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Anatomy Notes 8-23-2010

Cell Theory Early Historical Background Robert Hooke (1665): Viewed within a thin slice of Cork under a Primitive Light Microscope. He saw many small spaces for which he coined the term cells they were small cavities and NOT biological cells Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek (1674): was the first person to see living organisms with a very primitive light microscope Schleidin and Schwann (1837-1839): first individuals to observe cell division in plant and animal cells, respectively Virchow (1858): proposed the concept that all cells came from pre-existing cells Crystallized the concept that became the early cell theory of life Early concepts Equated to the Cell Theory All living things or organisms are made of cells New cells are created by old cells by dividing in two Cells are basic building units of life Modern Techniques and Advances applied to the Cell Electron Microscopy First EM (electron microscope) was built in Germany by Knoll and Ruska in 1931 First commercial EM was built in 1939 First electron micrographs of cells were produced in 1945. Albert Claude, Keith Porter, George Palade and Christian DeDuve identified and named the structures we now refer to as endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and lysosomes With the advent of electron microscopy this allowed scientists to view fine details of viruses, bacteria, other microbes and cells of higher organisms. In medical research applications, this allowed for the comparison of normal and pathological conditions in cells that had never been seen previously at a very refined level of detail Cell/Tissue Culture: allows for the maintenance and growth of cells outside the body Normal and abnormal conditions in culture media enable researchers to study the physiology and biochemistry of cells Early History 1885-1910: Ringer, Rous, and Harrison by their individual research experiments laid the foundation of modern cell/tissue culture.

Experimental techniques that became common in the 1950s HeLa Cells In 1951, Henreitta Lacks died of cervical cancer; some of the cancer cells were cultured, and have been maintained to this day. The HeLa cells are still used in cancer research projects. For years it was thought that the Donors name was Helen Lane, the name that was used to protect her real identity Tissue Culture allowed Jonas Salk to produce an Antipolio vaccine in 1961 Techniques associated with tissue culture have made organ transplants possible; First heart transplant occurred in 1967 In Vitro Fertilization provides for the fertilization of an egg and sperm in a fluid medium outside the body followed by the implantation of a fertilized egg into a uterus to be carried to term. In 1978, Louise Brown was the first human conceived by this method or the first test tube baby Modern Cell Theory All known living things are made up of one o more cells Some organisms are made up of only one cell (unicellular) Others are composed of numerous cells (multi-cellular) The cell is the fundamental unit of structure and function in living organisms All cells arise from pre-existing cells by cell division All cells are basically of the same chemical composition in organisms of similar species Cells contain hereditary information (DNA) that is passed from cell to cell during cell division Energy flow (metabolism and biochemistry) occurs within cells The activity of an organism depends on the total activity of independent cells DNA and Genetic Control of Protein Synthesis Watson and Crick revealed the structure f the DNA molecule in 1953 as a Double Helix; This eventually led to the understanding of how protein synthesis occurs under the direction of information contained un the DNA molecule In the lake 1950s the genetic code had been deciphered, and a number of RNA molecules were discovered; It was determined that information in DNA was and transcribed (converted) into RNA molecules, and George Palade

discovered that ribosomes were the location in the cell where amino acids were synthesized into proteins This information was complied into what is called the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology by Crick in 1958 Sliding Filament Theory of Muscle Contraction Using electron microscopy and biochemical techniques, Huxley and Hanson (1953) formulated this theory They determined that two proteins were responsible for muscle contraction at the cellular level Actin and Myosin filaments They established that the filaments did NOT shorten in length to cause muscle cells to contract (shorten), but the Actin and myosin filaments slide past each other to cause muscle cells to shorten Clinical Note: Muscular Dystrophies Caused by mutations in DNA that lead to the production of abnormal skeletal muscle proteins leading to degeneration of muscle cells Medical Diagnostic Techniques for Analyzing Anatomical and Physiological Conditions Radiography: a general tern that refers to medical imaging including; x-ray radiographs, computed tomography (CT or CAT Scan) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) X-rays: form of radiation that penetrates soft tissue with ease, but less so for dense tissues, example Bone Computed Tomography (CT or CAT Scan) X-rays are administered from a source , and the source is associated with a sensor; both move 360 degrees around a body region; images are taken at different levels of cross-sections down the length of the body region to be analyzed; a computer joins the cross sections (slices) into a composite image; the image shows superior view of . (missing notes) Magnetic Resonance Imagine (MRI) Does not utilize x-rays; instead magnetic fields are applied to the subject over a 360 degree transit; the human body (missing notes)