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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 58, NO. 8, OCTOBER 2009

Advanced Integrated Bidirectional AC/DC and DC/DC Converter for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Young-Joo Lee, Student Member, IEEE, Alireza Khaligh, Member, IEEE, and Ali Emadi, Senior Member, IEEE
Abstract—Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technology provides an effective solution for achieving higher fuel economy, better performance, and lower emissions, compared with conventional vehicles. Plug-in HEVs (PHEVs) are HEVs with plug-in capabilities and provide a more all-electric range; hence, PHEVs improve fuel economy and reduce emissions even more. PHEVs have a battery pack of high energy density and can run solely on electric power for a given range. The battery pack can be recharged by a neighborhood outlet. In this paper, a novel integrated bidirectional ac/dc charger and dc/dc converter (henceforth, the integrated converter) for PHEVs and hybrid/plug-in-hybrid conversions is proposed. The integrated converter is able to function as an ac/dc battery charger and to transfer electrical energy between the battery pack and the high-voltage bus of the electric traction system. It is shown that the integrated converter has a reduced number of high-current inductors and current transducers and has provided fault-current tolerance in PHEV conversion. Index Terms—AC/DC rectifiers, control, dc/dc converters, electric traction, energy storage, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in HEVs (PHEVs), power electronics, propulsion systems.

I. I NTRODUCTION ONVERSION of conventional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) [1]–[3] into plug-in HEVs [4], [5] to reduce fuel consumption [2] has been considered by both academia and the automotive industry [6]. The conversion is achieved by either adding a high-energy battery pack or replacing the existing battery pack of HEV to extend the all-electric range [5]. In either case, the high-energy battery pack should be charged from an external ac outlet, as well as regenerative braking, and must supply the stored electrical energy to the electric traction system. AC outlet charging inevitably needs a battery charger [7]– [11] with power factor correction (PFC) [8], [12], which has various configurations based on an ac/dc converter and
Manuscript received November 17, 2008; revised May 12, 2009. First published July 21, 2009; current version published October 2, 2009. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant 0801860. The review of this paper was coordinated by Prof. A. Miraoui. Y.-J. Lee is with the R&E Center of Whirlpool Corporation, Benton Harbor, MI 49022 USA. A. Khaligh is with the Energy Harvesting and Renewable Energies Laboratory, Electric Power and Power Electronics Center, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 606163793 USA (e-mail: khaligh@ece.iit.edu). A. Emadi is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616-3793 USA. Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TVT.2009.2028070

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a proper voltage-current profile for the high-energy battery pack. The bidirectional dc/dc converter with a proper charging– discharging profile is required to transfer energy between the battery and the electric traction system. In this paper, PHEV conversion is based on the add-on highenergy battery, which can leave the current HEV power system unmodified, and battery voltage is supposed to be relatively lower than the high-voltage bus of an electric traction system. It is assumed that cost, volume, weight, and the number of current transducers and high-current inductors would be increased if the ac/dc and bidirectional dc/dc converters were cascaded in PHEVs. The converter for PHEV conversion should minimize the electrical impact on the existing HEV power system, particularly from the point of view of fault current. The converter has three operating modes, i.e., plug-in ac/dc charging of the add-on battery, boost operation from the low-voltage add-on battery to the high-voltage bus of the HEV, and buck operation from the high-voltage bus to the add-on battery for regenerative charging. It is essential to fairly satisfy the aforementioned considerations. The purpose of this paper is to present the integrated configuration and to demonstrate its feasibility for PHEV conversion. This paper has been organized as follows: The concept of PHEV conversion and the constitution of the proposed integrated converter are shown in Section II. Section III explains three operating modes of the proposed converter. In Section IV, the expected change in loss and efficiency for feasibility estimation is addressed by the comparison of the proposed converter and conventional topologies. Section V presents the simulation and experimental results to evaluate the proposed converter. Finally, Section VI provides concluding remarks and future work. II. P LUG -I N H YBRID E LECTRIC V EHICLE C ONVERSION AND P ROPOSED I NTEGRATED C ONVERTER A. PHEV Conversion Fig. 1 shows an overall configuration of the PHEV conversion. The main elements for the conversion comprise an ac/dc charger, a high-energy battery added to the HEV, a bidirectional dc/dc converter, and a digital controller with digital signal processing (DSP). These main elements are in cascade, except the digital controller, as seen. The plug-in charger is composed of two parts: 1) ac/dc rectifier and 2) dc/dc converter (Conv. 1). The bidirectional dc/dc converter (Conv. 2) is placed between

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Proposed integrated converter with controller. PHEV conversion with the add-on battery. the three operations do not occur at the same time in that plug-in charging is not allowed while the vehicle runs. Q6 works for PWM switching. which can provide a plug-in charger function with PFC without regard to whether battery voltage Vbatt is higher than the peak value of the ac outlet Vac_pk . These voltages might be different in input/output voltage magnitude in each converter. Mode 3: Buck Operation for Regenerative Charging of the Add-On Battery Fig. Q6.LEE et al. 3 shows the instantaneous ac input voltage and operating modes in Mode 1. D3. . and Q3 remains in the ON state during the operation. Q1. The combinations of switches and other components are mapped in Table I according to the desired operating modes. Q2 is in PWM switching mode. battery state of charge [15]. and D6 maintain the OFF state to separate the ac outlet. Conv. and CT1. Q3. Q6. O PERATING M ODES OF THE I NTEGRATED C ONVERTER A. 1. 1 with PFC should be in buck-and-boost operation when the peak value of Vac (Vac_pk ) is higher than Vbatt . and the high-voltage bus of HEV Vhv . Q1. III. and CT1 are used. Three voltage sources.. Rs4. Mode 1: Noninverting Buck–Boost Operation for Plug-In Charging of the Add-On Battery Fig. Q3. and L1 make up the noninverting buck–boost converter [16]–[22]. are shown in Fig. Q4. Q2. D1. In this mode. [14] of the ac/dc charger and bidirectional dc/dc converter. and communication with external systems. and D6 stay in the OFF state to disconnect the high-voltage bus of the HEV from both the ac input and the add-on battery. and discharging and regenerative charging of the battery are exclusive to each other. Q2. To sense the input/output voltage and current. 2 based on the operating conditions previously mentioned. L1. Vbatt and Vhv sequentially become input and output voltages. The other switches and diodes Q4. Q4. the add-on battery and the high-voltage bus of the HEV. Q5. as shown in Fig. D4. Rs5. it should only be in boost operation. Q3 stays in the ON state. Q6. D1. otherwise. The same rule is applied to Conv. Q5. C. and D5 are in the OFF state. and D1 provides a free-wheeling path. Proposed Converter The proposed converter with controller is shown in Fig. There exist one current feedback and three voltage feedbacks. Basically. D1. and five diodes. The input/output voltage and inductor current are measured through Rs3. Rs3.: ADVANCED INTEGRATED BIDIRECTIONAL AC/DC AND DC/DC CONVERTER FOR PHEVs 3971 Fig. which does not have a cascaded structure. D3. The input/output voltage and inductor current are measured through Rs1. 2. The digital controller is in charge of the control and monitoring [13]. Power from the battery to the high-voltage bus can be estimated using the measured battery voltage and current so that transferable power at a certain state of charge should be regulated appropriately. As an illustration. L1. so that the current path can appear between the battery and the high-voltage bus. 2 with Vbatt for input and Vhv for output. Mode 2: Boost Operation From the Add-On Battery to the High-Voltage Bus of the HEV Boost operation from the add-on battery to the high-voltage bus of the HEV is shown in Fig. which are going to be properly combined to select buck-andboost modes among voltage sources. Rs6. Fig. and Q5 serve as simple on/off switches to connect or disconnect the corresponding current flowing path. Rs4. 5 shows regenerative charging of the add-on battery using buck operation from the high-voltage bus to the battery. D5. Q1 and Q2 are in PWM switching mode. and CT1. and D5 form a boost converter in that a Vhv higher than Vbatt is assumed. The other switches and diodes Q1. Other switches and diodes Q1. The proposed converter has one inductor. Rs2. In Fig. B. Q3. and D6 are used for the buck converter now that a Vhv higher than Vbatt is assumed. six switches. Rs4. The desired output voltage and current are regulated by the appropriate combinations of the buck-and-boost mode. Rs5. 1. Q5. and Q4 and Q5 are in the ON state. Q3. 3(b). 1. 4. Q2. as seen. D4. battery voltage Vbatt . D3. Rs3. and Q6 are for pulsewidth modulation (PWM) switching of buck-and-boost operations. i. Rs6.e. Q2. In this mode. D4. Q4. B. ac outlet voltage Vac .

which has noninverting buck-boost topology. and high-current inductors (L) in Fig. In buck operation. 58. current transducers (CT). Mode 2: Boost from the add-on battery to the high-voltage bus. In boost operation. 3–5. 8. VOL. respectively. tions of input/output voltages. (b) Buck operation. 6(a). Mode 3: Regenerative charging of the add-on battery. Based on the simplified model. (c) Boost operation. and the number of switches (Q).3972 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. 6(b). the large-signal transfer functions and dc gains are given by (3) and (4). as described in Table I. respectively. Vin 1 − Dboost (large-signal dc gain) (4) and the state-space block diagram is shown in Fig. D. . all operations of the converter are made of buck-and-boost operations with different configura- A comparison of the proposed and a conventional converter is presented and summarized through criteria based on the battery voltage range. Analytical Modeling of the Converter As shown in Figs. 7 and Table II. 5. the large-signal transfer functions and dc gains are given by (1) and (2). A simplified converter model is shown in Fig. The state-space block diagram and resultant large-signal dc gain in Figs. fault current tolerance. voltage polarity. NO. 3. 4. IV. respectively. the state-space averaged large-signal transfer functions are derived. Mode 1: Plug-in charging of the add-on battery. C OMPARATIVE A NALYSIS Fig. diodes (D). 6(b)–(c) also provide very insightful physical information that is of use to controller designers. OCTOBER 2009 TABLE I COMBINATIONS OF ELEMENTS FOR THE OPERATING MODES Fig. (a) Instantaneous ac input voltage and operating modes. as given by Vo (s) = 1 LC Vin Dbuck 1 1 s2 + RC s + LC (large-signal model) (large-signal dc gain) (1) (2) model) (3) Vo (0) = Vin Dbuck Vo (s) = s2 + 1 LC Vin (1 − Dboost ) (large-signal 1 1 2 RC s + LC (1 − Dboost ) Vo (0) = Fig.

which has the same steady-state output transfer function as that of conventional buck-and-boost converters. 7(a). B. compared with Fig. (b) State-space block diagram of the simplified model. In addition. The buck–boost converter. Inverted output voltage and intrinsic higher current noise must seriously be taken into consideration for high-power applications. pass an inductor helps reduce sharp fault currents. Change in Conduction Loss It has been found that the proposed converter has relatively slightly more conduction loss in all operating modes. (a) Simplified model. Estimation of Change in Conduction Losses Changes in losses are classified into Modes 1. because these three modes are exclusive of each other all the time. Voltage Polarity. as in Fig. the fact that all the current paths. (9) For Mode 2 (boost function from the add-on battery to the high-voltage bus of the HEV). it is needed to estimate and discuss the feasibility of the increase in conduction losses. such as metal–oxide–semiconductor fieldeffect transistors (MOSFETs). making it difficult to share common ground and higher intrinsic diode reverse recovery current. compared with Fig. despite the advantages previously enumerated. transistors. Thus. 7(a). 3–5. has inverted output voltage. However. The conduction losses of diodes and switches can be calculated as PD = VF · IF [in watts] (diode conduction loss) PQ = VCE(SAT) · ICE [in watts] 2 ID [in Fig. and 3. A. however. To make the criteria of comparison clear. including switches. switching stress is higher than buck or boost converters. seems to be a good choice. it becomes possible to reduce the number of high-current inductors and current transducers. there exists such probable fault current or high-reverse-recovery current path as the broken lines in case of using either noninverting or inverting bidirectional buck–boost converters between voltage sources. 7(a) was compared with the proposed converter in each operating mode. more switches and diodes are added to make up selective current paths among voltage sources Vac . as shown in Fig. and largesignal dc gain.: ADVANCED INTEGRATED BIDIRECTIONAL AC/DC AND DC/DC CONVERTER FOR PHEVs 3973 C. adoption of a bidirectional buck–boost converter. The variation in loss is ΔPl = PD4 + PQ5 [in watts]. D. it is found that the proposed converter has one more switch. Fault Current Tolerance As shown in Figs. the compared converters should have noninverting and relatively wider output voltage for both the add-on battery and the high-voltage bus. the high-current inductor has a relatively larger size and is heavier than other power electronic components. Available Battery Voltage Range In the aspect of flexibility in the applicable ac grid voltage and battery voltage. (c) Resultant large-signal dc gain. the proposed converter can provide a wide range of inputs and outputs in both a charger and bidirectional converter by using noninverting buck–boost topology. 7(a)–(f). insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). the increase in loss is ΔPl = PQ3 [in watts]. Current Noise. as shown in Fig. 4. The extra conduction loss arises from additional switches and diodes for fault-tolerance current paths. and diodes. and Vhv . Component Point of View Through the integrated structure. one more pair of diode and switch is added in the proposed converter. and Switching Stress Considering only the number of switches and diodes. 6. In addition. (5) (6) (IGBT conduction loss) (7) (8) watts] (MOSFET conduction loss) PQ = RDS · Po Pin = [in watts] [input power of Fig. F.LEE et al. Vbatt . 3(a) and (b). 6(a)] . (10) . 2. εold For Mode 1 (plug-in charging of the add-on battery). In general. state-space block diagram. 7(b). Fig. and the available output of the high-voltage bus. On the other side. Simplified converter model. E. in Fig. For such reasons.

boost. which only enhance the reliability of switches. (11) If the diodes in series with switches Q4. ΔPl . (12) For Mode 3 (regenerative charging of the add-on battery). and Q6. (a) Full bridge and two noninverting buck/boost. boost. TABLE II SUMMARY OF THE PROPOSED AND THE CONVENTIONAL CONVERTER To estimate comparative change in efficiency. Assuming continuous conduction mode and a low ripple current through the inductor with maximum output power Po . it is identified that Po is the output power. (c) PWM rectifier and noninverting buck/boost. Pin is the previous input power. 7. and εnew is the new efficiency. where the available neighborhood outlet power is set to 1. NO. The high-energy battery pack is assumed to be a series of 12 modules consisting of nominal 3.7-V Li-ion cells in 4S5P. compared with Fig. VOL. then the losses in diodes can be neglected. (e) Full bridge. the variation in efficiency is given as Δε = εnew − εold . (f) Full bridge. . and noninverting buck/boost. 58. i. are removed. The change in loss is ΔPl = PD6 + PQ3 [in watts].. The comparative change in efficiency for all three modes is formulated as a function of εold .44 kW [23]. one more pair of diode and switch is placed. Table II and (12) can be a basis to estimate the feasibility of the proposed converter. as shown in Fig. and buck/boost. (b) Full bridge and two buck/boost. 8. and Po .3974 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. 5. Comparison of the combinations of conventional converters. εold is the previous efficiency. (d) PWM rectifier and buck/boost. Q5.e. Once change in losses occurs. The parameters for feasibility estimation are shown in Table III. 7(a). OCTOBER 2009 Fig. Δε = εnew − εold = = Pin Po Po Po − Pin + ΔPl Pin Po = Pin 1 εold 1 + ΔPl Po − 1 + ΔPl Po − εold %.

Table IV shows that maximum changes in efficiency Δεmax using MOSFETs and IGBTs are less than 1.20 1440 − εold = −0.11 W Δεmax = For IGBTs 1 εold 1 − εold = −0.179 A. + 26. Loss calculation according to each operating mode is given as follows: For Mode 1.28 5000 In Mode 3. V.52 5000 ΔPl = PD4 + PQ4 = VF · Ibatt_ max + VCE(SAT) · Ihv_ max = 93. The simulation conditions are provided in Table V.620 = Vhv_ min 216 d = 1 − d = 0. 8. + 76. assuming buck–boost operation for the worst loss calculation Po_ max = 1440 W = Vo_ min · Io_ max Io_ max = For MOSFETs ΔPl = PQ3 = Δεmax = For IGBTs ΔPl = PQ3 = Io_ max · VCE(SAT) = 26. 8–10 using the IGBT switches. in Fig.11 5000 ΔPl = PD6 + PQ3 = VF · Ihv_ max + VCE(SAT) · Ibatt_ max = 106.20 W 1 + 5. in Fig. inductor current feedback IL_fbk .LEE et al. + 59. control voltage command for PWM generation Vctrl .486%. respectively.31 A.75 A. the output voltage (battery voltage: Vbatt ).52 W Δεmax = For IGBTs 1 εold 1 − εold = −0. 134 1 − εold = −1. S IMULATION AND E XPERIMENTAL R ESULTS To evaluate the proposed converter. + 106. rectified ac input voltage |Vac |. + 93.254 ∼ −0.: ADVANCED INTEGRATED BIDIRECTIONAL AC/DC AND DC/DC CONVERTER FOR PHEVs 3975 TABLE III CONDITIONS FOR FEASIBILITY ESTIMATION For MOSFETs ΔPl = PD4 + PQ4 2 = VF · Ibatt_ max + Ihv_ max · RDS = 59. and the results are as in Figs.75 W Δεmax = 1 εold 1440 = 10.15 A.216%.486%.7%. 5 Po_ max = 5000 W = Vbatt_ min · Ibatt_ max Ibatt_ max = d= 5000 = 37.754 ∼ −0.86 1440 For Mode 2. in Fig.962 ∼ −1.176 ∼ −1.28 W Δεmax = TABLE IV CHANGES IN LOSS AND EFFICIENCY 1 εold 1 − εold = −1.954%. and ac line current Iac are sequentially displayed.322%. simulations have been performed. under the given conditions.75 5000 · RDS = 5. from the top.38 Ihv_ max = Ibatt_ max · d = 14.86 W Δεmax = 1 εold 1 εold 2 Io_ max 2 = VF · Ihvt_ max + Ibatt_ max · RDS = 76. 4 Po_ max = 5000 W =Vhv_ min ·Ihv_ max =Vbatt_ min ·Ibatt_ max Ihv_ max = 5000 = 23. 3(a).697%. Mode-1 operation has been simulated under two conditions where the peak value 1 − εold = −1.31 A Vbatt_ min = d · Vhv_ min 134 Vbatt_ min 134 = 0. current command for current modulation Iref .343 ∼ −1. 216 Ibatt_ max = 5000 = 37.176 ∼ −1. 134 . In Fig.3% and 1. For MOSFETs ΔPl = PD6 + PQ3 approximately additional conduction loss ΔPl and maximum change in efficiency Δεmax are approximately calculated and summarized as in Table IV.

respectively. of the ac input voltage (Vac_pk ) is lower than battery voltage Vbatt . the transient state is shown in Fig. 8(a) and (b) shows that Vac_pk < Vbatt and that Vac_pk > Vbatt . and Vac_pk is higher than Vbatt . at steady state under given conditions. 58. 8. (c) Transient state during Vo > Vac_pk . (a) Steady state during Vbatt < Vac_pk . OCTOBER 2009 Fig. In addition. it is found that the converter works stably.3976 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. 8(c). (b) Steady state during Vo > Vac_pk . The steady states of Mode-2 operation (boost from the addon battery to the high-voltage bus of the electric drive train . 8. As seen. VOL. Fig. NO. Mode 1: Noninverting buck–boost operation for plug-in charging.

11. 10. 9. 9. It is seen that the control voltage command Vctrl for PWM generation properly gets shaped as Vhv varies. Plots are also placed in the same order as in Figs. Vhv has been assumed to be sinusoidal with a half-period. Buck operation starts as Vhv becomes higher than Vbatt . the converter. In Fig. Fig. Vbatt and Vhv (highvoltage bus) are the input and output voltages. respectively. and the self-designed isolated gate drivers . and Vbatt is the output voltage of the converter. Now. Mode 2: Boost operation from the add-on battery to the high-voltage bus of the HEV. the experimental setup is presented. 10 provides Mode 3 (buck from the high-voltage bus to the add-on pack). TABLE V SIMULATION CONDITIONS Fig. showing the boost operation of the converter to be stable with Vbatt = 134 V/Vhv = 216 V and Vbatt = 202 V/Vhv = 330 V. 8. (b) Steady state for Vbatt = 202 V and Vhv = 330 V. Mode 3: Buck operation for regenerative charging of the add-on system) have been simulated as in Fig. Waveforms are presented in the same manner as in Fig. and buck operation ends when Vhv decreases to Vbatt . (a) Steady state for Vbatt = 134 V and Vhv = 216 V. Vhv becomes the input voltage. 8 and 9. which has a controller based on TMS320F2812 DSP from Texas Instruments.LEE et al. To simulate the regenerative voltage when the vehicle is decelerated.: ADVANCED INTEGRATED BIDIRECTIONAL AC/DC AND DC/DC CONVERTER FOR PHEVs 3977 Fig. battery.

Vhv . (b) Control flowchart for DSP. For experimental convenience. and iL are isolated from the high-voltage part of the converter.3978 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. Fig. (c) Prototype converter. as shown in Fig. 8. 11(a) shows a block diagram of the experimental setup consisting of the integrated converter. NO. 12 according to the operating modes. (c) Waveforms of Mode 3: Buck operation. Vbatt . feedback interface and . and feedback interface circuits. 2. All the feedback signals from Vac . (a) Waveforms of Mode 1 during Vbatt < Vac_pk . (a) Block diagram. VOL. The waveforms from the experimental setup are shown in Fig. In addition. (b) Waveforms of Mode 2: Boost operation. OCTOBER 2009 Fig. 12. Waveforms according to the operating modes. 11. Fig. the experimental conditions are shown in Table VI. the maximum output power of each operating mode has been scaled down to 100 W. 58. Experimental setup.

[2] M. L..” IEEE Trans. 2007. Jun. 3709–3721. Robinson. and buck for regenerative charging of the addon battery. 8. Jones. [5] W. Nov. an onboard testing prototype and vehicle powermanagement system need to be implemented in a real vehicle. The input voltage (battery voltage: Vbatt ). buck operation appears during the time that input voltage Vhv is greater than output voltage Vbatt . Appl. 2007. vol. pp. “An integral battery charger for four-wheel drive electric vehicle.5% ripple) has arbitrarily been given from the power supply. 2005–2016. 12(a) shows waveforms from Mode-1 operation. Jan. 2. no. current command Iref . vol. Ind. Lee.” IEEE Trans. pp. Oct. O. 144–149. Technol. M. 11(b). Rajashekara. Williamson. pp. “Digital control of an isolated active hybrid fuel cell/Li-ion battery power supply. R EFERENCES [1] A. The control flowchart for the DSP controller is shown in Fig. ac input voltage Vac .” IEEE Trans. Rahimi. no. 3. pp. and fault tolerance of the system should be tested in real-world applications. Veh. Undeland. A. 3rd ed. pp. and Design. 2. C ONCLUSION An integrated ac/dc charger and bidirectional dc/dc converter for PHEV applications has been presented in this paper. 4. and IBM PC for program debugging. O’Sullivan. Khaligh. C. and inductor current feedback (IL_fbk ). Emadi. As can be expected. no. 2004. 1. 12(c) shows the input voltage (high-voltage bus: Vhv ). M. and K. no. 2005. have been verified. Ind. Veh. Uceda. and the input voltage provided by power supply varies from 35 to 70 V. J. and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. 1995. P. and C. Covic. Sep. Veh. Finnerty. The proposed integrated converter has been compared with existing topologies. 56. 1 ≤ dctrl < 2 for Mode 2.LEE et al. [9] S. Technol. pp. DSP controller board. Through the simulation and experimental prototype.. 6.. May 2008. As shown. [14] A.-K. Jul. 5. i. Stielau. Emadi. and A. J. 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Wang. no. in spite of harmonics due to the performance of the current controller. 2008. and boost switch PWM signal (G2) at steady state are plotted in the same order as that in Fig. 57.. Power Electronics: Converters.” IEEE Trans. Jan. 54. Sebastian. where dctrl is calculated by Vctrl /Vmod . Fig. To verify the practicality of the proposed converter for PHEV applications. Aguilar. T. . “Topological overview of hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicular power system architectures and configurations. S.. Mar. “Nonconventional on-board charger for electric vehicle propulsion batteries. Egan. no. no. A. vol. 3. output voltage (highvoltage bus: Vhv ). 41. Mohan. F. the inductor current always flows as far as the input voltage is lower than the output voltage. G.. “A general approach to energy optimization of hybrid electric vehicles. [3] J. in which 0 ≤ dctrl < 2 for Mode 1. M. Sul and S. ac line current. Ind. J. G. Canales. Variations in conduction loss and efficiency due to the additional diodes and switches have been addressed. Technol. K. 42. Hayes. “Power-factor-corrected single-stage inductive charger for electric vehicle batteries. pp. 597–603. 10–13. Oct. Jul. vol. Lukic. [7] C. as shown in Fig. A single control routine and control gains are used for all three modes. Robbins. 2007. pp. and 0 ≤ dctrl < 1 for Mode 3 are selectively chosen according to the operating modes. 7. 2005. Franceschi. 760–769. and G. 31. [8] M. As shown in Fig. pp. vol. Rahimi.

2004. 24. J. “High-performance battery-pack power estimation using a dynamic cell model. [19] J. 1. Conf. 2009. J. and Technology and by the President of Sharif University. He was the Guest Editor of the Special Section on Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Vehicles of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY and the Guest Editor of the Special Section on Automotive Electronics and Electrical Drives of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. 2001. He is currently the Harris Perlstein Endowed Chair Professor of Electrical Engineering and the Director of the Electric Power and Power Electronics Center and Grainger Laboratories. Sep. Power Electron. which is highly specialized in industrial sewing machines. stepper motors. induction. Plett.. no. Chicago. degree in electrical engineering from Texas A&M University. in 2009. Andersen and F. Technol. OCTOBER 2009 [15] G. and A. Rincon-Mora. vol. the IEEE Power Electronics Society. and other electric–pneumatic actuators. He is currently an Assistant Professor and the Director of the Energy Harvesting and Renewable Energies Laboratory. no. IEEE Workshop Power Electron. He has more than ten years of experience in industries associated with industrial sewing machines. the M. and the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. Canada. MI. including the 2003 Eta Kappa Nu Outstanding Young Electrical Engineer of the Year (a single international award) by virtue of his outstanding contributions to hybrid electric vehicle conversion by the Electrical Engineering Honor Society. Blaabjerg. and appliances. motor drives. and the Best Professor of the Year Award in 2005. VOL. 1994. motors. Power Electron. and the Ph. He is the author/coauthor of more than 55 journal and conference proceeding papers. the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. He was also a Guest editor for the Special Section on Energy Harvesting of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS.S. He was the recipient of the Distinguished Undergraduate Student Award from Sharif University of Technology. 2009). 2005. “Buck-boost PWM converters having two independently controlled switches. 3. pp. and R. Khaligh is a Member of the Vehicle Power and Propulsion Committee.S. pp. Lee. Alireza Khaligh (S’04–M’06) received the B. Feb. Benton Harbor. Electric Power and Power Electronics Center. Khan.S. 1002–1015.S. Incheon. A. 53.” IEEE Trans. in 2003. vol. Korea. His experiences cover control over brushless direct current (BLDC). analysis. and the Society of Automotive Engineers. no. 2009). and the Ph. focusing on the integrated bidirectional converter for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. MI. Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT). 58. and M. and Ocean Energy Conversion Systems (CRC. 2. pp. 2009). no. Research. His research interests include the modeling. University of Illinois. where he has established courses and curriculum in the area of energy harvesting and renewable-energy sources. and their controllers. Mar. 263–271. D. Elsevier Power Electronics Handbook (Elsevier. Lee. 443–452. Power Electron. Tehran. the 2004 Sigma Xi/IIT Award for Excellence in University Research. In 1995. Lee. Oct. 1267–1279. Khaligh. the 2005 Richard M.. He is the author or coauthor of more than 250 journal and conference proceeding papers. 5. permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM). K. Electron. J. 2009. Khaligh. X-ray electron tubes.. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Wind. Emadi. 24. and control of power electronic converters. Chen.” in Proc. Transp. 2. vol. 103–112. D. and Y. 1586–1593. the 2002 University Excellence in Teaching Award from IIT. 19. He has also been named Chicago Matters Global Visionary in 2009. IEEE 32nd Annu. Iran.. and M.S. BC. [17] Y.” IEEE Trans. no. and the Ph. [16] J. Mar. he joined Genoray Co. degrees (with highest distinction) from Sharif University of Technology. which manufactures X-ray fluoroscopy equipment for medical surgery. “Digital combination of buck and boost converters to control a positive buck–boost converter and improve the output transients. no. and R.D. as well as three books. power converters. pp. Energy Sources. the IEEE Education Society.. He is also an Associate Editor for the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON V EHICULAR T ECHNOLOGY (TVT) and was a Guest editor for the Special Issue of the IEEE TVT on Vehicular Energy Storage Systems. Power Electron. and the 2009 Armour College of Engineering Excellence in Teaching Award from IIT. W. “Analysis and design of a low-stress buck-boost converter in universal-input PFC applications. [21] Y.. from the Illinois Institute of Technology.” in Proc. Erickson.” IEEE Trans. Seoul. degree. [23] I.” IEEE Trans. synchronous buck-boost converter for portable applications. May 2009. including Energy Harvesting: Solar. Vancouver. hybrid electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. [18] G. A. Chicago. Power Electron. Bass Outstanding Young Power Electronics Engineer Award from the IEEE Power Electronics Society. Dr. Jun. Cheon-An. all in electrical engineering. “A compensation technique for smooth transitions in a noninverting buck-boost converter. vol. and the design of energy-efficient power supplies for battery-powered portable applications. Maksimovic. . degrees (with highest distinction) in electrical engineering from Sharif University of Technology. the IEEE Vehicular Technology Society. design. Cao. He is the Conference Chair of the IEEE Chicago Section. Dearborn. 8. Khaligh. dynamic. medical X-ray fluoroscopy. Veh. degree in electrical engineering from Korea University of Technology and Education. “Current programmed control of a single-phase two-switch buck-boost power factor correction circuit. 862–868. [20] B.. He has been the Guest Editor-in-Chief of the Special Issue on Automotive Power Electronics and Motor Drives of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS.D. Iran. Then.” IEEE Trans. Chicago. 320–329. as chosen by the students at IIT. Ali Emadi (S’98–M’00–SM’03) received the B. degree from Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT).D.. College Station. degree from Gwang-Woon University. as well as courses in power electronics. where he has established research and teaching facilities. Erickson. IIT. Mar. 2006. He has served as an Associate Editor for the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. [22] A. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. 53. pp. Chen. Chakraborty. pp. He has received numerous awards and recognitions. Emadi is the Editor (North America) of the International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles. He is currently conducting research and development related to sensorless motor drives for appliances as a Lead Engineer with the R&E Center of Whirlpool Corporation. Tehran.S. Young-Joo Lee (S’07) received the B. no. noninverting. the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. as well as several books. Spec. “A low voltage.. A.” IEEE Trans. 736–741. Korea.. and vehicular power systems. pp. 21. which was jointly presented by the Minister of Science. Korea.. 24. 5. Maksimovic. pp. vol. “A multiple-input DC-DC converter topology. vol. A. and Integrated Power Electronics Converters and Digital Control (CRC. Ind. He was a Postdoctoral Research Associate with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. he joined SunStar R&C. Emadi. vol. pp. NO. 4. and A.3980 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. L. Urbana. in 1996. energy scavenging/harvesting from environmental sources.” IEEE Trans. J. A. 2004. Dr. “Battery chargers for electric and hybrid vehicles. Ltd. Apr. Power Electron. Sahu and G.

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