1 Y2 to 2 f t . body. Captive
n ut r i as have been l i berated or
escaped and hove establ i shed
col oni es i n the wi l d i n many
parts of the worl d. Because they
eat many ki nds of green vege
loti on, they ar e someti mes pests.
They are acti ve d u ri ng the day,
thus ar e good zoo ani mal s.
CAPYBARA, t he l argest of al l
rodents, i s pi g-si zed an d may
wei gh 1 60 l bs. I n its nat ive
Sout h Ameri ca, t he Capybara i s
us ual l y f ound al ong streams and
l akes i n f ami l y g roups of a doz.
en or more. Somet i mes cal l ed
Water Hog, i t i s an excel l ent
swi mmer an d may take to the
water to escape enemi es. Nati ves
often ki l l them for food. I n the
wi l d, the Capybara feeds mai n
l y on wat er pl ants an d grasses.
I n zoos, t hey ar e fed vegetabl es,
hoy, an d bread . This bi g, s l ow
movi ng, good- nat ured r odent ut
ters l ow cl i cki ng noi ses or s har p
whi stl es. I t i s mor e acti ve at d us k
and d u ri ng the ni ght . Capybaras
ar e not common i n zoos.
SLOTHS (2 ft. ) ore members of o
g rou p someti mes cal l ed toothl ess
mammal s. Some hove no teeth
and others, i ncl udi ng sl oths, hove
pegl i ke, nearl y f uncti onl ess,
teeth. Thei r coarse, strowl i ke f ur
may be g reen wi t h growths of
al gae. Sl ot hs l ive i n the rai ny
j ungl es of t he Ameri can tropi cs.
They feed on l eaves, creep al ong
branches, an d even s l eep hang
i ng u psi de down. They or e
awkward on t he g round. Two
toed Sl ot hs hove 2 cl aws on
each fr ont foot; Threetoed
Sl oths, 3.
GIANT ANTEATERS (4 ft.) ore
l ong hoi red, bus hytoi l ed, j ungl e
dwel l ers of Cent r al and Sout h
Amer i ca. Du ri ng t hei r dayti me
naps t hey cur l i nto o bol l . They
use t he l ong cl aws on t hei r pow
erful fr ont l egs to tear open
t ermi te nests. Then o near l y foot
l ong t ongue fi cks up the i nsects.
I n zoos t hey o re fed o pu ree of
mi l k, boi l ed eggs, and meat.
Two- toed Sl ot h
AARDVARKS (4V,-5 ft . ) , pi gl i ke
Afri can mammal s, hove I orge
ear s t hat or e f ol ded down when
t he ani mal s d i g i nt o t he nests
of termi tes and ants. A l ong
sti cky tong ue gat her s u p t he i n
sects. Excavated nests a l so serve
as homes. I n capti vi ty Aar d
varks, whi ch hove no g ri ndi ng
teeth, eat f nel y chopped foods
and cooked cereal s.
EVEN-TOED hoofed mammal s (Arti odactyl a) s upport
thei r wei ght on two toes (thei r 3rd and 4th toes). Many
are cud- chewers ( r umi nants) ; some have hor ns or
ant l ers. I nc l uded ar e hi ppos, pi gs, camel s, deer, catt l e,
antel opes and gi rafes.
HIPPOPOTAMUSES l i ve i n t he ri vers and ri ver val l eys
of tropi cal Afri ca. Wi l d hi ppos spend much of the day
ti me i n water wi th onl y thei r eyes and nostri l s pr otrudi ng.
They are excel l ent swi mmers and foaters and can even
wal k a l ong t he ri ver bottom. On l and t hey can gal l op
when necessary.
COMMON HI PPOPOTAMUS ( 1 2-
1 5 ft. ) i s t he second l argest l and
ani mal , r anki ng after el ephants.
Bul l s us ual l y wei gh between
3,500 and 5,000 l bs. I n ca pti vi ty,
they are doci l e an d readi l y
breed . Some capti ves l i ve over 40
years. In zoos, hi ppopotamuses
th ri ve on dai l y rati ons of hay
( 80 to 1 00 l bs. ) , di ced vegeta
bl es (sever al qu arts), and gr ai n
( about 1 0 l bs . i n pel l et form) .
PYGMY HI PPOPOTAMUS (5-6
ft. ) l i ves al ong streams of t he
forested area of wester n Afri ca,
but i t i s not as fond of water as
the Common Hi ppo. Wi l d Pygmy
Hi ppos ar e q ui te secreti ve, us ual
l y foragi ng at n i ght. At one
ti me they were u ncommon i n
zoos . Capti ves eat about 1 /5 as
much as Common Hi ppos and
someti mes become u n r ul y. Many
never wei gh mor e t han 400 l bs .
BUSH PI GS, or Red Ri ver Hogs
(4Y2 f t . ) , have a di sti ncti ve br i ght
redd i s h coat whi ch contrasts wi t h
t hei r whi te mane, white eye
r i ngs, an d l ong ear t ufts. They
wei gh about 200 l bs. Bush Pi gs
l ive i n s mal l her ds i n Afri can
forests. No pi gs can be i mported
i nto the U. S. beca use af swi ne
di seases, hence ar e not shown
i n Ameri can zoos.
BABI RUSAS (3 ft.) have u n us ual
t usks ( cani ne teet h) . I n t he mol e
t he u pper t usks grow out t hr ough
the l i p an d t hen curve over t he
forehead, reachi ng a l engt h of
as muc h as 1 7 i n. Lower t usks
grow al ongsi de. The l ong t usks
resembl e ant l ers, so these j ungl e
dwel l ers of Bur ma an d t he
Cel ebes ar e someti mes cal l ed
Pi g-deer. Uncommon i n zoos.
66 P I GS
COLLARED PECCARI ES (3 ft.)
are wi l d, pigl i ke an i mal s of Cen
t ral Amer i ca nort h to Ari zona.
Adu l ts rar el y wei g h more t han
65 l bs . I n capti vi ty, t hey are fed
al fal fa, vegetabl es, fruit, an d
some meat-a di et s ui t abl e for
al l swi ne. Whi te-l i pped Peccar ies,
whi ch have a whi t e streak from
the chi n to the eye, l ive i n the
Ameri can tropics.
WART HOGS ( 3Y2 ft.) have gro
tesque warty bu mps on t hei r
scooped- out face, l ar ge t usks,
s mal l eyes, and a nearl y hai r
l ess body. Found i n Afri ca, they
sl eep in hol es du g by other an i
mal s an d feed pr i nci pal l y on
grasses and vegetabl e matter.
They d i s pl ay wel l i n zoos, a nd
many become gent l e. Us ual l y
prod uce pi gl ets i n capt ivity.
CAMELS ( 1 0 ft. ) have been domesti cated as beasts of
bur den l onger t han any other mammal s a nd car ry 400
to 600 l bs. as far as 30 mi l es a day. The humps store fat
that may be uti l i zed for water . Camel s ar e hardy i n cap
t i vi t y; water, fences, or a moat ar e efect i ve barri ers.
BACTRI AN CAMELS ar e two
h u mped. They are domesti cated
i n Asi a where some ar e sti l l wi l d
i n t he Gobi Desert. I n zoos,
they eat hays and grai ns wi th
mi ner al an d vi tami n s uppl ements.
ARABI AN CAMELS ar e one
h u mped. Today, fou nd onl y i n
domesti cat i on, t hey may l i ve as
l ong as 28 yea rs but us ual l y l ess.
The Dr omedary i s a l ong- l egged,
r i di ng-type of Ar abi an camel .
SOUTH AMERI CAN "CAMELS" ar e t he Ll amas, Al
pacas, Guanacos, and Vi cunas . Al l feed on grasses and
chew a cud but have onl y a t h ree-chambered stomach,
l i ke camel s, not four - chambered l i ke ot her cud- chewers.
They have an un usual habi t of spi tti ng when an n oyed,
whi ch makes i t di fcul t to di spl ay them i n some zoos.
L l amas and Al pacas are domesti cated. Capti ves eat
4 l bs. or l ess of a l fal fa and grai ns per day.
LLAMAS ( 4-5 f t . ) , domesti cated
forms of Guanacos, are com
monl y used as beasts of bu rden,
c ar r yi ng pac ks 1 5 to 20 mi l es a
day f or 20 days in a row. They
ar e rarel y ri dden si nce they bal k
68 LLAMAS
at heavy l oads . The fl eece i s used
f or cl oth, meat f or food, hi des
f or s andal s, dr oppi ngs for f uel .
I n zoos, us ual l y one mal e ll ama
i s pen ned wi t h sever al f emal es
and t hei r young.
ALPACAS ( 3-4 ft . ) have feecy
wool that may g row 2 ft. l ong
and t ouch t he gr ound. Al t hough
not as fi ne as t hat of Vi cuia, t he
wool i s i n great demand. Al pacas
ar e slal l er t han L l amas but ar e
al so a domesti cated f or m of t he
Guanaco. They ar e br ed f or
wool i nstead of t r ans port.
I n t he wi l d, Al pacas l i ve mostl y
above 1 2,000 ft. , hi gher t han
Ll amas .
GUANACOS ( 5 f t . ) i n habi t many
parts of t he pampas an d Andes
sout hward

from Bol i vi a and


across t he pl ai ns of Pat agoni a
near l y to t he s out her nmost t i p
of Sout h Amer i ca. War y and
sel dom seen, t hey ar e becomi ng
r ar er beca use of h u nt i ng and
because t hei r preferred r anges
are bei ng f enced of. They once
l ived in her ds of 200 or 300;
now t he herds a re muc h s mal l er .
VI CUNAS (4% ft.) l ive i n s mal l
herds, hi gh i n t he Andes. Over
hunt i ng al most el i mi nated t hese
an i mal s, but t hey a re now pro
tected. Vic una mal es wei gh l ess
t han 1 50 l bs . The soft, fne feece
i s used i n expensive coats. Mal es
fght wi t h femal es i n capti vi ty,
so t he sexes are penned sepa
ratel y. Fi ght i ng occurs i n t he
wi l d when terri tory of a g rou p' s
domi nant mal e i s chal l enged.
ALPACAS, VI CU
N
AS, GUANACOS 69
THE DEER FAMILY contai ns t he onl y mammal s wi th
ntl ers of sol i d bone that grow out from t he s kul l under
a l ayer of l i vi ng ski n (the vel vet) . Each year bucks shed
ol d antl ers and grow new ones. Femal e Rei ndeer and
Cari bou have antl ers, too. Chevrotai ns ar e a di sti nct
fami l y, separate from t he deer fami l y.
WHI TE-TAI LED DEER occur over
muc h of North Ameri ca and vary
from the dog-si zed Fl or i da Key
Deer to 250 l b. bucks af n orth
ern states. Spotted fawns are
bor n in l ate s pr i ng. The whi te
u n dersi de of the t ai l becomes
cons pic uous when the t ai l i s
rai sed. White-tai l s browse on
l eaves, frui ts, an d acorns; i n
capti vity, they eat hay and
gr ai ns; need s al t . Ant l ered mal es
may i nj ure others in t he pen.
MULE DEER i s a wester n Amer i
can speci es s l i ght l y l ar ger t han
Wh ite-tai l ed and havi ng a di fer
ent ar r angement of branches
( ti nes) on the ant l ers . Antl ers i n
crease i n si ze wi t h i ncreased
vi gor of the buck. After a mal e
passes hi s pr i me, t he a ntl ers be
come s horter but r emai n heavy.
Part or al l of the t op of t he tai l
i s bl ack. One ki nd of Mul e Deer
near t he Pacific Coast i s cal l ed
t he Bl acktai l ed Deer.
Asi an Chevratai n
CHEVROTAI NS OR MOUSE
DEER ar e s mal l , not much l ar ger
t han r abbi ts ( wei ght, as l i ttl e as
6 l bs. ; hei g ht, 1 2 i n. ) . Wat er
Chevrotai ns of Cent ral Afr i ca
l ive i n mar s h t hi ckets; Asi an
Chevrotai ns, i n thi ck forests.
They l ack ant l er s or horns.
MUNTJACS, or Bar ki ng Deer,
wei gh up to 40 l bs. and stan d
about 20 i n . h i gh . T h e bucks
have s pi kel i ke ant l ers, f or ked at
t he t i ps, an d a pai r of pr ot rud
i ng t uskl i ke u pper teeth. Mu nt
j acs l ive i n dense j ungl es, es
peci al l y near streams, and or e
BROCKETS, t r ue deer of Cent r al
and Sout h Ameri ca, stan d onl y
2 f t . hi gh at t he s houl ders. The
ant l er s ar e s i mpl e, u n br a
.
nched
s pi kes. Character i st i c of t he sev
eral speci es i s the s hor t tai l an d
arched back. Al l l ive i n t h e
dens e t r opi cal forests.
d i fcul t t o di scover . When
al armed, t hey make l oud bar k
i ng s ounds . They br owse on
l eaves, twi gs, an d bar k. I n zoos,
they are fed hay and pel l ets.
Sever al speci es occ u r i n s out her n
Asi a. Muntj acs ar e d ifc ul t to ob
t ai n f or many zoos.
Fal l ow Deer
(three col or phases)
Deer
FALLOW DEER have a yel l owi sh
or r eddi sh- brown coat s potted
wi th white. Some i ndivi d ual s,
however, a re dar k brown an d
l ack spots; others ar e whi t e.
They are excepti onal j u mpers
for thei r hei ght ( 3 ft . ) . Al t hough
nati ve to t he Medi ter r anean
countri es, Fal l ow Deer have been
i nt rod uced wi del y, fr om Sweden
to New Zeal an d. Al l capti ve deer
s houl d have t hei r hay di et s up
pl emented wi t h pel l et s of grai n,
yeast, s al t , and mol asses.
72 DEER
S J KA DEER are var iabl e i n col or;
some a sol i d col or, others wi t h
l i ght spot s and or e oft en cal l ed
Spotted Deer . About 3 ft. hi gh
at t he s hou l ders, t hey wei g h be
tween 1 50 and 200 l bs. Whi te
hai rs at the base of t he tai l
stand erect when t he an i mal s ar e
al ert. Si ka Deer J ive al ong t he
easter n coast an d ofshore i s
l ands of Asi a. They have been
i nt rod uced i nto many countri es
and do wel l i n capti vi ty, t hough
bucks may fght.
RED DEER a re t he Stag Deer
h u nted for cent u ri es i n Eu rope
by nobi l i ty. Once common from
wester n Russi a and nort her n
Afri ca acr oss al l of Eu rope, Red
Deer have been mostl y exter mi
noted . large stags ( mal es) may
wei g h 300 l bs. , r ar el y 500; hi nds
( femal es) are s mal l er . Amer i can
Wapi ti or "El k" a re so si mi l ar t o
Red Deer t hat some peopl e con
si der t hem vari eti es of one spe
ci es. El k mal es ( bu l l s) commu ni
cot e wi t h "bugl e" s ounds.
MOOSE, cal l ed El k i n Eu rope
and Asi a, l ive i n nort her n for
ested regi ons of t he New and
t he Ol d Worl ds. largest of t he
deer, t hey may wei gh 1 ,BOO l bs .
and be 6 f t . hi gh at t he s houl
der s . The fattened pal mate a nt
l ers s pread 6 ft. or mor e and
ar e s hed eac h year . Moose l ive
in marshy pl aces an d in nearby
forests. They eat aq uati c pl ants,
l eaves, and bar k. Short- necked,
they kneel to feed on l ow pl ants.
Poor breeders i n captivity.
PERE DAVI D'S DEER have never
been known as wi l d an i mal s.
These 4 ft. , 500 l b. deer were
"d i scovered" by Father Davi d i n
t he 1 860's as captives i n the
gar dens of t he Summer Pal ace i n
Peki ng, Chi na. Duri ng the Boxer
Rebel l i on, thi s herd was de
stroyed except for about 50 i n
divi d ual s t aken to Engl and.
Thes e l ong tai l ed, s l ender-ant
l ered deer have done wel l
enough i n capti vi ty so that there
are now about 450 i ndivi dual s
i n some 30 zoos and parks.
74 DEER
AXI S DEER a re attractive, grace
ful deer nati ve to I n dia and
Ceyl on but now i ntrodu ced into
many other countri es. Thei r con
spi cuous wh i te s pots accou n t for
t he nat i ve name of Ch ital ( s pot
ted). Adu l t s are about 3 ft. hi g h
at the s houl ders, wei gh 1 50 to
200 l bs. Thei r a ntl ers have very
few br anches. They l ive i n grassy
j u ngl es, never far from water
and i n herds of several hundreds.
Axi s Deer thrive i n capitivity,
parti cu l arl y in warm areas.
Ant l ered bucks may fght.
SAMBAR DEER of severo! ki nds
ore f ound from I ndi o to t he
Phi l i ppi nes. I ndi o Sombor, the
l argest, wei ghs nearl y 700 l bs.
I t l ives i n gr assy wood l ands of
h i l l y or mountai nous areas. The
massive ant l er s hove onl y 3
branches. Sombors resembl e
Amer i can Wapit i , and al so us e
mud wal l ows to protect t hem
sel ves f r om bi t i ng i nsects. Bare
spots bel ow each eye are gl ands.
Sombars do wel l i n zoos but may
become fat wi t h i nacti vi ty. Fawns
or e not spotted.
Sombor Deer
El d's Deer
ELD'S DEER, ar Thomi n, of south
eastern Asi a prefer open pl ai ns
or swampy country, but they
show wel l i n zoos. Mol es stand
about 4 f t . hi gh at t he s houl
der s and wei gh over 200 l bs. ; f e.
mol es are s mal l er. Fawns or e
spotted. El d's Deer ore sensi
tive to col d weat her and re
sembl e other deer from t r opi cal
countri es i n needi ng heated
quarters i n col d, wi nter regi ons.
They ore somet i mes easi l y
al armed or startl ed. Ant l er s ex
tend promi nent l y over the brow.
REI NDEER ore ki nds of Car i bou
domesti cated i n nor t her n Eur ope
and Si ber i a and i ntrod uced i nto
arcti c Nort h Amer ica. They pul l
sl eds and provi de mi l k, meal,
and ski n for cl ot hi ng. I n the
wi l d t hey eat Rei ndeer Moss.
They do poor l y in most zoos.
PRONGHORNS are on exc l usi vel y
North Ameri can fami l y and ore
not ant el opes. They ore pl ai ns
and desert dwel l ers. Horns,
present i n both mal es and fe.
mal es, or e shed an n ual l y. A
bony core i s beneat h t he hor n.
hor n of
matted
f
fbers __
bony
core
76

CARI BOU, l i ke Rei ndeer, l ive i n
t he arcti c reg i ons and wei gh u p
t o 600 l bs. Both mal es and fe
mol es have I or ge a ntl ers. Some
ti mes t housands of Car i bou
band t oget her and make l ong
mi grati ons. Car i bou gener al l y
do not f or e wel l i n capti vi ty.
Pr onghr ns or e fast, ni mbl e
r u n ners a nd can attai n speeds
of near l y 60 mi l es per hour .
Mol es wei g h over 1 00 l bs. and
stand about 3 f t . at t he s houl
ders. Pr onghor ns us ual l y do not
do wel l i n ca pti vi t.
Pr onghor n
CATTLE, SHEEP, AND ANTELOPES, al l of t he fami l y
Bovi dae, have hor ns that are never shed. They are
formed over a bony core attached to t he sku l l . These
horns, usual l y present in both sexes, are added to each
year. Si ze, s hape, and confgurati on of hor ns vari es.
BI SON, or Amer i can Bufal o,
have shaggy heads and h u mped
backs. They may wei gh more
t han a ton, the caws smal l er t han
the bul l s. I n f or mer ti mes, t hou
sands of these soci abl e ani mal s
gat hered i n her ds . Some 60 mi l
l i on Bi s on roamed t he pl ai ns
and val l eys fr om Mexi co t o
western Canada and eastward
to t he Appal achi ans . Near l y al l
were ki l l ed, but under protec
tion they are i ncr easi ng. Wi sent,
or Eu r opean Bi son, are sl i ght l y
l arger t han Amer i can Bi son and
exi st today both i n Amer i can
and Eu ropean zoas.
MUSK OXEN, rare i n zoos, are
shaggy- hai red, cow-si zed a ni
mal s t hat l ive i n t he bar ren
pol ar regi ons of Nort h Amer i ca.
Thei r musky odor d u ri ng the
breedi ng season may be the
basi s for t hei r name. Thei r l ong,
heavy f ur c oat s protect t hem
f r om t he snow an d wi nd. For pro
tect i on agai nst wol ves, they for m
a ci rcl e wi th t hei r heads poi nted
out toward t he attackers, wi th
t he col ves i nsi de t he ci r cl e. Thei r
hor ns, to 2 ft. l ong, and s har p
hoofs are efecti ve weapons.
They eat wi l l ow l eaves, mosses,
and g rass.
YAKS are shaggy-coated, cattl e
l i ke an i mal s of hi gh mou nt ai n
pl ateaus i n Cent r al Asia. Natives
use them as beasts of bur den,
eat t hei r meat, dr i nk t hei r pi nk
mi l k, and weave wi t h t hei r f ur .
Long hai r fr equent l y covers t hei r
eyes and ears and forms a ski rt
ar ound thei r l egs, protecti ng
t hem from the col d. I n zoos,
regardl ess of t he temperature,
Yaks do wel l . Domesticated
Yaks g ru n t when overl oaded,
hence t he name Grunti ng Oxen.
ANOAS, u ncommon i n captivity,
are smal l bufal o of the Cel ebes.
A white crescen t on the throat
and short hor ns are characteris
ti c. These a ni mal s keep to t he
damp woods of r emot e moun
I ei ns . They may be aggressive,
even danger ous in the wi l d, and
have attacked ot her an i mal s i n
zoos. Anoas ar e someti mes cal l ed
Dwarf Bufal o, si nce adul t mal es
are no l ar ger t han cal ves of do
mest i c catt l e. The l arger Phi l i p
pi ne Tamarou i s nearl y exti nct.
GAURS, someti mes coi l ed Sel a
dangs, are l arge, powerf ul
wi l d cattl e t hat l ive i n I ndo
nesi a. Bu l l s are frequent l y 6 ft.
hi gh at the s houl ders . They have
horns near l y 3 ft. l ong and a
sl i ght l y devel oped dewl ap, a fol d
of ski n hangi ng from t he throat.
Gaurs l ive i n smal l her ds i n
gr assy or hi l l y forest cou ntry.
Gaur s have not been domesti cat
ed, and they do not do wel l i n
captivity. For thi s reason they
ar e r ar el y seen' i n zoos.
WATER BUFFALOES, al so cal l ed
Ar nas or I ndi an Bufal oes, are
native to I n dochi na where t hey
have been domesti cat ed. They
prefer g rassy or mars hy areas
near ri vers, i n whi ch they fre
quentl y s ubmerge except for
thei r heads. Ox-si zed, they make
fai r draft a n i mal s an d have
been i nt r oduced i nt o ot her coun
tri es. Cape or Afri can Bufal oes
of sout her n Afri ca have l ar ger
ears t han Wat er Bufal oes and
have never been d omesti cat ed.
80
CHAMOI S, al so cal l ed Goat
Antel opes (3-4 ft.), are 5Uf0-
footed rock c l i mber s of t he
Pyrenees, Al ps, and ot her hi gh
mount ai ns i n southeastern Eu
rope. Bes t known as a sou rce for
soft ski ns, or s hammi es. Chamoi s
travel i n her ds , but ol d mal es
ar e sol i tary. Do poor l y i n ca p
ti vi ty, hence rare i n zoos.
AOUDADS, or Bar bar y Sheep
(4-6 ft. ) , are t he onl y sheepl i ke
or goat l i ke ani mal s of t he Afri
can cont i nent . They were once
common i n t he rocky hi l l s of the
Atl as Mountai ns adj acent to the
Barbary Coast. Al t hou gh cal l ed
sheep, Aoudads a re mor e goal
l i ke. Goals us ual l y difer from
wi l d sheep i n havi ng l onger tai l s,
a beard or goatee, and more
twi sted hor ns. Aoudads enjoy
water but are abl e to wi thstand
des er t condit i ons. They do wel l
in captivity, even l ivi ng together
i n cl osel y confned herds. I n the
wi l d, t hei r her ds consist of sev
er al fami l y g roups. I n zoos, Aou
dads thri ve an al fal fa, fresh
vegetabl es, and grai ns . Under
favor abl e condi t i ons l ambs ( us
ual l y one) are prod uced yearl y
by mat ur e femal es.
Moufon
Hi mal ayan
Tah r
MOUFLONS a re t h e wi l d sheep
of Eur ope. At one t i me al most
exter mi nated, they ar e now pres
ent on sever al mount ai n r anges
in Cent r al Europe and on t he
Med i terranean isl ands of Sar
di ni a and Corsi ca. Onl y about
27 i n. at t he s houl ders, they ar e
smal l er t han Bi ghor n Sheep,
whi ch i n gener al they resembl e.
HI MALAYAN TAHRS ( 3V, f t . ) ar e
goatl i ke ani mal s wi t h t hi ck coats
that protect agai nst the col d of
the Hi mal ayas. They l ack a
goatee. Tah rs do wel l in zoos,
prod uci ng ki ds reg u l ar l y. Ni l gi r i
Tah r of sout her n I ndi a and
Arabi an Tahr, l es s c ommon i n
zoos, have shorter coats and
smal l er hor ns . Tahrs ar e wary
and u n appr oachabl e i n the wi l d
but adj ust qu i ckl y to capti vi ty.
MARKHORS (4V2 ft. ), goats of
sout hern Asi a, l ive on rocky
slopes where they are good
cl i mbers and j umpers. The hor ns
are heavy and twi sted i n cork
screw s pi r al s . Uncommon i n
zoos, but get al ong together i n
s mal l her ds when confned.
BI GHORNS (4% f t . ) are moun
t ai n-dwel l i ng sheep of western
Nor t h Amer i ca. They travel i n
bands , but t he r ams { mal es) fre
quent l y keep apart . A few zoos
have been s uccessf u l i n keepi ng
and rear i ng Bi ghor ns. Dol l Sheep
of Arcti c Ameri ca and Asi a are
s i mi l ar but wh i te.
82
I BEXES ( 4V, ft. ) are the wi l d
goats of Europe, Nor t h Afri ca,
and parts of Asi a. Al l of the
sever al ki nds prefer steep cl i fs
and rocky s l opes of mou ntai ns .
I bexes st i l l s urvi ve i n remote
parts of t he Al ps and Hi mal ayas.
Rel ated t o domesti c goats.
ANTELOPES ar e swi ft- r unni ng, browsi ng and grazi ng,
hor ned ani mal s of t he grassl and and bus h of Afri ca and
southern Asi a. Hor ns , often present i n bot h sexes, may
be strai ght, si ckl e- shaped, or greatl y twi sted. Usual l y
di spl ayed i ndoors, at l east in wi nter. They eat hay,
grai n- mol asses-yeast pel l ets, and di ced vegetabl es.
NY ALAS ( 3 ft. at s houl der) , mem
bers of t he r i nged or har nessed
antel ope gr oup, have enci rcl i ng,
har ness- l i ke s t r i pes on t hei r body.
They characteri sti cal l y have erec
til e white hai r on the back and
a f r i nge of hai r s on t hroat . Red
di s h coat browns wi th age.
Nyal as l ive i n i sol ated parts of
southeaster n Afri ca. Rare i n zoos.
BONGOS l ive i n West Afri ca an d
wester n Kenya where t h ei r stocky
bui l d aids them i n pus hi ng
t hrough t he dense bamboo for
ests. li ke t he El and but u nl i ke
ot her har nessed ant el opes, both
sexes of Bongos have hor ns .
These beaut i f ul 4 f t . an i mal s ar e
sel dom seen i n t he wi l d, an d onl y
1 pai r i s i n a zoo at present.
ELANDS, t he l argest a ntel opes,
l ive i n the bus h country and
open woods of Sout h Afri ca. Ox
l i ke i n bui l d, they may be 6 ft.
hi gh at s houl der s and wei gh a
t on. A herd may n u mber 200.
Both mal es a nd femal es have
hor ns. Bu l l s have a l ar ge dew
l ap, h u mped s houl ders. El ands
have been t amed bu t have ne
ver been domesti cated .
GREATER KUDUS, fou n d n ow
onl y in East Afri ca, ar e near l y
El and-si ze but have l ong ( up t o
5 ft. ) . s pi r al ed hor ns . Un l i ke t he
84 ANTELOPES
shorter- horned lesser Kud us, a
promi nent mane hangs from t he
t h roat. Good j umpers, they may
cl ear an 8 ft. fence. To avoi d de
tecti on, a Gr eater Kudu wi l l
stand s i l ent and mot i onl ess.
SI TATUNGAS ( 3%-4 ft. at
s houl der ) , al s o c al l ed Marsh
bucks or Waterkoedoes, are
West Afr i can swamp dwel l ers.
Oft en rest al most compl etel y
s ubmer ged. long hoofs enabl e
t hem to wal k t hr ough mud wi t h
out s i nki ng. Buck' s hor ns may
be 3 ft. l ong; femal es, hor nl ess.
NI LGAI S, or Bl ue Bu l l s, o re c l ose
l y rel ated to Afri can harnessed
a ntel opes (p_ B3) , bu t they l ive on
the open pl ai ns of I n di a. They
ar e the l argest of I ndi an ante
l opes, standi ng about 4V ft. at
s houl ders. Horns s horter t han i n
ot her l arge ant el opes, abs ent i n
femal es. There i s a mane as wel l
as a f r i nge on t he t hroat.
WATERBUCKS h ave heavi l y
r i nged hor ns, present i n mol es
on l y. Si ng- si ng Wat er bucks ( 3Y2-
4 ft. ) l i ve in marshy areas and
al so on hot, d ry pl ai ns of equa-
%
Si nq- si ng
Water buck
Ior i a! Afri ca. Les s t i mi d a nd
more easi l y t amed, they ar e
s hown i n zoos mor e often t han
i s t he Common Water buck. They
may a!Soci ate wi t h El ands, Zeb
ras, and Hartebeests.
LECHWES, or Lechwe' s Water
buc ks(
3
Y2 ft. ) , ar e a ntel opes t hat
prefer swamps an d gr assy fats
al ong ri vers. Fr eq uent l y feed
on s ubmerged vegetat i on. Lar ge
hoofs ai d i n get t i ng t hrou gh
mu d. Kobs, one of t he sever al
s peci es i n eq uat or i al Afri ca,
have shorter f ur and hor ns.
ANTELOPES 85

GNUS, or Wi l debeests, are


noti ceabl y hi g her at thei r shoul
der s ( 3-4 ft. ) than at t hei r hi nd
qu arters, as ar e Hartebeests.
Both sexes h ave heavy, cu rved
hor ns, conspi cuous c hi n whi s
kers, a horsel i ke t ai l , and a
broad, sad- l ooki ng face. Whi te
tai l ed Gn us have been near l y ex
termi nated from t he vel d of
Sout h Africa but do wel l in zoos.
Br i ndl ed Gnus are more n umer
ous than t he White-tai l ed.
BLESBOKS ( 3-4 ft. at s houl der ) .
smal l er r el at ives of Hartebeests,
have a whi te face with a dar k
bar extendi ng between t he eyes.
86 ANTELOPES
Mal e's r i nged hor ns are about
1 V f t . l ong; femal e' s, shorter.
Once wi despread i n South Afri ca
but now l ive onl y i n zoos and
protected areas. Zoos have
hel ped to preserve thi s speci es.
HARTEBEESTS (4-5 ft. at s houl
der ) are the mos t common ante
l opes of the Afri can pl ai ns . They
travel i n s mal l herds, often wi th
zebras and g n us. They are fast
but ungai nl y r un ners, usi ng a
l u mber i ng, h al f-si deways gal l op
to depart a n area when they
si ght or scen t t r oubl e. Harte
beests are rarel y s hown in l arge
n u mbers i n zoos.
DUI KERS are sma l l Afric an ante
l opes, va ryi ng from don key-si ze
to j ackrabbi t-si ze. Some ki nds
are r eddi sh; ot her s ar e bl ue
gray. Both sexes have s pi kel i ke
hor ns. Du i kers l i ve i n t hi ck
br ush and esca pe pr edat or s by
divi ng i nto t he u nder br us h
( dui ker i s Cape Dutch for "di v
er ") . They us ual l y travel al one
or i n twos and t hrees. Du i kers
are al l shy, hence they ar e di f
cul t to d i s pl ay i n zoos.
KLI PSPRI NGERS ar e rock-c l i mb
i ng, gazel l e- l i ke ant el opes ( p.
88) of t ropi cal Afri ca. Onl y 20
i n . hi gh at t he s houl der, t hei r
t i ny hoofs pr ovi de s ure-footed
ness, l i ke that of t he Chamoi s
an d t he Amer i can Mountai n
Goat. They feed on pl ants an d
req u i re l i ttl e water. F ew seen
i n zoos, as capti ves do poorl y.
DI K-DI KS ar e s mal l , wei g hi ng
on l y 6 or 7 l bs . an d standi ng 1 4
i n . a t t he s houl der s . Hor ns, pres
ent onl y i n mal es, a re short and
poi nt backwar d. A fexi bl e nose
pr oj ects beyond thei r l i ps. Di k
d i ks hi de i n t hi ck Af r i can br us h.
Zoos r ar el y have Di k-di ks to ex
hi bi t, as capti ve speci mens ar e
us ual l y short- l ived.
SPRI NGBOKS ( 2V2 f t . at s houl
der) , l i ke gazel l es an d t he I m
pal a, ar e excel l ent j u mpers.
They make verti cal l eaps of as
muc h as 1 0 f t . Spr i ngbaks graze
an open pl ai ns of Sout h Afri ca
where gi ant herds once made
g reat mi grat i ons. Sti l l the na
t i onal embl em of t he Un i on of
South Afri ca. Spr i ngboks have
been wi del y exter mi nat ed.
--
ANTELOPES 87
DORCAS GAZELLE, one of the
feet-footed, s mal l ( 2 ft. at s houl
ders ) an tel opes, i s f ound i n des
erts of North Afri ca, Syri a, and
Pal esti ne. Gazel l es forage on
gross an d l eaves of desert pl ants,
prefer r i ng open cou ntry where
they c an out r un predators. Most
hove bl ock - and - white faci al
mar ki ngs. I n capti vi ty, gazel l es
hove l ess room to d i spl ay t hei r
g race, s peed, and j umpi ng abi l i
t i es . Dor cas Gazel l es t ome read
i l y when t he young ore hand
r ear ed. I f t he wi nters ore col d,
zoos provi de heated qu arters
for these del i cate ant el opes.
GRANT'S GAZELLES ( 2%-3 ft. at
s houl der) have the l ongest hor ns
( t o 30 i n . ) of al l t he gazel l es.
Both sexes have horns. Her ds Ire

quentl y congregate ar ound water
hol es and someti mes wander i nto
the sparse acaci a forests. Gere
n u ks, or Wal l er' s Gazel l es, hove
an especi al l y l ong neck and l egs.
I n feed i ng, they stand on t hei r
hi nd l egs and mu nch on choi ce
but otherwi se unobtai nabl e tree
l eaves on twi gs. The horns ( mal es
onl y) ore heavi l y ri nged. Both
Gr ant' s Gazel l e and Geren uks
l i ve i n East Afri ca. Few are
shown in zoos.
I MPALAS ore n oted for t hei r
j u mpi ng abi l i ty, as t hese 3 ft.
an i mal s often l eap 8 ft. i n t he
ai r an d someti mes s pr i ng as f or
as 35 f t . They s eem to j u mp f or
t he f u n of i t. Once common i n
man y ports of Afri ca, they now
ore seen pr i nci pal l y i n East
Afri ca and i n sanct uari es. Herds
of as many as 1 00 may be f ound
i n t he s parse bus h cou ntry. l m
pal os ar e o favori te food of
l i ons . Onl y mal es hove hor ns (to
over 30 i n . ) . Most zoos hove not
been s uccessfu l i n establ i s hi ng
her ds . I mpal as us ual l y l ive l es s
t han 4 yrs. i n capti vi ty.
THOMSON' S GAZELLES are t he
common sma l l a ntel opes ( 2 ft. at
s houl der) of Cent r al Afri ca. Thou
s ands of t hem c on of t en be seen
on the open pl ai ns. They c an be
recogn i zed by t hei r reddi sh up
per parts separated from t he
whi t e u nder parts by a cons pi c
uous j et- bl ock bond. Known to
many as ' ' Tommy' s," these go
zel l es hove l ong been h u nted by
man and by many c ar nivores.
li ke other gazel l es, they are ex
cel l ent r u n ners. 1 1 Tommy's'' are
pr obabl y t he most common ga
zel l es i n zoos. I n capti vi ty they
l i ve l ess t han 1 0 year s.
GAZELLES 89
GEMSBOKS ( 5Y2-6 ft. at s houl
der ) have strai ght hor ns, 4 ft .
l ong. I n eq uator i al Sout h Afri ca,
s mal l herds oft en travel i n a
trot, s i ngl e fi l e. Cl osel y rel ated
is t he Bei sa Oryx. Nei t her i s
common i n U. S. zoos.
BLACKBUCKS ( 4 ft. ) are I n di an
gazel l es. Mal es have cor kscrew
s haped hor ns . They l i ve i n smal l
her ds on t h e ope n pl ai n s where
t hey have a better chance of
escapi ng such enemi es as t he
cheetah . I n capt ivi ty, t hey eat
hay, grai n, and grasses.
90
SABLE ANTELOPES of eq uat or i al
Afr i ca have l ong (5 ft . ) , c u rved
hor ns. These 500 l b. an i mal s ar e
i n many ways t he most handsome
of t he ant el opes. They ar e much
sought aft er but ar e u ncommon
i n mos t zoos.
SAI GAS (si g h'- gas) ar e gazel l e
l i ke ant el opes (5 ft. at s houl der)
of t he Cent r al Asi a n steppes.
They have a bul bous, s l i g ht l y pen
dant nose, s hor t l egs f or s uch a
t hi ck body, heavi l y r i nged hor ns.
Zoos must l ear n more about
di et to keep t hem s uccessf u l l y.
GI RAFFES, tal l est of al l an i mal s, can browse on twi gs
and l eaves mor e t han 1 8 f t . above ground, far out of
reach of other gr ound- dwel l i ng ani mal s . They pl uck
t hes e l eaves wi t h a very l ong ( up t o 1 8 i n. ) t ongue and
mobi l e l i ps . To dri n k or t o feed f r om t he ground, a
gi rafe spreads i ts front l egs far apart and bends down.
Capti ves do wel l on a di et of hay, grai n pel l ets, di ced
vegetabl es, an d frui ts. Gi rafes are nati ve to Central
and Sout h Afri ca wher e t hey l i ve i n s mal l herds. When
t hey r un, both l egs on t he same si de swi n g i n tandem,
gi vi ng t he gi rafe a rol l i ng gai t . Gi rafes are near l y
mute but can gr unt or whi mper and a l so produce a
whi stl e- l i ke sound.

Skul l of gi rafe shows ar r ange-
Q
hor ns on ment of hor ns ( act ual l y s ki n
gi rafe covered bony knobs) . There are
; ' s kul l two mai n hor ns, often a medi an
, `
bump. The Bar i ngo al so has two
"
' : `
-
.
,
s mal l er hor ns.



OKAPI S ar e s mal l ( onl y 5 ft .
hi gh) , s hort - necked rel ati ves of
t he gi rafes wi t h s i mi l ar s ki n
covered hor ns an d a l ong
tong ue. They l i ve i n t he dense
forests of t he Congo. Un known
unt i l 1 90 1 , Okapi s ar e sti l l f ai r l y
GI RAFFES 9 1
GI RAFFES ( 8- 1 2 ft. at s houl .
der) i n d i ferent par t s of
Afri ca VOf in col or an d pal
t ern, but there ar e over l aps
i n t hes e f eat ur es . Nubi an
Gi rafes are s potted. Masai
Gi rafes have i rreg ul ar, l eaf.
l i ke spots.
Nu bi an
Gi rafe
Reti cul ated Gi rafes have a net
wor k ( reti c u l ati on) of l i g ht-col
ored l i nes d ivi di ng a dar k- brown
coat. The retic ul at i on i s l ess pro
nounced and t he l egs a re a
l i ghter col or in Bar i ngo Gi rafes.
Di sti ncti ve coat patter ns ore l ost
when t her e i s i nter breedi ng of
the di fer ent ki nds of gi rafes.
Reti cul ated
Gi rafe
HYRAXES, al so cal l ed Coni es or
Dassi es, ar e rabbit-s i zed hoofed
mamma l s with even-toed forefee
and odd-toed hi nd feet . Al
t hough di sta nt l y r el ated to el e
phants and horses, they behave
more l i ke s mal l goats, easi l y
c l i mbi ng r ocky c l i fs and even
trees . Hyraxes ar e found i n
Afri ca and Syr i a.
ODD-TOED hoofed mammal s ( Peri ssodactyl a) carry
most of t hei r wei ght on one toe (th ei r t hi rd) an d do not
chew a cud. I nc l uded ar e tapi rs, horses, and r hi nos.
TAPI RS l ook much l i ke mi ni at ure el ephants or over
grown pi gs. Adu l ts may reach 8 ft. i n l engt h and wei gh
500 l bs. The nose extends beyond t he mout h i n a short
pr obosci s. I n capt i vi ty, t hey can be fed hay, g rai ns,
and gi ven vegeta bl es wi th vi tami n s uppl ement s. Keepers
fi nd they usual l y are doci l e.
SOUTH AMERI CAN TAPI RS do
wel l i n many zoos but i n c ol d
weather need heated quarters.
Young ar e spotted and str i ped .
MALAYAN TAPI RS of sout her n
an d peni ns ul ar Asi a ar e becom
i ng scar ce. Zoos ar e an i mpor
t ant sanctuary for t hi s s peci es.
HORSES bel ong to a fami l y contai ni ng a si n gl e gen us,
Equus. I t i nc l udes asses and zebras as wel l as t he fami l i ar
domesti c horse.
ONAGERS ( above) ar e wi l d asses
of Cent r al Asi a. They have shor t
ears and a l ong tai l wi t hout
much hai r , Ad u l t mal es sel dom
wei gh mor e t han 500 l bs. The
cl osel y rel ated Ki ang of Ti bet
and Nepal i s somet i mes shown
i n zoos. Wi l d asses of Afri ca are
s mal l er bu t have l arger ear s.
Li ke t hei r Asi ati c r el at i ves, t hey
have a short, st i f mane. Do
mest i c don keys ar e descen dants
of Afri c an speci es.
PRZEWALSKI ' S HORSE ( about 4
ft. at the s houl der) is stocki l y
bui l t, wi t h a bl ack, er ect mane
an d a l ong hai red t ai l . I t s l egs
ar e bl ack t o t he knees, an d t he
s ummer coal shows a bl ack s t r i pe
down t he back. A few of t hese
never domesti cated horses l i ve
wil d i n remote parts of the Gobi
Desert. Capti ves an d t hei r of
s pr i ng ar e so r are t hat al l of
t hem ( about 1 00) are l i sted i n
a s peci al stud book.
ZEBRAS (4-4V2 ft. at s houl der) are whi te horses wi t h
bl ack st r i pes and erect manes. The st ri pes serve as
camoufage on t he grassy Afri can pl ai ns . Foal s have
same mar ki ngs as adu l ts. Oft en attacked by l i ons,
zebr as defend t hemsel ves by ki cki ng and bi ti ng. Hunted
a l so by man, zebras are becomi ng scarce except i n
par ks a nd sanct uari es. I n capti vi ty, t hey need r ubbi ng
posts and rol l i ng pi t s t o keep tri m. Can not t ol erat e col d.
GREVY'S ZEBRA i s one of the
t hree speci es of zebras. Si ze and
pattern of t he stri pes ar e useful
i n di st i ng ui s hi ng t he di ferent
ki nds . Gr evy' s has na rrow stri pes
96 ZEBRAS
extendi ng down to i ts hoofs, a
wh i te bel l y, l ar ge ea rs, an d
s pi nal str i pe extendi ng onto t h e
tai l . Zoo di et i s h ay an d oats,
pl us di ced vegetabl es and sal t.
Chapman's Zebr a
a farm of Burchel l 's
BURCHELL'S ZEBRAS are of sev
er al vari eti es: Grant's (with bol d,
contrast i ng stri pes) , Chapman's
(wi th browni sh stri pes between
t he bl ack ones), Burchel l 's pr oper
( wi t h n o mar ki ngs on t he l ower
l egs) - Al though someti mes d i s
pl ayed in l arge encl osu res wi th
antel opes, stal l i on zebras may
bother other ani mal s.
MOUNTAI N ZEBRAS, a di st i nct
speci es of Sout h Afri ca, ar e
s mal l er t han ot her zebras and
have a smal l fol d of s ki n (dew
l ap) on the throat. Broad stri pes
mar k t he fanks and band the
l egs to t he hoofs. Mountai n Ze
bras have been exter mi nated i n
some areas an d ar e uncommon
i n protected ar eas and i n zoos.
ZEBRAS 97
RHINOCEROSES are t hi ck-ski nned, near l y hai r l ess ani
mal s of l ar ge si ze ( shoul der hei ght, t o 6% ft. ; wei ght, to
4,500 l bs. ) . Thei r one or two hor ns ar e not true bony
outgrowths; t hey consi st of hardened and compressed
hai r l i ke fbers on a bony base at the front of the s ku l l .
These conti nue t o grow t hr oughout t h e l i fe of t h e ani mal .
I n t he wi l d, r hi nos may be bad- tempered, but capti ves
usual l y are fai rl y doci l e. When an noyed, C l one r hi noc
eros may attack a trai n or a car, char gi ng at speeds to

30 mi l es per hour. Zoos keep t hem i n mooted outdoor


cages and h eated i ndoor wi nter quarters.
I ndi an Rhi noceros Whi te Rhi noceros
98
AFRI CAN BLACK RHI NOCER
OSES ( 1 1 ft. l ong; 5
\
2 ft. at
s houl der) have t wo hor ns, t he
front one l ar ger and, i f i ntact,
up to 50 i n . l ong. The hi de i s
dar k brown, not bl ack. Some
ti mes they a re ca l l ed Hook-l i pped
Rhi nos because of thei r pec ul i arl y
shaped upper l i p, adapted for
gr as pi ng twi gs and l eaves. They
l i ve i n thorn cou ntry t hr oughout
much of Afri ca. Mos t zoos s how
t he Bl ack Rhi no, whi ch is t he
most n u mer ous of t he fve recog
n i zed speci es of r h i nos.
I NDI AN RHI NOCEROSES ar e
one- hor ned an d l arge ( 1 4 ft.
l ong) . The l eat her y s ki n i s sepa
rat ed i nto pl ates by deep fol ds
and i s covered wi t h har d knobs.
Onl y a few, per haps na more
than 600, remai n i n I ndi a, As
sam, and Nepal .
WHI TE RHI NOCEROSES, a l so
ca l l ed Square- l i pped Rhi nos, a re
two- hor ned, pl ai ns dwel l ers of
equatori al Afri ca. They may be
1 4 ft. l ong, 6\2 ft. at s houl ders.
Rarel y di s pl ayed i n zoos.
ELEPHANTS, t he l argest l i vi ng l and ani mal s, may eat a
quarter of a ton of forage a day. Food i ncl udes l eaves,
roots, frui ts and, i n capti vi ty, hay and grai n. The el e
phant's trun k i s i ts nose, a doubl e- tubed fexi bl e probos
ci s wi th nostri l s at t he end. Water and even food can be
sn ufed part way up
ASI AN ELEPHANTS a r e often
cal l ed I n d i an El epha nts . Found i n
t he Or i ent al r egi on, south of the
Hi mal ayas from Bur ma and I n di a
to Sumat ra, they l i ve in sl i g htl y
hi l l y forests, parti cul ar l y these
wi t h mu
c
h bamboo-a favori te
food. Mal es wei g
.
h u p to 6 tons,
stan d about 1 0 ft. tal l , and have
smal l ears. Commonl y trai ned as
work ani mal s.
s i ngl e
fnger
1 00 ELEPHANTS
smal l
ears
back h u mped
'


_ _.
w
the probosci s and bl own i nto t he mouth. Tusks, l arger i n
mal es, ar e modi fed upper i nci sor teet h. Usual l y a s i ngl e
wool l y young i s bor n, wei ghi ng about 200 l bs. I t soon
becomes nearl y hai r l ess. A dai l y hosi ng and a massage
wi th a sti f broom keeps an el ephant's ski n i n good
condi ti on.
AFRI CAN E LEPHANTS have l ar ge
ears and t usks. Mal es wei g h up
lO 7 t ons. Found south of t he
Sahara Deser t i n Afr i ca, t hey ar e
of t wo var i eti es: Bus h El ephants,
wi th mal es that may stand 1 1
ft. t al l at t he s hou l ders; and
Forest El ephants, t he mal es to
8 ft. t ai L Pygmy El ephants usu
al l y ar e you n g Forest El ephants;
they are not a d i sti nct ki nd.
l ar ge
ears sway-backed
\ --
1 0 1
Gi ant fi ght cage at the Nat i onal Zoo in Washi ngt on, D. C.
b | K b
Bi r ds are t he onl y ani mal s wi t h feather s. Most of t he
more t han 8, 500 speci es are efci ent fi ers. Hol l ow or
spongy bones, enl arged breast muscl es to move t he
wi ngs, and l ong, strong wi ng feathers enabl e bi r ds t o
fy. A f ew ki nds can fy faster t han 1 00 m. p. h. , and
many can t ravel great di st ances wi t hout r esti ng. Bi r ds l ay
hard- sh el l ed eggs, usual l y i n s ome ki nd of nest.
Many zoos feat ur e spaci ous fyways, or fi ght cages,
that can house 1 00 or mor e bi rds. The capti ves can
exerci se freel y, and some even mate, bui l d nests, and
rai se young. I n s ome zoos, vi si tors can ent er t he fyways
and mi ngl e wi t h the bi r ds i n t he open.
1 02
FLI GHTLESS ( RATI TE) BI RDS bel ongi ng to several
gr oups, or orders, share the l oss of abi l i ty to fy. Al l
have a f a t rat her t han rai sed, o r keel ed, breastbon e
for attac hment of powerf ul fi gh t muscl es. Thei r wi n gs
ar e smal l and us el ess, bu t t hei r l egs ar e strong for
r unni ng. I n t hese bi rds, mal es i ncubate t he eggs, wi t h
t he excepti on of some Ostri ches.
OSTRI CHES ar e t he l argest ( t o 8
ft. t al l an d more t han 300 l bs. )
of al l l ivi ng bi r ds. Thei r eggs
may wei g h as much as 3 l bs.
and ar e i nc ubated f or about 40
days. Bi r ds mat ure i n 3 to 4
years. Mal es ar e bl ack, wi t h
whi te wi ng t i ps and t ai l pl umes;
femal es, br owni s h. Ostri ches trav-
el across Cent r al Afri ca n deserts
i n bands of up 0 50, often wi t h
her ds of zebr as and ant el opes.
When t h reatened, an Ostri ch wi l l
r un-as fast as 30 m. p. h . Os
!ri ches i n capt i vi ty wi l l hi ss an d
ki ck. They do wel l i n zoos, wher e
some have l i ved for more t han
25 years.
CASSOWARI ES, about 5 ft. tal l ,
are s h y forest-dwel l ers of nor t h
er n Austral i a an d New Gui nea.
A r i dged, bony "hel met" covers
t hei r for ehead, and l ong qu i l l s
on t h ei r s mal l wi n gs sti ck out be
yond thei r body feat her s. Thei r
nor mal d i et i s fr ui t, but t hey
may a l so hunt rodent s.
KI WI S ( 2 ft. tal l ) l i ve i n t he
forests of New Zeal and. Rar el y
seen i n t he wi l d an d di spl ayed
i n onl y a f ew zoos outsi de t hei r
nati ve count ry, where t hey ar e
t he nat i onal embl em. Thei r n os
t r i l s or e at the t i p of t hei r 6 i n.
bi l l wi t h whi c h t hey pr obe i n
soft d i rt an d l eaves f or worms.
1 04 F L I GHTLESS B I RDS
RHEAS sta nd 4 to 5 ft. t al l but
wei g h onl y about 50 l bs . Oft en
cal l ed Amer i can ostri ches, t hey
l i ve i n t he grassl ands and br us h
l ands of Sout h Amer i ca. They
have softer feat her s t han t he
Ost ri ch, have t hree t oes i nstead
of two, and l ack tai l pl u mes. I n
capti vi ty they become t ame.
EMUS l i ve i n t he deserts and
grassl ands of Austral i a. About 6
ft. tol l an d wei ghi n g u p to 1 20
l bs. , they ran k second to t he
Ost r i ch i n si ze. The f r i en dl i est of
the fl i g ht l ess bi r ds, Emus often
graze wi th cattl e or wi th kanga
r oos. The eggs, 7 to 1 2 i n a
cl utch, ar e greeni s h bl ack.
PENGUINS a re swi mmi ng bi rds t hat l i ve i n t he coastal
waters of t he Sout her n Hemi sphere, i n cl udi ng Ant
arcti ca. One speci es, t he Gal apagos Pengui n, l i ves on
Paci'fc i s l ands as far north as t h e equator. Th ei r fl i pper
l i ke near l y feather l ess wi ngs pr opel t hem t hr ough t he
water as fast as 25 m. p. h.
EMPEROR PENGUI NS, l argest of
the peng u i ns, stand 4 ft. tal l .
They spend most of t hei r l i fe at
s ea of Antarcti ca, comi ng ashore
onl y to reproduce. The femal e
l ays a s i ngl e egg, whi ch the mal e
hol ds on hi s f eet an d i ncu bates
by press i ng i t i nto a fol d of s ki n
on hi s bel l y. l at er the femal e
ret ur ns f r om sea to hel p feed t he
chi ck. The Ki ng Pengui n i s t he
onl y ot her t hat makes no nest.
KI NG PENGUI NS, about JV2 ft.
tal l , l ive on i s l ands near Antarc
ti ca, someti mes appear i ng of
New Zeal and and Sout h Amer
i ca. I n zoos, they must be hand
f ed; ot her peng ui ns wi l l eat fi sh
from pool s or from the gr ound.
HUMBOLDT PENGUI NS, l es s t han
2 f t . t al l , l ay t wo eggs i n a n est.
Li ve on i s l ands of t he west coast
of South Ameri ca, north to Per u.
Eu ropean
Whi te
Pel i can
--
FI SH-EATI NG BI RDS have broad wi ngs, l ong bi l l s, and
are good fl i er s. Most can swi m wel l , but t hey have
short l egs and wal k cl ums i l y on l and. Thei r fou r toes
are connected by webs, and they have a th roat pouch,
most h i gh l y devel oped i n pel i cans .
CORMORANTS, or Shags, l ive
al ong coastal waters, l akes, and
ri vers al l over t he wor l d. They
d i ve and t hen swi m underwater
to catch fi s h. Wi ngs pan about 5
ft. Bones ar e heavi er t han those
of pel i cans, hence bi rds s i nk
qu i ckl y. Of t en s wi m wi t h onl y
head and neck above su rface.
WHI TE PELI CANS have a wi ng
s pan of about 9 ft. One speci es
l i ves i n t he New Wor l d; anot her
i n t he Ol d Wor l d . Wh ite Pel i cans
nest on i n l an d l akes. Severa l
bi r ds wor k toget her to her d fi sh
i nto t he s hal l ows to catch t hem.
They do not d ive.
1 06 F I SH- EAT I NG B I RDS
BROWN PELI CANS have a wi ng
s pan of mor e t han 6 ft. They
soar 1 0 to 30 ft. over t he sea,
then d i ve strai ght down to scoop
up a fi s h. Thei r pouch can hol d
t wo gal l ons of wat er . Ca pti ves
eat fi sh, meat scra ps, and mi ce.
Brown Pel i cans ar e f ound onl y i n
t he Ameri cas.
ANHI NGAS, or Snakebi r ds, have
a l ong, sl i m neck, s mal l head,
and poi nted bi l l . Wi ngs pan about
4 ft . They spear fi s h wi t h t hei r
bi l l whi l e swi mmi ng underwater.
Qu i ckl y become watersoaked,
hence often seen wi th wi ngs
spr ead to dry i n s u n .
WADI NG BI RDS ( her ons and t hei r a l l i es) have l ong
l egs, neck, and bi l l . Thei r tai l i s s hort, t hei r wi ngs broad.
Most ar e fi sh- eaters. I n zoos, stor ks ar e h esi tant eaters
and may not get thei r share of food.
SHOEBI LL STORKS, or Whal e
heads, stand about 4 ft. tal l .
Thei r bi l l s, 8 i n . l on g an d near l y
as wi de, are used to pr obe i n
t he mud for food . They ar e na
t i ve to t he swampy l owl ands of
t he Upper Ni l e Ri ver of Afri ca.
SADDLE-BI LLED STORKS, from
t r opi cal Afri ca, stand nearl y 4V2
ft_ tal l . They have a yel l ow, sad
d l e-sha ped shi el d on t op of t hei r
l ong, red- and- bl ac k bi l l .
JABI RUS, tal l est ( 4% ft. ) of t he
Amer i can storks, ar e f ound f r om
Mexi co to Ar gent i na. The bi r d' s
feat her l ess, bl ue- bl ack neck has
a red or or ange bas e. Adu l ts
have wh i te pl u mage; t he young
are br owni s h.
1 07
GREAT BLUE HERONS, of Nor t h
Ameri ca, stand about 4Y2 ft. tal l .
They freq uent l y ar e cal l ed
"cra nes. " I mper i al an d Gi ant
her ons of Asi a an d Afri ca are
s i mi l ar in si ze an d equal l y hand
some. Al l her ons hove l ong,
s har p bi l l s .
COMMON EGRETS, about 3 ft.
tol l , or e o i l -whi te her ons of worm
regi ons t hr oughout the wor l d.
The one f ound i n t he New Wor l d
i s cal l ed Amer i can Egr et . They
sta l k i n sects, frogs, and fi shes i n
s hal l ows or marshes.
1 08 WADI NG BI RDS
WH I TE STORKS wi nt er i n Af r i ca
and nest i n t he summer on roof
tops in Eu rope, where t hey ore
consi dered o good- l uck omen.
These to l l ( 3Y2 f t . ) whi te bi r ds
hove bl ock wi ng feathers an d o
red bi l l and l egs. Wh ite Storks
ar e becomi ng scarce.
WOOD STORKS, or Wood I bi ses
( 4 ft. tol l ) , ar e fou n d f r om south
er n Un i ted States to nor t her n
Sout h Amer i ca. Li ve i n col on i es
and bui l d I orge nests hi gh i n
trees i n marshes. Sever al dozen
may bui l d i n some tree.
Roseate Spoonbi l l
ROSEATE SPOONBI LLS, f ound
onl y i n t he Ameri cas, scoop up
f ood by swi ngi ng opened bi l l
back and forth i n s hal l ow water.
Near t i p, spoon- shaped bi l l i s
broader t han t he bi r d' s head.
Eu ras i an Spoonbi l l i s si mi l ar i n
s i z e ( 3 ft. ), has a shaggy man e.
SCARLET I BI SES ( 2 f t . t al l ) are
nati ve to Sout h Amer i ca, wher e
gr ea n umbers have been ki l l ed
for t hei r feathers. Strays n orth
0 sout hern U. S. I bi ses have a
t hi n, down- cu rved bi l l used to
catch i nsects an d cr ustaceans.
GREATER FLAMI NGOS ( about 4
ft. tal l ) l ive i n s ubt ropi cal re
gi ons . They i nvert t hei r head to
si eve food fr om muddy waters
through thei r bent - down, fl at
topped bi l l . To preserve t hei r
br i ght col or i n capti vi ty, t hey
ar e f ed a mi x of car rot j ui ce,
papr i ka, boi l ed beets, an d raw
s hr i mp. The s ame i s fed to spoon
bi l l s and i bi ses. Wi t hout t hi s,
t hei r col or fades to a washed- out
pi nk. Fl ami ngos bui l d mud nest s
2 ft. or mor e t al l and l ay t hei r
s i ngl e egg i n t he s hal l ow de
pressi on on i ts top.
WADI NG B I RDS 1 09
SWANS, GEESE, AND DUCKS typi cal l y have a l ong
neck and a short, fat bi l l . Thei r l egs ar e s hort ond
t hei r feet webbed for swi mmi ng. Ducks and swans feed
by dabbl i ng or di vi ng. Geese forage mai n l y on l and,
eati ng grasses and roots. I n zoos, t hes e waterfowl
ar e fed pel l ets of l ayi ng 'hen feed and "gr eens. "
MUTE SWANS, pu re whi te wi t h
a bl ack knob on t hei r bi l l , are
nat i ve to Europe and Asi a but
have been i ntrod uced to North
Ameri ca and Austra l i a, where
some have gone wi l d. An al bi no
f or m i s common. Mut e Swans can
hi ss and make f eebl e "bar ki ng"
sounds . Wi ngspan, 5 ft.
Mute Swan
60 i n.
BLACK SWANS can t r umpet.
They have wh ite wi ng feathers
t hat show onl y when t he bi rds
are i n fl i g ht. Bl ack Swans are
native to Austral i a and Tas
mani a. They ore rai sed in cap
ti vi ty, however, and have been
i ntrod uced i nto New Zeal and
and ot her reg i ons.
BLACK-NECKED SWANS, of
sout hern Sout h Ameri ca an d the
Fal kl and I s l ands, are s mal l er
t han other swa ns . The bl ack neck
and red bi l l ar e di sti n ctive.
CANADA GEESE, t he l argest
North Amer i can gaose, wei gh as
much as 1 3 l bs. I n s pr i ng, l arge
focks mi grate to nort her n nest
i ng gr ounds, maki ng l oud honk
i ng s ounds as t hey fl y. Un l i ke
d ucks, both mal es an d femal es
have same col or i n g.
RED-BREASTED GE E S E ar e bri g ht
l y col ored, s mal l geese that nest
in the Si ber i an t u n dra and wi n
ter near t he Cas pi an Sea. Bar
nacl e Gees e of n orther n Europe
ar e cl osel y rel ated to the Red
breasted Goose. Both ar e rel ated
to the Canada Goose.
Goose
Canada Goose
22-43 i n .
BLACK-NECKED SCREAMERS of
South Ameri ca or e swan- si zed,
aquati c bi rds . Day and n i ght
they honk noi si l y. Ai r cel l s be
tween ski n and body gi ve them
u n us ual buoyancy. Each wi ng has
two wel l -devel oped s pu rs, whi ch
can i nfl i ct pai nf ul wounds .
TREE DUCKS, or Whi st l i ng Ducks,
have goosel i ke post u re, perch
i n trees near water, and feed i n
near by fi el ds . Al l have a s queal
i ng wh i st l e. The pi n k- bi l l ed Bl ack
bel l i ed Tr ee Duc k ( wi ngspan, 3
ft. ) r anges from sout her n Texas
to northern Ar gent i na.
Bl ack- necked
MANDARI N DUCKS, from Asi a
and Japan, spend more t i me i n
trees than do most d ucks, even
nest i ng i n tree hol es. Both sexes
have l ong feathers on back of
head. Wood Ducks, cl osel y re
l at ed, al so nest in tree hol es.
Wi ngspan of both about 2 ft.
COMMON S HELDUCKS ( wi ng
s pan, 3 ft . ) ar e goosel i ke d ucks
of Eu rasi a. Mal es have a l arge
knob on thei r red bi l l . Shel d ucks
l ay smooth eggs i n nests i n u n
der gr ound bu rrows. Ot her spe
ci es i n Africa and Aust r al i a are
someti mes cal l ed Shel dr akes.
SHOVELERS ar e dabbl i ng d ucks
wi th l arge spoon-shaped bills.
They feed i n s hal l ows us i ng the
combl i ke t eet h on edges of bi l l
t o strai n t i ny pl ants, seeds, an d
cr ustaceans f r om water. Femal es:
mot t l ed br own wi t h bl ue on
wi ngs. Wi ngspan, 2Y2 ft .
MALLARDS ( wi ngspan, 3 ft . ) ar e
Nor t her n Hemi sphere, r i ver-a nd
pond d ucks t hat feed by "ti p
pi ng up" to - pu l l pl ants and mol
l u sks from u nder t he wat er.
Us ual l y nest on d ry ground near
water. Bl ue wi ng patches bor
dered wi t h white i denti fy t hem.
DIURNAL BIRDS OF PREY i ncl ude hawks, eagl es, and
other fesh- eati ng h u nters wi t h hooked bi l l s and sharp
tal o1 1 . Vu l tures are i ncl uded but are mai nl y carri on
eaters. I n zoos, these bi rds are fed a vi tami n- spri n kl ed,
protei n di et. Keepers often must force t hese bi rds to
exerci se to keep them l ean .
LAMMERGEYER, o r Bearded Vul
t ure, wi th beadl i ke br i stl es be
neat h t he bi l l , cnrry bones
cl eaned of fesh by other a ni
mal s hi gh i nt o t he ai r, then d rop
them onto rocks, and extract and
eat the mar row. This 4 f t . ki te
l ives i n t he Ol d Worl d.
KI NG VULTURES, found from
Mexi co to Argent i na, ar e about
2V2 ft. l ong. They have a col or
ful , featherl ess head and neck.
Li ke ot her vul t ures, they are ex
cel l ent soarers. Ki ng Vul t u res
are soci abl e wi th cage mates
except at feedi ng t i me.
SECRETARY BI RDS, from Afri ca,
eat s mal l a ni mal s, i nc l udi ng
snakes which t hey stamp on to
keep them from coi l i ng and
wr i ggl i ng. Near l y 4 f t . t al l an d
wi th penl i ke qu i l l s behi n d t hei r
head, they can wal k faster t han
a man con r un.
Lammergeyer
EAGLES, about
the s ame s i ze as t he Bal d
Eagl e, cat ch mon keys,
par rots, an d sl oths in
tropi cal forests of Cent ral
and Sout h Amer i ca. I n
capti vity, sl eep a l l day;
acti ve at n i ght.
BATALEUR EAGLES, s mal l
er an d wi th s hor t tai l and
br oad wi ngs, are s ki l l f ul
acrobats and excel l ent
soarers. They hunt t he
grassl ands and open for
ests of Afri ca, swoopi ng
down from hi gh i n t he ai r
to prey on s mal l game,
snakes, or l ocusts.
1 1 4 B I RDS OF PREY
BALD EAGLES, nat i onal embl em
of t he Un i ted States, are not
bal d, but t he whi te feathers on
t he ad ul t ' s head an d n ec k give
t hem a bal d appear ance. Mal es
have a wi ngspread of near l y 8
ft. Bal d Eagl es bui l d huge sti ck
nests hi gh i n dead t r ees or on
rock l edges. The f emal e l oys 2 or
3 eggs. The you n g are a
streaked brown an d do not de
vel op adul t pl umage for 3
years. Bal d Eagl es l i ve in Nor t h
Amer i ca and northeastern Asi a,
but ore becomi ng exceedi ngl y
r ar e. Most abundant i n Al aska.
PEREGRI NE FALCONS, or Duck
Hawks, d ive on fl yi ng d ucks or
ot her bi r ds at a s peed os g reat
as 1 75 m. p. h. They stri ke wi t h
t hei r feet , causi ng t he prey t o
fal l to ear t h wher e t he fal con
t hen retri eves t hem. They have
been t rai ned as h u nt i ng 1 1 hawks. "
Pereg r i ne Fal cons (wi ngspan
about 3 f t . ) a re fou n d al ong
cl ifs near wat er t hr oughout t he
worl d but ar e nowhere abun
dan! . Fal cons have l ong, poi nted
wi ngs, l ower l egs free of feath
ers, and a n otch or tooth i n the
upper bi l l . The Sparrow Hawk i s
a common fal con fou n d t hr ough
out t he Americas.
CARACARAS are fal cons t hat
feed i n focks, pr i mar i l y on car
casses of dead an i mal s as vul
t ures do. Au du bon's Caracara,
nat i onal bi r d of Mexi co, an d
sever al ot her ki n ds ar e fou n d
from sout her n Un ited States to
cent r al Sout h Ameri ca. Wi ng
span to 4 ft.
RED - TAI LED HAWKS, f ound
f r om Al aska to Panama, a re
l arge, sl ow-fyi ng hawks t hat
feed mai nl y on rodents and rab
bits. Wi t h broad wi ngs ( span to
4 ft. ) and a short, round t ai l ,
they can soar, l i ke vul t ures, but
spend most of thei r t i me perched.
B I RDS OF PREY 1 1 5
FOWL-LI KE BI RDS, al l much l i ke chi ckens i n t hei r h abi ts,
have stout l egs and strong feet wi th whi ch they scratch
on the gr ound to fnd t hei r food. They can run fast and
c an a l so fl y-but onl y f or short di stances. Al l have a
t hi ck, down- curved bi l l .
PEAFOWL are nat ive t o I ndi a
an d Ceyl on but wel l known
t hroughout t he wor l d. Mal es are
peacocks; femal es, peahens.
Commonl y given free r un i n
zoos. Mal es l i ft t rai n of l ong,
spotted u pper t ai l f eat her s and
s pr ead t hem as a f an i n cour t i ng
d ispl ays. To 7 ft. l ong, i nc l udi ng
t he handsome t ai l .
GREAT CURASSOW is a t ur key
sized forest dwel l er from south
er n Mexi co to Ecuador. Cures
sows us ual l y stay i n trees an d
r un agi l el y al on g t he br anches.
li ke other c urassows, al l easi l y
tamed, the Great Cu rassow has
a feathered crest. Mal es have a
feshy knob on top of bi l l .
QUAI L an d partri dges, found
t hr oughout t he wor l d, ar e smal l
chi cken- l i ke bi r ds cl osel y rel ated
to pheasants. Mal es of several
speci es have conspi cuous head
pl umes. Where s uccul ent pl ants
are avai l abl e, some qu ai l can do
wi thout water for months.
PHEASANTS ( about 2Y2 ft. l ong)
ar e native to Asi a but have been
i ntrod uced to most parts of
wor l d. Mal es have gaudy pl um
age and a l ong, poi nted or
arched tai l . Browni sh femal e has
a shorter t ai l . Gol den Pheasants
are common i n zoos but al most
exti nct in thei r n ative Chi n a.
Si l ver Pheasants, f r om mou n
tai nous southeastern Asi a, ar e
si l very white wi t h bl ac k under
parts. Tragopans ar e short-tai l ed
pheasants of t he Hi mal ayas.
Mal es have two l arge hor nl i ke
wattl es under a crown of feath
ers. Other col orful pheasants are
a l so kept i n zoos.
Gol den Pheasant
FOWL-L I KE B I RDS 1 1 7
CRANES ar e l ong- l egged bi rds, a nd t hei r bi l l i s usual l y
l onger thn t hei r head. I n fi ght, t he neck i s hel d strai ght
rather t han crooked as in herons. Capti ve cran es ar e
kept f r om fl yi ng by wi ng cl i ppi ng, but t hey sti l l j ump
fences. Bustards are cl os el y rel ated to cranes.
CROWNED CRANES ( 3 ft. tal l )
have powerf ul , boomi ng voi ces.
The handsome crown i s thi n but
sti f an d strawl i ke i n adu l ts;
s mal l er an d not wel l formed i n
t he young. They eat i nsects an d
repti l es and have been tamed
and kept i n gardens for t hi s
pur pose. Nati ve to Afri ca, t hey
l ive i n mars hy areas and bui l d
bu l ky nests on gr ound. Becomi ng
r ar e wher e wetl ands are d rai ned.
SARUS CRANES ( about 5 ft. tal l )
range from I n di a t o Phi l i ppi nes.
Pai rs mate for l i fe, as d o ot her
cr anes. Al l al so perform dances.
GREAT BUSTARDS, s horter
l egged t han other cranes, are
among t he heavi est of fyi ng
bi rds. Mal es wei g h 25 to 35 l bs. ;
femal es, 1 1 t o 1 3 l bs . Great
Bust ards have been exter mi nated
i n most of Eurasi a.
SHOREBIRDS are l ong- l egged, web-footed gr ound
nesters that l i ve i n marshes or al ong shores. They eat a
vari ety of s mal l ani mal s.
BLACK-NECKED STI LTS are smal l
( 1 4 i n . ) wadi ng bi r ds wi t h l ong,
sti l t l i ke l egs. They pr obe i n mud
wi t h s l ender bi l l s f or food . Bui l d
nests on ma r shy gr ound. They
l ive in Nort h Ameri ca an d north
ern South Ameri ca.
CROCODI LE BI RDS, or Bl ack
backed Coursers ( 9 i n . ), l ive on
s andy banks of Afri ca' s ri vers.
Reputedl y, thou gh not a ut henti
cated, they enter crocod i l es'
mout hs lor food. These bi r ds
general l y bu ry t hei r eggs i n
moi st sand wher e they ar e i ncu
bated by the s un' s heat.
LEAST SANDPI PERS ar e 6 i n .
bi rds t hat ar e fou n d al ong coast
al mud fl ats of Nor t h Amer i ca.
There are many ki nds of s and
pi pers an d an y of sever al may
be di s pl ayed i n zoos as avai l
abl e. I n the wi l d, s and pi per s
f or age for f ood i n l arge fl ocks.
GULLS ( more t ho n 40 speci es)
l ive al ong coastal areas t hr ough
out t he wor l d. The cl os el y re
l ated terns a re s mal l er and more
g raceful fi ers. Gu l l s eat mostl y
dead fsh and other car r i on;
t er ns eat mos t l y l ive fs h. Her r i ng
Gul l s ( wi ngs pan near l y 5 ft . ) are
f ound al ong t he coasts and some
i n l and waterways i n Nort hern
Hemis ph ere. l augh i ng Gu l l s,
named for u n us ual cal l , occur on
both coasts of t he Ameri cas .
Many ki nds of g u l l s ar e shown
i n zoos.
Crocodi l e
Bi rd
PIGEONS AND DOVES are members of t he same fam
i l y. Doves ar e smal l and graceful ; pi geons ere c hunki er .
Bot h general l y make cooi ng sounds, and un l i ke other
bi rds, t hey dri n k by s ucki ng water up t hrough t he bi l l .
Parents feed t he young "pi geon's mi l k" whi c h i s com
posed of fat cel l s from t he l i ni ng of t he crop.
FRUI T P I GEONS ( 1 4 i n. ) are
br i g htl y col ored tropi ca l forest
dwel l ers of the Ol d Worl d . They
feed on f r u i ts and berri es, rarel y
comi ng to t he grou nd.
BL EEDI NG HEART PI GEONS ( 1 2
i n.) have a bri ght red spl ash, re
sembl i ng bl ood, on an otherwi se
al l whi te breast.
GROUND DOVES ( 7 i n. ), sl i ghtl y
l arger than sparrows, i nhabi t
warmer parts of Ameri ca. Tai l i s
short and broad.
CROWNED PI GEONS, 3 ft. l ong,
ar e the l ar gest an d mos t s pec
loc ul ar of the pi geons . These
New Gui nea bi rds have a l acy
crown of head feathers an d
have been h u nted for pl umes.
MOURNI NG DOVES ( 1 2 i n .) are
found from Canada to Mexi co.
They l ive cl ose to human habi
tati ons an d have a soft cooi ng
cal l . Hu nt i ng reg u l at i ons make
i t l ess l i kel y t hat t hese bi r ds wi l l
become ext i nct as di d Passenger
Pi geon, whi ch they resembl e.
TOURACOS, Afri ca, have a uni que coppery- red pi g
ment ( turaci n ) on t hei r wi ngs. I t is sai d to be water
sol ubl e. Touracos are al so cal l ed Pl antai n ( banana)
Eaters but appear to l i ke berri es and seeds best. They
gl i de from tree to tree and r un al ong t he br anches l i ke
squi rrel s i n search of food.
GO-AWAY BI RDS, tou racos of
sava n nas and forests of east
cent r al Afri ca, r eported l y fol l ow
h u nters an d f r i ghte n of qua rry
by cryi n g "Go awoy. " la rgest
tou raco i s t he Bl ue, 3 ft. l ong.
PARROTS AND THEI R ALLIES have a l arge head,
hooked bi l l , and heavy l egs and feet. They use t he bi l l
as a n utcracker or rasp, movi ng the l ower agai nst t he
upper. Thei r feet ar e used f or cl i mbi ng or to hol d food.
Many can l earn to i mi tate t he human voi ce, some ki nds
better t han others. Thei r gaudy col ors, cl own l i ke be
havi or, and mi mi cki ng voi ces have endeared t hem as pets
si nce anci ent t i mes. Cockatoos have crests and short tai l
feathers, Macaws have a l ong tai l , n o crest. Parakeets
and l ori keets are l ong- tai l ed and s l i m bodi ed.
SCARLET MACAWS ( 36 i n.) , na
ti ve to tropi cal Ameri ca, are
hardy, l ong- l ived, vivi dl y col ored,
and popul ar pets. Trai ned to
t al k, these parrots can make a
wi de r ange of soft sounds,
t hough t hei r nat ural voi ce is
harsh. They are pl ayf ul ; need
wood to shr ed to keep bi l l tri m.
GOLD-AN-LUE MACAWS (30
i n.) , from nort hern South Amer
i ca, are al ert, i nt el l i gent, sharp
voi ced mi mi cs. Active fi ers, t hese
birds must be given pl ent y of
roam to exerci se in captivity.
SULFUR - CRESTED COCKATOOS
( 1 8 i n. ) ar e l oud, hardy Austra
l i on bi r ds. These handsome bi r ds
ar e known to l ive to 30 years.
1 22 PARROTS
AFRI CAN GRAY PARROTS ( 1 2-
1 5 i n. ) l ive in t he Congo and
Gol d Coast r ai n forests. Thei r
voices s ound very human, and
they are consi dered t he best
tal kers. In captivity, they may
l ive for more t han 50 yecrs. I n
the wi l d, roost i n focks or i n
pai rs; destructive to gr ai n fel ds.
YElLOW-HEADED AMAZONS ( 1 5
i n. ) ar e one of many so-cal l ed
Amazon par rots fou n d from
Mexi co to South Amer i ca. Al l are
greeni s h. The Yel l ow- headed is a
good t al ker, if t r ai ned young.
COCKATI ELS ( 1 5 i n. ) , f r om Aus
tral i a, are gent l e and afecti on
at e. They ar e fai r tal kers , and
good whi stl ers, easy to car e for.
BUDGERI GARS, of Aust r al i a, ar e
known al s o as Budgi es, Shel l
Parakeets, and even as Aus
t ral i an Lovebi r ds. Thr ough sel ec
ti ve breed i ng, many vari eti es
have been devel oped. Some are
pr edomi na nt l y bl ue, others yel
l ow, yel l owi s h- gr een, cobal t,
even al bi no. I n t he wi l d, they
l i ve i n col on i es. They feed on
al l ki nds of smal l seeds, l ay u p
t o n i n e eggs, an d someti mes rai se
two broods i n a year. Thei r
notes o re a buzzi ng whi st l e or a
wa r bl e. Tr ai ned budgi es can
wh i st l e a t une. Budgi es are com
mon pet s t hroughout worl d .
About 7 i n . l ong.
LORI KEETS c r us h fl owers f or nec
t ar an d j u i ce, whi ch they l ap u p
as cats do mi l k . Thei r t ongue i s
br us hl i ke at t h e t i p. Lori keets
l ive in t he Austral as i an j ung l es.
One of t he most col orf u l i s t he
Rai n bow Lori keet ( 1 0 i n. ) . May
be fed s ugar water or honey.
PARAKEETS, from Sout heas t Asi a,
ar e s mal l { about 8 i n. ) par rots
wi th a poi nt ed t ai l . Lar gest i s
t he I ndi an Ri ng- necked ( 1 6 i n. ) ,
a popul ar cage bi rd si nce Roman
t i mes . Mos t of t he many ki nds
l i ve i n l arge fl ocks and f eed on
t he grou n d. Members of one
gr oup feed and sl eep hangi ng
ups i de down fr om br anches.
LOVEBI RDS, mi n i at ur e (5 i n . )
par rots of Afri ca, have been
t amed for cent ur i es and are
f ound i n ca pti vi ty t hr oughout
the worl d. Pai r s of Lovebi rd s
may show great attachment,
si tt i ng for hours bi l l to bi l l . The
c al l not e i s s hr i l l and strong.
1 24 PARROTS
I n dia n Ri ng- necked
Par akeet
PARROTS
FROGMOUTHS, r el ated to ni ght
hawks and whi p- poor-wi l l s, l i ve i n
forests
Asi a.
of Austral i a and easter n
Un l i ke ni ght hawks, frog
mouths catch thei r food
- beetl es, scorpi ons,
caterpi l l ars, and even
Tawny
Fragmout h
1 8 i n.
mi ce - on the ground.
Cal l i s a l ow boomi ng.
OWLS are noctur nal bi rds of prey t hat l i ve i n al l parts
of t he worl d except Antarcti ca. Thei r si l ent fi ght is due
to t hei r soft pl umage. Keen hear i ng and si ght, and
s harp, curved cl aws enabl e t hem t o sei ze rodents, i n
sects, bi rds, even fsh i n dar kness. Owl s swal l ow prey
whol e and l ater regurgi tate undi gested pel l ets of
feathers, fur, and bone. Cal l s range from hoots to
screeches a nd sounds l i ke snores and coughs.
Mal ay
Fi s hi ng
Owl
FI SHI NG OWLS of sever al speci es
ar e found i n Asi a and Afri ca.
They roost i n trees al ong streams
to prey on fi sh, frogs, and crabs.
They al so eat s mal l mammal s.
BARN OWLS, a l so cal l ed Mon
key-faced Owl s, have a heart
s haped r i ng of feat hers ar ound
t he eyes. Thei r young are often
rai sed i n deserted bar ns or atti cs.
Cal l s are screeches and squeaks.
S NOWY OWLS, of t he Ar ct i c, can
be d i s pl ayed best i n zoos be
cause they ar e mor e acti ve i n
dayt i me t han other l arge owl s.
Femal es ar e l arger and more
power ful t han mal es. Thei r l i ght
col or matches s nowy habi tat.
TROGONS l i ve i n t he tropi cal rai n
forests of Asi a, Afri ca, and t he
Ameri cas. Mal es are col orf ul ; t he
femal es l es s stri ki ng. Al l ar e s l ug
gi sh, poor fl i ers. They are mai n l y
i nsect eaters, t hough some eat frui t.
The ornate Quetzal ( p. 3) . nati onal
embl em of Guatemal a, is most
handsome of t rogons.
Barlai l ed
Trogon 1 0 i r.
HUMMI NGBI RDS, t he smal l est of al l bi rds, beat t hei r
wi ngs so rapi dl y t hat they act ual l y make a h u mmi ng
noi se. They can fl y forward, backward, si deways. To
feed, t hey h over over a fower, i nsert t hei r bi l l , and s uck
u p nectar. I n capti vi ty, t hey are gi ven a mi x of honey
or sugar a nd water, frui t fl i es, and condensed mi l k.
Mal es are more bri ght l y col ored t han femal es. About
300 speci es, a l l New Worl d, found mostl y i n t he tropi cs.
KI NGFI SHERS AND THEI R ALLI ES ar e found t hrough
out t he worl d bu t mai n l y i n t h e tropi cs an d subtropics.
Al l are stocky bi rds wi th a stout bi l l . Some l i ve in t he
forests and eat i nsects and rodents. Ot hers l i ve near
wat er and are mai nl y fi sh eaters.
1 28
MOTMOTS ar e j aysi zed bi rds .
Mos t have racket shaped t ai l
f eat her s kept t r i m and part i al l y
ba re by const ant pr eeni ng. They
feed on i nsects, l i zards, and
fr ui t . Mot mot s l ive i n t he l owl and
forests of the New Wor l d tropi cs.
HORNBI LLS ar e from I n di a and
southeastern Asi a. Mates sel ect a
hol l ow in a tree, an d t he cavi ty i s
seal ed wi th mud to i mpri son t he
f emal e. The mal e feeds her
t hr ough a sl i t ope n i ng unt i l after
the c hi cks hat ch.
KI NGFI SHERS have l a rge heads
and shor t t ai l s . Bel ted Ki ngfi sh
ers, of Nor t h Ameri ca, have a
t hi n, poi nted bi l l an d feed mai n
l y on fs h. The Aust r al i an Kooka
bur r o, or l aughi ng J ackass ( be
cause of fendi sh c al l s), i s a forest
ki ngfs her, whi ch have br oader
bi l l s and feed on i nsects, l i zards,
an d ot her l an d an i mal s .
Ki ngfsher
1 2 i n.
WOODPECKERS AND ALLI ES ar e found mai nl y i n t he
tropi cs t hr oughout t he worl d (except Austral i a) ; some
l i ve i n col der cl i mates. They nest i n hol es chi sel ed i nt o
trees or dug i n t he gr ound, are mai nl y i nsect eaters,
and typi cal l y have two toes i n front, two behi nd.
BARBElS ar e col orful , stocky
bi r ds wi th bri stl es ar ound t hei r
bi l l . They l ive i n t he d ry bus h
country and al ong t he edges of
t r opi cal forests. Bar bels ar e very
noisy, some ki nds r epeat i ng t hei r
"ti n n y
1
1 cal l s for hou rs.
Yel l ow- shafted
F l i cker
N . A. 1 2 i n.
TOUCANS use t hei r canoe
s haped bi l l s, hal f t he l engt h of
t hei r body, to ski n f r ui t ( t hei r
pr i nci pal f ood) , d ri l l wood,
pr obe i n t he mud, or t ear fesh .
When it sl eeps, a t oucan t ur ns
i t s head s o t hat i t s l ong bi l l
rests on i t s back, t hen fol ds i ts
l ong t ai l neat l y over i t.
WOODPECKERS pr obe wi th t hei r
l ong, bar bed t ong u e to get
gr ubs, ants, ot her i nsects from
t he hol es t hey dr i l l . I n capt ivi ty,
they are fed a su bsti tute di et of
chopped eggs an d horse meat .
Red- headed Wood peckers an d
sapsuckers feed i n trees; fl i ckers,
mostl y on the gr ound. Var i ous
wood peckers may be displ ayed
i n zoos, dependi ng an t hei r
avai l abi l ity.
WOODPECKERS AND AL L I ES 1 29
PERCHING BIRDS make u p about three-ffths of t he
world's l i vi ng bi rd popul at i on. Smal l to medi um-si zed,
a l l are l and bi rds. When a perchi ng bi rd "squats" on a
branch, tendons in each foot ti ghten i ts toes ar ound
t he perch. They are l oosened onl y when t he bi rd stands
up. Many ki nds of perchi ng bi rds are di spl ayed i n zoos;
a few of t he most col orf ul are shown here.
BLACKBI RDS total more t han 90
speci es, al l American . Grackl es,
ori ol es, cowbi rds, an d meadow
l arks are i ncl uded i n the gr oup.
Mos t bl ackbi rds are omni vorous,
but Oropendol as and other
ori ol es of the Ameri can tropi cs
are frui t eaters. Ori ol es bui l d
el aborate hangi ng nests. The
Oropendol as may be 6 ft. l ong.
CROWS AND JAYS are a cos
mopol i t an gr oup of about 1 00
s pecies, i ncl udi ng t he magpi es
and the raven, l argest of the
perchi ng bi rds. Al l are omnivo
rous, and most have harsh cal l s .
They are among t he mos t cl ever
of t he bi rds.
TANAGERS ore col orful , s mal l
New Wor l d bi r ds of over 200
speci es. Most ore poor si ngers .
They prefer fruits and i nsects.
Most t anagers bui l d shal low
nests, i n a t ree or a bush.
FLYCATCHERS use thei r br ood
bi l l to s ei ze i nsects whi l e i n
fi ght. The 365 species, al l of the
New Wor l d, a re noise- makers
rather than true songbi rds. I n
cl udes ki ngbi rds and phoebes.
STARLI NGS of some 1 00 speci es
l ive i n Eu rope, Asi a, and Afri ca.
They were i ntrod uced i nto the
U. S. Mynas whi stl e and I mi
tate s ounds . Wattl ed Star l i ngs
s hed head feathers, gr ow feshy
wattl es i n breed i ng season . Su
perb Star l i ng is s hi ny, metal l i c.
PERCHI NG B I RDS
BULBULS ar e c hatter i ng, s i ngi ng
bi r ds from t he t r opi cal and s ub
t ropi cal forests of Afri ca to t he
Phi l i ppi nes . The Red- whi skered
Bul bul , of sout heastern Asi a, pre
fers l i vi ng i n or near towns.
COTI NGAS AND MANAKI NS i n
el ude t he col orf ul cocks-of-the
rock, bel l bi rds, and umbrel l a
bi rds. Femal es ar e usual l y dr ab.
Al l ar e forest i nhabi tants of trop
i cal Amer i ca.
1 32
BABBLERS an d t hei r al l i es ar e al l
Ol d Worl d speci es (except pos
si bl y t he Wrenti t of western
U. S. ) . Thei r noi sy c hatter gives
them thei r name. The Peki n Rob
i n i s one of the best s i ngers.
FI NCHES AND SPARROWS
( about 300 s peci es) ar e mostl y
smal l bi rds, found mai nl y i n t he
Ameri cas. I n c l uded are gros
beaks, bu nt i ngs/ cardi nal s, and
t he many ki nds of sparrows.
Safron
Easter n U. S. , Mex.
WEAVERBI RDS AND OLD WORLD
SEED EATERS ( about 300 speci es)
i ncl ude gol dfnches, waxbi l l s ,
and weaver bi r ds . Mos t chi r p
rat her t han s i ng, and many or e
col on i al nesters. Al l ar e s mal l ,
but some member s of t hi s gr ou p
have l ong t ai l feathers.
Afri ca
Chestn ut
Manni ki n
Sout heastern
Asi a
1 33
BI RDS OF PARADI SE ( 1 8 i n.) ,
rel atives of t he c rows, i nhabi t
the forests of New Gui nea and
nei ghbori ng areas. Al l the mal es
have bri ghtl y col ored pl umage.
Some speci es have topknot feath
ers more than twice as l ang as
the enti re bi rd; others have twa
wi rel i ke tai l feathers. Some have
broad pl u mes on the neck or
broad tai l feathers, whi ch they
f an out. They ass ume u n us ual
positi ons i n displ ayi ng thei r
pl umage; one even hangs up
si de dawn.
BOWERBI RDS ( 1 2-1 5 i n. ) are
l ess col orful than the rel ated
Birds of Paradi se. They eat most
l y frui t but al so seeds and i n
sects. The mal es bui l d el aborate
bowers i n which they court the
femal es. Some add br i ght ber
ries, s hel l s, or other obj ects to
the bowers and even br i ng fresh
fowers, repl aci ng them when
t hey wi l t . Some speci es bui l d a
bower as hi gh as 8 ft. and use
the same structure year after
year. The 1 9 species l ive in
damp forests of New Gui nea
and Austral i a.
1 1 L 1b 11 N H 1 b 1 1b
Repti l es and amphi bi ans are col d- bl ooded ani mal s-that
i s , t hei r body t emperature i s al most t he s ame as t he
temperature of t hei r surroundi ngs. Amphi bi ans ar e t he
more pri mi ti ve of the t wo groups, occupyi ng an evol u
t i onary posi ti on between fshes and repti l es. Typi cal l y,
t hey spend a part of thei r l i ves devel opi ng i n wat er and
breathi ng t hrough gi l l s. Most adul t amphi bi ans l i ve near
wat er and have a moi st ski n. Repti l es have compl eted
the transi ti on to l and. A dry ski n covers t hei r scal es or
pl ates, and they have l ungs (some on l y one) an d breat he
ai r . Even t hose t hat l i ve i n water must come to t he s ur
face for ai r.
AMPHI BI ANS are sal amanders,
newts, frogs, toads, and the
pri mi ti ve, wor ml i ke caeci l i ans .
Sal amand'ers an d newts have
l ong tai l s; adu l t frogs and toads
do not . Amphi bi ans have nei t her
tr ue cl aws nor scal es. At mat i ng
t i me, even those t hat l i ve on
l and ret ur n to water ( or to a
damp pl ace) to l ay eggs. The
young, or t adpol es, do not re
sembl e the adu l t.
REPTI LES i ncl ude s nakes, l i zards,
t urtl es, crocod i l i ans, and the
nearl y exti nct and rarel y ex
hi bited Tuat ara, or Sphenodon,
of New Zeal an d. Snakes ar e
typi cal l y l egl ess, but a f ew ki nds
have vesti ges of l egs. Mos t rep
t i l es l ay r ubbery-s hel l ed eggs,
but some give bi r t h to l i ve
young. I n ei ther case, the young
resembl e t he adul ts.
Frogs and Toads
1 , 800 speci es
Sal amanders
and Newt s
300 speci es
Caeci l i an s
1 00 speci es
Snakes
2, 900
speci es
Li zar ds
3,000
s peci es
W
CROCODI LI ANS are l ong- snouted, l ong-tai l ed, four
l egged repti l es wi th hor ny, pl atel i ke scal es and nu
merous coni ca l teet h. Found i n or near water i n tropi cal
and subtropi cal regi ons, t hi s gr oup i s di vi ded i nto
( 1 ) crocodi l es, ( 2) a l l i gators and cai mans, and 3)
gavi al s. Al l use thei r tai l for swi mmi ng. On l and t hey
l i e fl at on t hei r bel l y, but they can l i ft t hemsel ves on
t hei r l egs t o wal k-or can even r u n rapi dl y for short
di stances. Except when feedi ng, they spend most of t hei r
t i me s unni ng al ong t he shore. I n al l crocodi l i ans, t he
nostri l s and eyes are on bumps on t he top of t he head,
permi tti ng t he bi g repti l es to breathe and to see whi l e
t he body ( i ncl udi ng al l of t he head except t hes e bumps)
i s under the water. As "foati n g l ogs," they dri ft at t he
surface and cat ch t hei r prey unaware. Capti ve al l i gators
have l i ved for more than 50 years, sl i ght l y l onger than
any of t he crocodi l es.
CROCODI LES are t he l argest
( not l ongest) of al l l ivi ng rep
t i l es, some wei ghi ng more t han
a ton an d reachi ng a l engt h of
mor e t han 20 feet. Ameri can
Crocodi l es l ive i n sal t-water
mar shes an d al ong br acki sh wa
terways from the sout hern t i p
of Fl or i da to nort hern Sout h
Amer i ca. The Ameri can Croco
d i l e has a n arrow, poi nted s nout;
the Ameri can Al l i gator, a broad,
rounded snout.
Crocodi l es in Africa an d Asi a
have rather broad s nouts, but i n
al l , t he fourth l ower tooth on
each si de sti l l shows when the
j aws are c l osed, di sti ng ui s hi ng
them fr om the al l i gators and al so
from the cai mans. The Fal se Ga
vi al , of the Mal ayan Peni nsul a,
has the most poi nted snout of al l
t he fU0 crocodi l es.
al l i gat or
ALLI GATORS a re fou n d i n onl y
t wo pl aces: The Amer i can Al l i
gator ( 1 0-1 9 ft. ) from t he Caro
l i nas southward and ar ound t he
Gul f to Texas, an d t he s mal l er
Chi nese Al l i gat or i n t he Yangtze
Ri ver and i ts tr i butar i es. Both
l ive mai nl y i n fresh water, some
ti mes i n br acki s h. The rel ated
Sout h Ameri can cai mans -Bl ack,
Spectacl ed, an d Smoot h-fronted
-ore about t he same si ze. I n
cai mans a n d al l i gators, al l u pper
t eet h show when j aws ar e cl osed,
but the fourth l ower tooth on
each si de i s hi dden i n a pi t.
GAVI ALS, of t r opi cal sout heast
ern Asia, reach a l engt h of mor e
t han 20 feet, much l onger t han
t he Fal se Gavi al . They use t hei r
s l i m, garfi s h- l i ke s nout for cat ch
i ng fsh, t hei r mai n food.
crocodi l e
-
CROCODI L I ANS 1 37
TURTLES, an anci ent group dati ng to t he days of t he
dinosaurs, l i ve i n such vari ed pl aces as h ot, dry deserts,
swamps and marshes, open sea, a nd fresh-water
streams, l akes, and ponds. land turtl es are mai nl y
vegetari ans; most aquati c turtl es are fesh eaters.
Turtl es have an upper s hel l , or carapace, formed over
the parti al l y fused ri bs, and a l ower s hel l , or pl astron .
Turtl es l ack teeth, bu t t h e horny edges of t hei r jaws are
qui te sharp. The l argest of t he t urtl es are t he sea
dwel l i ng leather backs that may wei gh up to 1 ,500 l bs.
and measure about 9 ft. l ong. Al l turtl es l ay eggs i n
nests dug i n sand or i n l oose soi l , and t he eggs are
i ncubated by t he earth's warmth. Turtl es are l onger
l i ved i n capti vi ty t han are any other backboned ani mal s.
There i s evi dence that they may l i ve for at l east 1 50
years; some wel l - aut henti cated records exceed 80 years.
MATAMATAS, l arge, South
Ameri can snake-necked turtles,
have a short tai l , 1 6- i n . shel l , o
l ong neck, and a broad head
covered wi th growths. Tubul ar
n ostri l s serve as snorkel s. When
t urtl e opens its I orge mouth, fsh
or other an i mal s are caught by
i nrush of water.
1 38 TURTLES
AUSTRALI AN SNAKE - NECKED
TURTLES have a neck that i s al
mos t os l ong as t hei r 6-i n . shel l s.
To hi de thei r head, these tu rtl es
tuck i t i nto t he l oose ski n. The
l ong neck is J oshed out snakel i ke
to capture food. These doci l e
fresh-water turtl es have l ived for
35 years i n zoos.
% R
El egant Sl i der
SLI DERS ( 8-1 2 i n.) ore common
Nor t h Amer i can aquati c turtl es.
Mol es use l ong f nger nai l s to l op
femal e' s head i n courtshi p. Com
monl y bask on rocks and l ogs.
Young sl i ders or e commonl y sol d
in pet shops.
MUSK TURTLES, or Sti nkpots,
emit a strong, mu sky odor. These
smal l ( 3-6 i n. ) t urtl es l ive i n
sl ow-movi ng streams and mudd)
ponds wher e they f eed on smal l
aquati c ani mal s, l i vi ng or dead .
DI AMOND-BACKED TERRAPI NS
( 8 i n. ) -r i ngs on s hel l suggest
thei r names -l ive in sal t marshes
and t i dal waters of Atl anti c and
Gul f coasts. They were once
rai sed for t hei r meat.
SOFT-SHELLED TURTLES ( 1 2-1 6
i n .) , of. North Ameri ca, Afri ca,
and Southeast Asi a, are fl at and
round. Thei r shel l s are i mbedded
i n feshy, r ubbery materi al , l i ke
l eather. Thei r s norkel - l i ke snout
hi des strong j aws that con i nfict
a pai nf ul bite, and thei r neck i s
sl i m and s nakel i ke.
Poi nted Turtl e
PAI NTED TURTLES (6~8 i n. ) ore
col orful l y mar ked wi th red and
yel l ow. Col or vari es wi th the re
g i on (Moi ne to Mexi co) . They
often sun for hour s on l ogs or
rocks, droppi ng of i nto the
water quickl y when di st urbed.
ALLI GATOR SNAPPERS ( 24-30
i n. ) are the l argest of the fresh
water turtl es, wei ghi ng up to
more than 200 l bs . They l ive in
the sl ow streams and swampy
ponds of sout heaster n Uni ted
Stoles. A wor ml i ke bi t of fesh on
turtl e' s tongue may entice fs h to
the opened mout h.
cl osed
BOX TURTLES, i f not too fat, can
cl ose thei r 5- i n. hi nged s hel l s
t i ght l y. They do wel l i n cap
ti vi ty an d wi l l eat fru i t, meal,
and i nsects. Al l but one of the
sever al speci es of box tu rtl es are
l and dwel l ers.
W
RADI ATED TORTOI SES, wi t h a
pattern of r adi at i ng yel l ow or
ora nge bands on t he car apace,
are l arge ( 1 8 i n. ) dome- shel l ed,
l an d-dwel l er s of Madagascar .
Li ke ot her tortoi ses, they eat
fr u i ts and vegetabl es.
GI ANT TORTOI SES wei gh as
much as 500 l bs. Al dabra Gi ant
Tortoi ses, f r om i s l ands i n the
I n d i an Ocea n near Madagascar,
ar e common i n zoos. The Gi ant
Tortoi ses of the Gal apagos I s
l ands were so r ut h l essl y s l augh
tered for t hei r meal, eggs , and
oi l t hat t hey wer e near l y exter mi.
not ed. These gi ants ar e so doci l e
t hat c hi l dren ar e often permi t
ted to ri de them i n zoos.

LI ZARDS ar e typi cal l y l ong- bodi ed, scal y repti l es wi t h


movabl e eyel i ds, f uncti on al ear openi ngs, and four
wel l - devel oped l i mbs. A few ki nds l ack l egs and r e
sembl e s nakes or worms. Most l i zards can s hed t hei r
tai l and grow a new one. The more t han 3,000 speci es
of l i zards vary i n si ze from 2 i n. to ! 0 ft . and are foun d
i n war m regi ons t hr oughout t h e worl d.
MONI TORS ar e g i an t dr agon
l i ke l i zards wi th a t hi ck t ai l ,
power f ul l i mbs, and an excep
ti onal l y l ong, forked tongue.
Most mon i tors l ive near water
and ore excel l ent swi mmers.
The Komodo Dr agon, found on
sever al I ndonesi an i sl ands, may
r each l engt h of 1 0 ft. ; Ni l e Moni
tor of t r opi cal Afri ca, 6 ft.
MEXI CAN BEADED LI ZARDS
AND GI LA MONSTERS ( 2 ft. ) ar e
t he onl y venomous l i zards i n t he
worl d . Thei r scal es are i n
"beaded" r ows al i gn i n g cross
wi se and di agonal l y. Beaded Li z
ard, al most bl ack, has mor e
bands on i ts tai l t han t he pi nki s h
Gi l a Monster.
TEGUS ar e swi ft-footed South
Amer i can l i zards t hat may ex
ceed 3 ft. i n l engt h and wei gh
u p t o 2 l bs. They eat s mal l an i
mal s, fru it, an d eggs. Unl i ke
ot her gr ound l i zards, Teg us c l i mb
trees and often l ay eggs i n ter
mi te nests. The s mal l er racer un
ner s an d whi pt ai l l i zar ds of t he
Un i ted States are cl osel y rel ated.
I GUANI DS ar e a l arge f ami l y of
l i zards ( about 700 speci es) t hat
l i ve i n t he war m and t emperate
reg i ons of the New Worl d an d
on Madagascar, t he Tonga and
Fi j i i s l ands . Most speci es are
s mal l , but some reach a l engt h
%
of 6 ft. or more. Among t hese
l arge l i zards are t he Common
I guana and t he Gr ound and
Mar i ne i guanas of t ropi cal Amer
i ca. Basi l i sks, an ol es, and fence
l i zar ds ar e al l members of t he
i guani d fami l y.
BASI L I SKS, especi al l y mal es, have
crests down t he back and tai l .
They l i ve cl ose to water i n t ropi
ca l Amer i ca. Basi l i sks can run on
t hei r hi nd l egs semi - upri ght and
even "wal k1 1 on wat er for a short
di st ance. About hal f of t hei r 2
ft. l engt h is tai l .
ANOLES ar e t he l i zards known
as Ameri can Chamel eons be
cause they can change col or
from brown to g reen. They are
not rel ated to t he Ol d Worl d
chamel eons . A West I ndi es spe
ci es reaches a l engt h of 1 B i n .
Anol es ar e s hort-l i ved.
FENCE L I ZARDS ( 6-1 0 i n . ) , often
cal l ed Swi fts, are r ough-scal ed,
swi ft- movi ng, i nsect-eat i ng l i z
ards of t he U. S. an d Mexi co.
Some mal es have patches of
br i ght bl ue on the under'ides.
Most speci es are fou n d i n war m,
d ry areas. I n capti vi ty, they can
be fed neal wor ms, fi es, beetl es,
cater pi l l ars, and grasshopper s.
TOKAY GECKOS ( about 1 2 i n .
l on g) ar e nati ves of sout heastern
Asi a and t he Mal ayan I s l ands .
They bar k, gi vi ng a s ound l i ke
"to-key. " Geckos hang onto t he
si des or t ops of cages by mean s
of mi croscopi cal l y s mal l hookl i ke
struct u res on t he pads of t hej r
feet. They c an even c l i mb gl ass.
CHAMELEONS are sl ow-movi ng
creatures. They wai t f or i nsects
to come i nto vi ew of t hei r t ur ret
l i ke eyes, whi ch swivel i ndepend
entl y of each ot her . Tongue
shoots out as muc h as 1 3 i n .
(twi ce t he l en gt h of t he l i zar d' s
body) to capt ure prey. Change
of col or i s a reacti on to heat,
l i ght, and emoti on .
SLOW-WORMS or e 1 8 i n . s n ake
l i ke, l egl ess l i zar ds of Europe
and wester n Asi a. I n t he wi l d
they feed extensi vel y on sl ugs;
i n capti vi ty, t hey ore fed i nsects
and worms.
BLUE-TONGUED SKI NKS or e 2 ft.
l ong gr ound dwel l er s wi t h a
br oad, bl u i s h t ong ue an d a
smoot h ski n . When a ppr oached,
t he l ongue i s extended and a
h i ssi ng ; ound is made. Young
are bom al ive. Thi s Aust ral i an
l i zard does wel l i n capti vi ty.
STUMP-TAI LED SKI NKS
l arge, wri n kl ed scal es an d a
st u mpy t ai l . They eat i nsects,
raw meat, f r ui t . Nat i ve to t he
wor mer parts of Austral i a, t hey
requi r e heat ed quarters, as do
ot her rept i l es i n cool cl i mat es.
Over-al l l ength i s about 1 2 i n .
1 43
-
SNAKES ar e l egl ess, l ong- bodi ed repti l es t hat l ack
b
o
th ear openi ngs and eyel i ds. Some ki l l t hei r pr ey by
const ri cti ng i t i n one or several body coi l s . Ot hers
i n j ect a venom t hat ei t her ki l l s or paral yzes. And some
si mpl y hol d t he ani mal down wi t h l oops of t hei r body
and swal l ow i t al i ve. A snake' s l ower j aw can be
swi vel ed freel y at t he back, and t he two hal ves are
con nected i n front by a stretchabl e l i gament . Thi s, pl us
t he l oosel y j oi ned bones i n t he s kul l , per mi t s s nakes t o
swa l l ow ani mal s several t i mes l ar ger around t han t hem
s el ves . The prey i s hel d i n the s nake' s mout h by t he
n u merous teeth t hat curve backward. The s nake moves
i ts j aws backward fi rst on one si de and t hen t he ot her to
keep the prey movi ng downwar d. Snakes do not requi re
l arge amount s of food and, i n zoos, are usual l y fed on l y
once a week. They do need water, and t hei r cages are
provi ded wi t h stones or other r ough obj ects on whi ch
t hey r ub t o l oos en t hei r ski n and s l i de out t o s hed.
ANACONDAS or e pr obabl y t he
l argest and heavi est of al l t he
s nakes. None over 25 ft. { about
250 l bs. ) has been aut henti
cated, but they have been re
ported to r each a l ength of 37
ft. These g i ant boas l i ve i n the
swamps and ri vers of t ropi cal
Sout h Amer i ca. They feed on
bi rds and mammal s and may eat
mor e than 1 00 l bs. at a meal .
They do not eat often, however .
BOA CONSTRI CTORS, of Cent r al
and Sout h Amer i can t r opi cs, ar e
t he most f ami l i ar of t he s nakes
t hat ki l l by constri cti on. They
reach a l engt h of about 1 2
ft. Al l of t he boas g ive bi rth
to thei r you n g.
EMERALD T RE E BOAS, abou t 4
ft. l ong, ar e tree dwel l ers. They
move f r om tree to tree wi t hout
comi ng to t he g rou n d.
w M
RETI CULATED PYTHONS, of
southeastern Asi a, ar e t he l ong
es t { aut hent i c r ecor ds to 33 ft. )
of t he t r ue pyt hons . They c an
swal l ow ani mal s as l arge as
s heep. Un l i ke boas , t hey l ay
eggs , and t he f emal e coi l s
ar ound t hem t o hel p wi t h t hei r
i nc ubati on . I n zoos t he eggs or e
hat ched i n i nc u bators. A l ar ge
Reti cu l ated Pyt hon may l ay as
many as 1 00 eggs.
ROCK PYTHONS l i ve i n t he
grassl ands an d for ests of t r opi
cal Afri ca. I f t hey ar e kept wel l
f ed i n zoos, t hey are s l uggi s h
and doci l e. Bot h boas an d py
t hons have t he i nt er nal bony
r emnants of some par t s of t he
hi nd l egs. Parti c u l ar l y i n mal es,
' ' cl aws'' may show at each s i de
of t he anus . Many i ndi vi d ual s ex
ceed 20 ft. i n l engt h; one r eport
edl y over 30 It.
Spectacl ed Cobra
POISONOUS
SNAKES
KI NG COBRAS, n ati ves of I ndi o
an d Mal aysi a, ore the l ongest (to
1 8 ft. , over age 8-1 0 ft. ) of al l
t h e venomous s na kes. Wh en d i s
t u rbed an d d i s pl ayi ng t hei r
hood, t hey may r ai s e t hei r body
a bout O t hi r d of i t s l engt h of
t he grou n d. Ki ng Cobr as ore t he
onl y nest-bui l di ng cobr as . The
nest has t wo chamber s . The fe
mal e l ays eggs in the l ower
chamber
,
covers them wi th sti cks
and l eaves, and then l i es on top
or nea r by on g uar d unti l they
hat ch. Ki ng Cobras feed mai nl y
on ot her ki nds of s nakes. I n
zoos t hey or e fed r ot s and mi ce.
SPECTACL ED COBRAS, or I ndi an
Cobr as , or e t he ki nd us ed by
s nake char mer s . Pr oporti onate t o
t hei r l engt h ( t o 8 ft . ) . t hey hove
t he l argest hoods of al l the
cobras. The bl ack ma rks on the
hood form a s hape l i ke u psi de
down spect acl es.
SPI TTI NG COBRAS (6-8 ft. l ong)
can ej ect t hei r venom f r om t he
speci al openi ngs i n t he fr ont of
t hei r f angs . They ai m for t he
eyes an d ar e accu rate u p to 1 0
ft. The venom wi l l cause bl i nd
n ess i f not was hed out i mmedi .
ot el y. Han dl er s wear speci al
masks when wor ki ng wi th these
s nakes. Newl y capt u red spi tt i ng
cobr as may s pi t at spectators
and s potter the gl oss cage front.
mask s nake
sti ck
M
KRAI TS (6-8 ft. ) or e f ound from
sout hern Chi n o to Mal aya and
I ndi o. The at t ract i ve Bonded
Kr ai t has a pot ent venom but
r ar el y bi t es exc ept at n i ght
when i t may be acci dental l y di s
t urbed . Dur i ng the day, i t us ual
l y r ol l s u p t i ght l y and does not
all em pi to defend i tsel f even i f
ki cked. I n capti vi ty, t he sever al
speci es of Kr ai t s ar e q u i et and
i nofensi ve but s el dom l i ve l ong.
BOOMSLANGS (4-5 ft. ) or e rear
f anged snakes that l i ve i n t he
open country of Afr i ca. Thei r
venom i s c han nel ed i nt o t he bi te
t hr ough grooves i n thei r u pper
r ear teet h. Mang rove Snakes ar e
al so rear-f anged s nakes often
kept i n zoos. These 6-ft. s nakes
l i ve i n t he coastal areas of Ma
l aysi a and I ndoc hi na.
MAMBAS s oon bec ome adj usted
to cage l i fe but nevert hel ess do
not l ive l ong i n capti vi ty. Sever al
speci es of t hes e agi l e, s l ender ,
l ong- bod i ed ( to 1 4 f t . ) sna kes
l ive i n Afri ca. The Bl ock Mambo
i s one of t he most aggressi ve of
t he poi sonous s na kes and i s
greatl y fear ed. The s mal l er tree
dwel l i ng Gr een Mambo i s l ess
agg ressi ve. Mambos eat bi rds
and smal l mammal s .
V

FER-DE-LANCES (6-8 ft. ) named


f or t hei r l a nce-s haped head,
cause sever al t hous and deat hs
an n u al l y i n Cent r al and Sout h
Amer i ca . The f angs ar e l ong and
s har p. They are pr i mar i l y ground
dwel l ers, gi ve bi r t h to young
r at her t han l ay eggs , and feed
on bi rds and s mal l mammal s .
PUF F ADDERS (3-4 f t . ) make
wheezi ng and pufng sou nds as
t hey rapi dl y i n hal e and exhal e
ai r . They ar e f ound i n t he open
count r y s out h of t he Sahar a and
i n As i a Mi nor . The venom is
sl ow-acti ng but neverthel ess
deadl y to humans .
w
GABOON VI PERS, br i g ht- col ored
sna kes of t r opi cal Afri ca, may
be extremel y docHe but t hei r
bi t e i s dangerous. Thei r broad
head i s a l most 4 i n. wi de, thei r
body 6 i n. i n d i ameter and 6 ft.
l ong. The bac k-cu rved, movabl e,
need l e- l i ke f r ont fangs ar e al
most 2 i n. l ong.
RUSSELL' S VI PERS, of t he I ndi an
Peni ns ul a, ar e us ual l y l ess t han
6 ft. l ong. They pr ey on s mal l
mammal s, frogs, someti mes
bi rds. Acti ve at ni g ht, they i n
fi ct deadl y bi tes lO bar e- l egged
nati ves. Al so cal l ed J u mpi ng
Vi per s or Daboi as.
Easter n Di amond
back Rall l esnake
EASTERN DI AMONDBACK RAT
TLESNAKES ( t o 8 ft. ) us ual l y
f r i ght en of enemi es by ralll i ng.
The ratll e gai n s a segment each
l i me t he snake s heds, several
t i mes a year . Easter n Di amond
backs prefer d ry, open l and of
sout heaster n U. S. Wester n Di a
mond backs ar e s l i ght l y s mal l er .
COTTONMOUTHS, or Wat er Moe
casi n s (4 ft. ), do wel l i n cap
ti vi ly and even reproduce. The
young ar e bor n al i ve. They have
no war ni ng ralll e. Thi s sout h
easte r n U. b. s peci es has a cottony
whi le l i ni ng i n i ts mout h. I t feeds
on fi s h and frogs.
Ti mber
Ratt l esnake
TI MBER RATTLESNAKES (to 5 f t . )
have dar k crossbands or chev
r ons across the back. Common
i n wooded east ern U. S. The ap
proxi mat el y 1 5 speci es of ralll e
s nakes i n North Ameri ca ar e al l
poi sonous t o man . T h e bi te may
be fatal i f t he vi ct i m i s n ot treat
ed at once.
COPPERHEADS ( 2-4 ft. ) l i ve i n
t he wooded u pl ands of easter n
U. S. and nor t her n Mexi co. Thei r
venom i s l es s deadl y to man
t han t hat of ratt l es nakes or col
t onmout hs. Thei r coppery col or
l ooks l i ke fal l en br own l eaves. I n
wi nt er they hi ber nate.
Copper head
N. A. POI SONOUS SNAKES 1 49
I ndi go Snake
European Water Snake
Afri can Egg-Eati ng Snake
HARMLESS SNAKES
I NDI GO SNAKES, of sout her n
Nor t h Ameri ca to nor t her n
South Amer i ca, are among t he
l argest (over 9 f t . ) of t he non
venomous snakes. Doci l e and
readi l y t amed, thei r bl ue col or i s
br i ghtest j ust af t er t hey s hed.
EUROPEAN WATER SNAKES ( 2-
4 f t . ) , ol so cal l ed Gross Snakes,
defend t hemsel ves by i nfl at i ng
t hei r body and fatteni ng t hei r
heads, t hen stri ki ng. They al so
emi t a f oul odor .
AFRI CAN EGG-EATI NG SNAKES
( 1 -2 f t . ) can open t hei r mout h
wi de enough to swal l ow l arge
eggs, cracki ng t he shel l by s har p
spi nes on the neck vertebr ae. The
shel l is spi t out .
BULL SNAKES, cal l ed Pi ne Snakes
or Gopher Snakes, ar e l i ght- col
ored wi t h bl otches of dar k g ray
to bl ack. Thi ck bod i ed and 5 ft.
l ong, t hese Nor t h- Amer i can
snakes do wel l i n capti vi ty.
KI NG SNAKES (2-4 ft. ) va ry i n
col or and patter n dependi ng on
the speci es. They ki l l pr ey by
constri cti on an d feed l argel y on
..
,.
other s nakes ( i nc l udi ng venom
ous) , l i zards, and rodents.
N
ORI ENTAL RAT SNAKES prey
mai nl y on bi rds and rodents i n
thei r n ati ve s out heaster n Asi a
and Mal aya. I n ca pti vi ty they
remai n nervous and often refuse
to eat. Some Ori ental Rat Snakes
are near l y 8 ft. l ong.
CORN SNAKES (2-4 ft. ) are
doci l e i n capti vi ty an d feed on
rats, mi ce, eggs, frogs, and
young chi cks. Found i n fi el ds an d
t hi ckets an d can cl i mb trees. I f
di sturbed, hi ss and vi brate t ai l .
HOG-NOSED SNAKES ( 1 -3 ft. )
have a har d, t ur ned- up s nout.
They ar e al so cal l ed Puf Adder s
becaus e they fat t en t hei r heads
and hi ss i f t h reatened. I f
touched, they pl ay dead.
ELEPHANT'S TRUNK SNAKES ar e
6 f t . l ong and heavy bodi ed.
They l i ve i n br acki s h est uar i es
and i n oceans of sout heast er n
Asi a. Femal es g ive bi rt h to t hei r
young whi l e i n t he wat er.
RACERS ( 3-5 ft. ) ar e sl ender ,
swi ft-movi ng s nakes of U . S. and
Mexi co. They l i ve i n d ry, open
pl aces and eat mi ce, eggs , l i z
ards
1
or other s nakes. Racers vi
brate t ai l r api dl y i f di sturbed .
FROGS AND TOADS fol d t hei r hi nd l egs t i ght l y u nder
them, maki ng a spri ngboard for j umpi ng. Adults lack
a tai l or have onl y a very short tai l .
TREE FROGS o f ma n y di ferent
speci es l i ve i n trees and s hr ubs
i n or near water . Some c an
change c ol or to mat c h back
gr ound. Feed on i nsects and
make l ong j u mps to catch t hem.
Cal l s may be cr oaks, t r i l l s, or
bl eats. Mast ar e 1 -2 i n .
SURI NAM TOADS (5 i n . ) , fat
frogs wi th very br oad feel, l ive
in the Amazon an d Or i noco ri ver
val l eys of South Amer i ca. When
mat i ng, a pai r somer sau l ts i n
t he water, an d t he eggs drop on
the femal e' s back. They si n k i nto
the s ki n, devel op, an d hatc h.
BLOMBERG' S TOADS measur e
nearl y 9 i n. and wei g h severa l
pounds . Thei r native habi tat is
t he foot hi l l s of southwestern
Col ombi a. These l arge, hand
s ome t oads ar e not t i mi d, an d
they do wel l i n capti vi ty.
ARROW-POI SON FROGS ( 2 i n . )
have a poi son in t hei r s ki n gl ands
sufci ent l y st rong to i mmobi l i ze
an ani mal as l ar ge as a monkey.
Newl y l ai d eggs are attached to
mal e' s back where young hatch
and tad pol es grow.
BULLFROGS, t he l argest U. S.
frogs, have u 4 to 6 i n. body
and l ong l egs. Ad ul t si ze i s
reached i n 5 year s. Bu l l frogs
l i ve i n swampy areas or i n s hal
l ow l akes. The hi nd l egs ar e con
s i der ed a del i cacy.
SALAMANDERS have a tai l and t hei r fr ont and hi nd
l egs ar e near l y equal i n si ze. Al l start l i fe i n water,
but some are l and- dwel l ers as adu l ts.
GI ANT SALAMANDERS, the
l argest of al l l i vi ng amphi bi ans,
reach a l engt h of 5 ft. and are
n ati ve to J apan; anot her ki nd to
Chi n a. Ent i r el y aquati c, they
feed on fi sh, wor ms, rodents,
and ot her s al amanders. They
must su rface to breat he.
EUROPEAN SPOTTED SALA
MANDERS ( 4-6 i n. ) hi de under
damp l ogs or rocks and feed
on s nai l s and i n sects. They h i ber
nate d u r i ng wi nter . Ski n can pro
duce a poi sonous excret i on.
Young possess gi l l s; adul ts have
l ost them and l eave t he water .
AMPHI UMAS, known al so as
Conger- eel s or L amper Eel s1 ar e
f ound i n sout heast ern U. S. They
have t i ny, us el es s l egs on a 3-
ft. l ong, eel - l i ke body. They l i ve
i n drai nage di tches and s l oughs .
Ad u l ts l ack gi l l s an d must sur
f ace to br eat he ai r .
MUDPUPPI ES, or Water Dogs,
l i ve i n l akes and st r eams of east
ern U. S. an d Canada. The
bus hy, r ed gi l l s ar e retai ned
and us ed t hroughout l i fe. Hat ch
l i ngs ar e about 1 i n. l ong;
adu l ts, 1 2 i n. A r el ated sout her n
Eu rope s peci es l ives i n caves.
1 53
NEAR-MAXI MUM AGES
FOR SOME ZOO ANI MALS
to 10 yrs.
Tarsier 3 ( 1 2?)
Pi gmy Marmoset 0
Tasman i on Devi l 0
Mamba 5
Tree Shrew 6( ?)
Pronghorn 8
Gi ant Panda 8+
Capybara 9
Polio 9
Rock Hyrax 9
Komodo Dragon
/4
10 t o 20 yrs.
Spri ngbok 1 0
North Ameri can
Beaver 1 0
Roseate Spoonbill
1 011
Dhol e 1 1
Common Marmoset
1 1 11
Red Fox 1 2
Rock Wal l aby 1 2
Spectacl ed Cobra
1 2'/
Si l ver Pheasant 1 3
Lesser Pando 1 3
Aardvark 1 3 +
Pl atypus 1 4
Kookaburra 1 4
Gi ant Anteater 1 4'/
Ceati mundi 1 43/
Monitors 1 5+
Muntj ac 1 5
Agouti 1 511
Aoudad 1 511
White-tai l ed Gnu 1 6
Bul l frog 1 6
Wolf 1 6'4
Common Waterbuck
1 6'2
Weaver Bird 1 611+
Red Kangaroo 1 7
Cl ouded leopard 1 7
Mall ard 1 7
Starl i ng 1 7
Spi der Monkey 1 8
Bi nturong 1 8
Gemsbok 1 8
Babirusa 1 9
Vi cuia 1 9
Ti ger 1 911
1 54
20 to 3.0 yrs.
Ameri can Badger 20
Bl ack Swan 20
Brown Capuchi n 20'2
Cal iforni a Sea Li on
2011
Sun Bear 201h
Budgerigars 21 -
Di amond-backed
Terrapi n 21
Ni l gai 2 1 11
Dri l l 22+
Y ak 22
Chamoi s 22
Reti cul ated Python 22
Fal se Gavi al 23
Two-toed Sl oth 23
Peafowl 23
Boa Constrictor 23
Cockatiel 24
European Spotted
Sal amander 24
Green Guenon 24
Gi l a Monster 2411
Hamadryas Baboon
24+
Snowy Owl 241(
Spotted Hyenas 25
Common El and 25
Brown lemur 2511
Wombat 26
Bactri an Camel 26
Bi son 26
Caracara 26
Ki ng Pengui n 26
Sarus Crane 26
Raven 26
Cape Bufalo 26'/
Mandri l l 2611
Amphi uma 27
Chacma Baboon 2711
Bl ack Cai man 28
Moor Macaque 28
Bari ngo Girafe 28
Herri ng Gul l 2B
Arabi an Camel 281/
Afri can Bl ack
Rhi noceros 28+
Rhesus Monkey 29
li on 29
Onager 29
Anaconda 29
Sul fur-crested
Cockatoo 291/
Water Bufal o 29
l
Brown Pel i can 2912
30 to 40 yrs.
Lammergeyer 30
Scarl et Macaw 30%
Red and Blue Macaw
30%
Ki ng Vul ture 30+
Cassowary 31
White- handed Gi bbon
3 1 1/
Gri zzl y Bear 3 1 1/
Shoebi l l Stork 31 +
Emu 32
Orangutan 32'2
Coastal Gori l la 331/
Pol ar Bear 33'/
Brown Bear 37
Afri can E l ephant 38
Pi gmy Hi ppopotamus
3912
40 to 50 yrs.
Chi mpanzee 40
I ndi an Rhi noceros
40+?
Gi ant Salamander
40+
Al l i gator Snapper 42
Gol d-and-blue Macaw
43
European Fl ami ngo
44
Asi an E l ephant 48
Crowned Pi geon 49
Wh ite Pel i can 49
Echi dna 491/
Hi ppopotamus 4911
A fr i con Gray Parrot
49'+
over 50 yrs.
Chi nese Al l i gator
50+
Ameri can Al l i gator
56+
over 60 yrs.
Gi ant Tortoi se
3 1 %+ ( 1 00?)
Al dabra Tortoi se
68 ( 1 00?)
Box Turtl e 80+
Radi ated Tortoi se 85?
SCI ENTI FI C NAMES
The sci entifi c names of the s
p
ecies i llustrated i n thi s book are li sted
as nearl y as
p
ossi bl e i n the order i n whi ch the ani mals appear on the
desi gnated page. Al ternate generi c or speci es names are i n brackets.
14 Pl ot.: Ornithorhynchus anotinus
Echi d. : Tachyglossus aculeatus
1b Tasman.: Sarcophilus harrisii
Wombat: Vombatus hirsutus
Koal a: Phascolarctos cinereus
1 Red: Macropus rufus
Great Gray: M. conguru major
1 Brush- : Petroga/e penicillata
Ri ng- tai l ed: P. xonthopus
Red- : Wallabia rufogrisea
1 Tree: Dendrolagus matschiei
Wol l oroo: Osphranfer robustus
Amer.: Didelphis marsupia/is
Mouse: Marmosa mexicana
1 Gorilla gorilla
Z Orangutan: Pongo pygmaeus
Whi te- handed: Hy/obates /or
Si a. : Symphalangus syndactylus
Z1 Pan troglodytes
ZZ Cel ebes: Cynopithecus niger
Barbary: Macaca sylvana
Z Brown Stump. : M. speciosa
Rhesus: M. mulatto
Jovan: M. irus mordox
Pi g- tai l ed: M. nemestrino
Z4 Mono: Cercopithecus mona
De Brazza' s : C. neglectus
Di ana: C. diana
Green : C. aethiops
Zb Mustached: C. cephus
Spot-nosed: C. ni ctitans
Palos: frythrocebus [C.] palos
Z Javon: Presbytis pyrrhus
Guereza: Colobus polykomos
Z Gray- : Cercocebus olbigeno
Wh ite- : C. torquatus torquotus
Sooty: C. fu/iginosus
Z Chacmo: Papio ursinus
Gel ada: Theropithecus ge/ada
Hamodryos: Popio homodryos
Z Dri l l : Mandril/us leucophaeus
Mandri l l : M. sphinx
Wool l y: Lagothrix pygmaea
Ni ght: Aotus trivirgotus
1 Brown: Cebus opel/a
Bl ack-copped: C. nigrivittatus
Whi te-throated: C. copucinus
Spi der: Ateles geofroyi
Z Squi rrel : Soi miri sciureus
Red: Cocojoo rubicundus
Whi te: C. colvus
Red Ti ti : Collicebus cupreus
Whi te-faced: Pithecia pithecio
Gol den: Leontocebus rosalia
Common: Collithrix iocchus
Pi gmy: Cebue//a pygmaea
4 Tree Shrew: Tupaia g/is
Tarsi er: Tarsius spectrum
Potto: Perodicticus potto
Gal ago: Go/ago senegolensis
b Ri ng-toi l ed Lemur: Lemur cotta
Mongoose lemur: L. mongoz
Rufed Lemur: L. voriegotus
Sl ow lori s : Nycticebus coucong
Tholarctos maritimus
Brown Bear: Ursus arctos
Gri zzl y Bear: U. horribilis
Bl . : U. [Euorctos] omericonus
Sun: Helarctos maloyonus
Sl oth: Melursus ursi nus
Gi ant: Ai luropoda melonoleuco
Lesser: Ailurus fulgens
40 Ki nkoj ou: Potos Iovus
Cooti mundi : No sua no rica
Raccoon: Procyon lotor
Hog-: Conepatus mesoleucus
Stri ped: Mephitis mephitis
Spotted: Spilogale putorius
41 Wol veri ne: Gulo gulo
Tayra: fira [Tayra] barbara
Honey: Mellivora copensis
Amazon: Pteronuro braziliensis
Amer. Ri ver: Lutra canadensis
4Z Bi nturong; Arctictis binturong
Pal m Ci vet: Pagumo larvata
Mongoose: Herpestes javanicus
Meerkot: Suricata suricatto
4 Spotted Hyena: c;ocuta crocuto
Stri ped Hyena: Hyaena hyaena
44 Panthera [Felis] leo
4 P. [Felis] tigris
4 leopard: P. [Felis] pardus
Snow leopard: P. [Felis] uncia
Cl ouded: P. [Felis] nebu/osa
4 Jaguar: Felis [Panthera] onca
Cheetah: Aci nonyx jubatus
4 Cora. : Felis [Corocal] caracal
Serval: f. [Leptailurus] servo/
Ocel ot: F. [Leopardus] pardalis
Gol den Cat: F. temminckii
b Lynx: Lynx canadensis
Bobcat: L. rufus
Mountai n Li on: Felis concofor
Jag. : F. [Herpoilurus] eyra
b1 Wol f: Canis lupus
Dhol e: Cuon a/pinus
Coyote: Cani s latrans
Yel l ow Jackal : C. [Thos] aureus
bZ Red: Vulpes vulpes
Gray: Urocyon
cinereoargenteus
fennec: fennecus zerda
155
Arcti c: Alopex lagopus
Kit: Vulpes macrotis
b Bi geared: Otocyon mega/otis
Di ngo: Canis dingo
Maned: Chrysocyon jubatus
Cape Hunti ng: L ycaon pictus
b4 Sea Li on: Zalophus
californi anus
Seal : Mi rounga angustirostris
bb Wal rus: Odobenus rosmarus
Harbor Seal : Phoca vitulina
b Castor canadensis
b N. A. : Erethizon dorsatum
Crested: Hystrix crisfata
b Antel ope: Cite/Ius /eucurus
Thi rt. : C. tridecemlineatus
Bl ack : Cynomys ludovicianus
b Paca: Cuniculus [Agouti] poco
Pata. : Dolichotis patagona
Sooty: Dasyprocta fuliginosa
Agouti : D. punctate
Gui nea Pig: Cavia porcellus
Acouchy: Myoprocta acouchy
Woodchuck: Marmota monax
Afri can: Cricetomys gambia nus
Eastern : Tamias sfriatus
Spiny Mouse: Acomys cahirinus
1 Kong. : Dipodomys specfabilis
Jerboa: )oculus iaculus
Cl awed: Meriones unguiculatus
Ch i nchi l l a: Chinchilla laniger
Giant Tree: Ratufa indica
Z Nutri a: Myocasfor coypus
Cap. : Hydrochoerus
hydrochaeris
Two- : Choloepus hofmanni
Ant. : Myrmecophaga tridactyla
Aardvark: Orycteropus afer
4 Hippopotamus amphibius
b Choeropsis liberiensis
Bush: Potamochoerus porcus
Col l ared: Tayassu tajacu
Babi rusa: Babirussa babyrussa
Wart: Phacochoerus aefhiopicus
Bactri an: Came/us bactrianus
Arabian: C. dromedarius
Lama g/ama
Al paca: L . pacos
Guanaco: L . huanacus
Vi cuia: L . [Vicugna] vicugna
Whi te- : Ococoileus virginianus
Mul e Deer: L. hemionus
1 Asi an: Trogulus javanicus
Red: Mazama americana
Muntj ac: Munfjacus muntjak
Z Fal l ow Deer: Dama dama
Si ka Deer: Cervus nippon
Red Deer: C. elaphus
Moose: Alces alces
4 Pere: Elaphurus davidianus
Axis Deer : Axis axis
b Sambar: Cervus [Rusa] unicolor
1 56
El d' s Deer: C. e/di
Rei ndeer: Rangifer tarandus
Prong. : Antifocapra americana
Bi son: B ison bison
Musk Ox: Ovibos moschatus
Yak: Poephagus grunniens
Dwarf: Anoa depressicornis
Gaur: Bi bos [8os] gaurus
Cape: Bubalus [Syncerus] cofer
Water Bufal o: 8. bubo/i s
Chamoi s: Rupicapra rupicapra
Aoudads : Ammotragus lervia
1 Moufon : Ovis musimon
Tahr : Hemitragus iemlahicus
Z Markhor: Capra falconeri
I bex: C. ibex sibirica
Bi ghorn : Ovis canadensis
Nyal a: Trage/aphus angasi
Bongo: Boocercus euryceros
4 El and: Taurotragus oryx
Kudu: Strepsiceros strepsiceros
Si tatunga: Li mnotragus spekei
b Ni l . : Boselaphus tragocamelus
Si ng si ng: Kobus defassa
Lechwe' s: K. leche
Gnu: Connochaetes taurinus
Bl es. : Oama/iscus dorcas
phil/ipsi
Harte. : Alcelaphus buselaphus
Duiker: Sy/vicapra grimmia
Kl i p. : Oreotragus oreotragus
Di k-di k: Madoqua kirki kirki
Spri ng. : Antidorcas marsupial i s
Gerenuk: Li tocrani us walleri
Grant' s Gazel l e: Gazella granti
Dorcas Gazel l e: G. dorcas
I mpal a: Aepyceros melampus
Thomson' s: Gazella thomsoni
Gemsbok: Oryx gaze//a
Antel ope: Hippotragus niger
Bl ackbuck: Anti/ope cervicapra
Sai ga: Saiga tatarica
1 Okapia johnstoni
Z Nub. : Girala camelopardalis
Masai : G. c. trippelskirchi
3 Reti cul ated: G. c. reticufata
Baringo: G. c. rothschildi
4 Hyrax: Procavia capensis
S.A. Tapi r: Tapirus terresfris
Mal ayan Tapi r : T. indicus
Ona. : fquus hemionus onager
Prze. : E. cabo/Ius przewalskii
E. grevyi
Chap. : E. burchelfii anti quorum
Grant's: E. b. bohmi
Mountai n: E. zebra
Diceros bicornis
I ndi an: Rhinoceros unicornis
Whi te: Diceros simus
1 Elephas maximus
1 1 Loxodonta africana ofricana
1 3 Strufhio came/us
1 4 Casso. : Casuarius casuarius
Common Rhea: Rhea americana
Ki wi : Apteryx australis
Emu: Dromiceius novae
hollandiae
1 0b Emperor: Apfenodytes lorsferi
Ki ng Pengui n : A. pafagonica
Hum. : Spheniscus humboldti
1 Shag: Phalacrocorax arisfotelis
Great Cormorant: P. carbo
White: Pelecanus onocrotalus
Brown : P. occidenfalis
Anhi ngo: Anhi nga anhinga
1 Shoebi l l Stork : Balaeniceps rex
Saddl e: Ephippiorhynchus
senegalensis
Jabi ru: Jabiru mycferia
1 Heron : Ardea herodias
White Stork: Ciconia ciconia
Wood: Mycteria americana
Egret: Casmerodius alba
1 Roseate Spoonbi l l : Ajaia ajaja
Fl ami ngo: Phoenicopferus ruber
Scarl et I bi s : fudocimus ruber
1 1 Mute Swan: Cygnus olor
Bl ack: C. atrata
Bl ack-necked:
C. melanocoriphus
1 1 1 Canada: Bronte canadensis
Screamer: Chauna chavaria
Red- breast: Branfa rulcollis
Tree: Dendrocygna aufumnalis
1 1 Z Mandar i n: Ai x galericulafa
nel duck: Tadorno tadorna
Mal l ard: Anas platyrhynchos
Wood Duck: Ai x sponsa
Shovel er: Anas clypeata
1 1 Lam. : Gypaetus barbatus
Ki ng: Sarcorhomphus papa
Sec.: Sagittarius serpenfarius
1 1 4 Bal d: Haliaeefus leucocephalus
Harpy: Harpia harpyja
Batal eur: Terafhopius ecaudatus
1 1 b Pere. : Falco peregrinus
Red-tai l ed: Buteo jamaicensis
Caracara: Polyborus cheriway
1 1 Peafowl : Pavo cristafus
Great Curassow: Crax rubra
Cal i f. : Lophorfyx calilornicus
1 1 Gol den : Chrysolophus pictus
Tragopan: Tragopan femmincki
Si l ver: Lophuro nycthemera
1 1 Crowned: Balearica pavonio
Sarus Crane: Grus antigone
Great Bustard: Otis fordo
1 1 Sti l t : Hi mantopus mexicana
Croc. Bi rd: Pluvianus aegypfus
least: Erolia mi nutilla
Herri ng: Larus argentafus
Laughi ng: L. atricilla
1 Z Frui t: Megaloprepia magnifca
Bl eed. : Gollicolumba luzonica
Gr.: Columbigallina passerine
1Z1 Crowned: Goura victoria
Mourni ng: Zenaiduro mocroura
Knysna: Tauraco corythaix
Go-Away Bi rd:
. corythaixoides leucogaster
1 ZZ Coca#uo galerita
1 Z Scarl et Macaw: Ara macao
Gol d-and- Bl ue: A. arorouna
Yel . : Amazona ochrocepholo
African: Psittacus erithacus
Cock. : Nymphicus hoffandicus
1 Z4 Parakeet: Brotogeris jugularis
Lori . : Trichoglossus haematodus
1 Zb Bud. : Melopsittacus undulatus
Long- tai l ed: Psiffacula kromeri
Barred: Bolborhynchus lineola
I ndi an: Psitfocula torquato
Masked: Agapornis personate
1 Z Tawny: Podargus strigoides
Mal ay Fi shi ng: Bubo ketupu
Barn Owl : Tyto alba
Snowy Owl : Nyctea scandiaca
1 Z Bar-tai l ed: Trogon co/loris
White-: Hylocharis leucotis
Ruby- : Selasphorus fammula
Vi ol et-headed: Klais guimeti
Vi o-c. : Amazilia violiceps
Costa Ri can: Panterpe insignis
1Z Motmot: fumomofa superciliosa
Great: Buceros bicornis
Kookaburra: Dacelo gigas
Bel ted: Mergaceryle alcyon
1 Z Bl ack-col . : Lybius torquatus
loco Toucan : Ramphastos loco
Red- headed Woodpecker:
Melanerpes erythrocephalus
Fl i cker: Colaples auratus
1 Red- breasted : Leisfes militaris
Oro. : Gymnostinops
montezuma
Troupi al : Icterus icterus
Bl ack- bi l l ed Magpi e: Pica pica
Formosan: Cissa caerulea
11 Si l ver-beak: Ramphocelus carbo
Bl ue Tanager: Thraupis virens
Ki skadee: Pitangus sulphuratus
Wattl ed: Creatophora cinerea
Superb: Spreo superbus
Hi l l Myna: Grocula religiose
1 Z Red- whi sk. : Pycnonotus jocosus
Peki n Robi n: Leiothrix lutea
Cock-of- : Rupicola rupicola
Andean: R. peruviana
Safron Fi nch: Sicalis favi ola
Card. : Richmondena cardinalis
1 Di a. : Taeniopygin castanofis
Chestnut: Lonchura lerruginosa
Goul di an: Poephila gouldiae
Bi shop: Pyromelana orix
Red- : Uraeginthus bengalensis
1 4 Great: Paradisaea apoda
1 57
Bow. : Ptilonorhynchus
violaceus
W Allig.: Alligator mississippjensis
Crocodi l e: Crocodylvs acutvs
1 37 Spect . : Caiman sclerops
Gavi al : Gavialis gangeticus
1 38 Snake- : Emydura macquari
Matamala: Chelys fmbriata
1 39 E l . : Pseudemys scripta elegans
Pai nted: Chrysemys picta
Musk: Sternotherus odoratus
Terrapi n: Malaclemys terrapin
Soft- shel l ed: Trionyx spiniferus
Al l i g. : Macroclemys temmincki
1 40 Box Turtl e: Terrapene carolina
Radiated: Testudo radiata
Al dabra: T. gigantea
1 41 Gi l a: Heloderma suspectum
leg. : Tupinambis
ni gropunctofus
Komodo: Varanus komodoensis
1 42 Common : Iguana iguana
Basi l i sk: Basiliscvs plvmifrons
Anol e: Anolis stratulus
Fence: Sceloporus undulatus
1 43 Tokay Gecko: Gekko gecko
Cham. : Chamaeleo chamaeleon
Sl ow-worm: Angui s fragilis
Bl ue- : Tiliqua scincbides
Stump-tai l ed: T. rugosa
1 44 Emeral d Tree: Boa canina
Boa: Constrictor constrictor
Reti c. : Python reticu/atus
14 Anaconda: Eunectes murinus
Rock Python: Python sebae
1 46 Ki ng: Ophiophagus hannah
Spectacl ed : Naja naj a
Spi t. : Hemachatus hemachatus
1 47 Krai t: Bungarus fasciafus
Bl ack: Dendroaspis polylepis
Green: D. angusticeps
Mangrove: Boiga dendrophila
Boomsl ang: Dispholidus typus
1 48 Fer- de- l ance: Bothrops atrox
Gaboon Viper: Bitis gabonica
Puf Adder: B. arietans
Russel l ' s Vi per: Vipera russelli
1 49 Eastern: Crotalus adamanteus
Ti mber: C. horridus
Cot. : Ancistrodon piscivorus
Copperhead: A. contortrix
1 50 I ndi go: Drymarchon corai s
Eur. Water : Natri x natrix
African Egg- : Dasypeltis scober
Bul l : Pituophis melanoleucus
Ki ng: Lampropeltis getulus
1 51 Ori ental Rat: Ptyas mucosus
Corn Snake: Elaphe guttata
Hog- : Heterodon platyrhinos
El e. : Acrochordus javanicus
Bl ack Racer: Coluber constrictor
1 52 Gray Tree Frog: Hyla versicolor
Suri nam Toad: Pipa pipa
Bl omberg' s: Bufo blombergi
Poi s. : Dendrobates trivittatus
Bul l frog: Rona catesbeiana
153 Giant: Megalobatrachus
japonicus
Spot. : Sa/amandro salamandra
Conger- eel : Amphiuma means
Mud. : Necturus maculosus
I NDEX
Aardvark, 63
Acouchy, 59
Adder, puf, 1 48
Agouti s, 59
Al l i gators, 1 36, 1 37
Al paca, 69
Amazon, 1 23
Amphi bi ans, 1 35,
1 52- 1 53
Amphi uma, 1 53
Anaconda, 1 44, 1 45
Anhi nga, 106
Anoa, 78
Anol es, 1 42
Anteaters, 1 4, 63
Antel opes, 83-90
Aoudad, 80, 8 1
Apes, 1 9-22
Arna,
Babblers, 1 32
Babi rusa, 66
1 58
Baboons, 28-29
Badgers, , 41
Barbels, 1 29
Basi l isk, 1 42
Bears, 36-38
Beavers, 56
Bi ghorn, B2
Bi nturong, 42
Bi rds, 1 02-1 34
Birds of paradi se, 1 34
Bi shop bi rd, red, 1 33
Bi son, 77
Bl ackbi rds, 1 30
Bl ackbuck, 90
Bl esbok, 7, 86
Boas, 1 44, 1 45
Bobcat, 50
Bongo, 83
Boomsl ang, 1 47
Bowerbi rds, 1 34
Brackets, 71
Budgeri gar, 1 24, 1 25
Bufal oes, 77, 78, 79
Bul bul s, 1 32
Bul l frog, 1 52
Bustards, 1 1 8
Caeci l i ans, 1 35
Cai mans, 1 37
Camel s, 67
Capuchi ns, 31
Capybara, 62
Caracal , 49
Caracaras, 1 1 5
Cardi nal , 1 32
Cari bou, 70, 76
Corn i vores,
36-55
Cassowary
, 1 04
Cats, 44-49
Cattl e, 77-90
Cavi es, 59
Chamel eons, 1 42, 1 43
Chamoi s, 80, . B 1
Cheetah, 44, 48
Chevrotai ns, Asi an, 71
Chi nchi l l a, 61
Chi mpanzee, 21
Chi pmunk, 60
Chi tal , 74
Ci vets, 42
Coati mundi , 39, 40
Cobras, 1 46
Cockati el , 1 22, 1 23
Cockatoo, 1 22
Cock-of-the- rock, 1 32
Coni es, 94
Conger-eel , 1 53
Copperhead, 1 49
Cordon- bl eu, 1 33
Cormorants, 1 06
Coti ngas, 1 32
Cottonmouth, 1 49
Cougar, 50
Courser, 1 1 9
Coyote, 51
Coypu, 62
Cranes, 7, 1 1 8
Crocodi l es, 1 36, 1 37
Crocodi l e bi rd, 1 1 9
Crocodi l i ans, 1 35,
1 36- 1 37
Crows, 1 30
Curassows, 1 1 6, 1 1 7
Dassi es, 94
Deers, 7, 70-75
Dhole, 51
Di k- di ks, . 87
Di ngo, 53
Dogs, 51 -53
Doves, 1 20- 1 2 1
Dragon, Komodo, 1 41
Dri l l , 29
Ducks, 1 1 0 - 1 1 2
Dui kers, 87
Eagl es, 1 1 4
Echi dna, 1 4
Egrets, 1 08
El and, 84
El ephants, 1 00- 1 01
El k, 73
Emu, 1 04
Fal cons, 1 1 5
Fer- de- l ance, 1 48
Fi nches, 1 32, 1 33
Fl ami ngo, 1 09
F l icker, yel l ow-shafted,
1 29
Fl ycatchers, 1 31
Foxes, 52, 53
Frogmouths, 1 26
Frogs, 1 35, 1 52
Gal agos, 34
Gaur, 79
Gavi al s, 1 37
Gazel l es, 88, 89, 90
Geckos, 1 43
Geese, 1 1 1
Gemsbok, 90
Gerbi l , cl awed, 61
Gerenuk, 88
Gi bbons, 20
Gi l a monster, 1 41
Gi rafes, 91 -93
Gnus, , 86
Goats, 80, 8 1 , 82
Go-away bi rd, 1 2 1
Gor i l l as, 7, 1 9
Grosbeak, 1 32
Groundhog, 60
Ground squi rrel s, 58
Guanaco, 69
Guenons, 24, 25
Guerezas, 26
Gui nea pig, 59
Gul l s, 1 1 9
Hartebeest, 86
Hawks, 1 1 5
Herons, 1 08
Hi ppopotamuses,
7, 64, 65
Hogs, 66
Hornbi l l s, 1 28
Horses, 7, 95-97
Hummi ngbi rds, 1 27
Hyenas, 43
Hyraxes, 94
I bex, 82
I bi ses, 1 08, 1 09
l guani ds, 1 42
I mpal a, 89
Jabi ru, 1 07
Jackal s, 51
J ackass, l aughi ng, 1 28
Jaguar, 45, 48
Jaguarundi , 50
Jays, 1 30
Jerboas, 61
J i rd, 61
Kangaroos, 1 6- 1 8
Ki ang, 95
Ki ngfshers, 1 28
Ki nkaj ou, 39, 40
Ki wi , 1 04
Kl i pspri nger, 87
Koal a, 1 5
Kobs, 85
Kookaburra, 1 28
Krai ts, 1 47
Kudus, 84
Lammergeyer, 1 1 3
Longurs, 26
Leatherback, 1 38
Lemurs, 35
Leopards, 45, 47
Li ons, 44-45, 50
Li zards, 1 35, 1 4 1 - 1 43
Ll ama, 68
Lori keets, 1 24
Lori s, sl ow, 35
Lovebi rds, 1 24- 1 25
Lynxes, 50
Macaques, 2223
Macaws, 1 22, 1 23
Mafpi e, 1 30
Mal l ard, 1 1 2
Mambas, 1 47
Mammal s, 1 4- 1 01
Monoki ns, 1 32
Mandari ns, 1 1 2
Mandr i l l , 29
Mangabeys, 27
Manni ki n, 1 33
Markhor, 82
Marmosets, 33
Marmots, 60
Marsupi al s, 1 5
Matamata, 1 38
Meerkat, 42
Moccasi n, water, 1 4
Mongooses, 42
Moni tors, 1 41
Monkeys, 22-33
Monotremes, 1 4
Moose, 73
Moufon, 8 1
Mouse, spi ny, 60
1 59
Motmots, 1 28
Mudpuppy, 1 53
Muntiacs, 71
Myna, h i l l , 1 3 1
Nene, 7
Ni l gai , 85
Nutri a, 62
Nyal a, 83
Ocel ot, 49
Okapi , 91
Onager, 95
Opossums, 1 8
Orangutan, 20
Oropendol as, 1 30
Oryx, 7, 90
Ostri ch, 1 03
Otters, 41
Owl s, 1 26
Ox, musk, 77
Pacas, 59
Pandas, 39
Panther, 50
Parakeets, 1 24, 1 25
Parrots, 1 22, 1 23
Partri dges, 1 1 7
Peafowl , 1 1 6
Peccari es, 66
Pel i cans, 1 06
Pengui ns, 1 05
Pheasants, 1 1 7
Pi es, 1 30
Pi gs, 66
Pi geons, 1 20, 1 2 1
Pl acental s, 1 9- 1 01
Pl atypus, 1 4
Porcupi nes, 57
Polio, 34
Prai ri e dogs, 58
Pri mates, 1 9-35
Pronghorn, 76
Przewal ski ' s horse,
7, 95
Puma, 50
Pythons, 1 44, 1 45
Quai l s, 1 1 6, 1 1 7
Raccoons, 39, 40
Racers, 1 5 1
Rats, 60, 61
Ratel , 41
Rattl esnakes, 1 49
1 60
Ratufa, 61
Rei ndeer, 70, 76
Repti l es, 1 35- 1 51
Rhea, 1 04
Rhesus monkey, 23
Rhi noceroses, 7, 98-99
Robi n, Peki n, 1 32
Rodents, 56-62
Sai ga, 90
Saki s, 32
Sal amanders, 1 35, 1 53
Sandpi pers, 1 1 9
Sapsuckers, 1 29
Screamer, 1 1 1
Secretary bi rd, 1 3
Sea l i ons, 54, 55
Seal s, 54, 55
Serval , 49
Shag, 1 06
Sheep, 8 1 , 82
Shel ducks, 1 1 2
Shovel ers, 1 1 2
Shrew, tree, 1 9, 34
Si amang, 20
Si tatunga, 84
Ski nks, 1 43
Skunks, 40
Sl i ders, 1 39
Sl oths, 63
Sl ow- worm, 1 43
Snakes, 1 35, 1 44- 1 5 1
Snapper, al l i gator, 139
Sparrows, 1 32
Spoonbi l l s, 1 09
Spri ngbok, 87
Squi rrel s, 58, 61
Starl i ngs, 1 3 1
Sti l t, 1 1 9
Sti nkpot, 1 39
Storks, 1 07, 1 08
Susl i k, 58
Swans, 7, 1 1 0
Tahrs, 81
Tamarou, 78
Tanagers, 1 3 1
Tapi rs, 94
Tarsi ers, 1 9, 34
Tasmani an devi l , 1 5
Tayra, 41
Tegus, 1 41
Terrapi ns, 1 39
Ti gers, 4, 46
Ti ti , 32
Toads, 1 35, 1 52
Torioi ses, 7, 1 3, 140
Toucans, 1 29
Touracos, 1 2 1
Tragopan, 1 1 7
Trogons, 1 27
Troupi al , 1 30
Turtl es, 1 35, 1 38- 1 40
Uakari s, 32
Vi cuna, 69
Vi pers, 1 48
Vul tures, 1 1 3
Wal l obi es, 1 6, 1 7
Wal l aroo, 1 8
Wal rus, 55
Wapiti, 73, 75
Waterbucks, 85
Water dog, 1 53
Weasel , 39
Weaverbi rds, 1 33
Wi l dcat, 50
Wi l debeest, 86
Wi sent, 7, 77
Wol veri ne, 41
Wol ves, 51 , 53
Wombat, 1 5
Woodchuck, 60
Woodpeckers, 1 29
Yak, 78
Zebras, 96-97
Zoos, general
bar- l ess encl osures,
8
breedi ng, 6
chi l dren's, 1 3
conservati on o f rare
speci es,
di ets, 1 0, 1
di spl ays, 8, 9
fyways, 8, 1 02
foods, 1 0- 1 1
l argest, 4
medi cal care, 1 2
moots, 8
obtai ni ng ani mal s, 5
ol dest, 4
purpose, 4
shows, 1 3
total number, Z
L H
ZUU NI MLb
A Go|den Nol0re G0de
DONALD F. HOFFMEI STER, Ph. D . i s Di rector of the
Museum of Natural Hi story and Professor of Zool ogy
at the Uni versity of I l l i noi s. From 1964 to 1966, he
served as presi dent of the Ameri can Soci ety of Mam
mal ogi sts; from 1963 to 1964, as presi dent of the
Mi dwest Museums Conference. I n addi ti on to more
than 80 techni cal papers, he has authored 5 books,
i ncl udi ng the Gol den Nature Gui de MPMMPLb and the
Gol den Bookshel f of Natural Hi story MPMMPLb-
HERBERT S. ZI M, Ph. D. , Sc. D. , i ni ti ated the Gol den
Gui de Seri es and was both author and editor for
many years. Author of some ni nety books and edi tor
of about as many, he i s now Adj unct Professor at the
University of Mi ami and Educati onal Consul tant to
the Ameri can Fri ends Servi ce Committee and other
organ i zati ons. He works on educati on, popul ati on
and envi ron mental probl ems.
ARTHUR SI NGER i s perhaps best known for hi s ex
cel l ent i l l ustrati ons in b 1HL WL and the
Gol den Fi el d Gui de b N1H PML P. As a
nature ari st, however, hi s superb i l l ustrati ons range
through the compl ete ani mal and pl ant ki ngdoms.
He i s a member of l eadi ng nature and sci enti fi c or
gani zati ons. He was the fi rst reci pi ent of the Cooper
Uni on Ar School ' s medal for di sti ngui shed work.
I H G O L D N N A I U k G U | D F 5
are an introduction to the world of nature, a guide
to the most common, most easily seen, and most in-
teresting aspects of the world around us. Each guide
combines the authority of eminent scientists and ex
perts in science education. These 160 page books
overfow with accurate full color illustrations and
concise, double-checked information which makes
identifcation and understanding the subject easy
and enj oyable.

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