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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 58, NO. 8, OCTOBER 2009

Advanced Integrated Bidirectional AC/DC and DC/DC Converter for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Young-Joo Lee, Student Member, IEEE, Alireza Khaligh, Member, IEEE, and Ali Emadi, Senior Member, IEEE
Abstract—Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technology provides an effective solution for achieving higher fuel economy, better performance, and lower emissions, compared with conventional vehicles. Plug-in HEVs (PHEVs) are HEVs with plug-in capabilities and provide a more all-electric range; hence, PHEVs improve fuel economy and reduce emissions even more. PHEVs have a battery pack of high energy density and can run solely on electric power for a given range. The battery pack can be recharged by a neighborhood outlet. In this paper, a novel integrated bidirectional ac/dc charger and dc/dc converter (henceforth, the integrated converter) for PHEVs and hybrid/plug-in-hybrid conversions is proposed. The integrated converter is able to function as an ac/dc battery charger and to transfer electrical energy between the battery pack and the high-voltage bus of the electric traction system. It is shown that the integrated converter has a reduced number of high-current inductors and current transducers and has provided fault-current tolerance in PHEV conversion. Index Terms—AC/DC rectifiers, control, dc/dc converters, electric traction, energy storage, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in HEVs (PHEVs), power electronics, propulsion systems.

I. I NTRODUCTION ONVERSION of conventional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) [1]–[3] into plug-in HEVs [4], [5] to reduce fuel consumption [2] has been considered by both academia and the automotive industry [6]. The conversion is achieved by either adding a high-energy battery pack or replacing the existing battery pack of HEV to extend the all-electric range [5]. In either case, the high-energy battery pack should be charged from an external ac outlet, as well as regenerative braking, and must supply the stored electrical energy to the electric traction system. AC outlet charging inevitably needs a battery charger [7]– [11] with power factor correction (PFC) [8], [12], which has various configurations based on an ac/dc converter and
Manuscript received November 17, 2008; revised May 12, 2009. First published July 21, 2009; current version published October 2, 2009. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant 0801860. The review of this paper was coordinated by Prof. A. Miraoui. Y.-J. Lee is with the R&E Center of Whirlpool Corporation, Benton Harbor, MI 49022 USA. A. Khaligh is with the Energy Harvesting and Renewable Energies Laboratory, Electric Power and Power Electronics Center, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 606163793 USA (e-mail: khaligh@ece.iit.edu). A. Emadi is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616-3793 USA. Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TVT.2009.2028070

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a proper voltage-current profile for the high-energy battery pack. The bidirectional dc/dc converter with a proper charging– discharging profile is required to transfer energy between the battery and the electric traction system. In this paper, PHEV conversion is based on the add-on highenergy battery, which can leave the current HEV power system unmodified, and battery voltage is supposed to be relatively lower than the high-voltage bus of an electric traction system. It is assumed that cost, volume, weight, and the number of current transducers and high-current inductors would be increased if the ac/dc and bidirectional dc/dc converters were cascaded in PHEVs. The converter for PHEV conversion should minimize the electrical impact on the existing HEV power system, particularly from the point of view of fault current. The converter has three operating modes, i.e., plug-in ac/dc charging of the add-on battery, boost operation from the low-voltage add-on battery to the high-voltage bus of the HEV, and buck operation from the high-voltage bus to the add-on battery for regenerative charging. It is essential to fairly satisfy the aforementioned considerations. The purpose of this paper is to present the integrated configuration and to demonstrate its feasibility for PHEV conversion. This paper has been organized as follows: The concept of PHEV conversion and the constitution of the proposed integrated converter are shown in Section II. Section III explains three operating modes of the proposed converter. In Section IV, the expected change in loss and efficiency for feasibility estimation is addressed by the comparison of the proposed converter and conventional topologies. Section V presents the simulation and experimental results to evaluate the proposed converter. Finally, Section VI provides concluding remarks and future work. II. P LUG -I N H YBRID E LECTRIC V EHICLE C ONVERSION AND P ROPOSED I NTEGRATED C ONVERTER A. PHEV Conversion Fig. 1 shows an overall configuration of the PHEV conversion. The main elements for the conversion comprise an ac/dc charger, a high-energy battery added to the HEV, a bidirectional dc/dc converter, and a digital controller with digital signal processing (DSP). These main elements are in cascade, except the digital controller, as seen. The plug-in charger is composed of two parts: 1) ac/dc rectifier and 2) dc/dc converter (Conv. 1). The bidirectional dc/dc converter (Conv. 2) is placed between

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Rs6. and CT1. six switches. 2 based on the operating conditions previously mentioned. . The combinations of switches and other components are mapped in Table I according to the desired operating modes. and D6 stay in the OFF state to disconnect the high-voltage bus of the HEV from both the ac input and the add-on battery. Proposed Converter The proposed converter with controller is shown in Fig. D3. as shown in Fig. Mode 2: Boost Operation From the Add-On Battery to the High-Voltage Bus of the HEV Boost operation from the add-on battery to the high-voltage bus of the HEV is shown in Fig. D5. Q2. D4. and Q4 and Q5 are in the ON state. 1 with PFC should be in buck-and-boost operation when the peak value of Vac (Vac_pk ) is higher than Vbatt . Fig. The input/output voltage and inductor current are measured through Rs1.: ADVANCED INTEGRATED BIDIRECTIONAL AC/DC AND DC/DC CONVERTER FOR PHEVs 3971 Fig. Power from the battery to the high-voltage bus can be estimated using the measured battery voltage and current so that transferable power at a certain state of charge should be regulated appropriately. and five diodes. The same rule is applied to Conv. Proposed integrated converter with controller. Q2. B. The digital controller is in charge of the control and monitoring [13]. Q3. The input/output voltage and inductor current are measured through Rs3. D1. Q3 stays in the ON state. D3. and L1 make up the noninverting buck–boost converter [16]–[22]. and discharging and regenerative charging of the battery are exclusive to each other. Q2. Q6. 1.e. Q5. O PERATING M ODES OF THE I NTEGRATED C ONVERTER A. Mode 3: Buck Operation for Regenerative Charging of the Add-On Battery Fig. Rs2. The proposed converter has one inductor. Rs4. Rs4. Three voltage sources. and Q6 are for pulsewidth modulation (PWM) switching of buck-and-boost operations. Other switches and diodes Q1. Rs3. Q6 works for PWM switching. L1. Rs5. Rs6. and CT1. The desired output voltage and current are regulated by the appropriate combinations of the buck-and-boost mode. Rs5. Q3. L1. are shown in Fig. Q3. and D6 maintain the OFF state to separate the ac outlet. Q3. D1. and D6 are used for the buck converter now that a Vhv higher than Vbatt is assumed. Q4. it should only be in boost operation. 3(b). Q4. In this mode. which are going to be properly combined to select buck-andboost modes among voltage sources. Q5. so that the current path can appear between the battery and the high-voltage bus. and Q3 remains in the ON state during the operation. As an illustration. Q4. Q2 is in PWM switching mode. 2 with Vbatt for input and Vhv for output. and Q5 serve as simple on/off switches to connect or disconnect the corresponding current flowing path. which can provide a plug-in charger function with PFC without regard to whether battery voltage Vbatt is higher than the peak value of the ac outlet Vac_pk . Q1 and Q2 are in PWM switching mode. which does not have a cascaded structure. the three operations do not occur at the same time in that plug-in charging is not allowed while the vehicle runs. B. as seen. D4. The other switches and diodes Q4. battery voltage Vbatt .LEE et al. i. Q5. 1. Conv.. Q1. and communication with external systems. Vbatt and Vhv sequentially become input and output voltages. ac outlet voltage Vac . Rs3. The other switches and diodes Q1. 3 shows the instantaneous ac input voltage and operating modes in Mode 1. 2. and the high-voltage bus of HEV Vhv . Rs4. To sense the input/output voltage and current. In Fig. 1. Mode 1: Noninverting Buck–Boost Operation for Plug-In Charging of the Add-On Battery Fig. Q6. Basically. and D1 provides a free-wheeling path. [14] of the ac/dc charger and bidirectional dc/dc converter. otherwise. These voltages might be different in input/output voltage magnitude in each converter. and D5 form a boost converter in that a Vhv higher than Vbatt is assumed. Q1. 5 shows regenerative charging of the add-on battery using buck operation from the high-voltage bus to the battery. battery state of charge [15]. There exist one current feedback and three voltage feedbacks. PHEV conversion with the add-on battery. D1. D3. D4. and D5 are in the OFF state. In this mode. Q2. 4. III. and CT1 are used. the add-on battery and the high-voltage bus of the HEV. C. Q6.

Mode 3: Regenerative charging of the add-on battery. D. . and high-current inductors (L) in Fig. 6(b). current transducers (CT). (c) Boost operation. IV.3972 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. 4. the large-signal transfer functions and dc gains are given by (1) and (2). Mode 1: Plug-in charging of the add-on battery. A simplified converter model is shown in Fig. Analytical Modeling of the Converter As shown in Figs. the state-space averaged large-signal transfer functions are derived. 3. voltage polarity. 5. respectively. C OMPARATIVE A NALYSIS Fig. In buck operation. 6(b)–(c) also provide very insightful physical information that is of use to controller designers. 58. Vin 1 − Dboost (large-signal dc gain) (4) and the state-space block diagram is shown in Fig. all operations of the converter are made of buck-and-boost operations with different configura- A comparison of the proposed and a conventional converter is presented and summarized through criteria based on the battery voltage range. 6(a). In boost operation. VOL. (a) Instantaneous ac input voltage and operating modes. NO. as described in Table I. diodes (D). (b) Buck operation. fault current tolerance. 3–5. as given by Vo (s) = 1 LC Vin Dbuck 1 1 s2 + RC s + LC (large-signal model) (large-signal dc gain) (1) (2) model) (3) Vo (0) = Vin Dbuck Vo (s) = s2 + 1 LC Vin (1 − Dboost ) (large-signal 1 1 2 RC s + LC (1 − Dboost ) Vo (0) = Fig. which has noninverting buck-boost topology. respectively. the large-signal transfer functions and dc gains are given by (3) and (4). respectively. OCTOBER 2009 TABLE I COMBINATIONS OF ELEMENTS FOR THE OPERATING MODES Fig. 7 and Table II. 8. and the number of switches (Q). The state-space block diagram and resultant large-signal dc gain in Figs. tions of input/output voltages. Mode 2: Boost from the add-on battery to the high-voltage bus. Based on the simplified model.

Vbatt . 4. including switches. one more pair of diode and switch is added in the proposed converter. The extra conduction loss arises from additional switches and diodes for fault-tolerance current paths. Fault Current Tolerance As shown in Figs. Available Battery Voltage Range In the aspect of flexibility in the applicable ac grid voltage and battery voltage. in Fig. 7(a). A. the fact that all the current paths.LEE et al. Inverted output voltage and intrinsic higher current noise must seriously be taken into consideration for high-power applications. it becomes possible to reduce the number of high-current inductors and current transducers. making it difficult to share common ground and higher intrinsic diode reverse recovery current. 7(b). In addition. adoption of a bidirectional buck–boost converter. F. insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). transistors. 2. Change in Conduction Loss It has been found that the proposed converter has relatively slightly more conduction loss in all operating modes. 3–5. To make the criteria of comparison clear. seems to be a good choice. it is found that the proposed converter has one more switch. compared with Fig. 7(a)–(f). compared with Fig. which has the same steady-state output transfer function as that of conventional buck-and-boost converters. pass an inductor helps reduce sharp fault currents. however. state-space block diagram. and Switching Stress Considering only the number of switches and diodes. Voltage Polarity. because these three modes are exclusive of each other all the time. the increase in loss is ΔPl = PQ3 [in watts]. Estimation of Change in Conduction Losses Changes in losses are classified into Modes 1. the compared converters should have noninverting and relatively wider output voltage for both the add-on battery and the high-voltage bus. Fig. and largesignal dc gain. and 3. The variation in loss is ΔPl = PD4 + PQ5 [in watts]. The conduction losses of diodes and switches can be calculated as PD = VF · IF [in watts] (diode conduction loss) PQ = VCE(SAT) · ICE [in watts] 2 ID [in Fig. D. E. switching stress is higher than buck or boost converters. and Vhv . the high-current inductor has a relatively larger size and is heavier than other power electronic components. (b) State-space block diagram of the simplified model. 6. On the other side. such as metal–oxide–semiconductor fieldeffect transistors (MOSFETs). Component Point of View Through the integrated structure. For such reasons. has inverted output voltage. 3(a) and (b). (10) . Current Noise. there exists such probable fault current or high-reverse-recovery current path as the broken lines in case of using either noninverting or inverting bidirectional buck–boost converters between voltage sources. more switches and diodes are added to make up selective current paths among voltage sources Vac . (9) For Mode 2 (boost function from the add-on battery to the high-voltage bus of the HEV). and diodes. B. 6(a)] . However. the proposed converter can provide a wide range of inputs and outputs in both a charger and bidirectional converter by using noninverting buck–boost topology. (a) Simplified model. and the available output of the high-voltage bus. despite the advantages previously enumerated. 7(a). (c) Resultant large-signal dc gain. The buck–boost converter. as shown in Fig. In addition. (5) (6) (IGBT conduction loss) (7) (8) watts] (MOSFET conduction loss) PQ = RDS · Po Pin = [in watts] [input power of Fig. In general. as in Fig.: ADVANCED INTEGRATED BIDIRECTIONAL AC/DC AND DC/DC CONVERTER FOR PHEVs 3973 C. as shown in Fig. it is needed to estimate and discuss the feasibility of the increase in conduction losses. Thus. εold For Mode 1 (plug-in charging of the add-on battery). 7(a) was compared with the proposed converter in each operating mode. Simplified converter model.

Pin is the previous input power. Table II and (12) can be a basis to estimate the feasibility of the proposed converter. boost. NO. and Po . it is identified that Po is the output power. . Q5.. are removed. 5. one more pair of diode and switch is placed. Assuming continuous conduction mode and a low ripple current through the inductor with maximum output power Po . TABLE II SUMMARY OF THE PROPOSED AND THE CONVENTIONAL CONVERTER To estimate comparative change in efficiency. VOL. compared with Fig. (11) If the diodes in series with switches Q4. 7(a).7-V Li-ion cells in 4S5P. as shown in Fig. and Q6. which only enhance the reliability of switches. and noninverting buck/boost. (a) Full bridge and two noninverting buck/boost. The change in loss is ΔPl = PD6 + PQ3 [in watts].44 kW [23]. where the available neighborhood outlet power is set to 1. Once change in losses occurs. OCTOBER 2009 Fig. The parameters for feasibility estimation are shown in Table III. boost. then the losses in diodes can be neglected. and εnew is the new efficiency. (d) PWM rectifier and buck/boost. The high-energy battery pack is assumed to be a series of 12 modules consisting of nominal 3.e. and buck/boost. (f) Full bridge.3974 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. (c) PWM rectifier and noninverting buck/boost. (b) Full bridge and two buck/boost. ΔPl . εold is the previous efficiency. 8. i. (e) Full bridge. the variation in efficiency is given as Δε = εnew − εold . The comparative change in efficiency for all three modes is formulated as a function of εold . Comparison of the combinations of conventional converters. 7. 58. Δε = εnew − εold = = Pin Po Po Po − Pin + ΔPl Pin Po = Pin 1 εold 1 + ΔPl Po − 1 + ΔPl Po − εold %. (12) For Mode 3 (regenerative charging of the add-on battery).

179 A.7%. and ac line current Iac are sequentially displayed.176 ∼ −1. + 59. Loss calculation according to each operating mode is given as follows: For Mode 1.343 ∼ −1.754 ∼ −0.28 5000 In Mode 3.176 ∼ −1. In Fig. the output voltage (battery voltage: Vbatt ). current command for current modulation Iref . + 106. 3(a). S IMULATION AND E XPERIMENTAL R ESULTS To evaluate the proposed converter.962 ∼ −1.11 W Δεmax = For IGBTs 1 εold 1 − εold = −0.52 W Δεmax = For IGBTs 1 εold 1 − εold = −0.LEE et al.75 A. V.3% and 1.486%.52 5000 ΔPl = PD4 + PQ4 = VF · Ibatt_ max + VCE(SAT) · Ihv_ max = 93. + 76. assuming buck–boost operation for the worst loss calculation Po_ max = 1440 W = Vo_ min · Io_ max Io_ max = For MOSFETs ΔPl = PQ3 = Δεmax = For IGBTs ΔPl = PQ3 = Io_ max · VCE(SAT) = 26. Table IV shows that maximum changes in efficiency Δεmax using MOSFETs and IGBTs are less than 1. 5 Po_ max = 5000 W = Vbatt_ min · Ibatt_ max Ibatt_ max = d= 5000 = 37. and the results are as in Figs.20 1440 − εold = −0.: ADVANCED INTEGRATED BIDIRECTIONAL AC/DC AND DC/DC CONVERTER FOR PHEVs 3975 TABLE III CONDITIONS FOR FEASIBILITY ESTIMATION For MOSFETs ΔPl = PD4 + PQ4 2 = VF · Ibatt_ max + Ihv_ max · RDS = 59.697%. simulations have been performed.75 5000 · RDS = 5. 216 Ibatt_ max = 5000 = 37.28 W Δεmax = TABLE IV CHANGES IN LOSS AND EFFICIENCY 1 εold 1 − εold = −1. 8–10 using the IGBT switches.954%. 4 Po_ max = 5000 W =Vhv_ min ·Ihv_ max =Vbatt_ min ·Ibatt_ max Ihv_ max = 5000 = 23. 8. control voltage command for PWM generation Vctrl . 134 1 − εold = −1. in Fig. rectified ac input voltage |Vac |. in Fig. For MOSFETs ΔPl = PD6 + PQ3 approximately additional conduction loss ΔPl and maximum change in efficiency Δεmax are approximately calculated and summarized as in Table IV.31 A.20 W 1 + 5. respectively. from the top.486%. + 93.86 1440 For Mode 2.15 A.38 Ihv_ max = Ibatt_ max · d = 14.254 ∼ −0.216%.11 5000 ΔPl = PD6 + PQ3 = VF · Ihv_ max + VCE(SAT) · Ibatt_ max = 106.86 W Δεmax = 1 εold 1 εold 2 Io_ max 2 = VF · Ihvt_ max + Ibatt_ max · RDS = 76. Mode-1 operation has been simulated under two conditions where the peak value 1 − εold = −1.620 = Vhv_ min 216 d = 1 − d = 0.322%.31 A Vbatt_ min = d · Vhv_ min 134 Vbatt_ min 134 = 0. 134 . The simulation conditions are provided in Table V.75 W Δεmax = 1 εold 1440 = 10. in Fig. + 26. inductor current feedback IL_fbk . under the given conditions.

8(a) and (b) shows that Vac_pk < Vbatt and that Vac_pk > Vbatt . Mode 1: Noninverting buck–boost operation for plug-in charging. In addition. and Vac_pk is higher than Vbatt . 8. As seen. VOL. at steady state under given conditions. OCTOBER 2009 Fig. the transient state is shown in Fig. (c) Transient state during Vo > Vac_pk . 8(c). NO. 8. 58. (a) Steady state during Vbatt < Vac_pk .3976 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. it is found that the converter works stably. The steady states of Mode-2 operation (boost from the addon battery to the high-voltage bus of the electric drive train . Fig. (b) Steady state during Vo > Vac_pk . of the ac input voltage (Vac_pk ) is lower than battery voltage Vbatt . respectively.

(a) Steady state for Vbatt = 134 V and Vhv = 216 V. battery. 10 provides Mode 3 (buck from the high-voltage bus to the add-on pack). Vhv becomes the input voltage.LEE et al. showing the boost operation of the converter to be stable with Vbatt = 134 V/Vhv = 216 V and Vbatt = 202 V/Vhv = 330 V. 8 and 9. 9. Now. Buck operation starts as Vhv becomes higher than Vbatt . Fig. 8. Vbatt and Vhv (highvoltage bus) are the input and output voltages. 10. which has a controller based on TMS320F2812 DSP from Texas Instruments. Mode 2: Boost operation from the add-on battery to the high-voltage bus of the HEV. Vhv has been assumed to be sinusoidal with a half-period.: ADVANCED INTEGRATED BIDIRECTIONAL AC/DC AND DC/DC CONVERTER FOR PHEVs 3977 Fig. (b) Steady state for Vbatt = 202 V and Vhv = 330 V. the experimental setup is presented. 11. Plots are also placed in the same order as in Figs. respectively. 9. It is seen that the control voltage command Vctrl for PWM generation properly gets shaped as Vhv varies. In Fig. and Vbatt is the output voltage of the converter. Waveforms are presented in the same manner as in Fig. TABLE V SIMULATION CONDITIONS Fig. Mode 3: Buck operation for regenerative charging of the add-on system) have been simulated as in Fig. To simulate the regenerative voltage when the vehicle is decelerated. and the self-designed isolated gate drivers . and buck operation ends when Vhv decreases to Vbatt . the converter.

All the feedback signals from Vac . For experimental convenience. 12 according to the operating modes. Waveforms according to the operating modes. (c) Prototype converter. (a) Block diagram.3978 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. In addition. the maximum output power of each operating mode has been scaled down to 100 W. OCTOBER 2009 Fig. and feedback interface circuits. The waveforms from the experimental setup are shown in Fig. Fig. feedback interface and . Fig. Vbatt . Vhv . Experimental setup. 12. 2. VOL. (a) Waveforms of Mode 1 during Vbatt < Vac_pk . (c) Waveforms of Mode 3: Buck operation. (b) Control flowchart for DSP. the experimental conditions are shown in Table VI. 11(a) shows a block diagram of the experimental setup consisting of the integrated converter. as shown in Fig. 11. (b) Waveforms of Mode 2: Boost operation. and iL are isolated from the high-voltage part of the converter. 8. NO. 58.

It is shown that the prototype converter works stable at steady state. as shown in Fig. “Design considerations for a contactless electric vehicle battery charger.-J. G. no. and G. L. pp. Apr.” IEEE Trans.LEE et al. a longer current overshoot at the beginning of each buck operation than the simulation result in Fig. As shown in Fig. Andrews. Veh. no. Fig. 57. D. Covic. A. DSP controller board. 144–149.-S. 55. buck switch PWM signal (G1). Emadi. 2008. Sep. As can be expected. [14] A. the inductor current always flows as far as the input voltage is lower than the output voltage. the functionalities for the three operating modes. 57. Franceschi. Emadi. M. and its advantages have been pointed out. 6. no. 11(c) shows an experimental prototype. Electron. pp. vol. pp. Ind. . 3rd ed. Stielau. [9] S. 50. Jun. pp. 5. A power-management strategy has been implemented using TI8 DSP 320F2812. 9. Rahimi. C. D. O’Sullivan. 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S. 8.” IEEE Spectr. buck-and-boost operation is alternatively carried out by the resultant control voltage command according to the input-voltage/output-voltage relationship. Henze..” IEEE Trans. Lee. 2007.-K. Fig. Lee. no. no. Sebastian. J.e. C. 2. O. Veh. and 0 ≤ dctrl < 1 for Mode 3 are selectively chosen according to the operating modes. no. 12(c) shows the input voltage (high-voltage bus: Vhv ). have been verified. 760–769. A. 7. NJ: Wiley. 1433–1441.” IEEE Trans. D. Technol. 2. vol. 2005–2016. 1. The input voltage (battery voltage: Vbatt ).” IEEE Spectr. although the input voltage with ±5-V/60-Hz ripple (±12. J. 5. pp. In addition. Egan. no. Khaligh. di Donato. Variations in conduction loss and efficiency due to the additional diodes and switches have been addressed. 31. current command Iref . Ind. and C.5% ripple) has arbitrarily been given from the power supply. M. and G. 42. Ceraolo. 54. 52. Y. Forty volts is set as an output voltage. The proposed integrated converter has been compared with existing topologies. Emadi. boost for discharging the add-on battery. 2003. [6] G. Y. Sul and S. [13] A.. and K. and W. Jan. inductor current feedback IL_fbk . 2005. “Power electronics and motor drives in electric. Solero. H.. Ind. [7] C. and the input voltage provided by power supply varies from 35 to 70 V. pp. Kazerani. Emadi.. “An integral battery charger for four-wheel drive electric vehicle. pp. 4. and IBM PC for program debugging. where dctrl is calculated by Vctrl /Vmod . “Digital control of an isolated active hybrid fuel cell/Li-ion battery power supply. C ONCLUSION An integrated ac/dc charger and bidirectional dc/dc converter for PHEV applications has been presented in this paper. Ind. “Negative impedance stabilizing pulse adjustment control technique for DC/DC converters operating in discontinuous conduction mode and driving constant power loads. i. R EFERENCES [1] A. Jan. [4] A. pp. Hayes. and J. and buck for regenerative charging of the addon battery. Jul. Nov. T. 2001. 6. and fuel-cell-battery-ultracapacitor vehicles. 1096–1099. Oct. Oct. and S. [5] W. 44–47. Jul. P.. Jian. Applications. “Nonconventional on-board charger for electric vehicle propulsion batteries. vol. [10] L. and C. To verify the practicality of the proposed converter for PHEV applications. 2. 3. [8] M. Williamson. vol. Technol. Veh. “Power-factor-corrected single-stage inductive charger for electric vehicle batteries. Robbins. 3709–3721. Veh. 1 ≤ dctrl < 2 for Mode 2. May 2005. Fig. Technol. and inductor current feedback (IL_fbk ). K.” IEEE Trans. Electron. 12(a) shows waveforms from Mode-1 operation. Ind. vol. Lee. [3] J. Fig. vol. vol. an onboard testing prototype and vehicle powermanagement system need to be implemented in a real vehicle. Output voltage Vhv is set to 40 V. “The smart hybrid. M. A single control routine and control gains are used for all three modes. 2008.. and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Technol. Technol. Rahimi. 44. 2005. M. vol. 10–13. Through the simulation and experimental prototype. and inductor current feedback IL_fbk are presented from the top. 1997. pp. “Topological overview of hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicular power system architectures and configurations. A. no.. 1217–1226. Finnerty. J. Aguilar.” IEEE Trans. Lukic. 2007. Veh.” IEEE Trans. and boost switch PWM signal (G2) at steady state are plotted in the same order as that in Fig. ac line current. Uceda.” IEEE Trans. Willers. Mohan. buck operation appears during the time that input voltage Vhv is greater than output voltage Vbatt . pp. A.

24. vol. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Chicago. He is currently an Assistant Professor and the Director of the Energy Harvesting and Renewable Energies Laboratory. A. vol. no. MI. 4. His experiences cover control over brushless direct current (BLDC).. in 1996. where he has established research and teaching facilities. and Integrated Power Electronics Converters and Digital Control (CRC. 2004. Erickson. the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. Transp. He was the Guest Editor of the Special Section on Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Vehicles of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY and the Guest Editor of the Special Section on Automotive Electronics and Electrical Drives of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. “Buck-boost PWM converters having two independently controlled switches. Elsevier Power Electronics Handbook (Elsevier. A. design. the IEEE Power Electronics Society. as chosen by the students at IIT. May 2009. pp. 2009. Tehran..S. Mar. Andersen and F.” in Proc. 1002–1015. in 2003. 24. Plett. Sep. 19. and their controllers.. and vehicular power systems. the M. BC. Ali Emadi (S’98–M’00–SM’03) received the B. D. Chicago. [18] G. degree. as well as several books. Khaligh is a Member of the Vehicle Power and Propulsion Committee.” IEEE Trans. Maksimovic. Spec. OCTOBER 2009 [15] G. A. vol. Tehran. Lee. Chen. Dr. He has also been named Chicago Matters Global Visionary in 2009. he joined SunStar R&C. pp. Ltd. from the Illinois Institute of Technology. Khaligh.. Feb. Korea. L. Then. Chicago.” IEEE Trans. University of Illinois. and the Ph. He is the Conference Chair of the IEEE Chicago Section. 2009). He has served as an Associate Editor for the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. NO. all in electrical engineering. Khaligh. He was also a Guest editor for the Special Section on Energy Harvesting of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. no. J. Power Electron. 2. and the Society of Automotive Engineers.. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering.” IEEE Trans. energy scavenging/harvesting from environmental sources. 53.. Alireza Khaligh (S’04–M’06) received the B. IIT. 24. In 1995. Canada. and R.” in Proc.D.S. Oct. College Station. Wind. which was jointly presented by the Minister of Science. J. synchronous buck-boost converter for portable applications. Bass Outstanding Young Power Electronics Engineer Award from the IEEE Power Electronics Society. 8. Korea. induction.. His research interests include the modeling. X-ray electron tubes. Young-Joo Lee (S’07) received the B. 1586–1593. the 2005 Richard M. Benton Harbor. He is currently the Harris Perlstein Endowed Chair Professor of Electrical Engineering and the Director of the Electric Power and Power Electronics Center and Grainger Laboratories. Dearborn. Emadi.. He is the author/coauthor of more than 55 journal and conference proceeding papers. 2004. 862–868. stepper motors. pp. degree from Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT). Blaabjerg. 5.. Urbana. the 2002 University Excellence in Teaching Award from IIT. Lee. 2. pp. 1267–1279. 2009). [20] B. He has received numerous awards and recognitions. He is also an Associate Editor for the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON V EHICULAR T ECHNOLOGY (TVT) and was a Guest editor for the Special Issue of the IEEE TVT on Vehicular Energy Storage Systems. 736–741. A. and Y. no. where he has established courses and curriculum in the area of energy harvesting and renewable-energy sources. 5. degrees (with highest distinction) from Sharif University of Technology. 103–112. He was a Postdoctoral Research Associate with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. pp. no. 2005. Iran. power converters. and the Ph. and M. Erickson. [19] J. [22] A. noninverting. vol. Incheon. 58. and M. hybrid electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Veh. Cao. 3. Chakraborty. Emadi is the Editor (North America) of the International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles. degree in electrical engineering from Texas A&M University. 2006. K. and control of power electronic converters. Chen. D. Rincon-Mora. Iran. and the design of energy-efficient power supplies for battery-powered portable applications. Research. pp. no. pp. W. dynamic. in 2009. Power Electron. IEEE Workshop Power Electron. Maksimovic.D. 2001. He has more than ten years of experience in industries associated with industrial sewing machines. the IEEE Vehicular Technology Society. Emadi. pp. the IEEE Education Society. which manufactures X-ray fluoroscopy equipment for medical surgery. Dr. Mar. including Energy Harvesting: Solar. He is the author or coauthor of more than 250 journal and conference proceeding papers. no.3980 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. and the Best Professor of the Year Award in 2005. [17] Y. Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT). “A compensation technique for smooth transitions in a noninverting buck-boost converter. medical X-ray fluoroscopy. Power Electron. vol. 1994. and appliances. Technol. 53.” IEEE Trans. 320–329. degrees (with highest distinction) in electrical engineering from Sharif University of Technology. .S.S. MI. motor drives. Jun. “A multiple-input DC-DC converter topology. “High-performance battery-pack power estimation using a dynamic cell model. Conf. 2009. motors.. and the 2009 Armour College of Engineering Excellence in Teaching Award from IIT. as well as courses in power electronics. no. “Battery chargers for electric and hybrid vehicles. 2009). A. IEEE 32nd Annu. [21] Y. permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM). Cheon-An. degree in electrical engineering from Korea University of Technology and Education. J. analysis. focusing on the integrated bidirectional converter for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Korea. He is currently conducting research and development related to sensorless motor drives for appliances as a Lead Engineer with the R&E Center of Whirlpool Corporation. He has been the Guest Editor-in-Chief of the Special Issue on Automotive Power Electronics and Motor Drives of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. and Technology and by the President of Sharif University. and Ocean Energy Conversion Systems (CRC. VOL. degree from Gwang-Woon University. the 2004 Sigma Xi/IIT Award for Excellence in University Research. Lee. and R. Apr.” IEEE Trans. Khaligh. “Digital combination of buck and boost converters to control a positive buck–boost converter and improve the output transients. vol. Electric Power and Power Electronics Center. Ind. and A. Power Electron. “A low voltage. Electron. and the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. “Current programmed control of a single-phase two-switch buck-boost power factor correction circuit.S. Power Electron.S. including the 2003 Eta Kappa Nu Outstanding Young Electrical Engineer of the Year (a single international award) by virtue of his outstanding contributions to hybrid electric vehicle conversion by the Electrical Engineering Honor Society. He was the recipient of the Distinguished Undergraduate Student Award from Sharif University of Technology. the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. and A. Energy Sources. 1. which is highly specialized in industrial sewing machines.” IEEE Trans. and the Ph. Khan. 263–271. Mar. Power Electron. pp.. Sahu and G.D.” IEEE Trans. as well as three books. “Analysis and design of a low-stress buck-boost converter in universal-input PFC applications. vol. 443–452. Seoul. 21. he joined Genoray Co. Vancouver. J. [23] I. and other electric–pneumatic actuators. [16] J.