You are on page 1of 24

CLASS- X HISTORY THE NATIONALIST MOVEMNT IN INDO-CHINA Q.1. Ans. Q. 2. Ans. 1) Name the countries of Indo-China.

Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. Name the country which influenced Indo – China in many ways from the ancient days. Give two evidences. China influenced Indo-China in many ways:Indo-China maintained maritime trade links with China. The

maritime silk route brought in goods, people and ideas. Other networks of trade connected Vietnam to the hinterlands where nonVietnamese people such as the Khmer Cambodians lived. 2) 3) 4) China maintained dominance over different groups of people living in this area. The rulers of northern and central Vietnam continued to maintain the Chinese System of Government. Chinese culture was present in independent Vietnam also.

Q. 3 Name the European countries that arrived in Indo-China first. Ans. Q. 4 Portugal. Name the country that colonized Vietnam first? Which areas did they conquer? Ans. France colonized Vietnam first 1 ) French troops landed in Vietnam in 1858. 2) By the mid 1880s they had established a firm grip over the northern region. 3) After the Franco – Chinese war the French assumed control of Tonkin and Anaam and in 1887, French Indo-China was formed.

CLASS- X HISTORY 4) In the following decades the French sought to consolidate their position. Q. 5. What was the condition of Vietnam which made the blind poet Lament about the fate of the country? Ans. The blind poet Ngywyen Dinh Chiew (1822-88) lamented over the miserable conditions of Vietnam. 1) The country was being destroyed by traitors who though were Vietnamese but had helped foreign forces take control over the country. 2) The poet moans the fact that the foreign rule has brought with it social economic and political downfall of the people. Vietnamese people have to suffer at every avenues of their life. 3) In the French control, Vietnamese people were exploited mercilessly. 4) Vietnamese culture was shattered in every aspect. The country was in peril and disintegrating. The poet says that he rather witness eternal darkness, see no man and see nothing than to watch his country’s downfall helplessly. Q. 6. The French thought that it was necessary to built colonies? How did they colonise? Ans. The French thought that it was necessary to build colonies because:1) SUPPLY OF NATURAL RESOURCES

Colonies were considered essential to supply natural resources and Other essential goods. These would be used as raw materials for industries in France. 2) MISSION –CIVILIZATION countries to bring the benefits of civilization to backward peoples. France also thought, it was the mission of the ‘advanced’ European

Paul Bernard. move military garrisons for control. linking Vietnam to Siam ( Thailand) via the Cambodian capital of Phnom Penh. 7. and increase administrative efficiency for controlling the entire region. Q. EXAMPLE:1) Construction of the trans – Indo – China rail network that would link the northern and southern parts of Vietnam and China was begun. The vast system of irrigation works – canals and earthworks – built mainly with forced labor. The final link with Yunan in China was completed in 1910. increased rice production and allowed the export of rice to the international market. . an influential writer and policy maker.X HISTORY The French began colonizing by the following methods:i) CANALS AND OTHER IRRIGATION SYSTEMS a) b) The French began by building Canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta to increase cultivation. 2) The second line was also built.CLASS. This type of colonization ensured the French higher levels of profit for their business. c) Vietnam exported 2/3 of its rice production and by 1931 had become the third largest exporter of rice in the world. 2) a) IMPROVEMENT IN TRADE FACILITIES The French built infrastructure projects to help transport goods for trade. strongly believed that the economy of the colonies needed to be developed. What was Paul Bernard’s opinion/view point on the need to develop the economy of colonies? Ans.

What were the several barriers mentioned by Bernard to the economic growth in Vietnam ? What measures did he suggest to improve the condition? Ans. 9. The measures he suggested to improve the condition were:1) LAND REFORMS:necessary to carry out land reforms as the Japanese had done in 1890s. create more jobs and to generate employment.X HISTORY 1) He argued that the purpose of acquiring colonies was to make profits . Q. Extensive indebtedness amongst the peasants. Low agricultural productivity. The barriers according to Bernard which would hinder the economic growth in Vietnam were:1) 2) 3) High Population Levels. 2) INDUSTRALIZATION However. 3) The market would consequently expand. 2) If the economy was developed and the standard of living of the people improved. What was the colonial economy of Vietnam based on ? Explain . land reforms could not ensure sufficient employment. 8. leading to better profits for French business. industrialization would be essential to To reduce rural poverty and increase agricultural productivity it was Q. they would buy more goods.CLASS. As Japan’s experience showed.

It was also driven by the idea of a ‘civilizing mission’. Q. It is a form of labor widely used in the plantations from the mid-19 C. Like the British in India. did little to industrialize the economy. 1) 2) 3) 4) Rail and port facilities were set up to service this sector.X HISTORY Ans. (i) What do you. them for non – fulfillment of contracts. The French. In the rural areas landlordism spread and the standard of living declined. the French claimed that they were bringing modern civilization to the Vietnamese.CLASS. Labourers worked on the basis of contracts that did not specify any rights of laborers but gave immense power to employers. Indentured Vietnamese labor was widely used in the rubber plantations. 11 ( i ) (ii) (iii) Ans. Indentured labor was widely used in the rubber plantations. contrary to what Bernard said. The colonial economy in Vietnam was however primarily based on RICE CULTIVATION AND RUBBER PLANTATIONS owned by the French and small Vietnamese elite. Ans. 10. Employers could bring criminal charges against laborers and punish and jail . Which sector of economy used indentured labor ? Define it. Q. understand by civilizing mission? Why did the French use this idea in Vietnam? What methods did they use? French colonization was not based only on economic exploitation.

tie.CLASS. feared that education might create problems.. 4. RELIGION:EDUCATION:The French promoted Christianity and slowly There were major changes in the education the religion started replacing Buddhism. (i) The French faced a dilemma that to how far the Vietnamese were to be educated.The local Vietnamese were made to dress like the French in a suit. (iii) The French citizens living in Vietnam called colons thought they might lose their jobs as teachers. .X HISTORY (ii) The French used this idea in Vietnam because they took for granted that Europe had developed the most advanced civilization. One of them being the change of medium of instruction to French. DILEMMA ON AMOUNT OF EDUCATION. as once educated. The methods they used were: HAIR CUTTING:The school encouraged the adoption of western styles such as having short haircut. shopkeepers. system of Vietnam. 2. For the Vietnamese this meant a major breakdown in identity. 3. CHANGES IN DRESS:. 1. Q. since they traditionally kept long hair. the Vietnamese may begin to question colonial domination. (iii) 1. boots etc. it was the duty of the Europeans to introduce these modern ideas to the colony even if this meant destroying local cultures. policeman to the educated Vietnamese. (ii) The French needed an educated local labor force but they. So they opposed policies that would give full access to French education. and were forced to give up traditional wear. religions and traditions because they were seen as outdated and prevented modern development. So. What problems did the French have with the education system? Ans.12.

They suggested that Vietnamese be taught in lower classes and French in the higher classes. 1. This would help in creating an ‘Asiatic France’ solidly tied to ‘European France’. 3. consolidate their power. The two broad opinions were: IN FAVOUR 1. JUSTIFIED COLONIAL RULE .13. Some policy – makers emphasized the need to use French as the medium of instruction. the French had to counter this force. The educated people in Vietnam would respect French sentiments. The elites in Vietnam were influenced by Chinese culture. They felt that Vietnamese by learning the language would be introduced to the culture and civilization of France. 2. The few who learnt French and acquired French culture were to be rewarded with French citizenship. 2. So they systematically dismantled the traditional educational system and established French schools.14. Q. What were two broad opinions over the issue of using French language? Ans.X HISTORY 2. 4. To Q. AGAINST 1. superiority of French and work for them. (i) (ii) (iii) CHINESE CULTURE POSED A PROBLEM. They were in a dilemma as to have French/Vietnamese/Chinese as the medium of instruction.CLASS. How did the school textbooks glorify French rule and represent the Vietnamese as backward? Ans.

3. 4. There was even a haircutting chant to reinforce the idea. What was Tonkin Free School? Ans. capable of . hygiene. What is the kind of education given in Tonkin Free School? Ans. For Example:An excerpt from a book ‘Since the establishment of French rule the Vietnamese peasant no longer lives in constant terror of pirates…… calm is complete. and French exclusively. they were ‘SKILLED COPYISTS’ but not creative. This education included classes in Science. SUPREMACY OF FRENCH RULE Vietnam. 1. they could work in the fields but not rule themselves. The school’s approach to what it means to be modern’ is a good example of the thinking prevalent at that time. School children were told that only French rule could ensure peace in The Vietnamese were represented as primitive and backward. These classes were held in the evening and had to be paid for separately. hygiene and French. For the Vietnamese this meant a major break with their own identity since they traditionally kept long hair. and the peasant can work with a good heart’. 2. The Vietnamese had to look modern. VIETNAMESE REPRESENTED BACKWARD manual labor but not of intellectual reflection. 5. 15. 3. 16.CLASS. Q.X HISTORY School textbooks glorified the French and justified colonial rule. The school gave classes in science. 2. Q. The school encouraged the adoption of Western styles such as having a short haircut. The Tonkin free school was started in 1907 to provide a Western style education.

When angry students protested. a major protest erupted. these kinds of protests inspired the growth of nationalism. they too were expelled. Seeking the situation getting out of control. government forced the school to take the students back. 17. SAIGON NATIVE GIRLS SCHOOL In 1926. It is considered significant because:1.X HISTORY Q. a colon (French in colonies) expelled her. 4. 18. 1. She refused. leading to a further spread of open protests. forced the school to take students back. The principal expelled her and many other students. 1. A Vietnamese girl was asked to go back from the first seat and let the chair be occupied by a French colon. PROTEST AGAINST CURRICULUM Later. the govt. The protest was against racial discrimination. 2. What were the various methods used by Vietnamese students to protest against French rule? Ans. 3. It was a protest by young students against oppression. in Saigon Native Girls School. the . Over a period of time. 2. 2. Q. 3. In 1926. She refused. Describe the incident at Saigon Native Girls School ? Why is it considered to be significant? Ans.CLASS. The principal. a Vietnamese Girl Sitting in one of the front seats was asked to move to the back of the class and allow a local French student to occupy the front seat.

g. 2.CLASS. it became difficult to control what was actually being taught. What were the religious beliefs known to the Vietnamese? Ans. and published nationalist journals such as the Annanese Student. it became difficult to control what was being taught Vietnamese teachers quietly modified the text and criticized what was stated. . 3. How did the teachers and students protest against the curriculum which denounced the Vietnamese? Ans. Christianity was introduced by French missionaries. OPEN OPPOSITION SILENT RESISTANCE Teachers and students did not blindly follow the curriculum. Also. This brought them into conflict with French and Vietnamese elite as both saw their positions threatened. Q. 19. students formed parties e. Vietnam’s religious beliefs were a mixture of Buddhism. a variety synergetic traditions shaped beliefs among the peasantry. 1. PROTEST AGAINST DELIBERATE POLICE OF FALLING FOR WHITE.X HISTORY As the nos. Vietnamese teachers quietly modified the text and criticized what was stated. Q. 4. 4. of Vietnamese teachers increased in the lower classes. FORMATION OF POLITICAL PARTIES by the 1920’s. As the numbers of Vietnamese teachers increased in the lower classes. 20. party of Young Annan.COLLAR JOBS Vietnamese students were inspired by patriotic feelings that it was the duty of the educated to fight for the benefit of society. 3. Confucianism and local practices.

X HISTORY Q.CLASS. 3. The Hoa Hao movement began in 1939 and gained popularity in the fertile Mekong delta area. the French doctors declared him sane. Why was the Hoa Hao movement popular? Who started it? What was the reaction of the French? Ans.1. The doctor who had to prove him insane became his follower. 00.000. This revolt was led by officials at the imperial court angered by the spread of Catholicism and French power. The French crushed the movement but this uprising served to inspire other patriots to rise up against them. He criticized useless expenditure and opposed the sale of child brides. French declared him mad and called him Mad Bonze. and use of alcohol and opium. In 1941. 4. since it drew on religious ideas popular in anti French uprisings of the 19th C. 22. An early movement against French control and the spread of Christianity was the Scholars Revolt in 1868. and put him in a mental asylum. Catholic missionaries had seen active in winning converts since the early 17th C. He performed miracles and helped the poor. and by the middle of the 18th C. 2. They led a general uprising in Ngu An and Ha Tien provinces where over a thousand Catholics were killed. What were the reasons for the scholars Revolt of 1868? Ans. Q. had converted 3. 2. The reaction of French. 1. gambling . It was started by Huynh Phu So. 21.

Ans. 2. feared that Vietnam was losing not just control Q. 4. this had to be fought and protested against. 3. . norms and perceptions of the Vietnamese intellectuals. Hence. 1. 24. people. The French sought to change the values. Explain” the battle against French colonial education became part of the larger battle against colonialism and for independence”. (b) Syncretism – characterized by syncretism which aims to bring together different beliefs and practices seeing their essential unity rather than their difference. 23. MASTER – SLAVE MENTALITY over its territory but its very identity its own culture and customs were being devalued and the people were developing a master slave mentality. SCHOOLS – A PLACE FOR BATTLES schools thus became an important place for political and cultural battles.CLASS. ESTABLISH FRENCH SUPERIORITY. It is a place of torture and brutal treatment.X HISTORY 3. to make them believe in the superiority of French civilization and the inferiority of the Vietnamese. The French authorities exiled him to Laos and sent many of his followers to concentration camps. The French sought to strengthen their rule in Vietnam through the control of education. Define : (a) Concentration Camp – A prison where people are detained without due process of law. Q.

Q 27. . The French hired Vietnamese workers and paid them for each rat they caught.1. Those who did the dirty work of entering sewers found that if they came together. a rat hunt was started in 1902. For the Vietnamese the rat hunt seemed to provide an early lesson in the success of collective bargaining. The rat hunt was not a success as: 1. Q 26. a symbol of This was the main reason for the plague. What is the Rat Hunt? Ans.CLASS. 2. The refuse from the old city drained straight out into the river or during heavy rains or floods. by the French.X HISTORY Q 25. they could negotiate a higher bounty. 3. was not provided with any of modern facilities. 2. How did the native Vietnamese express their anger against the colonizers in the early 20th C? Ans. For the Vietnamese. What were the reasons for the unhygienic conditions in Hanoi ? Why did the French decide to organize a rat hunt? Was it successful? Ans. a rat hunt was started in 1902. to enter the modern houses through sewage pipes and hence to stem this invasion. To stem the invasion of rats in the modern part of Hanoi.1. 4. 3. 3. they could negotiate a higher bounty. The bounty was paid when a tail was given as a proof from that a rat had been killed. 2. The ‘native quarter’ of Hanoi. overflowed into the streets. the rat hunt seemed to provide on early lesson in the success of collective bargaining. The large sewers in the modern part of the city. Rats began modernity were an ideal and protected breeding ground for rats. Those who did the dirty work of entering sewers found that if they came together.

Others feet that Vietnam had to learn from the west even while opposing foreign domination. The issues that were raised and debated what is was to be modern were: 1. Some people began raising rats to earn a bounty. He became a major figure in the anti-colonial resistance from the time he formed the Revolutionary society (Duy Tan Hoi) in 1903 with Prince Cuong De as the head. . It is this double loss that Phan laments.CLASS. on the loss of sovereignty severing of ties with china. so that the process could be repeated. Some intellectuals feel the Vietnamese traditions need to strengthen to resist the domination of the West. Phan Boi Chau (1867-1940) was a confucion scholar –activist. So. Phan Chu Trinh strongly differed with Phan Boi Chau.X HISTORY 4. Q 29. Ans. Ans. the rat hunters. Q 30 Bring out the similarities and differences between Phan Boi chau and Phan chau Trinh. 2. Republic is a form of government based on popular consent and popular representation. These differing visions led to complex debates. 2. It is based on the power of the people as opposed to monarchy. He met the Chinese reformer Liang Qi Chao in Yokohama in 1905 and wrote the book ‘the History of the Loss of Vietnam’ which elaborated (i) (ii) 3. Define a republic. 5. which could not be easily resolved. Q 28. took to just clipping the tails and releasing the rats. Discuss the issues that were raised and debated on what was it to be modern? Ans.

Q 31. overthrow the puppet emperor and re-establish the Nguyen dynasty. -GO EAST MOVEMENT> During 1910’s. He accepted the French revolutionary ideal of liberty but charged the French for not abiding by the ideal. Ans. ACHIEVEMENTS OF JAPAN INSPIRED VIETNAMESE. 4. (i) (ii) 5. 300 Vietnamese students went to Japan to acquire modern education. 1. the them. a ‘Go east Movement’ became popular.CLASS. 6. Its victory over Russia in 1907 proved its military capabilities. They looked out for foreign arms and help. His desire was to establish a democratic republic. I. Students established a branch of the Restoration society in Tokyo but after 1908. They appealed to Japanese as fellow Asians. 4. Phan Boi Chau and others were deported and had to seek exile in China and Thailand. Their objective was to drive out the French from Vietnam. 3. Japan had modernized itself and had resisted colonization by the west. Japanese ministry of interior clamped down on .X HISTORY 1. Vietnamese nationalists had a close relationship with Japan and China. 2. 2. What do you understand by ‘Go East Movement’? Discuss it with special reference to the influence of Japan and china over Vietnamese nationalism. He was intensely hostile to the monarchy and opposed to the idea of resisting the French with the help of the court. 3. He demanded that the French setup legal and educational institution and develop agriculture and industries. In 1907-08.

In 1911. Hence. Name the organization which fought against Japanese occupation during WW II and what was the outcome of this struggle? The league for the independence of Vietnam (Viet-Nam Doc LapDong Minh) which came to be known as the Vietminh fought the Japanese occupation and recaptured Hanoi in Sep 1945. during 1930’s.CLASS. . the nature of the anti-French independence movement changed. Ans-34) 1. Ques-33) Name the Leader who started the communist party in Vietnam? What was it called? Which countries did the communist party fight against over the years? Ans-33) Ho Chi Minh in Feb 1930. the established monarchy in China was overthrown by a popular movement under Sun-Yat-Sen and a republic was set up. the prices of rubber and rice fell. It was called Vietnam Cong San Dang and was later renamed the Indo-china communist Party. 3. unemployment and rural uprisings. Ques-32) Ans-32 Name the provinces that are considered “electrical fuses” and why? Nghe An and Ha Tinh are called the electrical fuses because when the system was under pressure. It Inspired the Vietnamese students and they organized the association for the restoration of Vietnam Now the objective was not to set up a constitutional monarchy but a democratic republic. Japanese and later the Americans (during ww II) Ques34. they were the first to blow. In these provinces. They fought against the French. POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN CHINA INSPSIRED VIETNANESE 1. These provinces were the poorest and had an old radical tradition.X HISTORY II. brought together competing nationalist groups to establish the Vietnamese communist party. leading to rising rural debts. 2.

the Vietnamese were persuaded to accept the division of country. Dien retained ordinance 10. Ho Chi Minh and communists took power in the north while Boa Dai’s regime was put in power in the south. Vietminh was forced to retreat to the hills.\ iii. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam was formed and Ho Chi Minh became chairman. Anyone who opposed him was called a communist and was jailed and killed. that followed the French defeat. FRENCH REGAIN CONTROL USING BAO DAI why is the Dien Bien Phu incident considered significant? .CLASS. FRENCH REGAINING CONTROL The French tried to regain control by using the emperor. the French were defeated in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu. The Bao Dai Regine was soon overthrowned by a coup led by Ngo Dinh Dien who built a repressive and authoritarian govt. North and South were split. 2.X HISTORY 2. ii. DIVISON OF VIETNAM In the peace negotiations in Geneva. NGO DINH DIEM & ORDINANCE 10. Ques-36) Ans-36) 1. Bao Dai as their puppet. i. After 8 years of fighting. iv. His dictatorial rule came to be opposed by a broad opposition united under the banner of the National Liberation Front . Ques 35) Ans 35) what was the challenge faced by the New Republic of Vietnam? The challenges faced by the New Republic of Vietnam:- 1. a French law that permitted Christianity but outlawed Buddhism. This division set Vietnam as a battlefield.

1. After 8 years of fighting. that they would be soon victorious. But on 7 May 1954. a French law that permitted Christianity but outlawed Buddhism. the Vietminh annihilated and captured 16000 French Expeditionary Crops soldiers the entire commanding staff including a general. and killed. Faced with the French offensive. .X HISTORY The French tried to regain control by using the emperor. The Supreme French commander of the French armies. His dictatorial rule came to be opposed by a broad opposition united under Q. the Vietminh were forced to retreat to the hills.39) US entry into the war marked a new phase that proved costly to the Vietnamese as well as to the Americans. 2. Ques-37) Ans-37) why is Dien’s regime considered oppressive and authoritative? The Bao Dai regime was overthrown by a coup led by Ngo Dinh Dien Diem. THOUSANDS WERE CAPTURED.39) why is the US entry into the Vietnam war considered costly and brutal? Ans.CLASS. he built a repressive and authoritarian govt. the French were defeated in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu. 16 colonels and 1749 officers. 2. General Henry Navarre had declared confidently in 1953. Bao Dai as their puppet. Dien retained ordinance 10. Ques-38) what was ordinance 10? Why was it considered oppressive? the banner of the National Liberation Front (NLF) Anyone who opposed him was called a communist and was jailed Ans.

could be waived for university graduates. Agent orange and Phosphorous Bombs destroyed many villages and decimated jungles. Young people were enrolled and died which was a major concern within the US.? Ans40. 3.S.) 1.40.484 were women) Even though the USA had advanced technology and good medical supplies. 4. When the youth were drafted for the war. 2.CLASS. The wide spread attacks and use of chemical weapons Napalm. The effect of the war was felt within the U. From 1965-1972. (7.403. Q. civilians died in large numbers. how’re.X HISTORY 1. Thousands of US troops arrived equipped with heavy weapons and tanks and backed with the most powerful bombers of the time B52’s.41) what was the reaction of the media to the Vietnamese war? Ans42) The US media and films played a major role in both supporting as well as criticizing the war .) What was the impact of the war within the U.704 were wounded. the anger spread compulsory service in the armed forces. as well:Many were critical of the government for getting involved in a war that they saw as indefensible.244 died and 3. This meant that many of those sent to fight did not belong to the privilege elite but were minorities and children of working class families. 03. 47. 3. casualties were high. 2.100 US services personnel served in Vietnam. Q.S. over 3.

The US . 4. 6. on back and /or 70 kg on bikes. Q42) What do you understand by the domino effect? Ans42) The war grew out of a fear among US policy-planners that the victory of the Ho. 2. Other films were critical as they tried to understand the reasons for this war. in neighboring Laos and Cambodia with branch lines extending into South Vietnam.43) Explain the ways in which we can understand the nature of the war by understanding Ho Chi Minh trail? Ans43) 1. is one way of understanding the nature of the war that the Vietnamese fought against the US. Most of the trail was outside Vietnam.CLASS. This has been cited by many as an example of an unthinking propaganda films. It symbolizes how the Vietnamese use their limited resources to great advantage. would start a domino effect. Hollywood made films in support of the war such as John Wayne’s ‘Green Berets’ (1968).. an immense network of footpaths and roads. who were mainly women. They carried 25kg. Q. Communist governments would be established in other countries in the area.X HISTORY 1.Chi. The story of the Ho Chi Minh Trail. 5. . John Ford Coppola’s Apocalypse-Now (1979) reflected the moral confusion that the war had caused in the US. 2. was used to transport men and materials from the north to the south. In some parts. supplies were transported in trucks but mostly were carried by porters. The trail had support bases and hospitals along the way. 3. The trail was improved from the late 1950s. and from 1967 about 20000 North Vietnamese Troops came south each month on this trail. The trail.Minh govt.

Q45) Give examples to prove that women from the past became role models in the national struggle of Vietnam? Ans) Women in the past became role models in the national struggle of Vietnam.CLASS. Writers and political thinkers began idealizing women who rebelled against social norms. 2. 4. particularly among the low classes. but they had only limited freedom to determine their future and played no role in public life. GIRL LEAVING FORCED MARRIAGE MARKED THE ARRIVAL OF THE NEW WOMAN IN SOCIETY. Women in Vietnam traditionally enjoyed greater equality in chine. Q 44) What was the role allocated to women? How did they rebel against it? Ans) 1. 3. The status of women came to be questioned and a new image of womanhood emerged. I-> NOVEL BY NHAT LINH 1) In the 1930’s. Nhat Linh caused a scandal by writing about a woman leaving a forced marriage and marrying someone of her choice. This rebellion against social conventions marked the arrival of the new woman in Vietnamese society.X HISTORY regularly bombarded this trail trying to disrupt supplies. who was in nationalist politics. but efforts to destroy this important supply line by intensive bombing failed because they were built very quickly. 2) This rebellion against social conventions marked the arrival of the new . a famous novel by Nhat linh caused a scandal because it showed a woman leaving a forced marriage and marrying someone of her choice.IN THE 1930’s.

3. a. Finally. the nationalist Phan Boi Chau wrote a play based on the lives of the Trung sisters. organized a large army and resisted Chinese rule. Trieu Au lived in the 3rd C CE. They were depicted in paintings. she lived with her brother. went to the jungles. Ans) The Vietnamese women were actively involved in the war. constructing underground rooms and tunnels and fighting the Women were represented as workers and worries They were shown with a rifle in one hand and a hammer in the other. country 3.000 resisted the Chinese for 2 years and when ultimately defeated committed suicide instead of surrendering to the enemy. They were depicted as selflessly working and fighting to save the . Orphaned in childhood. plays and novels as representing the indomitable will and the intense patriotism of the Vietnamese it is said that they gathered a force of 30. The sisters were idealized and glorified. he depicted these sisters as patriots fighting to save the Vietnamese from the Chinese Q 46) Describe the role played by women on the Ho Chi Minh Trail. In 1913.CLASS. She became a sacred figure. 2. 4. 1. ALONG THE HO-CHI-MINH TRAIL Young volunteers kept open 2195 Km of strategies roads and geared 2500 Key points. 1. enemy. Women joined the resistance movement.X HISTORY woman in Vietnamese Society. who fought for the honors of the country. on growing up. III->THE TRUNG SISTERS TheTrung sisters had fought against Chinese domination in 39-43 CE. II-> TRIEU AU 1. In this play. when her army was crushed she drowned herself. Nationalists popularized her image to inspire people to action. she left home. 2. They helped in nursing the wounded.

They were shown working in agricultural cooperatives. They built 6 airstrips.5 million women were in the regular army.X HISTORY b.) Why is it stated that US failed to achieve its objectives in Vietnam? Ans48) 1. Q49. 2.CLASS.V. it was clear that the US had failed to achieves: RESILIENCE OF THE VIETNAMESE The Vietnamese resistance had not been rushed. rather than as fighters. 2. It is argued that 1. war? . c. d. The image of women as workers began to predominate. the support of the Vietnamese people for US action had not been won. factories and production units. the militia the local forces and professional teams. For Example: Nguyen Thi Xuan was reputed to have shot down a jet with just twenty bullets. 1. Q49. Q47) Explain the role played by women in peace times. Woman were no longer represented as warriors. 70-80% of 17000 youth were women. Between 1965-75. Ans) During 1970’s as peace tasks got underway.) Why is the Vietnamese war referred to as the first T. 3. neutralized ten of thousands of bombs. LOSS OF LIFE ON BOTH SIDES Thousand of young US soldiers had lost their lives and countless Vietnamese civilians had been killed. transported tens of thousands of kilograms of cargo weapons and food and shot down 15 planes.

) (1) When did the Vietnam War come to an end? A Peace settlement was signed in Paris in January 1974. This ended the conflict with the U.V. (2) The NLF occupied the presidential palace in Saigon on 30 April 1975 and unified Vietnam. The scholar Noam Chomsky called the war the greatest threat to peace.CLASS. 3. 2. but fighting between Saigon regime and the NLF continued. Many become disillusioned with what the US was doing. Battle scenes were shown on the daily news program.X HISTORY Ans49) 1. and to international cooperation.) Explain the reaction of scholars and writers to Vietnamese war? Pt 2&3 of Q 49. Q51. . war. to national self determination. Writers such as Mary McCarthy and actors like Jane Fonda even visited North Vietnam and praised their heroic defense of the country. the Vietnamese war that had been called the first T.) Ans. Q50.S.