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The seminar is about polymers that can emit light when a voltage is applied to it. The structure comprises of a thin film of semiconducting polymer sandwiched between two electrodes (cathode and anode).When electrons and holes are injected from the electrodes, the recombination of these charge carriers takes place, which leads to emission of light .The band gap, i.e. The energy difference between valence band and conduction band determines the wavelength (color) of the emitted light. They are usually made by ink jet printing process. In this method red green and blue polymer solutions are jetted into well defined areas on the substrate. This is because, PLEDs are soluble in common organic solvents like toluene and xylene .The film thickness uniformity is obtained by multi-passing (slow) is by heads with drive per nozzle technology .The pixels are controlled by using active or passive matrix. The advantages include low cost, small size, no viewing angle restrictions, low power requirement, biodegradability etc. They are poised to replace LCDs used in laptops and CRTs used in desktop computers today. Their future applications include flexible displays which can be folded, wearable displays with interactive features, camouflage etc.

Department of ECE


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L.LIGHT EMITTING POLYMER 2009 6.T Page 3 .J. REFERENCES 25 Department of ECE R.I.

the anode gives electron holes to the conductive layer. researchers at Cambridge University UK discovered in 1990 that conducting polymers also exhibit electroluminescence and the light emitting polymer(LEP) was born!. That is why this layer is called emissive. The recombination causes a drop in the energy levels of electrons. 2. accompanied by an emission of radiation whose substrate.I.LIGHT EMITTING POLYMER CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION *Imagine these scenarios . This causes a current of electrons to flow through the device from cathode to anode. Cathode (−). is seeing the introduction of full-color LEP-driven displays that are more efficient. It is transparent to visible light and has a high work function which promotes injection of holes into the polymer layer. The first. Soon.T which promote Department of ECE Page 4 . It is possible that organic light-emitting materials will replace older display technologies much like compact discs have relegated cassette tapes to storage bins. a platoon commander of the Indian Army readies for the regular satellite updates that will give him the latest terrain pictures of the border in his sector. in other words. you roll up the set like a large handkerchief.After watching the breakfast news on TV. The layers are made of organic molecules that conduct electricity. the cathode gives electrons to the emissive layer and the anode withdraw electrons from the conductive layer. the map is refreshed with the latest high resolution camera images grabbed by an Indian satellite which passed over the region just minutes ago.Somewhere in the Kargil sector.which earned the co-discoverers. Conductive Layer. Indium tin oxide is commonly used as the anode material. Electrostatic forces bring the electrons and the holes towards each other and they recombine. Emission of radiation.The current 40 billion-dollar display market. and easier to manufacture. . while the conductive layer becomes rich in positively charged holes. a 2009 Burroughs et al. Metals such as aluminium and calcium are often used for the cathode as they have low organic semiconductors. CHAPTER 2 SUBJECT DETAILING LIGHT EMITTING POLYMER/ORGANIC LIGHT EMMITTING DEVICE A typical OLED is composed of an emissive layer. and anode and cathode terminals. Emissive Layer. On the bus or train journey to your office. As well as conductive properties. Thus. 3. MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa the 2000 Nobel prize in chemistry.J. Heeger .1(a) Schematic of a 2-layer OLED: 1. The origins of polymer OLED technology go back to the discovery of conducting polymers in 1977. Fig 2. the emissive layer becomes negatively charged. dominated by LCDs (standard in laptops) and cathode ray tubes (CRTs. Multilayer device synthesised by OLEDs can have more than two layers to improve device efficiency. 4. a conductive layer. and stuff it into your briefcase. so OLEDs are considered frequency is in the visible region. involved a single layer of poly (pphenylene vinylene).L. standard in televisions). Alan G. The layers have conductivity levels ranging from insulators to conductors. In seconds. layers may be chosen to aid charge injection at electrodes by providing a more gradual electronic profile. 5. Anode (+) A voltage is applied across the OLED such that the anode is positive with respect to the cathode. you can pull it out and catch up with the latest stock market quotes on CNBC. Following this discovery . for example the first light-emitting polymer work functions R. most basic OLEDs consisted of a single organic layer. This happens closer to the emissive layer. He unrolls a plastic-like map and hooks it to the unit's satellite telephone. or block a charge from reaching the opposite electrode and being wasted. because in organic semiconductors holes are more mobile than electrons. brighter.Alan J. Don’t imagine these scenarios at least not for too long.

1. Approximately a dozen companies have demonstrated the use of inkjet printing for PLED displays and this technique is now at the forefront of developments in digital electronic materials deposition. For graphic art this variation can be averaged out by multi-passing with the quality to the print dependent on the number of passes.T Page 5 .J. This results in an extremely fine layer of the polymer having a thickness of 100 nanometers. only now are applications emerging in printing electronics materials. has developed software to allow DPN to be used in its printers. Once the polymer is evenly spread. has started to manufacture heads where the drive conditions for each nozzle can be adjusted individually – so called drive-per-nozzle (DPN).2.5 mm from the substrate. the head has been designed to give drops of ink with a very small angle-of-flight variation.1 Schematic of the ink jet printing for PLED materials For some materials and display applications the film thickness uniformity may have to be better than ±2 per cent. Fig. the formulation of the ink is key to making effective and attractive Department of ECE R. In addition to very good volume control. Red. 2.2. A conventional inkjet head may have volume variations of up to ±20 per cent from the hundred or so nozzles that comprise the head and.Creating a full colour. Indium-tin oxides typically used for the anode and aluminum or calcium for the cathode. evenly spreads the polymer on the plate. the inks and the substrates (see Fig.1 (b) shows a symmetrically configured alternating current lightemitting (SCALE) device that works under AC as well as forward and reverse DC bias. In addition to the precision of the print head. the inkjet print head. Volume variations across the head of ±2 per cent can be achieved using DPN. in the worst case.LIGHT EMITTING POLYMER injection of electrons into the polymer layer. which.1 (a) shows the structure of a simple single layer device with electrodes and an active layer.1. it is baked in an oven to evaporate any remnant liquid. Spectra. in turn. a subsidiary of CDT.2. the film thickness has to be very uniform. a nozzle may be blocked. Fig. Although multi-passing could be used for PLEDs the process would be unacceptably slow. 2009 2. Single-layer devices typically work only under a forward DC bias. Recently.I. turning inkjet printing into a manufacturing process for PLED displays has required significant developments of Fig.1 INK JET PRINTING Although inkjet printing is well established in printing graphic images. a spin-coating machine is used that has a plate spinning at the speed of a few thousand rotations per minute. green and blue polymer solutions are jetted into well defined areas with an angle of flight deviation of less than 5º.1).L. inkjet printed display requires the precise metering of volumes in the order of pico liters. the latest print heads have a deviation of less than ±5 microns when placed 0. Litrex in the USA. However.1 CONSTRUCTION Light-emitting devices consist of active/emitting layers sandwiched between a cathode and an anode. The robot pours the plastic over the rotating plate. A 200 dots per inch (dpi) display has colour pixels only 40 microns wide. In order to manufacture the polymer.1. 2. the world’s largest supplier of industrial inkjet heads. To ensure the displays have uniform emission.

Active displays are preferred. The formulation of a dry polymer material into an ink suitable for PLED displays requires that the inkjets reliably at high frequency and that on reaching the surface of the substrate forms a wet film in the correct location and dries to a uniformly flat film. As a result passive displays are prone to flickering since each pixel only emits light for such a small length of time.2 BASIC PRINCIPLE AND TECHNOLOGY Polymer properties are dominated by the covalent nature of carbon bonds making up the organic molecules backbone. formed at the intersection of rows and columns deposited on a substrate. this process becomes more difficult since higher currents have to flow down the control lines. simple displays are required. the controlling current has to be present whenever the pixel is required to light up.1. 2. the four electrons in the valence bond form tetrahedral oriented hybridized sp3 orbitals from the s & p orbitals described quantum mechanically as geometrical wave functions. keeping the pixel at the required brightness. until it receives another control signal. The matrix pixels are accessed sequentially. Each pixel is a light emitting diode such as a PLED. capable of emitting light by being turned on or off. and to create an image.J. each row and each column of the display has its own driver. 2. The film then has to perform as a useful electro-optical material. A single carbon-carbon bond is composed of two electrons being shared in overlapping wave functions. As the current required to brighten a pixel Department of ECE R. the matrix is rapidly scanned to enable every pixel to be switched on or off as required. Also.1. and as the display gets larger. either 'passive' or 'active' matrix driver methods are used. unsymmetrical . The properties of the spherical s orbital and bimodal p orbitals combine into four equal .I. the transistor is able to hold the current setting. increases (for higher brightness displays).L.LIGHT EMITTING POLYMER display devices. Lower currents can now flow down the control wires since these have only to program the TFT driver. however it is technically challenging to incorporate so many transistors into such small a compact area. Active matrix displays solve the problem of efficiently addressing each pixel by incorporating a transistor (TFT) in series with each pixel which provides control over the current and hence the brightness of individual pixels. Also. or any state in between. green and blue pixels very close together. PLED devices are especially suitable for incorporating into active matrix displays.T Page 6 . The bond formed by the overlap of these hybridized orbitals from two carbon atoms is referred to as a ‘sigma’ bond. tetrahedral oriented hybridized sp3 orbitals. To control the pixels. Recent progress in ink formulation and printer technology has allowed 400 mm panels to be colour printed in under a minute. For each carbon. Colored displays are formed by positioning matrices of red. active displays have transistors so that when a particular pixel is turned on it remains on until it is turned off. and the wires can be finer as a result. Fig. as they are processable in solution and can be manufactured using ink jet printing over larger areas. As a result. 2. Pixel displays can either by active or passive matrix. The immobility of electrons that form the covalent bonds explain why plastics were classified almost exclusively insulators until the 1970’s. 2009 ACTIVE MATRIX PASSIVE MATRIX In passive matrix systems. Future demands on displays will in part require larger area displays so the active matrix market segment will grow faster.2 shows the differences between the two matrix types. passive matrix displays tend to be used mainly where cheap. and so form the image required.2 ACTIVE AND PASSIVE MATRIX Many displays consist of a matrix of pixels.

as do the holes generated by the absence of electrons through oxidation with a dopant like iodine. as a consequence the HOMO (exp link remember 6th form!) of the macromolecule stretches across the entire chain. Electron and hole mobility occurs as a ‘hopping’ mechanism which is significant to the practical development of organic emitting devices. The p orbitals of the single bonded carbons form an effective ‘pi’ bond ultimately leading to the significant consequence of ‘pi’ electron de-localization. 2. PPV has a fully conjugated backbone (figure 2. While conductors such as copper conduct electricity with little to no energy (in this case potential difference or voltage) required to "kick-start" a current. the energy is released when an electron from the conduction band falls into a hole in the valence band. The efficiency of electron/hole transport between polymer molecules is also unique to polymers. the ‘pi’ bond electrons have relative mobility. insulators such as glass require huge amounts of energy to conduct a current. These bands form the periodic arrangement of atoms in the crystal structure of the semiconductor. The electronic device that accomplishes this electron-hole interaction is that of a diode.T Page 7 .2. 2009 A conjugated ‘pi’ bond refers to a carbon chain or ring whose bonds alternate between single and double (or triple) bonds. Then the electrons have mobility. corresponding to a low energy π orbital and a high energy π* orbital. All that is required to provide an effective conducting band is the oxidation or reduction of carbons in the backbone. In a diatomic molecule. every time an atom is added to the Department of ECE R. however.L.1 LIGHT EMISSION The production of photons from the energy gap of a material is very similar for organic and ceramic semiconductors.1 A demonstration of the full conjugation of π Electrons in PPV. In a ceramic semiconductor like GaAs or ZnS. which consists of an ntype material (electron rich) interfaced with p-type material (hole rich). This is simple enough. this kind of situation is ideal for the transport of charge. Band theory is used to explain the semi-conductance of PPV. The situation is very similar for organic semiconductors with two notable exceptions. PPV is a semiconductor. in simple terms. the energy gap of the polymer is more a function of the individual backbone. The first exception stems from the nature of the conduction band in an organic system while the second exception is the recognition of how conduction occurs between two organic molecules. In organic semiconductor.2. Hence a brief description of the process of electroluminescence is in order. Semiconductors require modest amounts of energy in order to carry a current. Unlike the ‘sigma’ bond electrons.J. which are trapped between the carbons. The delocalized π electron clouds are coloured yellow. electrons can simply "hop" from one π orbital to the next since they are all linked. and are used in technologies such as transistors. The single bond formed between two double bonds inherits the characteristics of the double bonds since the single bond is formed by two sp2 hybrid orbitals. a molecular orbital (MO) diagram can be drawn showing a single HOMO and LUMO.LIGHT EMITTING POLYMER the electrons cross a neutralized zone at the interface to fill holes and thus emit energy. Electroluminescence is the process in which electromagnetic (EM) radiation is emitted from a material by passing an electrical current through it. The bonding system tends to form stronger bonds than might be first indicated by a structure with single bonds. The frequency of the EM radiation is directly related to the energy of separation between electrons in the conduction band and electrons in the valence band. Semiconductors are so called because they have conductivity that is midway between that of a conductor and an insulator. and the mobility of electrons and holes are limited to the linear or branched directions of the molecule they statistically inhabit.I.1).2. When the diode is forward biased (electrons across interface from n to p by an applied voltage) Figure 2. microchips and LEDs.

They are separated by a band gap which is typically 0-10eV and depends on the type of material.(Fig. • Low power consumption. The new prototypes by Sony are merely 0.2 A series of orbital diagrams. which corresponds to yellow-green light. and in addition one non-bonding orbital. one anti-bonding. the charge carriers (e.2. holes and electrons are referred to as charge carriers. the anode operates by removing electrons from the polymer and consequently leaving regions of positive charge called holes. two atomic orbitals gives two molecular orbitals. The electron injector needs to inject electrons of sufficient energy to exceed the band gap. The capture of oppositely charged carriers is referred to as recombination. Not all conducting polymers fluoresce. π orbitals) and a conduction band (LUMOs. In order for PPV to carry a In this model. • Simple to use technology than conventional solid state LEDs and lasers. The frequency of the photon is tied to the band-gap of the polymer.e. quickly preventing any injection of charge carriers.I. • No environmental draw backs. an electron and a hole form neutral-bound excited states (termed excitons) that quickly decay and produce a photon up to 25% of the time. This is what you may have expected since electrical resistance in most conductors causes the conductor to become hot. 2.2eV (exp eV). Excitons are still captured and still decay. however they mostly decay to release heat.L. • No power in take when switched off. and thus is entirely filled. • A diatomic molecule has a bonding and an antibonding orbital. Thus for a PPV chain which consists of ~1300 atoms involved in conjugation. being made up of empty π* orbitals (the LUMOs) are entirely empty). Auf Bau and the Pauli Principle. In this case the bands are separated by a band gap.LIGHT EMITTING POLYMER molecule a further MO is added to the MO diagram. • No viewing angle dependence. The electrons arrange themselves following. The orbital sets are called bands. • Four atomic orbitals give four molecular orbitals. • Fast switching speeds that are typical of LEDs. In effect no current would flow. • Display fast moving images with optimum clarity. i. Without capture the charge densities of holes and electrons would build up. polyacetylene. • OLED TVs are really thin . Department of ECE R. however there is more to this story! First we need to imagine a conventional diode system. The valence band is filled with all the π electrons in the chain. • Cost much less to manufacture and to run than CRTs because the active material is plastic. the LUMOs and HOMOs will be so numerous as to be effectively continuous.J.T Page 8 . PPV has a band gap of 2. When captured. • Can be scaled to any dimension. •All colors of the visible spectrum are possible by appropriate choose of polymers. a valence band (HOMOs. and an anode.2) Figure 2. decay produces only heat. It is already apparent that conduction in polymers is not similar to that of metals and inorganic conductors. both are free to traverse the PPV chains and as a result will come into contact. this is due to the possible multiplicities of the exciton. PPV has a band-gap of 2. 75% of the time.g.the Sony XEL-1 for example is just 3mm thick. • Many atoms results in so many closely spaced orbitals that they are effectively continuous and non-quantum. as before one bonding. The anode is consequently referred to as the hole injector. π* orbitals). • Self luminous. • A single atom has one atomic obital • A triatomic molecule has three molecular orbitals. • Very slim flat panel.000 hours. CHAPTER 3 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES 3.2.3 volts and have lifetime of more than 30. while the conduction band. PPV sandwiched between an electron injector (or cathode). Capture is essential for a current to be sustained.3mm thick! 2009 charge. this results in two proceed from the valence band to the conduction band where they are free to ride the PPV chain’s empty LUMOs. one of the first conducting-polymers to be discovered was found to fluoresce at extremely low levels of intensity. electrons) must be given enough energy to "jump" this barrier . It is logical for an electron to fill a hole when the opportunity is presented and they are said to capture one another.1 ADVANTAGES Require only 3. and thus the substance is either an insulator or a semiconductor.

T Page 9 .2 POLY LED TV Philips will demonstrate its first 13-inch PolyLED TV prototype based on polymer OLED (organic light-emitting diode) technology Taking as its reference application the wide-screen 30-inch diagonal display with WXGA (1365x768) resolution. pagers. Red and green typically last between 10. Additionally. and has filed several patents in the area.000 and 40. While the basic forms of OLEDs are able to be cheaply manufactured for devices such as cell phones and mp3 players. and faster features than the current display. CDT has an active program to develop efficient solar cells and light detectors using its polymer semiconductor know-how and experience. 3). a polymer OLED-based TV could be a reality in the next five years. and projection devices.. it wouldn't live nearly as long as the same OLED running at half its total light output”. 4. multi-head inkjet printers. As the various colors begin to die out the display image begins to appear very non-uniform. and PDA's with brighter. ENGINEERING AND PRODUCTION As in any new technology cost is usually a barrier to mainstream production. while blue compounds begin to die at around 1. The excellent and sparkling image quality of Philips' Poly LED TV prototype illustrates the great potential of this new display technology for TV applications. 3. • OLEDs have a much better viewing angle .1.1 PHOTOVOLTAICS CDT’s PLED technology can be used in reverse.almost 180 degrees. • OLEDs can actually be made flexible or transparent.1. APPLICATIONS Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLED) can easily be processed into largearea thin films using simple and inexpensive technology. CHAPTER 4 Digital clocks powered by CDT's polymer solar cells. Water is also a problem in which engineers need to solve before OLEDs can be mass marketed. Devices which convert light into electricity are called photovoltaic (PV) devices. Because the organic compounds are water soluble it is necessary to create a sealant that will keep out all moisture but still keep the capabilities that make OLEDs so advantageous (Freudenrich. When these two hurdles can be overcome OLEDs will become a very viable display alternative to LCD.000 hours. leaving a very green display”. more detailed production techniques for television size displays are still in the prototype stages. and that is no different with OLEDs. and are at the heart of solar cells and light detectors.. Department of ECE R. 4. lighter.000 hours. “ Reds and blues die first. As more experience is gained in manufacturing these more complex displays the cost hurdles are likely to come down. the brightness to which your display is set has a tremendous effect on longevity. Plasma.L. “If you were to run your OLED at its maximum light output all the time.I.LIGHT EMITTING POLYMER 2009 4. to convert light into electricity. According to current predictions.J. Imaging a foldable large OLED TV that takes no space when not used. thinner. some have a tendency to “die out” before others. They also promise to challenge LCD's as the premiere display technology for wireless phones. Because they are made out of organic compounds.2 DISADVANTAGES Lifetime and Color One of the most challenging hurdles facing OLED technology today is longevity. Philips has produced a prototype 13-inch carve-out of this display (resolution 576x324) to demonstrate the feasibility of manufacturing large-screen polymer OLED displays using highaccuracy multi-nozzle.

Midland. One of the many possibilities is to replace regular walls or windows with similar sized OLED installations which will “lead to userdefinable window spaces” (Morgenstern.T Page 10 .L. 4.J.1 ADVANCEMENTS IN THE HOME The home of tomorrow will forever be changed by the continuing advancement and incorporation of OLED technology into our everyday life. 64). FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS Here are just a few ideas which build on the versatility of light emitting materials.LIGHT EMITTING POLYMER 2009 4. marketed by GoDot Technology. These walls will house transparent Department of ECE R. MP3 audio player. Bright. the technology exists for wide spread use in the future. High efficiency displays running on low power and economical to manufacture will find many uses in the consumer electronics field.1.1.1.. 4.3 BABY MOBILE This award winning baby mobile uses light weight organic light emitting diodes to realize images and sounds in response to gestures and speech of the infant.I.5 TRANSPARENT OLEDS 4. 4. lightemitting polymer display is the new. Mich. The unit employs a polymeric light-emitting diode (pLED) display supplied by Delta Optoelectronics. compact. clear screens filled with information and entertainment data of all sorts may make our lives easier. which is made with green Lumation light-emitting polymers furnished by Dow Chemical Co.4 MP3 PLAYER DISPLAY Another product on the market taking advantage of a thin form-factor. While there seem to be zero to few readily available uses of transparent OLEDs (TOLEDs) in the consumer market today. happier and safer. Taiwan.

images or artwork” (Morgenstern. 4. and is also so thin and flexible that you can roll it up and put it in your backpack or briefcase. Additionally. information will be more safely and easily delivered to drivers in the form of heads up displays.I.2 NEWS AND INFORMATION 2009 Imagine a day when you are reading a newspaper that is capable of showing pictures and video. and sports scores with the same ease and portability as reading a traditional newspaper. or to … Department of ECE R.L. flexible metal or plastic sheets they are able to bend. That day may someday be a reality thanks to OLED technology. Because OLEDs can be built into thin. twist. These HUDs can be built directly into a windshield using transparent OLEDs and be capable of displaying any possible piece of information that could be necessary while driving a car. and even roll up without causing any damage. and the opaque spaces will even be able to display information. depending on what the homeowner would like. 64). This will possibly change the lives of homeowners.LIGHT EMITTING POLYMER OLEDs that will make it possible to have certain areas opaque while other areas clear. This will advance information gathering ability as people are able to see the latest headlines. the time. Additionally.T Page 11 . “the wall can be any color or design that you want. stock prices. It will function much like computer desktops do.J. Theoretically a homeowner could move the “window” for a better view or to adjust the amount of sunlight entering the room. is continuously updating itself with the latest news via a Wi-Fi connection. This advent will save countless lives as drivers will never again need to look away from the road to see their speed. the design and functionality of any room can change instantly at the whim of the person in the room.

The portable and light weight organic displays will soon cover our walls replacing the bulky and power hungry cathode ray tubes. 2003 Josephine B.Subramanian. of Tokyo And Royal Philips and Vivek Subramanian.J. 5. organic full colour displays may eventually replace LCDs in laptop and even desktop computers. many manufactures are working to introduce cell phoned and personal digital assistants with organic displays within the next few years. Amsterdam www.research. The OLED display will be able to display both video and text containing information about the passport holder. CONCLUSION Organic materials are poised as never before to transform the world of display eliminating fragile and heavy glass substrate used in LCDs and can emit light without the directionality inherent in LCD viewing with efficiencies higher than that can be obtained with incandescent light bulbs.T Page 12 . The OLED passport doesn’t require any batteries to run because it will come to life only when activated by a  • • www. R.3 OLED PASSPORT is gearing up to produce PLED backlights to be used in LCDs and organic ICs.187-188.cdtltd.Farshchi and V. And while it is always difficult to predict when and what future products will be 2003 IEEE Device Research conference digest pp.LIGHT EMITTING POLYMER 4. The ePassport features a 700µm polycarbonate data page that holds an active matrix bendable 300µm OLED display. phosphorescent flexible organic displays in laptop computers and even for home video applications may be no more than a few years in to the future.covion. Major electronic firms such as Philips and pioneer and smaller companies such as Cambridge Display Technology are betting that the future holds tremendous opportunity for low cost and surprisingly high performance offered by organic electronic and opto electronic devices. “Ink Jet Passive Components” 2003 IEEE Device Research conference digest. The ultimate goal of using high efficiency.L. 2003  Department of ECE www. The first products using organic displays are already in the market. “Inkjet passive component and plastic substrate for RFID”. Multicolor automobile stereo displays are now available from Pioneer Corp.I. Such displays can be deposited on flexible plastic coils. Organic electronics are already entering commercial world.Rwdinger. Using organic light emitting diodes. BIBILIOGRAPHY REFERENCE 2009 • • Samsung SDI from Germany has designed the OLED passport which is claimed to be completely manipulationproof.