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SK-hitech Co.,Ltd

1

-CONTENTS-

1. Principle of Motor Saver

2. Truth of

I 2 R (Line Loss)

3. Difference of Motor Saver and Capacitor Bank

4. Experimental Verification of Motor Saver Effect

5. Proper Installation Way of Motor Saver

2

Generally. it can reduce a fine of low power factor since power factor would be improved. Principle of Motor Saver “New Concept of Compensation of Power Factor(the ratio of ‘effective power’ to ‘apparent power’) The diversified ways to improve the efficiency of electric system while to reduce power consumption have been developed and will be developed now and forever.. The electricity[electric power] consumed for making of magnetic current essential for the operation of inducible electric equipment. hanging Motor Saver to the existed line.1. ■ How does ‘Motor Saver’ save the consumable money? There are two types for ‘Motor Saver’ to save money. the other benefit by using Motor Saver is the relative increase in capacity of the distribution line since Motor Saver reduce the volume of currentinflow to the line. First. ■ What is ‘Power Factor’ There are two kinds of electric power for the consumers. 1. However. it is hardly to find the groundbreaking the electric power reduction equipment likes Motor Saver that its main principle is ‘Compensation of Power Factor’. a electric company imposes a fine by the low power factor. After all ’power factor’ is calculated as the ‘consumable electric power’ for the actual work divided by total consumable power. you can get 20% surplus current to supply with putting current-breaker. The electricity[electric power] consumed for carrying out the work 2. the electric charge is expected to be reduced by reducing of the maximum demanded electricity and volume of consumed electric power. From their point of view. the electric company should supply relatively more unnecessary electric power to the customer charge of the low power factor and it makes burden too heavy for the company. Finally. Motor Saver carries out its role to improve power factor by cutting off unnecessary inflow-current by supplying Wattless Power. new line and 3 . But in case of using Motor Saver. Moreover. The foregoing ‘the electricity[electric power] stated in #2’ is called to ‘Wattless Power’ due to not using for the actual work. we are able to reduce remarkably electric power consumption both for commercial and industrial with Motor Saver. Second. The typical examples are the inducible-load like motor or transformer that needs more current-inflow in distribution line to maintain the stable output.

★Power Factor(PF) = Effective (Electric)Power / Apparent Power = 60 KW / 100 KVA = 0. pump. especially by the inducible vibration-equipment in constant load. ■ Motor Saver System’s Gain. textile machine Under 60 % power factor: compressor.transformer. The inducible loaded equipment means that all electric equipment making electromagnetic field likes motors. Over 80% power factor: air conditioner(with qualified design). air conditioner. welding machine. ■ Who get benefit from Motor Saver system? The customers who use inducible loaded equipment can reduce electric charge immediately after Motor Saver installation. final grinder. Motor Saver has been certified that it can reduce 10%-24% of electric charges by users. Moreover. If you have the above mentioned equipments in your factory. In case the electric charges largely affect the capacity of accommodated 4 . grinder. refrigerator. Improvement of Power Factor Power Factor is the ratio of active power[current] against total consumable power[current]. air blower Over 60-80% power factor: induction furnace. printer. electric tools. It is very easy to install Motor Saver and even no need to maintain it. innovative item that working for 24 hours to save electric charge of customers and it has been achieved recognition for commercial and industrial field. that is certified by test result. ■ The equipments that deteriorate ‘power factor’ ‘Power Factor’ may be deteriorated by electrical equipments in the factory. In other words. auto-machine. Power Factor is showed with (decimal) point under 1(one) or percentage. Consumable Apparent Power for acquiring same effective power .6 ( 60 % ) The best effect of Power Factor Improvement is to reduce the current passing through the distribution line and the following gain will immediately be acquired. compressor and fluorescent lamp. the ratio of ‘effective power’ to ‘apparent power’. 1. electro motor. A. Motor Saver is a new. you can reduce consumable current with Motor Saver system. This fact means that investment would be retrieved within 2 years in the light of Philippines electric charges system. The general power factor per electrical equipment as follows.

From the result. The graph shows change of the number of rotation and moving-torque depend on the impressed voltage. Voltage-Improvement by improving voltage drop in line If the rated voltage is not available in a motor. In example (1). And it can mitigate the load of electric equipments that have excessively been operated and lengthen its life span and keep far stable voltage. 5 .) KVA necessary in actual power 600 KW Power Factor Effective power Wattless power Total Power 60% 600 KW 800 KVAR 1000 KVA 70% 600 KW 612 KVAR 857 KVA 80% 600 KW 450 KVAR 750 KVA 90% 600 KW 291 KVAR 667 KVA 100% 600 KW 0 KVAR 600 KVA B. profit would be big.current. that means 20 % reduction. it can reduce consumable power of transformer and distribution line in the factory. The ratio of reduction is depends on the type of motor.the available volume of the effective power Power Factor 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Effective power 360 KW 420 KW 480 KW 540 KW 600 KW Wattless power 480 KVAR 428 KVAR 360 KVAR 262 KVAR 0 KVAR Total Power 600 KVA 600 KVA 600 KVA 600 KVA 600 KVA C. Ex. it is available for additional installation of motor. it would be overloaded or inappropriately operated. The Change of Effective Power Volume in same Apparent Power In case Motor Saver is installed. this motor needed 10 ampere but only 8 ampere needed after installation of Motor Saver. That’s because Motor Saver can supply magnetic current that necessary for the motor. Before the installation of Motor Saver. Ex1) Picture Ex)2 When 600 KVA is supplying . lighting fixtures or heater in the factory.it shows how the process is going on.

E. the loss of electricity on the line would be reduced 36%. Smallization transformer and circuit breaker leads to reduce electric wire price: In case of new facility (Ex. 2 R]Reduction =Proportional to the square of the current passing The loss of electricity on the line =(square of the current passing through) x (line resistance) = I 2 R If current is reduced 20% with Motor Saver. Line-Loss[I through.D.)The following pictures indicate the required thickness of electric wire is different depends upon ‘power factor’ when 100 KW power supplied. 6 .

Sometimes. (ex) In the ideal electric circuit. and electric furnace can’t radiate heat. a lot of electric elements are working under unfavorable conditions. This means 100% effective power is consumed in load condition. the phase of voltage and current are coincided.& Efficiency of motor Improving The low voltage is refined as words of “high cost”. 7 . In general electric equipments. Illumination Efficiency Upgrade. Motor Saver can improve voltage drop with supplying wattles power without extra consumption of power. Motor Saver can reduce electric charges with reduction of power consumption but also reduce maintenance expense and extend the life span of electric equipment. Voltage Improvement. the phase of voltage and current Are not coincided due to inducible resistance and total efficiency on the line would be low. Moreover.The ratio of line-loss[I 2 R] Reduction(%) = 100 – 100 (previous Power Factor / new Power Factor)2 (Ex) In case Power Factor has improved from 65% to 90% . ◈ The ratio of Line-Loss[I 2 R] Reduction(%) = 100 – 100 (65 / 90)2 = 48 % 2. After all. excessive voltages make lightening system as inefficient but proper motor managing not available in low voltage condition. These kinds of problem are resulted from inducible load that necessary for wattless power and Motor Saver focuses to solve these problems.

8 .consumable power volume. each electric equipment needs more current-inflow to carry out the burden work. and maintenance expenses. if you use Motor Saver.If some electric power system has difference in the phase as foregoing. This leads also additional burden of line loss[I 2 R]. Just in that case. it would upgrade total efficiency of electric equipment depends upon the character of individual system and finally can reduce overall expenses including electric charges.

Generally. current on line requires additional wattles power compared to the resistance current. it is called as Line loss(I2R) and I explain about it. Therefore. Rresistance on wire is a little bit changed by outside temperature but I ignore that in this report. you are strongly suggested to use Motor Saver to reduce passing current and it would be very effective choice. at the same time. In electric load. Therefore.load. I‘d like to remind of some point as follows. Since the resistant-load is 100% effective power and no more save while inducible-load is mixed with effective and wattles power and total consumed power beyond the effective power volume.<R> is resistance on the wire.2. on the other hand. we need to have systematic and scientific knowledge. all voltage to the 9 . wattless powerinflow would be cut from the electric company. the wattless power is consumed for supplying of magnetic current of inducible-load and has nothing to do with actual work. On the electric transmission and distribution lines. Truth of Line loss (I2R) and Calculation Method This report is written to deeply understand about line loss that occurs on the electric wire. we need to be keenly care in electric using. that is. ◈ Outline of Line loss (I2R) The expense of electric energy has continuously been increased and shall be more critical. The usage of electric power is divided into two. <I> is the ‘current’ pass through the each wire. current passing through is reduced. In order to enlarge the size of conductor. that is. line loss occurs when power is supplied. Therefore. and then line loss is (I2R). there are two kinds. Now. The electricity is supplied to the end users through transmission line from the power plant and each end from end user the electric power is inflow into endload through distribution line. we have to enlarge size of conductor[cross section] or reduce passing current. we should use thick wire and its price will be increased considerably. Of that. resistant-load and inducible. If you supply Wattless power to inducible circuit by Motor Saver. line loss is regarded as a not critical thing or inevitable happening. According to Kirchhoff’s law about series-parallel circuit. the actual work and the wasteful power.This Line loss is given off in the air as heat. Therefore. To reduce Line loss. we should minimize the wasteful wattles power. but it affects seriously to the electric equipment and gives big burden thing beyond the expectation. The power used for actual work is desirable and shouldn’t be reduced for any reason.

the current from that is increased and since it passes through same wire. Regardless the size . After all. 10 . Therefore. it is no choice but to reduce the current in order to Line loss.parallel load is same but the current is same as total of current passing through each load. total current in electric system means total current passing through all branch circuits.if any load is added. If put the branch circuit as dotted line in the following pictures. Line loss is increased. the total loaded-current is to be not 6A but 8A.

100 % ) 11 .12.000 WATTS(power factor .240 VOLT.< Calculation method of Line loss and the effect as increased-load > ■ 3 PHASE.

In case of increased 4 loads. variable range of Line loss is larger.29 Watts.current and each loadedcurrent affects accumulatively to the increase of Line loss. By the way. the total current is larger. variable range of Line loss is smaller.(That’s because even any conductor. the fact is not simple 165 Watts X 4 = 660 Watts.000 Watts is 165 Watts. Line loss will be increased 2819. That is. The only solution to reduce this is using expensive low-coefficient resistance likes gold or silver or copper its thicker conductor of large volume) (2) Line loss occurred because of initial load of 12. the total current is smaller.We can the important fact as follows from the calculation example. This means that Line loss is represented the square of line. The below graph indicates the change volume of Line loss whenever current is variable ± 5 Amps . resistance is existed.You can get the fact that though current variable limit of ± 5 Amps. 12 . line resistance occurs inevitably. (1) Even in the line that 100% power factor.

13 . Accordingly. In the light of thus result. Line loss reduced in section D is 235 Watts. This motor is even under loaded condition. from actual experiment in the laboratory or through mathcalculation.507Watts in section C.6 with Motor Saver. in case unloaded 5HP motor that its initial power factor of 0. The concerned wire was properly designed and selected as indicated in the pictures. its power reduction is to be 47 Watts regardless of loaded or unloaded condition.C. line loss(I2R). And you can have surplus capacity room to install additionally motor one set without any protection apparatus or alternating to thicker wire as 14 A current would be reduced. total line loss reduction volume is 1270 Watts. let’s suppose that 5 motors same as that in page 12 &13 connected from MCC part to voltmeter through sub-distribution part and main-distribution part.You can know Line loss reduction volume of motor that connected to some circuit is same when power factor is compensated regardless of loaded or unloaded condition. That is.) In case Motor Saver that its capacity of 10 KVAR(or 2KVAR. 207 Watts in section A.7 is compensated to o.D. its initial power factor o. That is. its Line loss reduction volume would be 47 Watts.9.3Phase motor.its Line loss reduction volume would be 47 Watts also. 321 Watts in section B. in case of 5 HP.B. Since the total currents consumed for motor operation have to pass through each section wire from voltmeter. (picture A.33 is compensated to 0.5 sets)is attached to these motors.It has been calculated by the section unit.

14 .C with reduced current 14 A after installation of Motor Saver. or complex charges system. Especially. but also in section A. when you once install[attach] Motor Saver properly to each field. you can get the overall Line loss reduction effect.In other words. Therefore. you can more gain from overall electric system when install [attach] Motor Saver to near the end-load part. you can get considerable cost reduction effect whenever & wherever. Regardless of electric charge system is KWD or KWH. this example is only one case limited to one field.B. Moreover. not only in section D. you can achieve remarkable line loss reduction effect through overall electric system.

the resistance per one phase circuit is 0.73 Total Power =17.TABLE and over level.73 KW = 3.850 KW ■ Attach 2KVAR-Motor Saver to the above circuit KVA = 4.73 KVAR = 1.” 10 of copper wire of NEC.11 KW = 3. The resistance on this wire is 1.73 KVA = total power KVAR= wattless power KW = effective power Power Factor: 70% Total current: 21.27 KVAR=3.■ The load condition of 5 HP Motor / Vector KVA = 5.54 AMPS Wattless current: 15.730 KW 2 I R Line Loss .95 AMPS Effective current: 15.073 KW Total 3. CONSUMABLE POWER : WORK 3730 KW I2R Line Loss 120 KW TOTAL 3.25 OHM.54 AMPS Wattless Power = 7.13 AMPS Effective Power = 15.91 Total Power = Work 3.54 AMPS The connected line to motor is # 310-16.06 OHM per 1000’ If the length of motor and panel is 236’.21 AMPS Power Factor = .803 KW 15 .

F) Power Factor : .8 ° Unloaded – After compensation (to 16 .850 KW Total Power after compensation = 3.6 Phase Angle : 52.33 Phase Angle : 70.■ Line Loss Calculated as below .803 KW .7 ° Unloaded – Before compensation (to P. (X2-Y2)R X = AMPS(Before compensation of power factor) Y = AMPS(After compensation of power factor) R = OHMS Total Power before compensation = 3.F) P.047 KW Power Factor : .

9 Phase Angle : 25.F) Power Factor : .6 ° Loaded – Before compensation (to P.F) 17 .7 Phase Angle : 45.Power Factor : .84 ° Loaded – After compensation (to P.

5 OHMS In the case of that. 18 .)1 : See 20A passing on the circuit of 0. Line loss is Supposed this load is an inducible load that of 10 AMPS reactance. From the calculation of Line loss after install Motor Saver. Ex. Therefore.5 OHMS = 800 Watts Install the same Motor Saver that reduced 10 A in example 1 to the circuit . you can get .◈ Conclusion As stated in the foregoing papers Line Loss occurred when additionally attach a load to the existed wire is considerably larger than in case of making the individual load as sole wire. install Motor Saver on the circuit and supply the loss of 10 AMPS.56 A. Line Loss = 402 X 0. you can reduce total input-current as 10 AMPS.)2 Add a load to the circuit same in example 1. the reduced currency is 13.In this case. Ex. you can acquire electric gain of 150 Watts after install Motor Saver.

19 .This is can be done by only Motor Saver with its remarkable feature and quality.Line Loss =(26.46) 2 X .5 OHMS = 350 Watts That is. though the load has been increased two times than 1st example. loss reduction volume has been 3 times. in 2nd example. line loss deduction is 450 Watts. As explained before.

condenser is installed in large sized building or receiving end impedance of factory as following purposes. One the other hand. Therefore. the beneficiary from the condenser attaching is just the supplier of the electricity. and generator but also line loss but most customers still have problem of line loss and voltage decline. automatic switch. 1) Prevent from Power Factor Declining(prevent the loss by low power factor) 2) Enlarge supplier’s power supplying ability. power factor is increased while current passing through the line would be reduced. e)Reduction of line loss. Difference of Motor Saver and Capacitor Bank Commonly. Motor Saver is installed beside motor or inside panel to the following purposes. maximum power demand. from the installation point to the receiving –end impedance. users are to be beneficiary with diversified effects and finally. the electric company. and consumable power Of the above mentioned purposes. In some cases. e) is main purpose of Motor Saver and of cost down. the company can drastically reduce not only the capacity of circuit breaker. it is worthy enough to choose in the light of energy saving and upgrade function. But Motor Saver is different from this. 20 .3. electric suppliers could become beneficiary also. c)Enlarge the affordable ability of each panel and line d)Keep stable voltage by reduction of line loss. invest to Motor Saver would be burden than several condenser. With tightly reducing the consumer’s consuming electric power. as it is installed nearest in loaded parts. In case condenser is connected in parallel on line. a)Prevent from Power Factor Declining b)Enlarge supplier’s power supplying ability.

21 .

4. even you can guess reduction volume by each motor. reduced power by Motor Saver is total reduced volume of total line loss from end-load Motor Saver attached to main meter on the line. Experimental Verification of Motor Saver Effect In Motor Saver working place. That is. more its reduction effective. the individual reduction effect by each Motor Saver is physically impossible. However. That is because as below. More Motor Saver installed in all load parts. To conclude. Even it is available to show KHW reduction status with spot experimental example. you should set meter beside main meter since exact reduction volume is accumulative calculated in main meter. the total section loss is larger than grand total loss volume. but it not easy to indicate the result example of considerable and accumulative effect with using of Motor Saver for all facilities. 22 . Like this. you can’t check all reduction volume through the main meter. This is ‘PIGGY BACK’ phenomenon. That’s because there isn’t section circuit between experimental meter and motor and reduction volume from PIGGY BACK Effect is not clear. line loss is composed. Therefore. Second. if section circuit is exist. it is very hard to compute KHW reduction volume by individual load(end-line unit) except some special cases. First.

you have to change the fix-current of the protect-relay. it’d better to install Motor Saver to ②. and torque.e. you set total KVAR of motor controller is under 1(one). current. 2. it can keep the inflow- current to the relay that prevent overload motor. If total KVAR over 1(one). Therefore.. no need to adjust the relay.. it is recommended to observe the following installation standard . As Motor Saver is connected in parallel to power transmission line of motor. In any case. it may lead physical risk or motor damage. Concerned Power Factor of inducible motor. plugging-jogging motor. elevator motor. In the following cases. you can’t directly connect the capacitor that power factor adjustable to motor terminal. some motor for winding machine 3. i. When use the capacitor that power factor adjustable. driving motor.power factor during unloaded. 1. multi-single speed floating motor. The motor in the aforesaid article # 2 should be installed to ① . If so. Proper Installation Way of Motor Saver Motor Saver is a FAIL-SAFE CAPACITOR that approved by CSA and UL. please don’t make excessive condition and set the power factor of BUS is not beyond 95%. it is not obstructed for operation even during separated after accident. or give ill affect to driving system. and then. 23 . All Motor Savers equipped with pressure cut-off apparatus and it would be separate and cutoff Motor Saver from outside circuit in case of accident.5. If possible.passing current is excessive and it leads to occur excessive voltage. In case of ③. automatic transformer. star-delta motor.

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